Dr.

Divakarla Venkctovodhont

esh Sahitya Akademi
Saifabad : : Hyderabad-s

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Non.s. Non. Moreover they may not be able to follow and understand the literary dialect found in some books and in poetical work. There is a mistaken idea among some people that spoken dialect is easier than the literary One.Telugu people who learn the spoken Telugu may get confused when they find different forms of the same word used in different places. as far as Telugu is concerned. differs from region to region and sometimes fcrm District to District also.Telugu people can read and enjoy classical works including poetry also. They have entirely to depend upon the books for improving their knowledge of Telugu. By learning it non.fOR. The easiness or difficulty of a language depends upon the choice 9f words and not entirely on the terminations.Telugu people to learn literary Telugu in about thirty days. if they so desire.Telugu areas.EWORD This book is intended for non.Telugu people do not have th e occasion of speaking to the Telugu people frequently as they live in non. does not change whenever and by whomsoever it is written. novels and other books that are written in the spoken language but even in them the forms of words will be varying and confuse the non. This difficulty will not be felt when they read books written in literary Telugu which are numerous. It is not easy for anybody to understand literary Telugu if they learn the spoken dialect alone but people who learn literary Telugu do not find it difficult to follow the spoken tongue. That is . Spoken dialect or Vyavaharika Bhasha. stories. Literary Telugu on the contrary.Telugu readers. Of course there are now many newspapers.

Such forms and sentences are very few and are intentinally given so that readers may not feel confused when they come across such forms and sentences even rarely. I have removed the "Sakatarepha. lioots. . The main idea in giving such sentences in the book is merely to t ell the reader that there is possibility for such sentences in the language." =Ar asunna" and -Sar alades a' in this book and allowed "Visandhi as far as possible. words and the rules of grammar that are given in the beginning of each lesson and then he will be able to translate the Telugu and English sentences into English and Telugu respectively. I am confident that this book will be very useful even to Telugu readers who may know the language but not the intrieacies of it. Some general excercises both in English and Telugu are given in the end and easy verses in Telugu are also included. I have taken care in acquainting the' reader with most basic roots and words that are essential for him for attaining a working knowledge of Telugu. He need not make use of them if he does not like them. Bhandarkar as models while writing this book.11 why more care has to bo taken in introducing words and roots that are easiiy understood and essential for a working knowledge of Telugu. I have taken the two books of Sanskrit written by Dr. I know that certain verbal forms are out of use now and some types of sentences also are not very common. Afterwards the reader can improve his knowledge gradually if he has real interest and can approach even classics. Gradually all types of sentences and important rules of grammar have been introduced and when one completes reading the book thorughly one will be acquainted with literary ielugu completely. THe reader is requested at the outset to make himself acquainted with the roots. terminations and words are introduced in the beginning of each lesson and thse alone are used in the sentences given as exercises in the end.

He is also requested to learn the Telugu alphabet and its pronounciation at the outset and a chart for learning the pronounciation is given immediately after this foreword. I am of the opinion that for people living outside Andhra Pradesh to learn literary Telugu will be easier than to learn the spoken dialect as they are not expected to have frequent contact with Telugu speaking people and they have to improve their knowledge of Telugu only by reading books and Readers many of which have been written in literary Telugu.4TAVA0f14NJ .i. Ve:NK. There may be SOme defects in the method of writing this book. The readers are requested to learn the usage of new roots and words that are not used in the book by frequent reading of stories. I express my heartfelt gratitute to the President and Secretary of Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Akademi for giving me a chance for writing this book intended for learning literary Telugu. journals and other books and improve their vocabulary. novels. 0. A list of words and roots used in the book is given in the end in alphabetical order for ready reference.iii In the beginning of the book some symbols are given and the reader is requested to be thorought with them before starting to read the book. I shall try to rectify them in the second edition if it is intimated to me. 18-1-197t. Hyderabad. I thank the members of the Dakshina Bharat Press for having printed this book neatly and without many mistakes.

:S_cba :is_va I(_s'a ~_cl:a .5_pb~ 8_'11 ~_ka ~ _kba-kh Ei n 2:l_ba 4S'_bb~ c. 0- <:s_d "ha :\)_ua ["_au- out c. as in that e!_ja ~jha car this sweet put ~_i~_-ee ~_u- e.A key to the correct pronunciation ~_ae:!J_Ei- of Telugu letters.r. _ta ~_ta d_da c)_dba t!iri_u- truth Prakrt Ea_na c0_eget gate ~_tIla t6_tba l$_'da-mother-th mine &_0- obey old ~-..5:)_ma db_ya ~_gha O_fa e:l_la .

..j _thna _rpa e3..ii ~ os ~ l:52r 6 q) l:5 (\ -sha ..1 U'cl lS.S 0:0 _fsa _rha _tam rjha _jlia _fda {5 oS" es Q 0"0 l:.52 "" {) -" _Tab _kthra 0 -rtha _rtha _rd'a _rd'ha ~ § 6 (ll {) CJ ~S ~g ~g _rghya _thrya _rjya _tbsna _rthma {) 1.sa _ha _rka _rkba iS~ _rma _f3'a 6g L~ (Y) _kra 6 _tla _fva iSS _rga _rgba _rja 6J {5 _rs'a _fsba l:5 es ql) .. l:5~ l:5 l.'J lSiJ lS~ _thpha _rba _rbha _stbree ~JclS _rthsnya ..~ ~ c§.:Jcl E.

of letters termination Language contains A word A group (~~~) of words some meaning conveying at the end. Tatsama. terminations. 2. S. a single word becomes a sentence. . Wben Telugu case terminations are substituted for the Sanskrit case terminations Sanskrit words become Telugu words which are called Tatsamas. Telugu is the language country.5::0).nbols 1. Tadbhava. Telugu contains five kinds of words. 4. Here Tat stands for Sanskrit. Sometimes and having a Vibhakti (O!"~S. Sanskrit words undergo some change or Vikrit! when they become Tadbhavas. Tatsamas are Sanskrit words with Telugu case terminations. Desya. 3.. viz.SyJ. Tatsama means equal to Sanskrit. Desya words are native words that are current in the ullage of the people of the Telugu country even before Tatsamas and Tadbhavas entered the language. Tadbhavas are Telugu words derived from Sanskrit. That is why they are called Vikritis as against Prakritis which are original Sanskrit words. Sanskrit words 'have Sanskrit case terminations at their end. spoken (~O~eJJ) by the people of the Telugu It is also called Tenugu or Andhramu. letters. Anyadesya and Gramya. is a letter makes or group a sentence words and sentences.

2
6. Anyadesya words are t h ose that are borrow ed .from the languages spoken in other countries. They have mixe d with the Desya words and are frequently used by the people, and Desyas are used is called "Achsha Tenugu" or Pure Telugu. Tatsama words are not found in this language. Alphabet contains 55 letters. Of these and 16 are
3

7. The language in which only Tadbhavas

8.

The Telugu vowels

(e:5lW':lJal).
Vowels

36 are

consonants

(oJ-e~a».
~, ~.

are

both vowels and consonants

(elt~dS:rol6o:ma». ~,
e:!J, ~.

(e:!)~Ja»

_

6t.

Consonants
~. e3,

(;r.~a»_
tl, (5. lJ.

S'.

!p,

K. ;;$3, e, is.

is,
(:$.

es, lX.o,

<?

tJ. ea, c5, 4$'. lS. t:i.

Some consider

!Sa

(Sakararepha)

as a separate of r:5 and

consonot ..

nant; but it is another separate letter. The above consonants

(e:!)e.?q:m) form
are combined Strictly

with the vowel u speakil'lg pur.

for the sake of easy pronunciation.

consonants are letters without e:9. When they are pronouneed without es they are called [roe;oa> (mere consonants)
M

written

with the symbol ~

over them

r,

S, cEJ.

s,
Or

f"

etc,

Ubhayaksharamulu
Q

- ( (Ardhanuswara
8

Arasunaa);

(P.'ornanuswara

Or

Nindu Sunna);

Visarga -~.

The~Q

are called Ubhayaksbaramulu became they have the characteristic features of both the vowels and the Consonants. ,. Of the 55 letters
DOW

in the

Telugu
~,,,<),

Alphabet
"(J",

the following

6 letters are

out of use.

is, es, c , The

first three rarely occur in ordinary speech and the last three have been given up in writing. The use of Sakatarepha also has now become rare. It is found only in words where double repha occurs. 10. Achcha Telugu contains
;J, ~, OJ.

36 letters - ~,

e3, Sl,
0

~,

<!t, &-a. 14

a., !.. tr, ( (Arasunna)

(Nindusunna)

e;

e, ';5, <6, o;r., ~. - 22
The other 19 letters - em, ~.
"<), "(J",

a (Visarga)
~.;$. are

apt i.;), ~.

45, ;;5, ;;5.;, 6J.J, ti. ~, ¢5.
in the Tatsama words. The

~.

ll?

found only anyone

words

containing

of these letters may be considered into two kinds"(2),

as Tatsamas, The
;J,

fl , The vowels are divided

sbort

vowels

(l;S-w~SW':l~c:o) The
"(J", ~.

c:;S),

Sl. <!t. ern,

e..
6C, mr'.

long

vowels

(~£;W':l~c:o) _
called

e3. ~.

OJ,

e:

e:;"

oJ, ~.
g;' are called

a., !.. are ::5~~:S~c:o.
are

::5l!:mc:o.

and

GO

and

12. The

consonants

divided

into

three

kinds:
2:3,

Mutes
rQ', ~. ~,

(<6..)6~~c:o)
($,

s.

lP, X, ;;5;l, ~, ~,i$~

is, es,
10,

6J.J

tit ~, ~, cl5, lS,

Q, ~, ;$. q5,

45, ~ - 27

4
Semi-vowels Sibilao(s (~o~~~e;:::,) ~. ~,

e,

:;S -

4

(~~J,~O?) ~. ~, ~.

~-4

;.r..

is a1';0 called an aspirate

(:;s:'0J-8l~~~)
()

13. Mutes are divided into five classes or :;S6~a>.

Ka vargamu+g ,
Cha vargamu+cj

tj).

X, q5:J, ~
es, es, ~

, l:S,~.

Ta vargamu-~,
Tha vargamu-s-g',

ri, ~. ($. es
~. ~.

s,

0, <$

Pa vargamu-05,
14, In Telugu the Consonants kinds. Parushamulu

ro, ~'- :;S:,
are further divided into three

(;5t:l:l;$.~tX»

s, ~, e:" a.
X.
t3, ~.
(;$,

;;$

Saralamulu
Sthiramulu

(C:S6i1~~) (:'J6~0?)
(j)

ro q5:J. ~.

~.~,~,~.~. ~.

~, 0. /$, e,

Zl'. E'&.

<$,:».

6. e, ::5. ~. ~, ~.

15. The letters are classified into the following to the organs of pronunciation origin

classes

according of their

(cli6.J ~
Gutturals Palatals

t::s ~U))
(~o~

which are the places

£~U)) ~, e, lS',
~.

tj).

l),

(8"c:I;;Sb~e:o)

*. is, iSi

:;5:>, e. o5ireo ~. sr.

5
Linguals

(~~<5gome;o)
(~otS"g~e::c)
"Zl.

8:0:),

em->.

eJ.

ri.

a,

($,

~. 6

(00).
es,

;$., ii.
'"'(J",

Dentals
C:S.

eSt 45,

es,

<:),

<5.0.

is.

Labials
ll!i. ~,

(!.~g~e;o)
:!if.

~.
0

c!W. ;5~ are nasals

~s

2:).

i$, ~.

ea. cS. c ,
SJ

(e;$JN'~s'o5:oCl)

~.

~ and

are both Gutturals

and Palatals. and Labials.

e... !.

and ii:" are both Gutturals and a Labial.

;5 is both a Dental

16. Th:ere are no words in Achcha Telugu that begin

with yakara

(~)~. ~,

S. and

:Jf
verbs after terminations (Roots). All roots

17. The basic forms which become
added to them are called Telugu end in &.

are
in

zy~~e;o

18. Bases which are meaningful,
and which do not

which are different terminations

from

roots are

have: any

in the: end

l!r-a;5~~;$;nc::o.

These are also called

N'~~C::O.

19. A letter or group of letters added
bases are-called terminations non-words

to the roots

or Nominal These are

(l;5i:S"S~o5:oc::o)·
though

(~;5~;mc::o).
~
eQl

They can not be used independently independently ~ l5' ~
eQl '

and do not convey any meaning They are also called 20. Vibhakt!

used.

lj'!S~c::o

as against

a Ietter, Nominal

(case) indicates

the nature

(<';)O,s.)

of the

bases and tbe roots.

It indicates the number and gender of

~ ~l). ~(jg~ Compulsory. Amreditha (. In Sanskrit tbe wsrd Sambita derived from the same root is defined as extreme contiguity of letters (~ts'. is remaining with the original form.- i. 2:)oJ-to~~ This is variously not applicable in some appliin cable. There are separate nnd the person and tense of the case terminations for ~~). Upadha (aoS4S) is the last but one letter. bases (N'~~1i5 ~~) and for roots (~~:Ji$ rules 21. Prakritbibhava 23..:J .lhi is euphonic junction or coalition. applicable some cases and differently 22.~) Adesa is additional letter or letters af another Jetter.)~~ iii. San. are applied is geneNominal roots. ii. (Optional) (Comprehensive) This is also called :.::So~~o:m) is union with the following (~l'£o~(j~) is the second member when a word is doubled or repeated. Samslesha consonant. (~X':s:.)11.S. The manner in which grammatical rally of three kinds .)"0$. Agama cases.. The word is derived from the root Dha with the Prefix Sam (to join togetharj. (~~~o:m) is subtitution letters or a word.compulsory in some cases.6 the Nominal bases.

