118 views

Uploaded by Nadia Ahmad

- Magniwork - Solar Panel
- Banks 2008
- Design Aids for Air Vessels for Transient Protection of Large Pip
- How to Measure Roll Quality
- 2013 TDP Consultation Draft_VolIII-System Operations
- Review of Hooke and Jeeves method
- PMO
- SCHEDULING BASED ON PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM: REVIEW PAPER
- Operation Research
- CHROME: IMPROVING THE TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY BY BANDWIDTH OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ALGORITHM
- OPTIMIZACION DE MUROS DE GRAVEDAD.pdf
- BA7206-Applied Operations Research.pdf
- System Identification and Modeling for Interacting and Non-Interacting Tank Systems Using Intelligent Techniques
- 1-s2.0-S1568494613001713-main
- A two-stage Energy Management System for smart buildings reducing the impact of demand uncertainty 2.pdf
- Cost Aware Expansion Planning with Renewable DGs using Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search Algorithm
- Full Text
- The Optimization of the Quality / Price of the Subject and Tectological Functions
- old_isola_manual.pdf
- GR AND GI

You are on page 1of 5

algorithm to power regulation of CPS in interconnect

power grids

LIU Bin, WANG Keying, ZOU Qing

under the shortfall of power in the grid is investigated. The CPS which takes power quality and safety of

The paper adopt PSO algorithm to optimize units of operation as controlling targets in whole power grid

AGC (automatic generation control) which regulate the guarantees the interests of the major region. Nowadays the

distribution of power and be in CPS controlling strategy. existing power grid interconnection CPS standards mostly

The optimal solution is hard to obtain by using average used automatic generation control (AGC) strategy. Using of

distribution but can be worked by using standard PSO AGC system to control the power grid frequency and area

algorithm, and then the CPS level can achieve the controlling error (ACE) synthetically has good development

optimal under economic conditions. The paper proved potential. Regulation units of AGC is consisted of water,

the effectiveness of the algorithm by computing example fire, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pumped-storage

simulation. hydropower generating units. Different CPS distribution

factors or power regulation of various power generating

Index Terms--particle swarm optimization algorithm, units could lead to great difference to the characteristic of

control performance standard, automatic generation AGC regulation through research and analysis.

control, regulation power Traditional AGC used average distribution method to

regulate power. No matter what kind of unit and what

capacity and the rate of regulation are, various AGC units

only depend on experience to estimate the power

Ⅰ. INTRODACTION distribution using average method. This method adjust

North American Electric Reliability Commission (NERC) automatically among different kind of units, it will cause

introduced the control of performance standards CPS some rapid adjustment units (such as storage unit) get into

(Control Performance Standard) in 1996 [1]. Since the 1998 the saturated state. The unscientific distribution factor of

we adopted such standards to evaluate the contribution of regulation power lead to passing rate of CPS is dropped. It

controlling region to the entire power grid. is negative to the safety of operation. Therefore, how to

choose actual the reasonable allocation of AGC units to

LIU Bin is with the College of Electric Power, South China University regulate the power based on the actual operation conditions

of Technology, Guangzhou, China, 510641 (e-mail: become an important part in the control of the CPS.

liubin168168@163.com). Standard PSO algorithm (Particle Swarm Optimization)

Prof. WANG Keying is with the College of Electric Power, South is introduced by Dr. Kennedy and Dr. Eberhart in 1995. It is

China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China, 510641 (e-mail: a heuristic group smart algorithm and can simulate acts of

epkywang@scut.edu.cn ). group life. This algorithm instructs optimal searching by

ZOU Qing is with the Biomedical Engineering Department, school of cooperation and competition of groups particles between

public health, Guangdong Medical College, Guangzhou, China,523808 the groups [2, 3]. PSO algorithm based on the population to

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA. Downloaded on August 03,2010 at 11:42:32 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

retain the overall search strategy and used speed - Physical meaning of CPS1 is: when

displacement model. So it is simple and easy to implement. ACE AVE − min ⋅ ΔFAVE ≤ 0 , CPS1 value is greater than

The PSO algorithm gradually shows superiority and great 200%. That shows more sent under low-frequency (or less

broad prospects in applied research of power system since it used) or less sent under high-frequency (or more used) per

is proposed [4]. The standard PSO algorithm is adopted in 1 min in the control area. It is clearly beneficial to the grid

the paper to optimize the distribution of the on various units frequency. AGC controlling based on CPS do not act

and to do simulation. The PSO algorithm will be the generally; when ACE AVE − min ⋅ ΔFAVE > 0 , the state is

introduction of classic power grid interconnection under the contrary. It needs AGC to regulate at the time and all power

