RURAL TOURISM AS A TOOL FOR LOCAL DEVELOPMENT DIAGNOSIS OF THE FRENCH AREA OF HAUTE-CORRÈZE

Marie SAULE

'I hereby declare that the dissertation submitted is wholly the work of Marie SAULE. Any other contributors or sources have either been referenced in the prescribed manner or are listed in the acknowledgements together with the nature and scope of their contribution.'

MA European Tourism Management Bournemouth University August 2004

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ABSTRACT

Rural tourism is taking more and more importance in the tourism sector at the international since it represents an alternative to mass tourism. In France, stays in rural areas represent more than one third of the stays. This new type of tourism started to develop after the beginning of rural exodus and is now considered by experts and political authorities as an activity that can contribute to the development of rural areas, especially of less favoured rural area. Haute-Corrèze is a less-

favoured rural area suffering old problems of depopulation and lack of dynamism. Agriculture is one of the major activity of the area but it is suffering restructuring problems. This study aims at finding if tourism is currently a tool of development for Haute-Corrèze and if it is not, the purpose of the study is to find if and how tourism could be a tool for Haute-Corrèze development.

A review of the literature about rural tourism and local development allowed to establish a list of hypotheses checked during the study to know if tourism may be a tool for development: necessity of quality, of co-ordination, of federation, of

implication of the local population, of awareness of local agents. It is also necessary for the territory to have a touristic potential. In order to check all these hypotheses, a territorial and a tourism diagnosis are led. Once all the data are collected and analysed, some conclusions can be drawn:

The findings of this study confirm that Haute-Corrèze benefits from an important tourism potential thanks to its natural and cultural resources. The accommodations such as gîtes and B&Bs have a good quality. However, the territory has problems of dynamism, of positioning, of organisation and of mentalities that prevent it from being as strong as it could be. The territory needs financial and human means to organise and develop new products corresponding to the expectations of the customers. In the last part of the study, some recommendations are developed for local tourism agents and for further research.

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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Figure 3: Evaluation of the local touristic potential.................................................. 48 Figure 5: Localisation of Haute-Corrèze ................................................................... 54 Figure 6: Federation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze - list of municipalities................... 55 Figure 7: Evolution of the population in Haute-Corrèze between 1990 and 1999 ... 57 Figure 8: Population pyramid.................................................................................... 58 Figure 9: Level of equipment of the Pays ................................................................. 60 Figure 10: Distribution of heritage in the Corrèze département ............................... 66 Figure 11: Distribution of the products "Bienvenue à la ferme" in the Corrèze

département ................................................................................................................ 71 Figure 12: Nights spent in rural areas by French people in 2001 per type of

accommodation - in thousands of nights.................................................................... 73 Figure 14: Evolution of the number of gîtes and B&B in Haute-Corrèze between 1999 and 2003 ............................................................................................................ 76 Figure 15: Distribution of Haute-Corrèze camping sites per category ..................... 77 Figure 16: Evolution of the occupancy rates in the camping sites of the Corrèze département. ............................................................................................................... 78 Figure 18: Figures about the frequentation of Corrèze competitors ........................ 91 Figure 19: Focus on the image given by the tourism agents interviewed ................. 92 Figure 20: Evolution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze and Haute-Corrèze/Corrèze ratio .................................................................................... 101 Figure 21: Distribution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze in 2003.......................................................................................................................... 102

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CAP CC CDCE Common Agricultural Policy Communauté de Communes / Communauty of Municipalities Economic Chambers Departmental Committee / Comité Départemental des Chambres Economiques DATAR ERS EU GRP INSEE LAGs LEADER LOADDT Délégation à l’Aménagement du Territoire et à l’Action Régionale Economic Research Service European Union Grande Randonnée de Pays / Pays Hiking Trails National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies Local Action Groups Link Between Actions of Local Economic Development Loi d’Otientation sur l’Aménagement et le Développement Durable du Territoire NRP/PNR OECD Natural Regional Park / Parc Naturel Régional Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PCRT/CPTR Permanent Conference on Rural Tourism / Conférence Permanente du Tourisme Rural SRLA SWOT TDC/CDT Service Réservation Loisirs Accueil / Booking Centre Strengths/Weaknesses/Opportunities/Threats Tourism Departmental Committee / Comité Départemental du Tourisme TDDS/SDDT Tourism Departmental Development Scheme / Schéma Départemental de Développpement Touristique TO TRC/CRT UDOTSI Tourist Office Tourism Regional Committee / Comité Régional du Tourisme Union Départemental des offices de Tourisme / Departmental Union of the Tourist Offices WTO World Tourism Organisation iv .