) Sandhi is compulsory in the case of letters of the (05~. of vowels) alone..7 _~d. s-~me word. Samslesha (omission of a letter.. "3 ~ ~ 4t Q' --C . _~or :::> is called Druta which disappears without hampering the meaning. Agama.~~05.. _Generally Sandhi into four kindsAdesa. with consonants._ s ~ ~ ~ a. 24.defined Sandhi as substitution of the follow"ing vowel for both the following and precec lng vowels.. ~ ~ r .. two e onsc nants or is classified and Lopa.~y are combined. a consonant and a vowel. w~ .~ ~ . Vowels are represented by the following symbols whea tll. Words are having a Druta Kalas_ at the end are Drutaprakritikas : others - 2~. of two letters coming in immediate On e of the prominent grammarians in Telugu Chinnaya Suri..) ~ ~ Q. . -.'" . V ~ '.) e. S... All the words in Telugu are classified into two categories--Kalas and Drutaprakritikas. It speaks of vowel sandhi (combination -But it may occur between two vowels..:S). prepositions and roots anda compound It is optional in the case of the finals and the initial letters of differen t words in a sen tence.Ql s- ~ I:J "! '! .J0~-a-} It means tbe coalescence con tact or combination with each other.

J ~ es 0:. assume the following forms in .l .) cl .) 0 ~ S" ~o 0 0 0 s v- 8 ~.~ _) ._.J is.SJ rs rs q)) () K CS t$ <5 0 q)) K q)) 0 tS 0 e is e :z rs is.3 • A ea (\') ._ 5il 1$ "" tS 'c.0 tto '''l' es 1$ ~ ~ -d iO~ 2l' c:l e qze:> ~. l!..8 ~ ~ am' s= ~ ~ l!i..5 -D ~ () rs ~ () Cj) tS tS cp tS 0 e.I ·lSt .) 6_) lS~ lS~ lS~ i5.5.3 iI ro e$ (.) .. Consonants consonants.0 tS..J tS~ 6 es 6 0:.> d 40 iQ M .0 .) es re 0:.l ~ {.5 iO .) iScl b'.e &g ~ ~ ~ 't$ 6 c:l tl 'Ofl {) ~ \.6 e C"? .double or conjunct ~ aJ 6&- l!bl! <.5 is t. is cp CS '«!S 0 0 K <.$_) iO.3 lS tS (..l_l! "~ ~ (.3 .

. ~ 6.S t ~ ~ ~ 6~ (5 0:<.9 €a S9 (5 ea . ~ a 6~ .) c:5.~ Q . two mem- There are conjunct bers.J consonants having 6.Jclg .$ S ..S ::l.:. ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ::l. Ktra Rghya more than 'dI !f Tsna Rtma Rsva Stree ~J~ ~~ ~g Rjya 'rrya ~g 6~S ~ l~b Rtsnya ~..-- o'S ~ ($ oS.

.5§" /!)o<".1st Bay PRONOUNS l. (F) ~Q This woman (N) It (M-F-N) Thou ~:l (N) They el:l ~~ (N) This ~~b~ ~~. I ~<S. II (N) These t~ bJ~ (M-F-N) You Second Person a -.S..s 6~<5 '5"e)::lxI S III p ~r:i"d.F) They ~~ !)~ (M) = This man b~ (M-F) Persons = These (M-F) ~e.5<iS~ ~~~ Third Person Singular ~s~iS'<.oo M ~~d.:$) ~N"l~ M-F ~<5d.:l N II I ~N"d. N=Neuter=.:l (M-F-N) I ~~ (M-F-N) We First Person Present Tense = .6:J W:lN"l~ F= F~:mininc=~ S=Siogulur ()ox::m.)~ o:l"~ III (M)=He (F) She 076:3 (M .II U'~ ~~. . M=Masculine=~c/Dot"~J:).6 F. W.N"l~ i:$':. P=Plural.i\l"l.fu.S~o. N.S.

.1<6:l Qj"~ ( !J~) ~ is:liS:lN"d. Roots !r"e:v e.:J = to ~~~:::: a~= e. ~ (rQg)) ~~iS:l.l~ 'j~ :l~ is:lis:l07.9~ ~tU~~N"d.SW':J.5d.l t) for Feminine the singular number are added to the roots.12 All roots in Telugu end in tlrr.g) (~t») ~~. The terminations in the I and 11 persons are common to all genders both in the Singular and Plural numbers. a ~~ (!J~) a~iS:lN"d..:J is:l~d.l ~ ~~W)W)N'.) = to beat ~l'i~ = to walk -6~~ = to read ~~ IZ: :tr'l~ = to go come to see . ~ ~t) ~~ ~~ t$'l:i'l~iS"....)N".~ ~~ 8"" e:v is".~ ec He is going They are reading Thou art seeing I am walking They are beating She is abusing It is coming We are eating You are leaving We are going . In the III person the same termination Masculine and Feminine genders same termination in the plural and W)i\J"~ 6J for both the in number Neuter and genders W)...) to abuse g)~iS:l = to leave to go l)CSJ = to eat Qj"~ (!J~) e<5J~07~~ ~~ e:.. The terminations given above are directly added to the roots to form verbs in the person number and gender indicated.:).) N"d.

It and (M.are used for elderly and respectable 8"~ (M.) (These) and ~OJ men and are plural forms they are used for elderly singular to indicate respect..aorag G5i5:l~W':lN"cl~ ~i.W':lW':l~ .) You are walking ~ ~ Q) CS W':lW':l'i\J'. and .F.5 C.l He is coming He is (Lhey are) going c:?co U" ~ co cl i).are used for elderly men in the singular. i K. ~ She is seeing ~dXl~ is ~~W':lN". women even in the ~~.5 (M) men in the 8"~ This gentleman .. . or ~sc. IS l .)"6a (They) !li).l6':l* e:5dXlCS iSc::5:l~W':l'i\J'.\5:l<5 the subject the vet b may be in the .. N.) . F.e:so~(.5 eJ W':lW':lN" . She. ~i5:li5:l~d.6~W::J'i\J'.l t$ ~c. Though r.1i). The use of these ated in future lessons. 8"~ in the singular Pl'OtlOUDS and ~.\5:l<5 co IS *When plural also.13 ~~ the singular. (F) She-is used for an elderly and respectable lady in ~e5~ (M) He and ::Q~~ (M) This gentleman . e:5dX:li\5(M) He.N.) are used for elderly and respectable men and women in the H person singularalso.) ~ i).) They-are and plural will be illustr- generally used after a Noun or Pronoun numbers respectively..1.) He.l~ €3~~ I.$:)i)..

~ eo ~~ ~ 13c5:>~N'd. III &N-d. OJ II I ao~~N'cl~ &o~~N'cl c5:> <!io~i$N"d. N.s + aN"d.~ M. N.~ e. have been The forms of the root &0 ~ III should naturally ~O~~N'd.14 The respect._6:l M.j~cSd.~ But the root eo~ and the initial .ol\J roots have peculiar = to be in the present Tense.~ M c)N'd.s. pronouns used in the following sentences indicate tI":n ~W). C)N'd. . &N-cl c5:> M. ao~ omission + .s of the terminati- ons are omitted i 0 the forms of the present Tense of this root. F.:J~cSd. N. ~ ~ ~ is"~ OJ" 6:l is l):) ~tS"J N'cl ~ ~~ ~N'cl 6:l ~tm-w':lN'd. ON-d. F. ttN'd_ ~ M. These forms They are given below.ji$cSd.l g-o~~N'd.o~ .oc:).~ N <!io~i$N"d.~' and ~N"cl ~ remains after the of e.~ e. N. N.e M F. e:. N.) ~dSJcS Roots ao~ = to be ~ e:..6:l ocScl g) M. &oc:). N ttcScla F. F. F. ~dSJi$ 6~~ ~~ ~~~N'd. g)~~~N'.-o~-w':lN"cl6:l M. c!. F. F.

&~ YdD. S'e:>cl:l ~~6:l ~. ~ (&N"cl 6:J ) ~i$:> ~ 0. F.')cl:l e:5~ U"~ ".. F.$:) M !focl:l M.cl:l ~e:>~ N Translate . terminations ~ ~ S' 0 is substituted and ::> of the c:lOro and and ~N"cl i):)OScl of the terminations for a Oil are subperson stituted of the III singular and plural respectively.5cl::> N S' co ro i):) N". have been III ~ UltOi):)03"cl~ ~UltOi):). ~ UltOi):)03"clcl:l ~ UltO i):). ~o~ ~ ."~ ~ e. S'o~ F.)~ ...15 The forms of the root ~UltO should naturally M. N.)~ ~~ hJ 6:l .~ S'e..m h~ ~e:>~ hJ~ ~t.5::) ~03"cl 6:l ~03"cl.)_ ~ S'co X':l i):) N"cl ~ But and S' eo to i):) N"clcl:l !! co ro i):) 03"cl~ for the root are omitted.cl:l ~. N. &i 03"cl .:.? ~ the following into English.5clt!l M F.S:.5d.5::) e.a 6:f 'i\l"clcl:l ~N"d_.5 e:>g:) ~ e:>e5 ~ e:>e !!e:>~ ~C\l"d_. III l!o~ S'o~ S' o.)~ O'N"d_.

!l&t8. case- (For.~ ~.'" ...• eJi.~ are used before and Feminine respectively.-..) ~ ~Ablative :. c5 are used only in the singular number. -" d:h:>~'..:S~~ e-3~~ g)~ ~_Nomin3tive case-~.hat Nouns and Pronouns (:J~~ e.:o) in Telugu take in each case are L. ~. .:. ~ Singular and plural numbers.5ct5"~ gje.5E:1 respectively..:5<iS~ &"8.) ~_InSirUme!ltal t5"e'Sa :Jf$. g:)e. Among) :6 .'ctive case-~.5..As in Sanskrit \beriO are eight cases The terminations given below. of.g~" ~Q' g _Genitive case-~. Than) .Je.e and e.$~(:$.$e:> r. ex> g:. ~. Of the terminations mentioned above ~. assume the forms and q' . For the sake of) --" . Noun s e.§ _Dative <il __" case-~~.. "j~.:5 ~ __" g). &.~. K:lOo~ e§~~di.._Objt. (From. S Q. :6o~~<5 L. ~ ~ and ~.r (To. The remaining terminations are used both in the ~. u'~ (with) case-§""06~. On) case-e.J$ ~ _ -" Locative case-~o&. eo is used only in the pl ural Dum her. ~.. ~. .)_!_Vocative Masculine <5 (In. e..

F. !). ('. M. ~es~ M. (She. Terminations of the Vocative case are used before Nouns only. when the terminations ab ove pronouns of the remaining bases. N.!)~ (Tbat man) (This man) F.~. (Sbe) F (This lady) ~~ -6s~ U"r$:) 03'6:l (They) !l6:l (These ladies) U"~ II Person-Nominative case ~~ case (You) ~:$) (Thou) I Person=-Nomir-ative jr$:) (1) The Pronoun -&~ (We) ~~0:5:0 is used in the sense of you cases and I. ~~ M. The forms that the pronouns take in the Singular and Plural Numbers in tbe first two cases are given below III Person-Nominative ~.17 All the above terminations except those of the Vocative Case are used immediately after Nouns and Pronouns..9ZJ N. ~es~ M. ~ is used only after Nouns and the Masculine gender and ~ Pronouns belonging to and ~ are used only ofter Nouns of the Neuter gender. >- case Plural Sing. F. are added the take the following . It) F. {This maa) ~6:l (These Persons) 03"6:l (They) ~6:l (These men) e. (They) M. (He) 03'~ (They) M.

) ~~ For i3"~ !)e tr~ tbe bases in the objective are case in and Singular and Plural Numbers In other cases the bases are ~~d. N..l (obj) r3" (Instrumental and other cases) The forms that they assume after taking the case terminations are given below III person . and ~ of the Objective and Genitive cases become ~ and ~ respectively after bases ~nQiD' in I!ij.s. . U'C$ in Singular and U'~ II person Objective and Instrumental :J~d.18 III person. (obj) b (Instrumental and other cases) cases I person Objective and Instrumental .S~. in Plural.9~~ o:l"8 M. ~e OJ'8 Zles~ l:3"~ €. OJ'~ M ~~M €.objective case o:l":J:>* *The terminations .9~ !)e OJ':> (N) OJ'8 (F) (F) (F.. F.. and a~~ cases respectively..

.. 6J d ll~~N'd.~ e. ~ ~i$)i$)tV"d.$ f50d.. case is optionally ~f50~.. and :»~e· Translate into English: ~~($:) o:r~ ~~ ~~ ~~i$)tV"d. ~~6' C$~d.~ d ~ C$e:>f50 ~ iJ" 6J <6($:)d.. ~f50d.... bJ6J ~~ ~ !l6J g)~i5:l i$) tV"d... N. §"" e» ~ eo o$)~~ tV" .. <5:l case us The termination droppcdafter ~ of the objective = you and me.. <5:l (obj) 11 Person-Objective case 1 Person-obj. F F o:r~~ N. .~ .19 !l~:l e:9iS~~ ~~~~ C"~~ ~5~ !:l8~ F.. e.' ~~~.:l iJ"8~ 15~i$)C$d. ~8~ ~~~ *~<5:l !:le~ ~~~<5:l ~f50d.6J t$:) W':l tV" . C"~<O <6($:)d.

take Tlrev are' like to There are some nouns in Telugu that do not any termination do not take other genders.5:'.. Nouns of the Feminine They are so called because they Singular termination they belong gender though Nouns the Nominative ~~o-F. called Stree-sarnarnulu. ~e. Mother-in-law N ~r::icl M.y~~ !)~ -lH~~ ~~~ ~~ ~l$)~~<3'd. §'""~~~d.~ Translate into Telugu: They are seeing me He is beating us You are abusing her Thou art leaving him lam seeing it We are beating them She is abusing me We are leaving her They are seeing both of us I am seeing her These (ladies) are eating them (N).~ . in the Nominative Singular.) Thigh Work F.~ c-~~ ~W':liil~d. Elder brother ~~cl F Mother's younger sister . Elder Sister er~ N .20 {5j~~ ~~d.~ :l~iil~<3'd.