CPS assessment AGC conditioning unit in the optimum regulation of AGC units use regulated modes to reduce the

combination of power. In the same operation conditions, the

absolute value of AGC quickly. Therefore statistics values

system frequency fluctuation is smaller and the indexes of

of CPS1 reflect the merits of exchanging implementation

CPS are better. The simulation examples show that the CPS

with power grid frequency and contacting power lines.

algorithm can be the optimal solution by compared with the

B. Objective Function

normal method. The CPS does more efficient parallel (1) Minimal changes when regulate power (economic)

processing and faster convergence by used less adjustable T t

parameters. min f (i) = ∑ ∑ ci ∑ Δpgi (k )

t =1 i∈SG k =1

(3)

Ⅱ.MATHEMATICL MODEL OF CPS T t

= ∑ ∑ ci ∑ u (k ) wi (k ) RPGi

The model is described to get the smallest change of t =1 i∈SG k =1

AGC generating units or optimal distribution of AGC units

SG : assembly of AGC units; Δpgi (k ) : add-subtract

for optimal target of CPS1 when meet the balance of system

generating capacity of the AGC unit at the k moment; ci :

power and conditions of restraint of security at the same

linear economic factors of the AGC unit; T : Calculation of

time. That is to say optimal distribution of AGC units is

the time; u (k ) : values of acceleration and deceleration of

obtained when the least regulation power is as objective

AGC unit at k moment; wi ( k ) : output restrictions values

function.

of the AGC at k moment; RPGi : the rate of linear

A. Theory

conditioning of the AGC.

CPS1 request for a regional power grids meet equation

This mathematical model’s object is the minimal

(1) in a certain period of time (for example, 10 min) [1]:

changes of generating AGC units. It is for reducing

∑ ( ACEAVE −min ⋅ ΔFAVE ) ≤ ε12 (1)

regulation of AGC under overshoot or less stressed at a

10 Bi ⋅ n certain extent, for avoiding frequently sent control order to

AGC unit, for reducing the number of regulation, for

Where: ACE AVE − min is the average of ACE in one min;

reducing the undue wear of AGC unit and raising the

ΔFAVE is the average of frequency deviation in one min; passing rate of CPS assessment.

Bi is the error factor of frequency of controlling region; (2) Best indicators of CPS1 (indicator)

ε1 is controlling target value of average deviation of the CPS objective function can be equivalent indicator is as

RMS in interconnected power grid of 1 min annually; follows:

n are minutes during the period.

1 10×N ⎪⎧⎡ 1 n×60/ Δt ⎤

Statistical indicator of CPS1 in the period of time is min f (i) = ∑ ⎨⎢ ∑

10 × N n=1 ⎪⎩⎣ 60/ Δt t =( n−1)×60/ Δt +1

(BΔf (t ) + Δpt (t ))⎥

described in the following formula: ⎦ (4)

⎡ 1 n×60/ Δt ⎤ ⎪⎫

CPS1 = (2 −

∑(ACEAVE−min ⋅ΔFAVE ) ) ×100% (2)

×⎢ ∑

⎣ 60/ Δt t =( n−1)×60/ Δt +1

Δf (t )⎥ ⎬ /(10Bi ) / ε12

⎦ ⎪⎭

10B⋅ε12

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA. Downloaded on August 03,2010 at 11:42:32 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

dynamic flying. The location vector of the particle in N

Δf (t ) : the deviation of frequency at t time; Δpt (t ) : the

searching space is X i = ( xi1 , xi 2, xiN )T . The optimal

deviation of contact line at t time; Δt : sampling interval; T

location vector till the time is Pi = ( pi1 , pi 2 , piN ) ,

B : offset coefficient of frequency in control district; ε 1 : also known as pbest (the individual extreme). The best

location vector of the entire group in the search is

average standard deviation of the actual and standard Pg = ( pg 1 , pg 2 , pgN )T , also known as gbest (the

frequency deviation in one minute; overall maximum). The flight velocity vectors are recorded

This objective function obtains the optimal values of as viN )T . The speed and location of

Vi = (vi1 , vi 2 ,

CPS by optimized AGC units that minimized the deviation updated particles in d spaces (1 ≤ d ≤ N ) are obtained

power of interconnected power grid line and the change of

according to the following equations.

power shortfall in the controlled area.

