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2008 IEEE Electrical Power & Energy Conference

Study on the application of particle swarm optimization

algorithm to power regulation of CPS in interconnect
power grids
LIU Bin, WANG Keying, ZOU Qing

Abstract--The proportion of different AGC unit (

under the shortfall of power in the grid is investigated. The CPS which takes power quality and safety of
The paper adopt PSO algorithm to optimize units of operation as controlling targets in whole power grid
AGC (automatic generation control) which regulate the guarantees the interests of the major region. Nowadays the
distribution of power and be in CPS controlling strategy. existing power grid interconnection CPS standards mostly
The optimal solution is hard to obtain by using average used automatic generation control (AGC) strategy. Using of
distribution but can be worked by using standard PSO AGC system to control the power grid frequency and area
algorithm, and then the CPS level can achieve the controlling error (ACE) synthetically has good development
optimal under economic conditions. The paper proved potential. Regulation units of AGC is consisted of water,
the effectiveness of the algorithm by computing example fire, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pumped-storage
simulation. hydropower generating units. Different CPS distribution
factors or power regulation of various power generating
Index Terms--particle swarm optimization algorithm, units could lead to great difference to the characteristic of
control performance standard, automatic generation AGC regulation through research and analysis.
control, regulation power Traditional AGC used average distribution method to
regulate power. No matter what kind of unit and what
capacity and the rate of regulation are, various AGC units
only depend on experience to estimate the power
Ⅰ. INTRODACTION distribution using average method. This method adjust
North American Electric Reliability Commission (NERC) automatically among different kind of units, it will cause
introduced the control of performance standards CPS some rapid adjustment units (such as storage unit) get into
(Control Performance Standard) in 1996 [1]. Since the 1998 the saturated state. The unscientific distribution factor of
we adopted such standards to evaluate the contribution of regulation power lead to passing rate of CPS is dropped. It
controlling region to the entire power grid. is negative to the safety of operation. Therefore, how to
choose actual the reasonable allocation of AGC units to
LIU Bin is with the College of Electric Power, South China University regulate the power based on the actual operation conditions
of Technology, Guangzhou, China, 510641 (e-mail: become an important part in the control of the CPS. Standard PSO algorithm (Particle Swarm Optimization)
Prof. WANG Keying is with the College of Electric Power, South is introduced by Dr. Kennedy and Dr. Eberhart in 1995. It is
China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China, 510641 (e-mail: a heuristic group smart algorithm and can simulate acts of ). group life. This algorithm instructs optimal searching by
ZOU Qing is with the Biomedical Engineering Department, school of cooperation and competition of groups particles between
public health, Guangdong Medical College, Guangzhou, China,523808 the groups [2, 3]. PSO algorithm based on the population to