Mother F. <§{J.:5cl ~~.S~~ i$°l~e:o' ao~o.l c. olOI a-os'0lZfJe:o . Nom.: M M .S'a. PI. Father &j"~ M Brother-in-law Sister's husband ~~g §'""~~ g)~ C3 M.>..:$:> . Elder brother's wife The forms that some of the Nouns and Plural Numbers Sing.:$clal 3 ~.:5. Mother U"lJ M. \.i)..$. Nose 6""om~ N. ~~o.l. Chest . ~olt\ ~o~~ . Daughter M.~. Before this c and the OJ of tile Nom. Child M.:$:>e. 1.:$:) M The correct tfo05Jo "0 • -" form is §""05Jod • -" But it is generally used as The correct form is :Se.S~ ..:$:) Obj. Husband's younger uncle M_ Son ~~a ~~ ~~o UOl6 M. Father - brother 1 F. 3. F. Head is!> F. Father-in-law.:$:> take in the Singular in the first two cases are given below.)e:oel. ~. 2. Nom. PI.S.:$:> e§ale:o (Y) Sing.21 ~~~ F. ~. But the form 056i5 is frequently used.:52 ~o N. 4. eS!> (Y) Obj.:$:>al . e) is added to the Nouns before the terminations in all the 'casesin the Plural Number. Grand father F. 60 ~ M C'ale:l.N. Plural the ending ~ of Nouns is changed into e.

~ ~~d.)~d.)c5d.) to clap es~~ ~e.22 Roots ~~W) to weep .W':l~d. form of Neuter Nouns and Pronouns for the objective form is more idiomatic in Telugu.S~*~~iS.~ U-~~~~ .a ~ _es !J~~ Q ~o~ §"'~iS.. . .a e:l l3~iS.)N"l~ ~ «'() ~~o ~ ~~W'::lW':l<Sd.8 ~~ c-.S <Sel' i$:l!~~ ~ N"l ~~o-~~c:cW'::lW)N"d.~ ~~b ~~~W':lN"d.)~d.3o:m to do rrs~ to seratch iS~iS.S~<S~ ~W':l~<Sl ~tS8 M e €r~ iS6W':liS.) to call ~~e . forms of Neuter Nouns and Pronouns give the meaning of the objective case also.)0 ~j:$d. To use the Nom.~ is leaving the work thighs The son is calling the mother Grandfather Uncle is clapping the The child is weeping Brother-In-law is scratching the nose *The Nom.tl to touch is. es~:$.

brother is going The Pather-In-Iaw The sons are going Sister-in-law is seeing (her) daughter Mothers are leaving the children Sons are reading is calling the mother-in_law The daughters are doing work .23 Sister is .

Dative and Ablative cases in both the.s.l ~-er' 6o~t:Ler' Dative ~.SiSo~6~_ S ~ s Ablative ~~ ~e). numbers are given belowInstrumental o:l"~~€§' C$ -er' ~~~_er' ".S-~ 0~ .sj_gS N'j_~ OS'B t:3eS -o:l"a3"~ QY'~t:Ler' OJ"ej-er' o:l"aj_er' eS~j_er' ~'i3-gi ~tLgS ~.Day and Pronouns take in the The forms that some Nouns Instrumental.S.3rll .l o'i3-&"" eS°l~ot:Ler' ~ .s'i3_eT ~j-er' ~.~~~-er' ~~iLer' ~.$ §'"" tS t§j - .

~ i:?s'~ Il:l~e.c ~.:J" ~ ~ cc.W crd e)w.~.lt.to ~~_iO throw bear write l.Sc<5_~oro Roots ~ e.1~J-to tell ~~_to Nouns ~~~_N-Hunger 'S"~_N-Nllt g~_N-Evil-harm <5J'o~_N-Oil ~stXJ_M·Servant ~D _N-Cat ("") ~~o--N-Dog i:?~€l-M·Washerman i:?~_N-Knife l.N .N-lnscct ll:lot\_N-Cart Il:lb_N·Cloth Q 0'5J-e:-.Sl~o1\-M-Carpenter ~(5JKl.:5jW':l(\J'..~ §.25 ~.JW:li\?J.) 4 . ~W:l.-B ~ gs ~ c\).). .Sc<5_~ 0 ro ~~.j-F-Name of a person ~o:Dg ~~~gs ~ ~ 6:l i:? ~ ~tJe.S l~ 01\ Il:lol\ 'jd5:J:)iSJN".1:J_N-Ear a-e:Jj-N-Letter .) eo t5:l ..).l:lro_to occur S"'~_to cut ~d5il.

o:m5?r ~o- .§ .!l'o~~~ ~~r$ ~~§-abJ5o- 07M-a:m~o~M-abJ~&c.HI e in the ~ ~ .)~e:I~ [r£~i:DlC7l sO)?\)i:D'::$d_8 The dog is going with the servant.o:m a:m J 0- W":.1"M- o:m~2r om 13er o:m"i&~. Sister-in-law is coming with a letter. Mother is seeing for the Sister-in-law. i:S'r> i5J W:l.9~~§O"~~- ~M-a:n5?r o.)d_ lW"o::l:J:l-w.§-o::l:o s2r W"M-Cfu::> ~ 0- ~~§-o:m ~0e. Evil is occurring from words. Locative and Vocative cases.26 ~ ~ 2r. Locaitive and Vocative cases are given below. The ehild is weeping from (on account of) hunger.~~ gJe.J !. Brother-in-law is touching the bead. Genitive . Genitive.i"M-abJ~D- ~~~. Elder brother is cutting a nut with the knife.5 .. Lachchi is going for work.)§-abJ ~o- ~M-o:m.l <w~S"6~ ~b':lroe. The forms that some Nouns and Pronouns take Gentive.lot. They are bearing with (their) ears. The carpenter is calling the washerrnan. ~~.)'":ll L~~~?5d_C7l C) ~~~er~~~N"d_~ §~ e C)~.~ ~ t5~2r:$:)~~ tS"'e)) t.).

?C~ e:§ 0 .. When there is sandhi the first vowel is dropped and the second vowel lakes its place..) sometimes sandhi occurs opt ionally and sometimes there is DO sandhi at all.o6:l ~oL~~ +~o& Sane hi ~oL':. §'"'& ~!t I €..o s <:.SoerB~r:S I e. S"" 6J ~ e:f" 6 ! *Wben a vowel is followed by the initial vowel of a non-word like ~o6:l tbere will be sandhi or not according to usage (i..e. ~.Q~.5hJ ~~ _.5~e)d'S::lo& QS 0 OJ.o~ OJ''~~o~ Q:JO ad$':.~_hJ ~~oam~o- ~~-~ . + ...o~ OJ''8 d$':.l~~e.S .$:).9~~e.j'06 I e.iolS:l=<lO~~e)o~ When there is no sandhi ~Olw~<:lQS.roeS I §'""" 6J ~ e:f" 6 e.27 Locative OJ"~ctS':lo~* W"~d$':.5~~otS:> d'S::l o~ I e I l~ <S:J e) tS:> I . ! e. 0 tS:> e:5 ~ C3"a~o~ II I ~~-~~oN"~_am~o~r:S~-am~o- h.:...Q$)o~ 1 ~Ol~e.$:)~! M .$~-~r:Sam~2r e§'~J~_e)~am~~ Vocative ~. When there is no sandhi the consonant cIi> is added between the . ~ -JJ ~~c5S:>o~ ~Ole.'NO vowels.. 0~ .$:)~ ! ~ l) M e. OJ''~ ~O~ N o San d h i OJ''~ &ii ~o~ = OJ''~QS.e)[Jl I S""~ !t e..l6 is added to the plural forms in the Vocative case. e:...

Sometimes plural forms of pronouns of the I and II persons are used even for singular forms in the Genitive case.l~~ *The Genitive termination Bmt2r is optionally dropped.. ...Scl~ 1 ? ~.5J~ €~W).§'"~ ~g)J ~~~N"cl~ e.l. N. N.~!S""~ ~.Joc.Scl5 e... N. ~ (~::Sd. 5) ZJ~d.28 The lengthened final vowels of the Vocative forms are optionally Nouns ~~.5J~ Then ~~J~ bJcs on Now ..w).:$d.5~ to en ter to fall e.. .:5J~ ~15:b when ~ol:5:l~ why what ~~ why ~ (6'3X>~u-)* ~U"~ f. Dust ~iS~ ~o~ N.S i'3gj~ lO?o:m~N"cl~ CSs-6:.l. Spot Fair 1Pl'l School Roots ~~$ §"'~ to sell to buy tJ:r..rn .J.S ~6.)XJ ~~g ~ ~o ~~W) ~0J'd.

29 ~ i3"~!) . What is there in the cart? Wbat is your father buying in the fair '! The servant is hearing the words of the carpenter.5 ~~Og' ~W':l~W':lC3"cl ~ &<6d.S~tfl~d. The washerman is bringing the clothes in a cart. & e:ll:s:.s~jo5:o (.S~~ <$r-~~o~ ~. ? Our children are reading in the school... Why is your elder brother coming now'! My husband's younger brother is selling oil in the fair.)la When is your son coming. .7cl~ ~~ ~~6" .~ .l"($l <T~~tb~ ~W'~ &.a iSJ. Dust is falling on the head.:m~ .5d..se<s ~ot\~ ~i$":)~tfl. There is a spot on his ear..

F..t:J.l~.. (§'""~.l3 gJ~ M.~) (~.:. + ~<$:) = j~i6:l §'""~~ ~o5J + ::Q®g)=~~eg).)_oo.::)8) ~~.t:J.5J~ *Ihe initial eoof the terminations is optionally roots ending in .N) :?. to kick to pour o:5J.$~) SI e:ll~e ~!lo- N"~ eJ~e:xl ~~<5J !l6~<5J (SO...N ::QN"<:Xl M..St:l= S"'.F :?.5:)+e. dropped after is dropped.~t:l=S"'~ +.~=5"""S +.) ~C$. ~~ + ~dill ~o5J + ::Q{9g). S"~+e.l<$~ in the past Tense.l<$g) N II Sla:> q.4tlt Bay There are two sets of terminations III ~~ ~N'~ :?..:3'~ ::Q!3 ::QN"6J ::Q®~ qN"~ I qe~ ::Q.F N M F.:'oo=S".)d.$8*-§'""<$d. .5:)which loses its &..$J.t:l.:3'C$. (M.) is substituted for the ending ~~l of roots before termi- nations beginning with a vowel.:)~? ~ !l~.) Roots ~ 6 il:I to bite ~dfl:I <$. wi:en the S".:'.j.

:l (~N'd.6El) e=>~o-. 2 The child cried The sister-in-law OUf then.$e= u£OJJ. touch his bead? Then our brother-In-law Mother Why did your brother The washerrnan 1..~D~. kicked the dog.<.N'. was in the cart.~) the penultimale a of the roots is changed into 31. Before terminations beginning with vowels (l!l.Sj= ~Ci1jW:l+l!lCig)= ~Cl.)~:'.(.o:ns) C3~.0oe§er ~:J.~) (g:.) (~~r:i'~) (~~.>N'~) ~~~ ~O~81? ~:6::l 1b~ eo~ l. called the brother of her husband.jW:l+. sJ"S~+l!l.31 ~{$. o-::m is substituted for ~ of the root U£~ before terminations beginning with a vowel. o~ abused the elder sister.J'~..) ~(~~ ~t.sgJer ~-. ::JCl.SEl (~~~) S"<lS~C:l0':l ~oe3g)J W'~~ e=>'S"'?r! ~~l 'S"'Q5:)co Why did the dog bite the child? The servant beat the dog.e ~tXl ~~ .$J (W'so=. for :0& of the roots ending in :::0 in the is substituted I and I I persons.GA ~o& .l~~ ~Lt.:l<.)j. servant wenl3 to the fair.. ~C. U£~+~<5J= ~03J~.J"-. 3...3i). An insect fell on his head. ~~@g)J = ::lo~g)J.L~) ~~.flg) = §'""o~g). 2.. §'""l'J.$e. ..

K~:..r-~g ~~~60 S!3 F ~ S":6os F F.r. ~t5~ ~~<lll. Tree. tSt5 ~& M Son of Kaika.JO'3. House. M. . S011. Result. ~. Eldest wife of Dasaratha.j" t5 S F O"'~~ o&d~6..:S~ N N Forest.32 Tatsama Noun e.J:l Husband .~ N ~?(t5~6J ~c..$:x) N ?{l~qmcl & ~~ F WIfe of Rarna. tS lS M .. Boon..) M Younger brother of Rama. Third wife of Dasaratha. N Fruit. P. The capital of Dasaratba. Wife M Eldest son of Dasaratha. M Younger brother (If Rama and Bharata..I~ M King of Ayodhya. F Second wife of Dasaratha. Brother of Rama. ~ in the of she + ec 0 O"~ and ~ is the are is the form in the in the Plural Singular and to all the bases Masculfne Nouns ending in ~ before ~1Ithe other case terminations. the base is O""~ In the word Nominative Nominative added Plural O"~~ Singular termination.. CSJ8:b~ ~~ N Service.

.) Nom.5:.:c Adverbs &.) * t!3 of e. Adjectives C.S6o:m=one . ~6gO) ~6ge:J($) "'~ g. e is added to the terminations of all cases except the Nom.!f . small = (Conjunction)And X:r-8. Big Q = About Numerals = Under e.. ~~:ixle. ~6g F.C6d_. N.::J ~~ = Also (~) ~o~ i. Obj Streesamamu Nom. For all Feminine and Neuter samamulu the Nominative Singular is terminations are added. e.33 Obj Ins. O"'~~~ 0'"~~i3~ O'"~g)6$:)c~ Nouns and for all Streethe base to which all the them in the Plural before Nominative. youngest.Jc:5 Eldest.S't!3 is dropped bOOD.~~* (N. when it is used as an adjective..Sc5~ ~<$~($. Loc.:$J . Obj. Obj.) One Two oo~ = (N.