⎪⎧vid = ω vid + c1r1 ( pid − xid ) + c2 r2 ( pgd − xid )

k +1 k k k k k

Two objective functions are introduced in the paper

⎨ k +1 k k +1

(8)

based on the CPS standards under to obtain the optimal. ⎪⎩ xid = xid + vid

C. Constraints

(1) Spinning reserve constraints: (i = 1, 2, , m; d = 1, 2, N)

N k : The number of iteration; m : scale of particle group;

∑ u (t ) p

i =1

i i max ≥ L (t ) + R (t ) (5)

ω :inertia weight; c1 、 c2 : accelerated constant; r1 、 r2 :

k k

the random number of the interval [0,1]; vid 、 xid : the

(2) Unit output constraints k

values of the iteration of vid 、 xid ; pid :the position of

k

pi min ≤ pi (t ) ≤ pi max (6) extreme of individual particles; pgd : the overall position

of extreme of entire group. To prevent the particles from the

(3) Unit climbing rate constraints:

search space, vid is restricted between [−vd max, + vd max ] .

Δpi min ≤ pi (t ) − pi (t − 1) ≤ Δpi max (7) If the current speed vid which made by particle

acceleration is more than the largest rate vd max , the speed is

t = 1, 2, , T ; ui (t ) = 1 :units are operating;

limited up by vd max in the certain dimension. Updated

ui (t ) = 0 :units are stopped; pi max and pi min are

particles are obtained by continuous learning and ultimately

respectively the upper and lower limits of contribution of

fly to the optimal solution of the location in the space. After

generating unit; L (t ) : the total load of the system at t

the searching process is completed, the final output gbest

time; R (t ) : whole standby capacity of system at t time;

of the overall situation is the optimal solution.

Δpi max 、 Δpi min :the largest load and down load rate of

B. Algorithm Process

generating units respectively.

The steps of standard PSO algorithm are as follows:

Ⅲ. STANDARD PSO ALGORITHM Step 1: To initialize a group of particles including the speed

and random location; Step 2: To evaluate the fitness of each

A. The Basic Principle of The Algorithm

particle; Step 3: To compare their fitness with the best

PSO initializes for a group of random particles (random

location of their experience for each particle, and then

solution). It finds the optimal solution through iteration. We

update the current locationpbest if it is better. Step 4:

get updated particles by tracking individual extreme

To compare its fitness with the best position gbest of

value pbest and the overall extreme value gbest in each

their overall experience for each particle, and then set

iteration. Supposed a group formed by m particles in N

gbest newly if it is better. Step 5: Change the speed and

searching spaces. Particles fly with a certain speed which is

location of particles according to equation (8); Step 6: If

in accordance with its own and companions’ experience of

there is no interruptive condition to be satisfied (the

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA. Downloaded on August 03,2010 at 11:42:32 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

maximum value or the number of iteration), then return to the target. With gradually decreasing of ω , the speed of

the step 2. particles slow down, the local search start. The method

C. Parameters Setting accelerate the rate of convergence and improve the

One advantage of PSO is using real-coded and without performance of the PSO algorithm.

too much adjusted parameters. The basic parameters in c1 and c2 represent the weight

Acceleration constants

formula are: inertia factor ω , the weight factor c1 、 c2 , the of statistics speed which push particles to pbest and

maximum number of iteration k max and population size m . gbest . According to tests and experience, c1 is

The most important one is inertia factor that could meet the equivalent to c2 and general in scope between 0 and 4.

following equation: The paper adopts c1 = c2 = 1.5 .

ω = ωmax − ×k (9)

kmax

This paper used basic PSO algorithm code in Matlab

ωmax 、 ωmin : the largest and the smallest allowed values software. The AGC units of regional power grid are taken to

respectively; k 、 kmax :the present and the largest number classify modeling. The scale of group m = 30 is given.

of iteration. From the linear relationship between the According the experience of test, we selected inertia

number of iteration and ω we know ω could affect the weight ω = 0.73 . Table 1 shows the parameters of AGC

convergence and its rate greatly. After several rounds of units which participate the power regulation. Table 2 shows

tests, we get ωmax = 1 ，ωmin = 0.3 ，kmax = 300 . When different distribution factor of AGC units.