.... 12 The research area of the study...... 20 Local development..... 2....... 2........... III LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .........................................................IV CONTENTS .............................................3............................. 2............ 18 Definition of the principal terms of the theme .....................................1...............................................................................................2................................................................ 2.............1.................................................... V AKNOWLEDGEMENT ............... 2...............................................1.......................................................................... 18 Rural areas: a multiple definition ...............................................................................................5 1.... 14 The research methodology .........................................2....3 1...................CONTENTS ABSTRACT .......................... 24 v ........................................................................................................................................... LITERATURE REVIEW . 1.......6 GENERAL INTRODUCTION....................... 2..................12 Introduction...... 15 The dissertation structure .......4 1...... 15 CHAPTER 2...............II LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES .....2 1...........1........ 19 Rural tourism: a multi-faceted concept.................XI CHAPTER 1.............................18 Introduc tion............1.......1 1... 23 Rural tourism in Europe ..... 12 The relevance of the topic ......... 14 The objectives of the research....3...................................

6...1 2.........................................6........1........................................4.....................6 2...... 39 Sub-hypothesis III: Importance of co-ordination . 3............................................................4................................ 38 Hypotheses about the key factors for tourism to be a tool for development and falsification..................3.....................1 2.............1 2.........3............................................................................................................................................2...................................1..................2...............................1.......... 3.............................................. 33 Economic............ METHODOLOGY ... 36 Mitigated economic repercussions ..... 25 General trends in the economic and social situation of rural areas in France 26 Socio-historical analysis of the evolution of rurality.................2.... impacts 2..........4............ 36 Social repercussions of tourism.......3 Rural tourism as a tool for development: the danger of possible negative .............................................. 27 1945-1960: Technical progress for rebuilding ........2 2............2....... the area 3......1............................................................2 2..4............................1 2..................... 2. 30 Three types of rural areas in France ........................................................1............3 2.1........2 2.......3......... 39 3................... 31 The urban countryside........................................2....6........................7 Conclusion:................................38 Approach of the topic:................................................2........ 40 vi ..4.......3......3................. 27 1960-1975: The world growth...................4..............1............2............. 3.................... 28 After 1975: the crisis and the questioning ........2 2....4......... Hypothesis I: the territory and the tourism sector have to be in a local development process ....... 37 CHAPTER 3....1................................................... 28 2....2............................................... 3....................................... 31 The new countryside.. 32 2.......................... 2............4............2.....................4.................. 37 2.......2...............................3 The four functions of rural areas in France....6.................. 33 Challenges and opportunities..... 39 Sub-hypothesis II: Importance of quality . 24 European funding for rural tourism ............................1.... Sub-hypothesis I: Importance of the awareness of local agents of the problems of ..5 Evolution of the perceptions of the countryside and consequences for the development of rural tourism.........2 Tourism as a tool for local development ....3.. 32 2............................ 38 3...........1 2....2...4............ 40 Sub-hypothesis IV: importance of the federation of the different stakeholders ... 31 The declining countryside...........4............................................................................. social and environmental negative impacts................1.............1....................................