)~~.:.~ o.$or5 O"~~ ~($ ~~~~ ~~~8.:S:::5::c.)-. S $'~ Oo~ ~6~e. S"c:5e:>g.m. O'f:l>..:So~. ~oa.. fS6~& S !_~ iJ. O"'~~ L~e:96:J !C"6ge.-S6. ¥ §'""&~.J. Why did Rama go to the forest? Dasaraiba felt sorry far his eldest son.. e.l~ and Sita ate nuts and fruits in the forest.:$:J Lakshmana e:9~t.:$~l ~f~(:$. (<!toa. ~o~ . Before ~ of the Genitive-and to Nouns ending in &i and ~. Bharata felt sorry.xl .N5£.34 Roots e. of the Locative <5 is added 1.:lJ.) is used as a termination the sense of from.. ~8 to give ~oiS:l to feel sorry to live to die ~~~oiS:l :i:J~~oiS:l ~~6~~ e5c3'3. c:5t'6 ~~ o:?~es Rarna. S"c:5e:>£ ~g~. Bharata and Satrughna came froms the house uncle Kaika told her son about the boons. Lakshmana did service to Rama and Sita.:fu. s>o'g ~e). They lived under the trees.. ~i5 dfu eJ~a€OO~.J C""~~ ~~6:le. Lakshmana pluckedthe fruits of the trees. of the Ablative case in .. He died in Ayodhya.. of their 1.ji:$. r:5. o.:$.xl. He abused her.. .)~L? O~~€OO6:l.-Sr5~. ~tSfl'~ ~~6:~.:$:J ~l~~l6:l(:$.i>~S~ r:5.l s>og.

J~. ~6.) to play .) jcl:XlX j~Xo~ j~XelcS:l t:.>Xe)~ N e.Xel~ e:!I6.t)J HI ~Xe:l.) 0- [:.JXe~ He j~Xc~ l§~xe:>~ lS~Xe:>~ will do ~~Xoo':l lS~Xe.s:.5tll nay The fellowing Future Tense.6:> jo.ro to descend 10 climb to sing .$:...sXe. F e..J~ jcl:Xlrle:><$S They can do j~x He or She can do Thou canst do I can do ROOTS o~ They can do You can do We can do j~Xe.) e.~ 1:§~Kelt)J ~~XO~ They will do You will do You wlll do She or It will do Thou will do lScl:XlXe:>rSJ I shall do We shall do capability These forms are now generally used to denote and Taddharma forms are used to denote He carl do futurity. -a~Xo6.t)J M... terminations are added to the roots in the e:lXe.

Tree ~CI N Floor ~o6 ADVERB How much eJo13 N Ball ~ ~l) ~.36 NOUNS ~~ N.)~. 100& axxe. lo:T'd5:JXo~. Monkeys can jump from tree to tree. Sanskrit t~~ N. ~oc§ c:5:r-tS~ . Wall Darkness t1~~ c:sr-6~ N. Song N. ll9..)~.)~. story S'"'~ ~t$ N. :Sl~o{\ ~~gB ~~X~~. ~4S \:3. Monkey N.-Xe. ~~ ~t$~o& ~a ~d~~C:C ~<S:l O'"~~ ~~o-Xe. How much distance can your grand-father walk? My younger brother can tell a story. Distance N.) <so<6o-~6~ \:3tD N. as:~ :St!l~ ~~~ t1~~c:c ~~ i'P~XeJ~..)~ 1 ~~Xo~.5.j Xotri:J.$t}'cSl\e.jl\t. as:~~ ~'5. Stick ~6c:o = Vegetables ~ 4S N. Your mother can read a letter. We can hear in darkness also. e. .) ~~X()~.)~.5. <6o<62r~~~ M ~~~l\o~. Wood.$d. = N. v6:Xo~~ eJoe~ \:3~ e. My children can pluck the fruits of the tree.

~ (o~) or ~ as Agama or Ad esa to the final syllable before case terminations and when they form the first member of a compound. Some oupavibhakttkas ~ either as Agama or Adesa and some as both.S.§"'ag' b. o~.J~2r~N".. ~~~<3"d. etc. he may fall.$~4S! ~~c:x» there are some which ate Among Telugu Nouns called oupavi bhaktikas.'. ~. OJ"~ You are abusing younger brother.?~.. ~. Brother-in-law is gettin g up the tree.. he may hear. Some times verbs ending with ~KeJ~ bability also. My wife can do work in the house. The servant can walk with the cart. . some e5 and some is compulsory after the first short vowel .~N".S. it may bite. ~~~~ . changed into o~ after short vowels termi- take ~.~ ~~ b.S. e.~. You ale going with the monkey. ~ is optionally but this change of a Noun. They (substitute) take ~. ~~Ke)~. ~tS~XeJ~.37 T can buy vegetables in the fair.l~. ~.l~. The dog can bite a cat. denote pro- ~. ~ are called the oupavibhaktika nations.:J ~~Kf. OUPAVIBHAKTIKAS (g.

~:J ~~o~:J ~~-mouth-e!l_:s-'e!l .. ~6~ ~~Q~.. §"'~e. .5i\)'tidS':xliXl::5d. ~~~ . ..~. ~J~e' ~~g'I .) e3 bath as Aga ma Agama Oo~:.5'Qi$l (. oo&o~~ ooe. .-toothM. ~_rr'8. i. ::5<6:ld.) Adesa ~e.~i\) Oupavihhaktika Adesa Nouns will be indicated by (it") in brackets in future lessons... ~~6:l 8ro~N'd.Toe following Nouns are ouparibhaktikas.o-leg-Sl-S"(l j~-hand-e-j6 tr cm-pit-6-tr6 oo~ and Adesa.5c5::58.-eye-oe!l-~ oe!l ~e. o~-.. W6J_nail-et.i:>.5o~g6 .5o~ L~e:o-finger-Sl-L~~ take (Two) and ~~(Tp.ree.5 6-8M ~]~i$l. ~ ~...'3g) ~~iXlN"d.~.5~::5e ~[) ~6e' M ~~~6. l~~g4 LU'~:J hdS':xliXlN"l~.:l 1.-<6:l l'6'e!lO" &"" ~ ~. rrBtj ~6J-village-Sl_~8 L'O"~-rope-~-LtJ"~ ~~-well-~-($r-6 ~~d.x.. ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ :.5o.:):)tS~ sce!le' ~ ~(.l ooc5o~~ j~ ~u6~.

3= 0. The letter is falling from your hand. *.39 Rama is coming from the village. The dog entered the house.r-= and other oupavibhaktika Nouns ending in substitute e for = even before the e:o of the Nominative Plural and the e of the plural forms in other cases ti~_ ~~e:o i .l~et9· ~= .3~e. Father kicked the ball with his leg. The washerman beat the dog with two hands. the monkey is biting the nut with its tooth. to the house from the Sita called her mother My younger brother came school. The crow sees with one eye.s. What is there in Your mouth? with her hand.lo:P i ~~e.:0 .

III ($) ..:J~~ III III <S~~'\" <S~~~~\ ~a~~~ iSa~~g) iSa~~~ Taddharma forms of the root tS~~ ~~~l$)~ ~~~!$) are given below. M.6tl. Bag TADDHARMA VERBS The following terminations to form a Taddharma verb.:J~. w'a~~6:J ~~~~6. N II l$)~ ")l5~ ~ts':l . nence B Present Tense 7 Futurity Generally Taddharrna forms 8 Blessing etc. 3 Supposition.:J~ l$)ts':l ($) M. N. .F. F. A Tadd harma verb indicates 1.. Characteristic 6 Perrna-.)1 . Essential feature quality are added to the root or nature. Fancy 4 lnterrogathn.~ts':l I .:Jl5($) e$)~ I ~~ I . alone are used to denote Future Tense. 2.

:)e3C::O (M.:)o~ = = to to shower become ripe. 8:)lS:l ([") Five (Numeral) ROOTS e=>~ .So.IJ = to set to rise t} ~o~ ~805:0 ..* ~ ~.:j~ ~~~ ii~~.(N) Sum (N) Article 5'"8.. (N) Yard . to grow ~60J:)o~ = = to protect ~.:Sb-~~~ e9t-)~ -Jil i:S'~~~N'. \B~(y-(X) j~~N' t !!J'~ :.:)~..41 I NOUNS ~o~ ~.tA:loiil -. *~ is added to the verbs to express interrogation lQj'~6:>~ _ lO?~6:>Qj' 1 6 .~ Ci~ ([") ~:-:5J~ --" eN) Fear Tomorrow ~~oJ tl~~ Q as' 6.:J (s'c::o~6:l~~e.dJ~e)o~ &O~~.:o ~~S~ ~. F) People e=>~~ ([") (Pronoun) All.$)J. N'~ i!$o"5J~ ~l)n8.. ~6:loJ~ &~OJ:)o6:l~.:).'J~ '.$)~a (N) Pot (M) Potter (N) East (M) God esOS.8 ~o~e.).$)t} (N) ([") C3"~ (N) Rain (N) Good West ~i!$Q$:x) l. ~o~d5:lo~ &io~~.

..r.~c:)~ ~llS~~ ~05r0~~ ~!tl~ . hJ~ eJ"co6~ l8'1f~ff' §'""~aa. e)0L~ S"i1~~ 'S"'~~ l:!to~N"1 .44 S"tU~ _ S"tU.5'3~. ~~! hJ~ ~~ §"~~ lri~~ ~-D!8.ll §'"'e:s _ VII crores The ending rS:l of Nouns (tree) and of Nouns kind c3iS:l(a kind p §'""~C$) (Lake) and ~~ (A of tree) and ~<5J of plant) is changed to ~ and ro respectively.j eJ"coOS ~~~rS:l s §"~~~ Lakes L~iS:lJ L~~ ~~J ~ro &~e>C ~roco orot:.~' ec:)~:::J ~~6J ~~~~~~ (e9~Ol~)' l3M rotS:l l~~~ eo~C$). termination This eo- change is compulsory before the Plural ~eJ~ ~~~I o/)J -a:s.~.l:) S"~U) Trees kind of plants kind of trees gs~~N"d. ~8J:>G~' .) ~tJ:)Qj_§'"'lf. eJ"e:cOS ~dl:og6U' ~~ ~tU~ ~&!'l ~~~~N"d.

$J. The Rakshasas bound Hanuman with ropes.:j). They are counting the fruits with their fingers.45 The boys are getting up the trees.~)' . The boys are playing in the water (s). A cow has four legs*. The servants are counting the fruits. Tho washermen are washing the clothes in the water (s). The number of the Telugu people is four crores. *This may be translated as e:l.$~ l':l'~ S"t6~ (c!i. Did you see a Gogu plant? There will be water in our wells even in summer.

g)<!X. :l<!Xl5""~ _- also take either g)~S"o~ ~tJS"0l~ - (e&)) ~ or o~ A bowman _ A bunter ~ _ . But ~~ol~ ••• are frequently ~~ol~ ••• ••• ~~c.. take instead of eo in the Pll. "U i" '. X'olSol~ _ ~olSo~ Nouns ending in the Plural.. used.)S"~.lral Numbee..:o _ Davghter-in-Iaw - ~~cil~ .:o take in the Plural Nu. ~e:JS-O~.. Feminine Nouns ending in c. ~e:J'S"~ - The from ending in take o~ M is rarely used.Some 0l~ NOl.nber e::9<!x') _ 0l~ instead of eo drop the fina! ~oL~ ell before it wife - wives ~e$c._. XolS~ 8JJolS~ -_' A strong marl _ A paramour in 5""~ . Nouns like o~ in the Plural Number' A King _ d~ _ "dG~ M The Plural form of the word forms like ~~~~(~). ~~~ ill ~~€l). ~~oJ a daughter ~~isD~_ ~~iU~.::.'.:o ~~~.~o~~rtc..i .ilJS ending in ~ IikeKQ~.

.. g)c.o ._ Thorn _ _ ~~Ul tV} _ ~o~ ~O~Ul.o ..5~e.\l. I F orms lik e .S~a.:o.(. M M Plantain tree - €.Si15e.'0 Bow - ~Ula:l M _ g):)~ M _ g)')~e.. ~~ - Year - ~~e.o-S"d~i15~-S"d~o~ _ N"l'IC~ .:$~ - e:o and ~..l) - ~oCb M - ~i15~ e::o (Y) also is used.Sickle _ ~ d...$0 ~ M 05o~e. M ~~ M . l:l~~)~.o.50:> M _ Tooth _ . (0) is When the final vowels are dropped a purnanuswara inserted behind the conjunct consonants e..2'lc~ M (Y) .6e. §..o M _ . younger ~c't$e. -c ~ _ oJ.""d~t) N"l'It) _ Plough _ N"6i15. ~~t> .47 ~o Ul M •• .:O~)~ are frequently beard • .:o sister :5':lO't$o~ i:3C!O!~ ~L wife of the younger brother sister - or wife's younger The forms §"'~~~..2'lo~e.o.Poun ding rod .~~!.. and :$)6Qi15~ are also used. ~w~ <Qw~ _ -<'><=.. and ~ OJ Telugu words ending in ~ final vowels when the plural optionally is drop the termination added to them.:o_5"'si15~_ersito~ . optionally t) or eo Oupavibhaktika take o~ nouns ending in t> and instead of co in rhe plural number and drop when they take ir.~ _ N"X~~ 1:Q0:> _ (y) House _ 2'l~e. ... ~ .