978-1-4244-2895-3/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE

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retain the overall search strategy and used speed - Physical meaning of CPS1 is: when
displacement model. So it is simple and easy to implement. ACE AVE − min ⋅ ΔFAVE ≤ 0 , CPS1 value is greater than
The PSO algorithm gradually shows superiority and great 200%. That shows more sent under low-frequency (or less
broad prospects in applied research of power system since it used) or less sent under high-frequency (or more used) per
is proposed [4]. The standard PSO algorithm is adopted in 1 min in the control area. It is clearly beneficial to the grid
the paper to optimize the distribution of the on various units frequency. AGC controlling based on CPS do not act
and to do simulation. The PSO algorithm will be the generally; when ACE AVE − min ⋅ ΔFAVE > 0 , the state is
introduction of classic power grid interconnection under the contrary. It needs AGC to regulate at the time and all power
CPS assessment AGC conditioning unit in the optimum regulation of AGC units use regulated modes to reduce the
combination of power. In the same operation conditions, the
absolute value of AGC quickly. Therefore statistics values
system frequency fluctuation is smaller and the indexes of
of CPS1 reflect the merits of exchanging implementation
CPS are better. The simulation examples show that the CPS
with power grid frequency and contacting power lines.
algorithm can be the optimal solution by compared with the
B. Objective Function
normal method. The CPS does more efficient parallel (1) Minimal changes when regulate power (economic)
processing and faster convergence by used less adjustable T t
parameters. min f (i) = ∑ ∑ ci ∑ Δpgi (k )
t =1 i∈SG k =1
= ∑ ∑ ci ∑ u (k ) wi (k ) RPGi
The model is described to get the smallest change of t =1 i∈SG k =1
AGC generating units or optimal distribution of AGC units
SG : assembly of AGC units; Δpgi (k ) : add-subtract
for optimal target of CPS1 when meet the balance of system
generating capacity of the AGC unit at the k moment; ci :
power and conditions of restraint of security at the same
linear economic factors of the AGC unit; T : Calculation of
time. That is to say optimal distribution of AGC units is
the time; u (k ) : values of acceleration and deceleration of
obtained when the least regulation power is as objective
AGC unit at k moment; wi ( k ) : output restrictions values
of the AGC at k moment; RPGi : the rate of linear
A. Theory
conditioning of the AGC.
CPS1 request for a regional power grids meet equation
This mathematical model’s object is the minimal
(1) in a certain period of time (for example, 10 min) [1]:
changes of generating AGC units. It is for reducing
∑ ( ACEAVE −min ⋅ ΔFAVE ) ≤ ε12 (1)
regulation of AGC under overshoot or less stressed at a
10 Bi ⋅ n certain extent, for avoiding frequently sent control order to
AGC unit, for reducing the number of regulation, for
Where: ACE AVE − min is the average of ACE in one min;
reducing the undue wear of AGC unit and raising the
ΔFAVE is the average of frequency deviation in one min; passing rate of CPS assessment.
Bi is the error factor of frequency of controlling region; (2) Best indicators of CPS1 (indicator)
ε1 is controlling target value of average deviation of the CPS objective function can be equivalent indicator is as
RMS in interconnected power grid of 1 min annually; follows:
n are minutes during the period.
1 10×N ⎪⎧⎡ 1 n×60/ Δt ⎤
Statistical indicator of CPS1 in the period of time is min f (i) = ∑ ⎨⎢ ∑
10 × N n=1 ⎪⎩⎣ 60/ Δt t =( n−1)×60/ Δt +1
(BΔf (t ) + Δpt (t ))⎥
described in the following formula: ⎦ (4)
⎡ 1 n×60/ Δt ⎤ ⎪⎫
CPS1 = (2 −
∑(ACEAVE−min ⋅ΔFAVE ) ) ×100% (2)
×⎢ ∑
⎣ 60/ Δt t =( n−1)×60/ Δt +1
Δf (t )⎥ ⎬ /(10Bi ) / ε12
⎦ ⎪⎭

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dynamic flying. The location vector of the particle in N
Δf (t ) : the deviation of frequency at t time; Δpt (t ) : the
searching space is X i = ( xi1 , xi 2, xiN )T . The optimal
deviation of contact line at t time; Δt : sampling interval; T
location vector till the time is Pi = ( pi1 , pi 2 , piN ) ,

