This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A computer is an electronic device, which can automatically perform arithmetic & logic operation and gives output. Mainly there are two types of computer. They are digital and analog computer Analog Digital 1. It process analog signals 1. It process numbers 2. Accuracy is limited 3. Operation is performed by very few devices 4. Basic building blocks are amplifiers 2. Unlimited accuracy 3. Operation is performed many devices 4. Basic building blocks are logic gates
A computer consists of 5 functional units, which are as follows: 1. Input 2. Output 3. Memory 4. C.U
many other kinds of input devices is joysticks. Basic operational concepts: . Control units: -Its function is to control the functions of input and output devices. plotters etc… 4.C) is set to point to the first instruction of the program the content of the P. A large set of wires carries the signals to all units.U is effectively the nerve center that sends control signals to other units and senses their states.P.The function of the memory is to store data and program (details of memory is explained in other chapter) 3. which is electronically.L. Its function is to send processed data to the outside world.L. Such output devices are monitor. After the time required to access the memory and the data is read out of the memory and .C is transferred to the MAR and the control signal is sent to the memory. 2. printer.Execution of the program starts when the program counter (P.L.U.computer accepts coded information through input devices the most well known input device is keyboard. Memory: .U where the necessary operations are performed. Input: . track ball and mouse. The C.U): -Most computer operations are executed in the A. Any other operations are initiated by bringing the required operands into the A. Data transfer between the processor and memory is controlled by the C.U through timing signals.1. Arithmetic and logic unit (A. connected to C. Output: -The output is the counter part of input device.U of the processor. 5.
the ALU can perform the desired operations if the result of this operation is to be stored in the memory then the result is sent to MDR the address of the location where the result is to be stored is to MAR and the write cycle is initiated. Thus the execution of the current instruction is completed. At this point the instruction is ready to be decoded after one or more operands are fetched in this way.loaded into the MDR. The content of the MDR is transferred to the instruction register (IR). Main memory MAR MDR Control R0 R1 R2 ALU PC IR Rn-1 .
. namely minicomputers and microcomputers. Bus control lines are used to arbitrate multiple requests for use of this bus. If computer is to achieve a reasonable speed of operation. and the number of them corresponds to the number of bits in a word. these different individual parts of computer must be connected together in some organized way. CONTROL BUS They indicate the direction of data transfer and coordinate the timing of events during the transfer. it must be organized so that all units can handle one full word of data at a given time. In addition to the wires that carry the data. The main virtue of the single bus structure is its low cost and flexibility for attaching peripheral devices. ADDRESS BUS They are used to specify the location of data in the main memory. There are mainly three types of bus. all its bits are transferred in parallel. There are many ways of doing it. It is not surprisingly that a single-bus structure is primarily found in small machines. All units are connected to this bus. the computer must have some lines for addressing and control purpose. Because the bus can be used for only one transfer at a time. which has a single bus. SINGLE BUS STRUCTURE Input Output Processor Memory A simplest structure. we will consider three popular structures. so it provides the sole means of interconnection. When a word of data is transferred between units. only two units can actively use the bus at any given instant.BUS STRUCTURES To form an operational system. namely DATA BUS They are used for transmission of data. is as shown in the above diagram. A collection of wires that connects several devices is called a BUS. but the trade-off is lower operating speed. This requires a considerable number of wires to establish the necessary connections. Now.
A standard technique is to provide the necessary control circuitry as part of the I/O equipment. Again a memory bus exists for communication between them. The channel then takes over and controls the actual transfer of data. Since the memory lacks adequate circuitry to control such transfers.TWO BUS STRUCTURE I/O bus Input Processor Output Memory bus Memory The figure above shows the simplest form of a two bus structure. Here the position of the processor and memory are reversed. The main processor initiates a transfer by passing the required information to the I/O channel. Data passes through the processor on its way to the memory. both I/O transfers are made directly to or from the memory. The processor interacts with the memory through a memory bus and handles input and output functions over an I/O bus. A different version of a two bus structure is given in the figure below. also called as Peripheral Processor. In such configurations the I/O transfers are usually under direct control of the processor. I/O bus Input Memory Output Memory bus Processor . in circuits called I/O channels. it is necessary to establish a different control mechanism. An I/O channel is actually a special purpose processor. which initiates transfers and monitors their progress until completion.
transfer of information over a bus cannot be done at a speed comparable to the operating speed of all devices connected to the bus. From the conceptual point of view. The fundamental principles of computer operation are essentially independent of bus structure. like disks and tapes. are considerably faster. but their operation is adequately represented by the two bus examples. memories. . but others. Main memory and processors operate at electronic speeds. Some electromechanical devices are relatively slow. an efficient transfer mechanism that is not constrained by the slow devices and that can be used to smooth out the differences in timing among processors. making them fastest parts of the computer. and external devices is necessary. they are not crucial in any functional description. In general. The main reason for including additional buses is to improve the operating speed through more parallelism. such as keyboards and printers. Because all these devices must communicate with each other over a bus.Some machines have several distinct buses.