':>d_ How many el:>~ So many ~~~ Some . ~c::o ~c::o COO) O"~ -ae:o O"CO (O'"iU~ is also used) before The following words drop the final letters optionally the plural termination e:o.) or ~t:lCO eo bJcs~ WORDS M ~~~c:o...l ~<Sd.$). ~~ (cow) three bours (relation) ~~c::o.48 When the plural ~~ ~~ ~~ field louse Fish Night Stone termination co is added ~c:o some words ending in ~ and ceo drop them. yesterday day before yesterday" NOUNS ~~ today ~~.:$o5:J..J e'C:O WJ~C::O e.J Pronouns N Age :li$ ..) N Seed .'e:ootl day after tomorrow ~<S. DENOTING 1h:>~c:o. . e. W":leJ~C:O. ~c::o e~ ~eJ~ e:J e~c:o.. h>(Sc:o TIME .

. ~g) <6:r-® 1bii'6~ l'6"i'<"urJ"? g)~~~e....Q g).49 ~~ ~eOjOt5~. ~ e:5~~ ~~g OO~ 1S"'~e:>~ '5"l>~ ~tU~ gJ8l\~::l. ::Qo~S ~ 25~a~. The monkey bit my younger sister with its teeth. 0j08~6~ :::iJ. There were two bows in their hands. My uncle has two houses in the village.~e.$:>? Z::b I:::l~a. How many wooden pounding rods are there in your house? My sister-in-law and the wives of my younger brothers are taking out stones in the rice.$:> iS~o~.. ~ (Y) e:l6l ~o~.::>. 6~~~ .y:~:nfu..J~..$d. . iSCl [) e£ e:>eT' ~O) .s:.J ~W':lW':lN"d.$:> ~c~(6)..C)S' e. ::QW':J. ~O~! cSW':l. Day before yesterday I saw two hunters.) cl>.$d.j. ~iXl. There were nine thousand bowmen in the Kakatiya army.. Tomorrow is Monday.. iXl~a. My father bought three sickles yesterday. ~:je:>eT' ~!2:N'6:l.>.)~d. 7 ..

This change is compulsary when ~ or ~ is added.3dS:l"B jc~6d»g j~~~s . Before ~ and ~ (he final into ~ jdDJo$~ j ci5:1:> CS:ro. t:3dS::oA. ~.. jdS:J~ e of the roots is changed jo±oL§:.9c:-ibg are added.. added to them in the Masculine and Feminine Genders respectively' ~ and ~ are optionally changed into ~ and ~ respectively when ~~)~ or €.. a.Sc'(. reqand A verb in the Imperative Mood expresses uest or prayer.THE IMPERATiVE MOOD command.g j@...S and ~.3~tl~~ .<5~~ joS:o. ~.D~e j&:ot&~~ "" .a~~. ~~a are optionally ~• ..::lg j o5J:) ~:ffi. and ~c1Dg or t:30'i:0~~g. ~ and ~ are added to the roots in the Singular Plural Numbersrespectively in the l mperar ive Mood.\l~~ are added to ~ j~~~~. e.~.3ctn. '3 dfu ~ jdi:oA . 8. ~of.J. When request i~ denoted ~..

$)~ .::.51 The ~ of roots ~e. ~~= dropped ~ctlo.. f3W':l +~ = -a60 and ~ the preceding long vowels are shortend is doubled. Before ~ and the ~ of ~ -a~~ ~ becomes 000 after the first short vowel.. lOaJ~. ~~_~ According ~~i:5:>-W':l is dropped _ to_. ~aJ~+ ~aJW) lOaJ~+ + ~:= ~e... is optionally ~~_g'r'\~~o. or ~~~~. ~e)~~. When tills change does nOL occur ~ is changed into ~.~~~ ~6J~ or ~~~~.J_~e. .:oW) and g:)~-W':J is optionally dropped before ~ and ~. The changes that some roots undergo are shown below.J~~ lOe:oW':l ~c:D~-~e.[r~~. The is of f3W':l is dropped f3i:S::l+~=~~.:o~~ before ~ and ~. -. e)f:)W)_iS before ~ and ~ is changed into 0$. ~e)~~.::o~+~ ~ ~ = ~o)~-~aJ~~ ~m. ~ro_~ is optionally substituted for ~ro.

-ai5J = . to "buy..:) = to die ~oi$) = to protect.. .~ ZS~~ 1l~ "6iD.:). W".52 ~~J-O'" is substituted for ~i$)J. =§""~~ ~~ Roots ~ro = to become ~i5':l. ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ §"o~ §""cs:> (to take) §"" is substituted for §".h~)J' a~ =B~~ 11~~ Bo~ e~oo.. ~~ 6jo~ ~iD~-* or ~~ is substituted for ~W':l.:)_~~ iSi$)J-W"~ for S"'i$)j..$. W"~~ for :r'i5J~. -SCm.:S06 t:S'i5J.:)-"ij or"6~ is substituted for ·~.'"0 -SC6:~ for i5'W':J~. O'"~ 0"00 ~~~ ~i$)_iSJ'o~ is substituted is substituted is substituted is substituted fer ~i$).:) = to enter ~~csaoi$) = to follow 6 e:>W':l = to think e:3oo ~W':l. 6o~ ~~~ iSJ'o~oo ~W'J.:$J.:) = to play Du:lW':J ~6Ji$) :r'W':lJ = to give = to stand = to learn S"'W'J = to protect ~j:$j =.to fee! pain to get up = to take.b~ :r-W'J:J-Z'~ ~<$..

)tS<5.r5~"f:ttJ (N) ~~ (N) = (N) Happiness = Righteousness ~d.)e:l:6»Ul ~al~~.~' e..~~~ ~eJtSO$':)~ (N) ~ Friend = sleep = = Heart .5:l.J gJ~~.6~~. ~<SJ 6-S5~ ~t6~~N"d.Nouns ~~d... ~~ ~~~..)~ . ~ ~ l3~..1gy.Je> ~e:l~ . OJ"agil eseaeo N"~!>~ e:s~~. ~~~... r. hltSJ ~i$"..6Je:l~ rQ~e..)~~ ~i.5.. ~e:l~e:r"~1 ~~1 ~~StSl N'~ ~tSJS9 <6or5~oi5)..) (M) == Man t..)~2r~' ~~~.S ~oiS:l~. :O~d. . ~~~e.W ors hip (N) = = Dinner (N) ~'l1 (N) _ <fu!p~ (N) !~6. 'S"~~ ~~~ ~~~. !3~~1 ~~~o~ ~:6»~. . ~ISS~I ~..J~(adverb) Always.5tS~~ (N) ~~~ (N) (N) = Play (M) = lotus = Lesson = Time ~~S~~ !36:J~ (N) 1iS""~~ l:? = God Kindness Knowledge in distress ~es ~es~~ (N) =. ~~~ cJooeJ~O$':)~~ i3e» eJ 0VC~~ ~e:l~~.).1) j6:J~~.~ ~~ (N) = Food .

:fro:. Follow Dharma always". See the boys.l<S:l<sao~~. or .&.S80::l:l~ the c of ~O::l:l is optionally or e.:fro~~ Mood is optionally dropped at the end of a sentence or when it is. Take food.)<S:lJ. ~<S:l. * The ~ of the Imperative .:J .:saOtJ:l+~=e.5:. sing a song':'. ® >1< = Before ~ and :o~..l~. bring the lotuses. they are playing games. changed .. Offer (do) worship to God' He will protect you.J.. Call your friend for dinner. Sister ! come here. Protect the people in distress. .54 Kaika said to Dasaradha "give me two bOODS" Enter the lake. it is time for school. followed by a consonant . Sumitra said to Laxmana "My son ! go to the forest with Rama and live there with happiness".

~ ~W)~ - = to enter.S.tTO.:m) isf'ormed by adding f'..VERBAL Tbe present participle DERIVATiVES (~~ o~::$:. ~S or 7. tT~.u) is formed by adding ~S to the root.:J .o$ ~"'" to come. II Toe Infinitive of purpose (~~g. is formed by adding ~ and the ~g):) gerund (~g8-a5~03"~5.p) by adding . ~S or ~OSJS = to give.0$... _ r::. ~~ .ng.. ) forms of some roots in the ~~-~dS eW)~ _ = to see. /~~6~~) \ CiJ = to go. = to br. ~~ _ ~~S or~S III The gerund Negative to the root.£IS to the root. ~ro _ -g'"$' = to become. Tc e following IHe irregular Inificitive of purpose.

IV i§15os~ c. 135 means if) is formed by adding Sj<5S to the ~~+ 21~S = fr~.j.. ~~.s~.J ((he form that conveys the sense of 'if' In Sanskrit root.~ _ l§~<s-s _ j~<S~e$e>.e.3dXlgn + Not doing.-wJ. dID nations beginning change the with a vowel c5:fu into .56 1305:l:ltl . ~..5$.. 21~~Q - ~dXl~. Generally the meaning of tbe Infinitive is expressed by using the ~ OS' o!! in {he genitive case. ..j.croQ _ ~c&gJ.doing 1305:l:l ~8JJ = .. W"'~~Q_~~g). Irregular Negative Forms o-g).l§~. WS or .j.tJ<S-S _ -wJ-otl<S~deJ...J Sometimes same sense. ~g).tJ.sS * Roots ending in .) e.~~Jtl ~ro _ ~rotl a~~ et~~ ~~~ i$':ro~ _ a~... jc:rm + ~<sS == t3~<SS* €.cK:l - Og). .S when termiare added to them. o i§o'5JS tl~ro~..s.J . i3d$:o .J~eJ are added to ~~ to convey the w~ .Jtl - e8JJ. i§:.S~. w~~ _ !e.-wJ. 8JB:"::S~ etc.).

.OJ 05ooo<5J.th _ N. wished to do. Geod ?froB - A devotee of Rama 05oe.. When S is dropped n..S~I'$~ e..J ~ Z6~f~ -D = N. The incarnation (AdD Sweet of Vishnu ~j<:. Ea. dropped 03"i'Sc::.o ~a~.5S is optionally before the words beginning with consonants.\"o~. Friend of Krishna M.:Ooo ~~05. u.57 RONS ~ tlSru = to go ~ l5:J = = to wish 1~:.D=. III are optionally substituted for ~1l~:..5* '* S at the end of i:S:JS.3 c>5:J . . ».:>~ E'aI @~gg) = = = I!S~ = N'Kindness N.s. Help M.:)dD.§o':O~o:il 8 .. or .o = (Adj) Poor ::.SS =~a~..L .'5" +~o.1rb = N..~S and e).HSo(lo~ = to begin Qa~Oiil = to see ~<S:> Nouns ~. The abode of Krishna t3"\:t5~ '. 6. Book '"tQ ~e. = Harm = N...6'S""6'~ to give up = N.

e. The boy began to read.:Jt5:l. I shall come if you write a letter..l eJ O'"~~§ e:j~.)~ ~~.. You will fall if you jump. e. * is of l!IOLXlis changed into oS before seeing.:5t5:l :'6 is.:5 ~~~ ~~e. The washerman began to wash the clothes.jt5:l. ::Qo~§ ~W':ll)W':l ~~W':l roa§ e3!)6~'3 a~~6~ i3~f!l) ~i.l>5'S""6~ ~~~~. ~a~OLXl+ eS =~a~o.J~ ~ro8 G9d5":JS::l 'Bi3. the monkey fell down. Not . ~o~~. ~~.~ ~Yf~~o~.Ul~ ~~(6I:l.:o~ 6eio~~.5S ~a~oWJ+e8JJ=e:5a~ooJ~ to see.>~g. ~~~f!l) ~~~~ es~gi ~~~f-) iSr--tl.J~~il <6c~~ ~Q ~ "i~~.:$cl ~~al aW':l. I go to school walking.&eot§~~. ". He will sell the books if you buy? If you give a fruit the child stops weeping.!!. ts"S6~~ ~ ~f!l)~ b~ @~.je. eS and e8JJ also. ~~tJ e. Climbing the tree. The woman sold the fruits singing.~~~ ~ N"eJ~~ (615"Rt5:l.58 (\j". ~li~t5:l.:$SDese. Vishnu came to protect the elephant.

. partic'ple (~~.l~ a~ (.'S"'~ L~~e:J.S to the root ..9 0:0. ~~-~O-i:SJ"o~~ ~ e.--w"6~ is" i$":) C~_W" ~~ .J-\IV The past W:).:$d.jWJ. Irregular e.lfJtlt VERBAL I Bay (Con tinued) is f'crmad by adding ~ to DERIVATIVES verb) S".J-~D~_~~. e -JJ~Cj) by adding ~~ to the root.tComing.:$.$. to the root.l Cj) II verb-Negative) is formed forms: ro-e...st5'~~ -" (Incomplete the root.oi·\L~{)f\ . ~iD.~~X~ or ~~dS:.S'"~ ~~_~o»-~S" ~i$":)~_~D~_CJ"~ "3i$":)~-a~.$cl =: ~i$":).S _~~.:J-iS" III The present participle s-o~ ~~eg~£ ZJi... ~('l3tl~ ~?6~~ (!nc0Inplttc..$ -s"iS:.$.~_S-D..J_-a! ~i$":).€S~) is formed by adding ~.:$g ~i.€C)~) is formed by adding (Q..