B : offset coefficient of frequency in control district; ε 1 : also known as pbest (the individual extreme). The best
location vector of the entire group in the search is
average standard deviation of the actual and standard Pg = ( pg 1 , pg 2 , pgN )T , also known as gbest (the
frequency deviation in one minute; overall maximum). The flight velocity vectors are recorded
This objective function obtains the optimal values of as viN )T . The speed and location of
Vi = (vi1 , vi 2 ,
CPS by optimized AGC units that minimized the deviation updated particles in d spaces (1 ≤ d ≤ N ) are obtained
power of interconnected power grid line and the change of
according to the following equations.
power shortfall in the controlled area.
⎪⎧vid = ω vid + c1r1 ( pid − xid ) + c2 r2 ( pgd − xid )
k +1 k k k k k
Two objective functions are introduced in the paper
⎨ k +1 k k +1
based on the CPS standards under to obtain the optimal. ⎪⎩ xid = xid + vid
C. Constraints
(1) Spinning reserve constraints: (i = 1, 2, , m; d = 1, 2, N)
N k : The number of iteration; m : scale of particle group;
∑ u (t ) p
i =1
i i max ≥ L (t ) + R (t ) (5)
ω :inertia weight; c1 、 c2 : accelerated constant; r1 、 r2 :
k k
the random number of the interval [0,1]; vid 、 xid : the
(2) Unit output constraints k
values of the iteration of vid 、 xid ; pid :the position of
pi min ≤ pi (t ) ≤ pi max (6) extreme of individual particles; pgd : the overall position
of extreme of entire group. To prevent the particles from the
(3) Unit climbing rate constraints:
search space, vid is restricted between [−vd max, + vd max ] .
Δpi min ≤ pi (t ) − pi (t − 1) ≤ Δpi max (7) If the current speed vid which made by particle
acceleration is more than the largest rate vd max , the speed is
t = 1, 2, , T ; ui (t ) = 1 :units are operating;
limited up by vd max in the certain dimension. Updated
ui (t ) = 0 :units are stopped; pi max and pi min are
particles are obtained by continuous learning and ultimately
respectively the upper and lower limits of contribution of
fly to the optimal solution of the location in the space. After
generating unit; L (t ) : the total load of the system at t
the searching process is completed, the final output gbest
time; R (t ) : whole standby capacity of system at t time;
of the overall situation is the optimal solution.
Δpi max 、 Δpi min :the largest load and down load rate of
B. Algorithm Process
generating units respectively.
The steps of standard PSO algorithm are as follows:
Ⅲ. STANDARD PSO ALGORITHM Step 1: To initialize a group of particles including the speed
and random location; Step 2: To evaluate the fitness of each
A. The Basic Principle of The Algorithm
particle; Step 3: To compare their fitness with the best
PSO initializes for a group of random particles (random
location of their experience for each particle, and then
solution). It finds the optimal solution through iteration. We
update the current locationpbest if it is better. Step 4:
get updated particles by tracking individual extreme
To compare its fitness with the best position gbest of
value pbest and the overall extreme value gbest in each
their overall experience for each particle, and then set
iteration. Supposed a group formed by m particles in N
gbest newly if it is better. Step 5: Change the speed and
searching spaces. Particles fly with a certain speed which is
location of particles according to equation (8); Step 6: If
in accordance with its own and companions’ experience of
there is no interruptive condition to be satisfied (the

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maximum value or the number of iteration), then return to the target. With gradually decreasing of ω , the speed of
the step 2. particles slow down, the local search start. The method
C. Parameters Setting accelerate the rate of convergence and improve the
One advantage of PSO is using real-coded and without performance of the PSO algorithm.
too much adjusted parameters. The basic parameters in c1 and c2 represent the weight
Acceleration constants
formula are: inertia factor ω , the weight factor c1 、 c2 , the of statistics speed which push particles to pbest and
maximum number of iteration k max and population size m . gbest . According to tests and experience, c1 is
The most important one is inertia factor that could meet the equivalent to c2 and general in scope between 0 and 4.
following equation: The paper adopts c1 = c2 = 1.5 .


ω = ωmax − ×k (9)
This paper used basic PSO algorithm code in Matlab
ωmax 、 ωmin : the largest and the smallest allowed values software. The AGC units of regional power grid are taken to
respectively; k 、 kmax :the present and the largest number classify modeling. The scale of group m = 30 is given.
of iteration. From the linear relationship between the According the experience of test, we selected inertia
number of iteration and ω we know ω could affect the weight ω = 0.73 . Table 1 shows the parameters of AGC
convergence and its rate greatly. After several rounds of units which participate the power regulation. Table 2 shows
tests, we get ωmax = 1 ,ωmin = 0.3 ,kmax = 300 . When different distribution factor of AGC units.
ω decline from 1 to 0.3 linearly, PSO search the optimal
solution in the large region at the beginning, and fast take