ω decline from 1 to 0.3 linearly, PSO search the optimal

solution in the large region at the beginning, and fast take

TABLE Ⅰ THE PARAMETER OF AGC UNITS TABLE Ⅱ THE TEST OF DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTION GENE

w x y z 1 2 3 4 5 6

A 15 4500 45 960 A 0.15 0.2 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.242

B 25 13500 200 5700 B 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.443

C 8 3900 180 1500 C 0.2 0.15 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.102

D 2 200 70 180 D 0.2 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.104

E 2 120 30 100 E 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.054

F 3 900 180 360 F 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.055

In the above tables: A-F denote thermal power units test 5 used the average method. Test 6 used the PSO

(600 MW below), thermal power units (600 MW and algorithm to obtain the optimal result. Simulation results are

above), liquefied natural gas (LNG) units, water electricity shown in figure 1 and 2.

generating units (capacity), water electricity generating We made comparisons between optimized distribution

units (small-capacity), the pumped-storage units (capacity is factors by given the different interferences of load in the

300 MW, with the ability to automatically adjust the simulation. To Select 300 MW, 600MW and 1000MW as

minimum and maximum levels for the 180/300 MW, or the sudden increase load disturbance (simulated failure of

capacity of adjusting is 120 MW. While its water pumps can rejection) in simulation. And then we made summary about

absorb excess power grid in the state, but it must be run by all circumstances. Repeated testing contrast told that PSO

an order below); W-Z denote the number of units, the algorithm made the CPS1 value higher than 150 percent in

installed capacity (MW), climbing rate (MW / min), figure 1, and the speed of convergence was significantly

adjustable capacity (MW). 1-6 denote different faster than the simple average distribution. The fluctuations

programmers under different distribution factors. Test 1 and cycle of power grid frequency was significantly shorter than

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA. Downloaded on August 03,2010 at 11:42:32 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

others in figure 2. So using the PSO algorithm in the same regulation is practical in the application. It reflects the

test conditions to optimize the distribution of the power superiority have the actual social and economic benefits.

250 50.1

• • 6

• • 1

200 • • 3

50.05

150

• • F /H z

• • 1 50

CPS1

100

• • 3 • • 6

49.95

50

49.9

0

-50 49.85

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

T /s T /s

FIGURE Ⅰ SIMULATION RESULTS OF CPS1 FIGURE Ⅱ SIMULATION RESULTS OF FREQUENCY

Survey on Application to Electric Power System[J]. Power System

Ⅴ. CONCLUSION Technology,2004，28(19):14-29.

The paper adopts the standard PSO algorithm to [5] Gaing Z L. Particle Swarm Optimization to Solving the Economic

distribute factors of AGC power regulation units in Dispatch Considering the Generator Constraints [J. IEEE Trans on

interconnected power grid which used the CPS evaluation. Power Systems, 2003, 18 (3): 1187- 1195.

Code running and modeling are done in Matlab software. [6] N. Sinha, R. Chakarbarti, and P.K. Chattopadhyay. Evolutionary

The method also used in thermal power, water and programming techniques for economic load dispatch IEEE Trans.

electricity, gas and four types of power grid system which Evl. comput, vol. 7, pp. 83-94, Feb. 2003.

composed of pumped-storage units. The paper's method is [7] ZHAO Bo, CAO Yi-jia. An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

more stable, effective and could obtain the high-quality Algorithm for Power System Unit Commitment[ J]. Power System

optimal solution by compared with the average allocation Technology, 2004, 28(21): 6-10.

can meet economic requirements of real-time scheduling

Ⅶ. BIOGRAPHIES

operation of power grid in most cases. It worth in practice LIU Bin was born in Hunan, China, on January 20,

and application of projects . 1980. Now, he is a Master postgraduate in the

electrical power college, South China University of

Ⅵ. REFERENCES Technology, China. His special fields of interest

[1] GAO Zong-he, TENG Xian-liang, TU Li-qun. Hierarchical AGC include Power System Operation, Control, and

Mode and CPS Control Strategy for Interconnected Power Systems. Protection.

Automation of Electric Power Systems,2004,28(1):78-81.

[2] Kennedy J, Eberhart R. Particle swarm optimization[A].

Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Neural Networks[C]. Perth,

Australia, 1995, 4: 1942-1948.

[3] Kennedy J. The Particle Swarm: Social Adaptation of Lnowledge[A].

In: Proc IEEE Int Conf Evol Comput[C]. Indianapolis: 1997.

303-308.