: t.l~ i:SPt&~ = forms Some irregular ~ .l~~=j~& VII The Negative the root..on:J:~:J .) .llSCiv by adding j~&+e....oro)..$~ ~ Ult\:l·S' e. + e..lj'~ = j~~05~~ e. s[)7\~ s e.:J+~neJ. jdi.'S'"::> .~ in e...j- "8tl .:trJ i:SP ~ ... ~W:>..SS'?r!D ~o~""'re05s g)i~E<>~) ~ne:l to tbe root. (Taddharma of the root To the two forms ending added b::foreifiords j~-l-~~~=j~S j~.3o'$':c VI + ~neJ = t:3o'5:lX'eJ + ~oo :" for forms I:rne) That will do.of\J.l~~=j~:$~Q~ e.. '3~~) S is beginning with a vowel.i:SP i:$~ £.:J ..~ to the root.tj = j~tj cr s[)7\~ S'e.. jdS':l:l + ..O:l or .l50:l=j~~S e..:J_O"':() :rrs~..W".$~. t:3~ j~~.60 V The future participle is formed by adding (~g:)~. Tne Taddharma Participle is formed by keeping the root as it is or by adding '.T'~J-5"6~ is'iS":l. That will come. (j~. is substituted S e. j~ +~l'J=jo'S:J~ Paiticij le is formed ~~ to ~W:> + e.$~ 8w:>. ~~ .."\:l.?.

. :J:rla5:>cl:l) .)~ ~ 8. Beast fu"o~c9. e:Jt.~u-cl §""oeS8Jz ~o6 05~~.C"6~~ _ ~~ _ To console To vomit "'S:J. = Thief .$ §"" ~tl e) Sjc~§ ll3" . ~~S~ ~~. c.'.F. = Teacher = = Intelligence ~ 8JJ& N. = Learning N.:Jl::5Sro _ ~()~ _ To bark To stop li:J8JJo~ _ To love Nouns X:l6j~ M. = Girl ~<5:> ~~~ ~~ 2.$ ~ ~~~ ZJ6S e§8J~~ ~1::5S B'" oK<5:> §"" e... = Money Peculiar ~oes Adj...:m. OJ''~ ~a~ ~()~~a.{. 6ID~ N. .61 Roots a. = ll'J"ID~ F. = Mango ~6£ N. Cf"oX M.J ~ 8J&{.'- ~{l~.§ <V"~~~ iSJ'oC ~C~~~.)~a. II:l ~&SOO)o~i5:l~~ ~~6C~. .'.lt.p~ ~ C) 8J.. :rrsOO)6~1i.5~~ M.§ ~~ (~~u~..~~. ll'J"exJCi<5:> !Je.SO M eo X:> <5:>.:.$ ~ el..

$~oc:i. ~~~oa. My father went without books. Read the letter that came yesterday. Cj) i5'~. =c. that will come to school tomorrow. the girl that is weeping.. The teachers love the boys having intelligence. Eat the mango fruits and go.~o5:>S.62 The boy went to school without reading" the lesson. . that have Dot read the lessons. (in) clJoa(S) is aptiona lly added to the .i5'C5:0~-i:S'1:5:loS~. _.$SCl-a~'5"S1iS. >I< The <l:l~gs of the root clJo~. The washerman Stand up those He is consoling COUDt the boys giving money for buying the is beating the dog that is barking. The child is vomitting the milk that be drank..

?~jdD:JeJ ~t$J.. i3~c5:l _ i3d:Dat:» ~e:.~c5:liS~.SJe:o VERBS Tense is formed by NEGATlVE I The Negative Verb in the Present c.I1tl" Bay ~g (So~~O.:l adding e3lXl to the ZY03"6~~ (Gerund). e3C0. The same form is used in all the Persons both in the Singular and Plural Numbers.$:). . III The Negative Verb in the Future Tense and the Taddharma is formed by adding e:9 and then the following terminations to the root. bothi n the 03" J 6 ~6:l ~. ~c6:l jdD:J~ ~lXl. b~ ildD:J~ e3t$J.. .) i3 dD:J~ j~eJ joiJ:>~ e3t$:J . ~lXl. He did not read. The same form is used in all the Persons Singular and Plural Numbers.$al:b He did not do.. 11 The Negative Verb: in the Past Tense is formed by adding at:» to the Infinitive of Purpose of the root.

SI~£ (Masculive) and ~ and ~~~ equest.64 ~~ III II I IV e.>r5:l_ -" ( ".. ~. .~~-~!l~~-~~~ is i:D'\-W"~a6\oJ W"~~ :5J:l_W".s~~-~ a6_~!(Oo::ro-~~~-~~ e.fuI Penon.He.----------.)* s~~_ - 8!(o~-1~ .j..$~ forms.i105J~ ~-~o5J~ 6J_jo5:>6J ~ Imperative ~. to indicate ~d5J!(o~ ~~~~ ~~~:A ~d5J~~~g Some irregular ~~~~~£ l3~~:J~. a~~_1iaC5. '" give-didnot bring-do not bring..S~ ----_. e... forms). <.)oJ-to to _ t3dfl6J ~ . Neg.)6 (I: Person. a.SI!(obefore 0X0 and ~. ~-~~~ The Nesative form in the adding _ ~05:>~ by Mood is formed e.r it will not bring ~~_'(.S~'l~_W". she r. (Feminine) Prayer or are added to ~ entreaty. Neg.---_. forms) -B __ _. ~.SIro_~a6-~"'~~_"S"~~_"S"~ ~~-~~-a~-~~.

:$d.. l5:l~~~~.S~~o& e~) 'S'"0l Xe.jc:$63:1gO$).*2 is'e:Po:l h <S:::. ~.T'i"S. When used after Nouns and Adjectives it gives the adverbial meaning.oe:>8* 1 ~~ = Also 'S'"tTOl~ = Perhaps ~~6:l~ = (Pronoun) other Per$on Root = Lonely person flK6 .65 Nouns Adverbs = Year n"'~ = Honorific affix frOlilrI::J = Umbrella ~:Scru~ = Hindu festival ~lil in honour of Siva e.&.o~IJT'i"= Alone.xl e.) are ad~ed forms and give the meanmg Past Tense.o& O"g'~ '5"6 el)~&. 1:l S . 2. The long xS.9eJ8 '" j~~:$:c.joS. i:3. e:lQe.. e. of "S'S is optionally shortened. ~~g:)~ "N"~ O"~::ix>" ~~ :5W':l~Q -a~j i. ~6J~~& '5"tTe:ocS.. El~~7\' =Loudly.J ~"O&. '5"S..joS..)cS.. 8)M oJ :5oe:>e. * The Past Tense forns of to the Negative TaJdbarma of the . i.j& g). O"'~~ ~~gs E$~ ~~. S'~ ~e5 ~:6-at$) (~rS6~g($. ~...5oe$~ g:)~ri . ~~ e:98)~~ Q ~~~~&.::l eK:J..).Loud () ~B ~~ ~dm = To shut 'S'"B"OJ~.5'\~~. The L '" '5"fS' Initial el is the Infinitive of purpose of the root 1:l of tbis is generally cbanged into ~. 9 . ~~ ~~ ~~~~.:o . Q3"rSe-o ~a~Q~t$).::l..S~ __ - ero (e63:1gCSJ etc.Se:l63:1SCSJ.

He will not sing if I ask. i:3g~~O) (~~~~) . "-- ~~W"agi Q ~. Today is Sivaratri. LOJ"dD~~. ~(>. The teacher did not read loudly. Perhaps be did not buy it. ~glOJ"~OJ ~~~. There is DO rain. " ~OJoS ~ ~tl. I did Dot hear properly. do not beat me. Younger brother is not bringing the umberella.$(X) Do not abuse others. I did not read the books that you gave me. My father and mother do Dot take food.l~~ jdD~~. There are no mango fruits in the fair. . Do not go alone in a forest. I am not telling a lie. I have Dot brought them.66 ~OS ~o8 g M O""-a~. close the umbrella.

$e)(5 _ .).J~1} .S8.. '7. Dat. ...$eoJ':l o~ ~~ N. ~:J(5:h:fg tr ~:J~o~ Adverbs ~otS·_ ~o~~ .... ~~§ _ Why.. Dat.).J...)0lS:lS a.S8:J '... For what purpose .)....6~ ~~.... Obj.. Which. Abl.68 M.$:J. Gen. Plural.$a~ ~ (. _ Why. Nom..$e)<5 'O:Ja:ro1!ot:Joi:>o~ ~~ ~~:J ~tl~ ~:J··§".$1}. Nom.J..)o$:Joi:>o~ -..):)'ij§". F.):)'6t3 _ .). _ What.. lnst..)...Jo~. . .$e)iS .6~ M..J~~_ ..$:J§".S80'3:l:l5 '.6~ ..)~8oi:>o~ a- .). ..6&b ~:J~e)i$ Gen.S6~ '...Se)i$ .5e)iS ~~ _ Why ~gn~ _ What...JoS:J~ !lCr-.J.)~8g'6~ . Inst.J~:J:J .F.).. 'O:J:J 'O:Jt3 '01J§".S8t3 .$~t3_ . Abl. ..S 6:l .. '.)._ How much J For what. Loc. Loc. Obj.)..JolS:l~~ ~ _ What.

J:$~? roeJa..J~ ~:5~ ~ ~ OJ''~ ~~~ ~e:l~~'l ~«'~5? 0?8 ~dD~~ !h:J.) Hot.>~d. = The author ~~N. ~6.:>:l~ ~~~iS':lN'.).~aCS'7 7H)dlxliS':l~. e.) Heat.l ~~ eJ& c:lIrC\S.~ (.=Address CS'o:>~N. = Leader of ~~g~N.)e::o tl~. (Adj. = Letter = Coffee N'd»~~ M.lC"? ~ 1l'3'e.)? (~:5~) C6~~N'~) ~~ :>e3~? h> o ij"~€) . (N.)N'~N.J:56.) ~o ~o.69 Roots ~~X':l _ to ask C"~ _ to cross. C"7 ~~.. Q:l c!t = Meaning eStS ~N. = Door '£>& = Price.:)~? ~~ W'l5:>~ill~d.)OJ ~gjJ? ~:>.JN'~? a6J~N'? .J e.l~~ ~~o:> ~~ ~ill.l~S~ .Jo~~ ~~~al5:>? L~~~O?? O?tl ~~N'~ tl~ ~g)J~1 ~~ tS~ ~CS'rS::l CS!:f. the Ramayana ~oN. ~~ ~gjJ~? e.J r:se~ . Cost..>~~ CSl(tS~g) ~~6. to violate ~:501'a80~ _ to steal ~cs~ _ to search adlxl _ to take Nouns ~~~N.=Verse O?b~§N.:.l o:l"a~6.).~o? ~~ ~.€.JN'1 ~~ §""oe3~h O?:.S? Q"'t:rz N'~.

70
What is the meaning of this verse ? From which book did you take it 'l Did you read Ramayana

?

Who wrote it 'l Does he come now? Can yo believe leader asked

For whom are you seeing? Why is the dog barking? "Who call cross monkeys?

From whom did you hear this news? the ocean 7" The

it?
the

Who opened the door P

What do you know about him f':; To whose house are you going? Why? Why don't you buy the books to day?
Who stole Sita?

Why don't you drink that coffee?

Is it hot?

-x-

INTERROGATiVE

SENTENCES Adverbs (Vibhaku)

(Contd.)
use given below. case terminations

Some more interrogative , .:,Some of them take some like Nouns .

.;)oi)~oa

*=
.;)~,:J~§

How many. Wbere •
7= To where.

oJ~?r~ '.;)~.:Jeo __ ;::.
.;)~o-t\§ •
';);llr~($jO~.
.;)e:o

~~~eJ($j0a.

=

From when: .

= How . From when.

= When? ..)-;S.)e3~o& = ';);S.)e3§ = By when;
.;)-;S:J~ Roots

~gJot:i)
,,~6;,

-- to
M.

-

to live

l~1:JJot:i)

=

to love.

fight. Nouns

~1\d5:c

= to end,

§-6~~

= =

Brother of Sudeshna

wife of king Vi rata.

~6xaN.
;::J"~~

= Class:
N. Name.

;;$~oS

N.

==.

Boat.

oSdS:J~.J
are to be indicated

N.

=

Age. t9

*

When

persons
::!l0<5.

:5;Jol:l is added

.)0<5,_ ~o1§'.

72
vo~~ ~~2r~ F.

=

A Rakshasa

woman,

Presiding

over Lanka.

(Adj)

=, Much; great. = Sweet.

~dXl£ (Adj.)

h>& ~~2rd;$)o& ~~?r&§ :tr6~~N",l601 !l~ 1D&~od i;Qoe'3§ ~~.J~ ;;5-;3~~~ ~
vo§~ ~OJ

ez

e:l~

or-;$):»o~:J

i:S;ro-Cl

~:l.>15~til1
1

oJ--~;;5Jo ~~
~~ ;3~~;$,l

~~~§'"O6~
Q5~

~~o-e:1 ~&ss~
~b

~;;S.Je'3§ ~1\dfu<$:)?

N";$,l

6tM O~~6 ~tI&~;$;J?
~~g) ~g):J

eJo&Z;DdSN"?
(V)

;S~~~tS~

'l

oJ--;$;J;;5Jo~~
~llg)~

~~J~
~e.:no~Xe;l~
M

~eJO~~?

~;$;J~
l);$~

.~:oe§~o~~1
?

!)~

E:9;:Sd.~

~1i64$:)[O

~6&al

~;;56:l?

0,?8 "t6:lco

~.~.

1}J)~~

1

How many boys and girls are there in your class? Sita asked Hanuman, "Bow did you come to Lanka? When did you see Rama ? How b be? Does he think about me?" Whom did Kichaka love? Did she also love hrw? Bow did Kichaka die? With whom did he fight? With what did you cut the mango fruit? Is it sweet ? What is your name? What is your village? How many younger sisters have you*! What(HGi<V much) is your age? Since how many years have you been reading Sanskrit! What is the time now? Whom did Dasaratha love among his wives?

*

This must be translated

as ~<i1l

;ilq~~Q~

i3~o~

(a'~tO?).

14tl, Day
AUXILIAR
;6~~~~O?