w x y z 1 2 3 4 5 6
A 15 4500 45 960 A 0.15 0.2 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.242
B 25 13500 200 5700 B 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.443
C 8 3900 180 1500 C 0.2 0.15 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.102
D 2 200 70 180 D 0.2 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.104
E 2 120 30 100 E 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.054
F 3 900 180 360 F 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.055
In the above tables: A-F denote thermal power units test 5 used the average method. Test 6 used the PSO
(600 MW below), thermal power units (600 MW and algorithm to obtain the optimal result. Simulation results are
above), liquefied natural gas (LNG) units, water electricity shown in figure 1 and 2.
generating units (capacity), water electricity generating We made comparisons between optimized distribution
units (small-capacity), the pumped-storage units (capacity is factors by given the different interferences of load in the
300 MW, with the ability to automatically adjust the simulation. To Select 300 MW, 600MW and 1000MW as
minimum and maximum levels for the 180/300 MW, or the sudden increase load disturbance (simulated failure of
capacity of adjusting is 120 MW. While its water pumps can rejection) in simulation. And then we made summary about
absorb excess power grid in the state, but it must be run by all circumstances. Repeated testing contrast told that PSO
an order below); W-Z denote the number of units, the algorithm made the CPS1 value higher than 150 percent in
installed capacity (MW), climbing rate (MW / min), figure 1, and the speed of convergence was significantly
adjustable capacity (MW). 1-6 denote different faster than the simple average distribution. The fluctuations
programmers under different distribution factors. Test 1 and cycle of power grid frequency was significantly shorter than

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others in figure 2. So using the PSO algorithm in the same regulation is practical in the application. It reflects the
test conditions to optimize the distribution of the power superiority have the actual social and economic benefits.

250 50.1

• • 6
• • 1
200 • • 3


• • F /H z
• • 1 50

• • 3 • • 6



-50 49.85
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
T /s T /s
Survey on Application to Electric Power System[J]. Power System
Ⅴ. CONCLUSION Technology,2004,28(19):14-29.

The paper adopts the standard PSO algorithm to [5] Gaing Z L. Particle Swarm Optimization to Solving the Economic

distribute factors of AGC power regulation units in Dispatch Considering the Generator Constraints [J. IEEE Trans on

interconnected power grid which used the CPS evaluation. Power Systems, 2003, 18 (3): 1187- 1195.

Code running and modeling are done in Matlab software. [6] N. Sinha, R. Chakarbarti, and P.K. Chattopadhyay. Evolutionary

The method also used in thermal power, water and programming techniques for economic load dispatch IEEE Trans.

electricity, gas and four types of power grid system which Evl. comput, vol. 7, pp. 83-94, Feb. 2003.

composed of pumped-storage units. The paper's method is [7] ZHAO Bo, CAO Yi-jia. An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
more stable, effective and could obtain the high-quality Algorithm for Power System Unit Commitment[ J]. Power System

optimal solution by compared with the average allocation Technology, 2004, 28(21): 6-10.

method. The algorithm is simple and with fewer codes. It

can meet economic requirements of real-time scheduling
operation of power grid in most cases. It worth in practice LIU Bin was born in Hunan, China, on January 20,
and application of projects . 1980. Now, he is a Master postgraduate in the
electrical power college, South China University of
Ⅵ. REFERENCES Technology, China. His special fields of interest
[1] GAO Zong-he, TENG Xian-liang, TU Li-qun. Hierarchical AGC include Power System Operation, Control, and
Mode and CPS Control Strategy for Interconnected Power Systems. Protection.
Automation of Electric Power Systems,2004,28(1):78-81.
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[4] YUAN Xiao-hui,WANG Cheng,ZHANG Chuan-yong, et al. A

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