# Page 1 of 4

Classical Mechanics
Projectile Motion

An object w/ an initial horizontal velocity and acted upon by earth¶s gravitational pull

Case 1: Projectile without an angle

The path of the object in projectile motion:

݀

ݒ

ݒ
௜௫

ݒ

ݒ
௜௬

ݒ
ଶ௬
ݒ
ଶ௫

ݒ

݀

Characteristics of the velocity:

ݒ

= ݒ
௜௫
= ݒ
ଶ௫

ݒ
௜௬
< ݒ
ଶ௬

ݒ

ݒ

ݒ

Must know Equations:
ݒ

ൌ ටݒ

൅ݒ

݀

= ݒ

ݐ ൅
௔௧

݀

ൌ ݒ

ܶݐ

Summary of points:
y The velocity of a projectile can be separated into horizontal (ݒ

) and vertical components

,). The actual velocity is represented by resultant vector ( ݒ

).
y The horizontal component of velocity is constant
y The vertical component of velocity changes

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Case2: Projectile @ an angle
ݕ
ݒ

= 0

݀

ʾ ɲ
݀

ݔ

ʾ = ɲ

When the projectile is fired w/ an angle:

ݒ
௜௫
ൌ ݒ

ܿ݋ݏˁ
ݒ
௜௬
ൌ ݒ

ݏ݅݊ˁ

@ Peak of trajectory (max. height):

ݒ
௙௬
ൌ ݒ
௜௬
െ ݃ݐ
Ͳ ൌ ݒ
௜௬
െ ݃ݐ
ݐ ൌ
ݒ
௜௬
݃

But, ݒ
௜௬
ൌ ݒ

ݏ݅݊ˁ

So:
ݐ ൌ

௦௜௡ˁ

For a projectile beginning and ending @ the same height,

t
rise
= t
fall

Total time of flight:
tT = 2t

But, ݐ ൌ

௦௜௡ˁ

So:

tT = 2ሺ

௦௜௡ˁ

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Max horizontal distance (Range, R)

݀

ൌ ݒ
௜௫
ܶݐ

But, ݒ
௜௫
ൌ v

cosˁ & ܶݐ ൌ ʹሺ

௦௜௡ˁ

݀

ൌ ሺv

cosˁሻሺ
ʹݒ
݅
ݏ݅݊ˁ

݃

݀

ʹݒ

మ ݏ݅݊ˁܿ݋ݏˁ
݃

Now, according to one of the Double Angle formulas:

sinሺʹˁሻ ൌ ʹݏ݅݊ˁܿ݋ݏˁ

So:
݀

௦௜௡ଶˁ

The max height considering the downward motion
݀

ൌ ݒ
௜௬
ݐ ൅
݃ݐ

ʹ

If ݒ
௜௬
ൌ Ͳ
Then:

݀

݃ݐ

ʹ

But, ݐ ൌ

௦௜௡ˁ

So:

݀

ൌ ሺ݃ሻ

ݒ

ݏ݅݊ˁ

݃

ʹ

݀

ሺ݃ሻሺ
ݒ

ݏ݅݊

ˁ
݃

ʹ

݀

ൌ ൬
ͳ
݃
൰ሺ
ݒ

ݏ݅݊

ˁ
ʹ

݀

௦௜௡

ˁ
ଶ௚
0i
ሺ௩

௦௜௡ˁሻ

ଶ௚

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Another equation to find the max height considering that the object follows a parabolic path

ݕ ൌ ݔ ݐܽ݊ˁ െ
௚௫

ଶ௩

௖௢௦

ˁ

The velocity of the object from the point of trajectory to the ground

y

h
x
ݒ
௙௬
ൌ ݒ
௜௬
൅ ݃ݐ
But, ݒ
௜௬
= 0
So:
ݒ
௙௬
ൌ ݃ݐ
Summary of the Equations
Time (t)
ݐ ൌ
ݒ

ݏ݅݊ˁ

݃

Total time (Tt)
tT = 2ሺ

௦௜௡ˁ

Range
݀

ݒ

మݏ݅݊ʹˁ
݃

Maximum height
݀

௦௜௡

ˁ
ଶ௚
0i
ሺ௩

௦௜௡ˁሻ

ଶ௚

ݕ ൌ ݔ ݐܽ݊ˁ െ
݃ݔ

ʹݒ

మܿ݋ݏ

ˁ

Vertical velocity
ݒ
௙௬
ൌ ݃ݐ

Case2: Projectile @ an angle =0 = When the projectile is fired w/ an angle: @ Peak of trajectory (max. So: tT = 2   Page 2 of 4 . Total time of flight: tT = 2t But. height):      But. So:  trise = tfall  For a projectile beginning and ending @ the same height.

R) But.Max horizontal distance (Range. So:         Page 3 of 4 .    &         Now. according to one of the Double Angle formulas:   So:  The max height considering the downward motion  If Then:   But.

Another equation to find the max height considering that the object follows a parabolic path  y  The velocity of the object from the point of trajectory to the ground h x  But. So: =0 Summary of the Equations Time (t)  tT = 2  Total time (Tt) Range     Maximum height     Vertical velocity Page 4 of 4 .