Y VERBS

I

~~~, negative

~(?dXl:l~.

t;le.:o~.
M

~ro~, ~~~~
t;le:l
M

and

their ~c::5=i

forms

~clc::5=i.

~e:ll5:l,

01,

~Kt::S:i.

are added to the Infinitive several meanings. ~ df, X:f. ~ 15:> To do is proper ~~;SO~~ To do is necessary

forms of the roots to denote

To do is not proper
~~;Se:lc::5=i To do is not necess ar

~~6

K":l;$:)

t3~~K~
To do i~not proper
;:§~0"t::S:i To do is not proper

To do is proper
~~~~~;$:)

To do is proper May do II

Should not do

The above forms are used in all persons and numbers without any change.

in both the

~~ ;:§~~~.J~;
Qj"~

~;$:)

;:§~;S~~~. ;:§~0"t::S:i.

j~~W)~~;

b~
~~

C3"~

;:§~0"c::5=i;

j~O""t::S:i.

III

When ~e;JdXl:l;$:) is added roots denote request or command and when bition.
~~ ~~ O""~e:ldfu~ O""~e:l&

~e;Jt::S:i i'l ad.ied

they denote request
You should come.

or prohi-

You should not come.

10

Jc5:l Se.o~ = to try..S» 'O~ ~~oiX:J . = Wrong.. Quickness. ef'. '06. ~eJ~N. in the three and rhe two numbers are given below. . ~o':i~~N. j~~x~.. = Speed.:'~ ~s HI H ~ e.':C'SOES e in tbe Negative.::o so5J '06. Fault.. = Help. &. t):.Cil ~e. = Holiday.~ ~s ~~ ~~ dc5:l Roots e:>oJ-<o se... 1§~~ =j~ttl_~KlS:> To do is not proper. Their forms -a is substituted P.. ~ e.5:J N.74 IV In these forms the gerund or W'0?6~ G:l Infinitive the subject gives the meaning by adding t he of the the which is formed of ttl to root and it becomes verb.d'S:o~)_~"tS~ = iSJ"o~~-~e. . v ~e is added to tbe Infinitive for ~ forms to indicate capability.! == Cloud.Sec) eJ :::lIII to worship..Sa~N.dXDc5:l To see is necessary. = s~K:l = to occur Nouns ~~d. i:fro~~e.. = Examinatton. ~2Xl'\N. ~K~N.

:5eS. - ~coe3 Adj. The boy asked his grand fa ther.$:) ~1S e.:l Conj.$.~ Adj. _ Thick.:.5Q.JdS:l::li5:J·· SS-ai5:J. ~~. == Lame.$.:::i"e. if you try.$J~.S(:$OSXeiW! ~cl ~~ ~oe303"~ <$.) 13~.)~ ~ ~ .Joi>~ ID8§ .cl ~ ~ ..:j~ "e3_s6oS:l:> ~ e:. good stoi y tc-day..75 S"'~. My brother went to Banaras. l:3 ~ .$. GOI searches walk quickly. otherwise I can not write in the Examination tomorrow. b~ (Q. .$.$ S'" 6 ~ .S ~6ciS':1~~.) • [rS~(..).')J~ :trnQ:)j<S~ 0" L'"'s ~iOr. <J~L:s~ e:l<Ji5 S~ ~.S e.6~.)~e. Therefore he You should love others as your "You read have good to tell me a books in the for who always C3:"'. "j~:J <. e§:J~ = Like. It is not proper for you to abuse your friend.S ~~.H:l1:oi5:J. He is a lame boy.). e:>.:"1"l'\e.5a Adv.) e. You can do this &U'::.. . ." It is proper for boy" and holidays.5~'.~~~C$.:r. == Therefore.:l 02~ el £ ec ro 6:J~ ct"~ ois' 0:5 e dSil j~O"'OJ.. You should net forget the he lp done others.J. I have to rend well tonight. You should not serve <'I person faults.y~ti G5:J • €::9~ IWO~~o~~ ~i5:J~o~[') ~.~7? l:3~03"a~ co ~2J:)eJ. brothers . He may come tomorrow. 1Se.I~" e:. Adv.)o 0 6 ~o :~~eJ~.:){:)~(:5tJ "b~ .$ LS.)i5.J. = Otherwise.S<S..J[. 1Se.03" 7 iO-"S~ 1 .

. He used to come to my house.. c:l"6J.JW':lo~ Qj"~. I continuous to express ~~5 or e$$ is added to the root blessing or cursing. or eo -a~ or eo~ followed by Ci3"~.3dJ. o1W':l~W':loQ~c:l"~.Qj"~. tl~* 7'\"S _ - tldS::07'\''~i6$. 1. gender.tl~~S. ~W':l.98 is el~ according to the person.5W':l.15tl. or ~~~$ is added to the Taddharma 'S"s verb t() express blessing or cursing.o _ ~~~ .Past Perfect-would have and should have. jdS::o~6J7'\"~. IV oo-ae.Past giving the meaning of used to . * The s of S"s and S"~e!S is changed to X after the Taddharma Verbs.tl~~S. t1~~~7\"S jdD:l~~7?~ III The Taddharma verb by itself denotes blessing or cursing.Qo~~ :. or number added to the Present Participle meaning fO'used to' 0:5'~ ~ ending in i5":J to give the :. jo::m~~7'\"S.J (blessing) 'i"~ ~ (curse) and . Day Verbs denoting e:l!~~.jW':lo Qe. tl~ II _ e$$ . .

11 ~~ OJ" 6J or e::9~ ~W':l. Future Perfect is formed by adding the Taddharma forms of the root &. OJ"~ ~n~t!kO Q~03"~ = He would have Come.. OY'OS.* ~ is:l. .o~ according to the Person.:J W':l0 & ~ • ~W':l... 0& VIII The meaning of 'would have' is expressed by adding~o aOQ~ according or ao~ followed by OJ"~. ~~~ ao Q~ Rama bad gone... I was coming ~~ VI Present and Past Perfect is formed by adding the Present and Past forms of the root t!ko~ according to the Person. is formed V Past Continuous He was Thy were comming coming by adding the Past form of the W':l.:JW':l o<5:l. after eo QQ. gender or number in ~. * The e of we.o-a 8. o root to the Present Participle of the root ell ding in -W':l..Q.j~oo&~. gender and Number to the !:S~!:l form the root.l~ or e::9~ to Person.0 ~ ~~~ clio~<5:l Rama will have gone. gender or Number O'"~~ ~~ ~(?~ to the S"stS~ from of the root ending in ~ • . or wg) is dropped eo -a 8.. &.:Jt5:lo~~. g) .o~<5:l I shall have gone.. e.:lGJ 'S"~~!5 form of the root ending o-~~ o-~~ VII ~{l~ aN"~~ Rama bas gone. to the _. e. OJ" ~ OJ" 6:l ~ ~ t5:l. ::>.j tS":l 0 3~ OJ" 6J.

J~~Q._ ~o~~U) M.F. ~i1~ c!l!o13~e>~~~.:mJd have' or <mmt han' is experessed by adding a. = = = Hospital Gandhi ~6s:.~ e'l.~ M.oa~-a($:) or @o<l~e.S-a~. ::= Sinner = Palace ~1:3 o-~ Name of a person ~~. ~(!.. had to or shall have to is expressed by adding ~~~ a.$d_E.-oC$:) or ~e>~ a c!l!o6:l~ respectively to the iafiuirivc O"tJtl ~C$:) j~~e:>~ form of the root..~o~ = To excuse.~fa~.:. You must have gone there .:i. = To protect. Hell ~oee§M.)~.. ~e. genders and numbers. ~-t'~ a. = Mahatma M.~~ 6o~:.5 ~ N. = biJ) e.:mN.5lc) "M ~~~ e. = Couple N.~ O"iOiO j~ jo::D~~)~ ~o~<S:l I shall have to do it Roots .oQ'Q5e. cJ-. I should have gone there = -. '0 (!.. = To sigh..$..e.$d_E..o~ X The meaning of have to. have to do it I ~o '3<S:l I had to do it O"iOtJ j i5:l jd:lO~e.5.. clP.:p N.52r-~§ :..:5e1 to the form ~cSgs of (he root in all the Persons.Oro ~W:J Nouns ~~. e.O Q.78 IX The meaning of 'sh. = Train ..

$.j::l O"e. t6:l&P~ ea~gjeT O"~~ -a~. 6l.) = Gods In that manner = U nder..J~ 'S"'~§ ~~~ t\o&~)~ O~Ol -a~o ~~j '" ~~ ~tI.:ol\::l 6.)S.) GI.$d_ e:lS6~gG ~e...5~ X e.l~ t~~e..m N.§ ao'Q&QjO~..5l@g ao?S..5e e. ~~ (Adv...J.se..zJ ~~ ~oG}.5.. = = ~~~e.5.:o M.o'Q<S:l. 05o.P.. e..)~ (Adv.9e[~ ~ . ~a tfjt3 Cr-~ c:).~ (Adv.) M w:.60.>~~ ~D~ l . e3..S8f\~~. I§o(:) j..)~e..) = Around "5. = Kindness Day e~.. B~ck ~olS (Adv.w:. ea~~ u~..:o r. .'S"'~ (i?~) 7?~.9.) == Behind ~ ~ (Adj) New c:).900).$~o !l3"~<S:l ~ti .5.) w:.$.:$) i. ~~i ~<S:l~ ~~w:.J~§ 6l.:$.:o Zil~ 6:J -0 aOg)1:l.79 lScSS:J N.5-a~. e.)g "j~6S.) £~ M (Adj) Blessed man ~o6 (Adj) own "G~~ ~ ~ (:)o.oat\o:..5C$o..J~ "5~~ .::r~ e.:$)e. .56J~~ ~w:.. gys~~S.. N".9:S.

) i3..5oJ~e?~ e. May the sinners go to hell. Sister-in-law would have certainly about the marriage. People used to flock round Gandhiji wherever he Kaika used to love Ramas as her own son. come if she had known My brother might have come in the train.o~~.. The teacher would have seen you in the school. NEGATIVE VERBAL ~QSjo~~~aJ FORMS 05S('d$' Negative May rain fall ~C$ ~edSJjn"~ May god protect the people May rain not fall 03".80 ~~ !J'~~ ~D6~~. You should have gone there by 10 O'clock.. .. e.S eJ ~o~n"~. Rama went to his mother's palace. I bad seen you five yea rs back. o~ !:o:> KJ. I had to go away in that manner.8. Kindly excuse me.o. I have to go to-day otherwise my father will abuse me.S~ Zlo~§ ~~. ~ ~ ~$'~ --" ~~ i$'&0505e?~ e.!).) ~o~ii>. May God protect the people. She was then thinking about him. went.5cl~.:) ~8dt~o~T\"~ May god not protect the wicked people. 'O~~ &~e?C$:) 6ct.

:5~g~a> is':loo&.:$tl 0'" ~ OJ'''~ 07~ §JS.e. I have to do it I have not to do it I bad to do it -. 11 .j 0 o&.:$tl S"&. Rema had gone O'"~~ ~~~ Rama had not gone ooo~ O"'~~ ~f{~ e.)~ 0.elS:>t5"~::J ii~05e.1~~ . o~ He should not have come 07~ O"'~o~05o~ O"'~c~05e.r~ He would not have come .So~.o~-a~ He would have come .:ra~ OJO~ oSw.:5~g. ~w.)~ ~~ t5"~~ ti~oSe.1~ ~~~ ~)~~~~.$~oo&Qj"'~ W"&~W:l::>oe.:5:r~ ~&~ H~ wa- then not reading ~~~ ~.:.81 He used to read the verses ~~~ .j"~ 'S"~ He may come tomorrow He may not come tomorrow He should have come OJO~ 07~ OJ'''~ -a~ O"'oSW:l. -a~.j ooo~Oj"'~ O"'~oa&Qj"'~ ~w.j~.S. ao O~.. -a~ O"~o~~~.$x.$tl.j''~ W"~.s Zlc5:l O"'oSe.l~.ec5:l o-::J~ ~~oSo~ -..j ao~05o~ ao~..1 a.)~.l~ ~~~ He never used to read e:9i§~ the verses ~-.$.y~ ~~ 'S"~ He was then reading ~6~ is':loo~ ~.j~.5..

5J I shall have to do it I shall not have to do it ~~ l::)":O:O joiJ.S~~ t?~~ t?~i:) jd5:l. -.$J l::)"~~ j~.82 ( bad not to do it ~. eo~~.:e.Se)~ ~.s~~ .$J j~. eo/:$lS':l.s~~ ej~oO~. eo~ejlS':l.

'R~. He told me tha t he read the Bhagavadgeeta. e. where etc. Buy CLAUSES I ~~ or ~tl:l M is used for the 'tbat' 1S?)~.S~ ~e~a~ e:9~ ~e.lSt/.~ ~'1J. .$J. He asked me what ~~~ ~'.~e§ of the Noun Clause.5ItI:JeJ I read. Tba t he is a scholar e..:) 8'~ L1'i"~~r5 oS:l6~.)~~. ~<iS~.So~~~ .So~~~ e:9uCSO§~ a[)o'$':o(:$:).). that begin an adjectival clause in English are not found in Telugu.)~2r-e$ (~ I['"~~..5I~~ Though this is grammatically in Telugu ~~.)~ N"~ ~~. this is oS:l6~<J~~. is k no wn to all.56:>. is Dot idiomatic in ~s Telugu The Verbs in the Adjectival clauses are generally substitutedby the Participles of the same roots He died in the V illage where he was born e:9~~ . II Who.5I~~ .d etc. not idiomatic e. 8'.$J.. 10 translate them as .Ji6:l.$) ~~z« e It\''~~r5 correct. ~e.$) ~t:J:J{fj~ ~Qg)<5~ e:9~ N". ~:::l e:9oCSMo) 6ID~. that. is nausal in Telugu. ~e~~~ ~~'R.. t_. which.5I~~ e.