[4] YUAN Xiao-hui，WANG Cheng，ZHANG Chuan-yong, et al. A

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA. Downloaded on August 03,2010 at 11:42:32 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

- Magniwork - Solar PanelUploaded bybhilwv
- Banks 2008Uploaded byu5887
- Design Aids for Air Vessels for Transient Protection of Large PipUploaded byPipeline Engineer
- How to Measure Roll QualityUploaded byDeming
- 2013 TDP Consultation Draft_VolIII-System OperationsUploaded byTyra Tan
- Review of Hooke and Jeeves methodUploaded byaruatscribd
- PMOUploaded bydil17
- SCHEDULING BASED ON PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM: REVIEW PAPERUploaded byIJIERT-International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology
- Operation ResearchUploaded byRani Puspita Sari
- CHROME: IMPROVING THE TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY BY BANDWIDTH OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ALGORITHMUploaded byijsret
- OPTIMIZACION DE MUROS DE GRAVEDAD.pdfUploaded byHeber Guillen
- BA7206-Applied Operations Research.pdfUploaded byManikandan Suriyanarayanan
- System Identification and Modeling for Interacting and Non-Interacting Tank Systems Using Intelligent TechniquesUploaded byMandy Diaz
- 1-s2.0-S1568494613001713-mainUploaded bySakthiPriya
- A two-stage Energy Management System for smart buildings reducing the impact of demand uncertainty 2.pdfUploaded byCUCUTOCHE8
- Cost Aware Expansion Planning with Renewable DGs using Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search AlgorithmUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Full TextUploaded byMahmut Bulut
- The Optimization of the Quality / Price of the Subject and Tectological FunctionsUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- old_isola_manual.pdfUploaded byrahmatun inayah
- GR AND GIUploaded bysupreeth
- Quantech MidtermUploaded byChristian Clyde Zacal Ching
- 157_37325_EA435_2013_4__2_1_Chap011Uploaded bycarlos
- 0386 Paper Engopt2008 Gines Code639-Libre (1)Uploaded byDaniel Rocha
- p 000063Uploaded bybauemmvss
- Tutorial Sheet 4Uploaded byANMOL
- CDC-PaperUploaded byKumar Muthuraman
- How to Find the Right Simulation ConsultantUploaded bysagarbolisetti
- TOPSIS Based Algorithm for Solving Multi-objective Multi-level Programming Problem with Fuzzy ParametersUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Lecture07b PSO ACOUploaded byKarthikeyan

- Digital Booklet - Need You NowUploaded bychayan_mondal29
- 2945A ManualUploaded bymakara5966
- 5070_w05_qp_1Uploaded bymstudy123456
- Case Study Xerox - Benchmarking a Key to SuccessUploaded bySmile House
- Ug AltclockUploaded byMatthew Perez
- A New Breakup Regime of Liquid Drops Identified in a Continuous and Uniform Air Jet Flow 2007Uploaded by李海鹰
- Active Learning in the Introductory Cultural Anthropology CourseUploaded byaleixandrebrian
- QBASIC TutorialUploaded byAli Faiz Abotiheen
- PTest-2Uploaded byUday Prakash Sahu
- Experimental Research Design.pptxUploaded bySiska Tambunan
- Sample Book 1Uploaded byarteepu37022
- Xavi ReportUploaded byNurul Azrizal Osman
- As 60068.2.31-2003 Environmental Testing Tests - Test Ec- Drop and Topple Primarily for Equiment-type SpecimeUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- coastline change predict using weibul distribution GISdevelopment.docUploaded byMeddyDanial
- Computer AssignmentUploaded bySudheender Srinivasan
- Lab InstrumentsUploaded bySoma Ghosh
- LEXF5150-00Uploaded byHalit Yalçınkaya
- Sony WX-C55Uploaded byJames Russo
- Sullivan,KK 2017Uploaded byMihaiIliescu
- Church Stewardship IdeasUploaded byBrian Kluth
- TF - AUD THEOUploaded byCarl Bryan Aberin
- Kee.early Gutai Painitng.1954 to 1957Uploaded byMartha Schwendener
- RBC AliquotsUploaded byARIF AHAMMED
- Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patch of Repaglinide.pdfUploaded byapa men
- logical fallacies wsUploaded byapi-229535585
- Deductors Manual Qtrly Tds Tcs v 1Uploaded byapi-3706890
- David Icke BooksUploaded byRahinur Rahaman
- CREW: Department of Defense: Department of the Air Force: Regarding Perchlorate: CCRA Final ReportUploaded byCREW
- ChicagoArchitect.pdfUploaded byerickagt13
- Operating Systems Exam GuideUploaded byMuhammad Sohail