) (0~o:$)OSll He forgot the verse that he bad read. When the Adverbial clause begins with as..3 or :t:3e3' (j) (Taminination of the Instrumental case). ~e~~ ~~o) ~~ (b) If rain falls I do not go to school ~&~ ~1f~tSJ. Please call me when you go to school ~~ ~~~ ~!il~~. ~~~c:s ~~. The time when he comes is not known.The boy who stocd on the wall fell down.$($:).1 ~el)~0S:lJ.)~ N'~ Sj>~~ ~oC:S . word giving the same meaning.SC:S£0S:lJ($:) :5:l6i:3CS:l. ~~.:S'EtSJ.!l~~ s-tSJ ~ e~ eoe..:S"y~'. e. ~dS:l~ "B~d$)~. < III (a) Adverbial Clausss : When an adverbial clause begins with if or 'in case' its meanning can be expressed in Telugu by using the :aC:S6~ (j) of the root or by adding ~ ple of the root.SJ60 .S~tSJ. or ~r$o to the past Partici- ~.$ . because or aQy. When an Adverbial clause begins with 'when' the mean.$). I can not forget the help which he has done me.s~~ ~ef ~ ~~.1 ~~i3. . in! can be expressed by using the Participle of the root followed by '~.s (!3ve~~~. the meaning can be expressed by the ~0J"6s' of the root followed by -.s~e~. ~eS ~ ~WJ. He called me when be went to school ~M (c) ~~~. ~eS ~ :a~ e~d.

I\..'l~.85 The boy was weeping because (as) the dog bit him..S.0.S.'l.ays ~. ~!lo(d) ~6~~~ ~O)~ ~~~~oa~.J~~ (~l).Jr5 t§6:i0J"e5 (~.§~ I did ~~~ . Search for the book until it is seen.J~~~ The boy did not come though his friend called him. e.J~~~) ~e.)...5~ (~&I\r5 g)4)~r5) j~ tl~~~..5~ (i:l.. I shall tell him after be comes.:)O~ (.).. ~l~~ ~~.i'~ !rO~ ~~~~.Sj.!I~ or g)4S~.$. The sense of though iu Telugu by adding GOr5~ or GOr5~.!IO~~O~ to the participle.$. ~e..\"03"O (Gerund) of the root in the Genitive case..J~~' to the The sense of before is expressed by adding ~o~ F. .... eS6:J'OJ"6or The sense of after ~.. 5 (j) Drink milk before you sleep.~~<$) tl~~ . The sense of as (ad verbial clause of manner) is expressed by adding e. as he asked.J.S to the participle of the root.. M Do as be . b~ :J~o~~~ ~o~ ~al (g) l~·ro. is expressed to the root.o~ O"e§~.!It§~ ~w.$:)~e:» ~e5~§ .r g. ~~5~ (f) ~6~ or 5r5e:J~ (r5o~) :. (e) The sense of till or until is expressed by adding e.)~~ is expressed by adding to the past participle of the root.

~till eJ = To sew. to bind.l~ [l~6n' ~a0~' verb. (Adverbial Cil (i) The sense of that or so that is expressed Dative case. To pay 'aU) = er£oci.86 (b) The sense of unless of the root.:JJ = To pay. = to teach. . I do not eat unless he comes. ~ eS ro ~ = to come down..::D ~o~ = to deceive.sO's of the The thief wept loudly O""~ so tbat the king's heart might melt.:D to float. 3D oi. to bite. is expressed Roots S e. It is expressed to the Taddharma Sometimes the meaning of tbe whole sentence by two separate sentences. by using clause of resulr) root in the the iV' .:D :. ~~6o:):)~ ~c:iro~t_ cror\ by adding e.. ~i§'~ ~~~~"S"~ ~c5:l ~~rS:l. to decrease. = to cook. followed is expressed by bv using the jl$O'~ Cil 'S""t:>. M ~::Sf\o.

Je3§~) 13<5:> ~~ ~g~ 1l~~C$(:~~t)~~ * . .)('$e:l eJ07'i"clo-a~ "j($:)~~ §'""O~ ~f.)~~ ~ O""~~ g):)l~~ ~w.0&8..\ ~w).D §""~.. Fees.$.. €.) 6~~J? a:6d_ <5($:)d_ S"~<5 O""~~ ~6e.~ w s» l~gJ -£. ~b~ N. ~~~d ~C$gJ§ ~~<5:> e=Jtl ~. C). Salary.!f<5:le.5d_) ~~ ~~..)~ O""~~~ i3~J<5:> • e:9&I"\~~.87 Nouns e§5~ N. ~b~~ e=J5"R.> = Fourteen.joJ-- e .$g~ 0""&(:5.:c 6.)ow~ ~~gJcT .l~<5~J~ !. (PIO Noun) (Adj.5~g~~&~iS':lo~~..)~ = Humility. = Golden. M. = Demon.J'd_ ~ ~~ (§'"'l'.. .) = Many.:s~.) "8e.. w« tchedne ss. = Cinema..$ €.J~~.Sal~~ 0"". = N.§ ~N"~ oSJ-o e=J~~ ~. :e_ . ~~~.1:3 <5:>.j<5. O""~~~ ~. ~50i::0i:S:J<5cl~ ~ ~ e oi::o ($:)• (~a~iS':ltScl~.')~CrC$<5:>ol.:c ~~~'3 ~~ ~ eJ l'.$d_~ ~o~e. (Numedcal) ii5~N"e:xJj"O ~al~6J eJ')7'i"6.§oW)i"\"'~.)i:S:J".':9.

If my father bad Dot written the letter. Tile friend whom I belived deceived me. Kalka told Raffia that fourteen years. He fought so bravery that the enemies could not stand. You can not know the meaning of the verse unless read it twice. he should live in the forest for The school where I studied has now become a college.88 Tell me the story after you read the book. Do the sum as your teacher taught in the school. Plesae tell me the news before I go to the college. He could not pay the fees as he was poor. Do not take food until fever cernes down. you -x- . I would have gone to the village by now.

::>'S. This change is n..BD \PALLA VA AND VERBS COl\~POUND 1. of roots is optionally changed iii Roots ending in o:5::D s·~. §'""~ and observed by many modern .ATMANEPA DA.St5) He cooked food (for himself) ii Before ~<6:l the e nd ing to 51 &.it strictly writers.::>:§6"J e. Atmane Is (he D rtive Singular of the word Arman and its meaning is 'for onself". are formed by adding ~c5:> to e.b·tj:1.. When the fruit of the action is enjoyed by the Agent himself the verb is said to be Atmanepada..:i. In l'OOTS (~ ~) Tdu5U Atrnanepada them.l~ ~rJ-a<6:l=He ~c~§'""~e~ Cooked foud (for others) ~:$l~ (e:36ij.'Q is compulsory.1(' <6J for d:Xl:l before here the change of e\i 1'1'0 I. '.::>:§6J e.

.90 vi Sometime's S"C$) is added to r0()(S in their own sense 2.:~ =~e:oW':lJ~) :ae:o.5c :$~e:o.J . So one I{ 2) .. to become to ihitr1<..:>~+.) + :>. €:9e. CJ :tr£dfu. ~ooo. 'S"o&) ~§""~ to agree = -&~:dr'C$).5~=€:9::!)~oo ~6. """. Nouns.Q e$e.:Sj ~e. itrB~.. = ~':.. ~6.).xJ~oi:5:l. clear. ~~ are called their ~e:l etc. ~f.:S. meaning.D = t}F. to farna .t.b.-. to he accustomed. a modified Verbal Derivatives and Such forms . to wake up. -&a-?r0W':l to get IIp from sleep.:Jc~ ) .:5:l to tie dCW!1 e::9.:J0~ to stand to sit ~tl.)(r~. i ( ~~.~& == . Roots like §"..&8"" (..o + S"~( e~.§'"" C$) to agree ~§"'"~.~ ..:>~+ ~d'.53 + e.~+S"C$)=~§"'"..5&0 ~ c. -. are and give CJ adde d to oihe r Roots.50:50S:c (V) (") e.:i.:>~o::i.'l$.:S ~ "£0 (~) + §'C$)= -:&e.J~ = ~e. + to be hungry g'l c'.) meanings are ~8w + ~oc}:) = ~~i:Xlo~.)~::al. -&al~~.".

etc are added to roots in the ~(>~~db<5:l b~~~<5:l Took off.+ l?"e. §'""vQ~ N. ROOTS ~ tx> _ e... Nouns to place on.::l "= !_ lAl"Gl to S "-- ~~ = ~e:o~~ +~~ Q. [0 <e. Side.$) 3.~w)'\S~E!.J ~~~S <SJ-o 8lll6:l~ S'S"'b- ff"~ro§'"":$Xe)o:J" ~cc5J i. fall aside.30. = Outside place. = Shirt.5o~§'""oe3~. = ~l!'or-~ ~~ N. Cheek. ~~cl§. _ Idol. ~05::0 sense of a way Or off.. + :n.". lEr~ N.::lK~-a~ ? ~~:ie)~~ ~~ t.. _ Neetar.~<5:l.". to be finished.li@. -cTS"'b. . = 6x N. Back._ to come out.~§.51!. Went away.X) §.".6) O~i'J ~lK~~ Qo. Adj. j~ ~<$J <Q~ 1 ~'""~~~ 6. g-o. ~~~~~ = Food. . Smetimes be over. to adorn. = Little.dS:o = s ~dS:o = ~OO':)~~ ~~.N.M ~~~~j . eJd»e:c N.) §'""tx> eJ to bind _ to beat to put on.900':)+~.. = Every day. N. _ Mad man.5 N.Wire.91 t. = t:5ae~~ Creeper . ~~~a~ N.

».S~~e. .l d~ . did Come here and sit. and stood before the idol his haeds of God. I come.J~~ ~~. "j~ . ~~0"C6. it is very hot.. The ele phant is throwing dust on its back.:$:).:$:).J~a3:l(6). My friend agreed to give me his books nations are over.'O~§'"".:$:) ~~iilN"d.:$:).:J~o~. Do not touch the wire. ~CS. not come 1 have t 0 wash roy When the teacher does Protect yourself until Dot come I shall read myself.:l ~~6:Je.~' eJ ~r5~e:a ~~~§'""~~~.sa~e:> ~(Hj.§~§'""~~ e. after the exami- Hungry people think that the little food they get is nectar.:J~ .:$:)~.) rQ.e:a Why do you stand the re? As the washerman clothes myself.S~. * .ld»g .. Ko~e:>sb O":Stm~ ~6<6:l e:>o~~ §'""t. ~o:>§'""(6)~o~.92 ~~. Women adorn themselves The boy folded when thy go out.J(6)..SeKo~e:>~ ~~ ~~~~ ~OOJ~ :i36:>§"...~.eT -~co.

l":Vex> tSol" r. Sanskrit crs~ oW). ~o~ ~oe.3~c5:> He did He made another to do by adding ~oW) to . The Causal base is generally formed the root. .oW) _ ~~~c~ow) ~~~OW) 3.3~ _ . termination The following instead roots take ~c:o M of ~oW) to be pleased to shine to shine P.l"~ iJ"§' 6dko M M iJ"~C:O (Y) . ~~ to nourish the ~s to speak ~~oW). ~"W) to Sanskrit causal termination This ~oW) is different from the 2'loW).3o:))ot:3c5:> (Causal) 2.18th Bay CAUSAL VERBS ~~UI L"'t($wg5 1. The Causal verb implies that a person or thing makes another person or thing to perform the action denoted by the root. Tatsama roots are formed by adding the termination YOGts.

94
(lc5
!3o!;)
oS\Q
e!

to break

"£j~Ul !3o~Ul
(Y')

to shake

to prospar, to increase ;;S80'). When l14ow) is added
®M

to the above roots they

denot the to please

causal sense,

l5o~U) _
M

tSo~oW) ;;saoW) 0 e,j~OW)

_

;;Saw _
OM e,jElc.u _
M

to make one prosper. _ _

to break (Transitive) to make one shake also. 01'~

~O~U)
M

_

~o~oW)

~o~oW':> is used in e;;ll~6f:a \3<$:). He shook with feat.
4.

i$~~8"

!3o~o

Some roots optionally take the termination denote the Causal Sf-nse.

W) or

~

to

.~ ~
strive

to strive

~C6:lW)

cr

~-O~CW)

to

make

another

to
float

"4~

to float -e~W'J or a~).:W)

to make

anothrr

to

~K:l~ return ~~6:l

to return ~X:l~W':>

or ~f\e,oi5:l

to make another

to settle, to becourefit. settle; to cure.

~~6:lw).

~~acW'J

to

make something

~<$:) to hear g)<$:)i:S:> or g)~~ c W':I to make another to hear ~<S:l
desist. to desist ~<$:)~ or ~C6:li:S:> to make another to

~<S:l to Jive ~C6:lW':l or ~C6:l~
Roots ~~ and ~(5;)

to make

another

to

live.

do not take 2iloW':> in

the causal

sense.

95
5. Roots ~t$l\).
Q$rod$):).

~CiK1.

~e)rlJ.

~e;ij"\:)

etc. take ~ and roots to denote the

~ti~. ~~t&:l

etc take ~ optionally

causal sense.

f:5XJ takes ~, ~ and ::J6Jro takes W':l alone

(Q

yWj also

take ~ alone Before t&:l or ~ all the above roots drop the final letter.

estSXJ ~tSXJ i6oro
Q$ro~

to bend down

~tiW':l

or

~l$f\oW':l

to melt
to become

powder

~e,)W':l
dirty ~~

or _

(:$e,)f\oi$":) ~o;).")oi;):)

to fade, to become to pass ~ ti~

13~W':l ~~i;):)

to eat

~&~ _

~;)t\~cW':l

~i;):)

to see

~~

~6Ji;):) to learn

~6J~

-.&~

to greaz

-.&~

tl~

to get up

tl~

~~~

to become

wet~~~.

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