.. 3................ 61 Social characteristics .............. Sub-hypothesis V: importance of the participation of local population.................5.............2................................................... 42 Quantitative versus qualitative data collection..5.................................. 3....................... enough 3.2.............................................................. 47 Analysis of the tourism potential of the territory ..5...............4..........................................2..............4.................................................................2.......................1....51 4................................................................................................................. 56 Equipment and infrastructures .....2.........3 4......................................... 3..........3.....3............................................................. 41 Secondary data about Haute-Corrèze: .......1.......................................... 43 Qualitative data collection: In-depth interviews: ................................1 Introduction.............................................................. 61 vii ................................3............. 59 Equipment............. 3...................................4............................. 45 3............... 44 Selection of the sample.....3..................... 56 Demographic characteristics ............................ 43 Aims of the research..........1..4....5.......................... 59 Accessibility...........2.........................................1.3. 3.... 51 Geographic presentation of the Pays ..................................................... 41 Literature review:.................................1 4..............................2.................................... 50 Conclusion.........3............................5...................2 4..2.....................1 4............. 3....2 4............................... 3............2 4........................................................... 3..................6................3...... 41 Secondary data: ...........6 4....... 52 Perimeter of the territory ...... 55 Two geographical entities in the Pays ......3 4........ 44 Interview design......... 50 CHAPITRE 4 HAUTE-CORREZE TERRITORIAL DIAGNOSIS ...............................................5.. 40 3................... 51 What is a ‘Pays’? .....4................2...... 53 Importance of water in the culture of the pays..... 60 Socio-economic characteristics...................2...................1.......................5........................................... Hypothesis II: the tourism potential of the territory has to be important ........1 4....................... 47 Specific analysis of the organisation of tourism on the territory..............3 4..........3........ 59 Housing ....................................................................... 3..................................................................................................................... 3.......................... 3.....4..................................... 42 Primary data: ....4 4..........5 4..............................6 Discussion of the results:................................

............................. 5.............4..........2........ 62 4............................3............1........2............................... 62 Weaknesses of the territory that can have an influence on tourism............................... 80 The demand .. 83 5.......2........2.......... 61 Agriculture...... craft industry..................3.... Activity suppliers .....................4...............................................1.... 69 5..................... 5........................4...2...............7.4.6...................7.............2...........3................................... 5.................................1..... 68 Gastronomy. 5.. 5. 5.............. 63 Opportunities that can have an influence on tourism ... 5..2...... 81 New expectations of the customers....... 77 Second homes........................1 4.............................................. 81 New socio-cultural trends..................1.......................................................2 Types of economic activities........................2... 5...3................................ 70 Accommodations .3...........3......3........ 5...................................4.. industry..................4.......................................... 71 Hotels ... 81 New purchasing behaviours......................1........................................................................................2............................2................ Touristic supply.........1...1.................1 4. 70 Agri-tourism and gastronomy: the “Bienvenue à la ferme” network........ 81 General trends of the rural tourists....................1......................................3. 66 Cultural resources................. 65 Natural resources ................65 Introduction........ 85 viii .......................4...................................7 4................................................ Characteristics of the tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze ......... HAUTE-CORREZE DIAGNOSIS 5.... 65 The territory resources .......................................2...2............................. 5.......... services..... 63 Threats that can have an influence on tourism ......................................6....................... 5................2....................6.......................2...............2....................................3..2........... 64 Conclusion.... 5.............................................................................................. 68 The built heritage.............................. 72 Gîtes and Bed and Breakfasts .........7.....................................3.....1...................4 4............................................ 5............. 61 Commerce.. TOURISM ...............................2.......3 4...2............ 5.............3................................. 64 CHAPITRE 5......................2......................................................2.................1.......................................................... 78 5............................. 5........................................................................................................... 68 Animations and festivals.......2 4.. 5......................8 SWOT analysis...............7............... 62 Strengths of the territory that can have an influence on tourism.... 73 Camping sites.2.... 5.2 4...............................4...........3................................

.........................2...1... 5.......2.................................................................... 104 SWOT analysis............ 110 5. 115 ix ....... 106 SWOT analysis of the supply ...........................2...............5........................................8...........2........ 87 An average length of stay higher than the national trends.. 5............................................................... 99 Departmental structures.. 91 Communication and promotion...........................8...1................................................4.2........... 5.............1 5...................... 5...............................................................................2................................ 113 5.................4..1...............6.. SWOT analysis of the positioning of the territory..........4................ 100 5.7..................................6.......4.......6................... 5...... 106 Strengths and weaknesses for the supply...............3........................................................2. 5................................................... 99 Local structures................1...........................8........................... 97 5......................3................... 94 Creation of websites.....4.......... Motivations of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze........3...........................................4.......................... 5.. 91 Image..........2...................................................4........................5........................................................3...... 5..............................................................3.........................................7.....6.. 5...... 109 Opportunities and threats for the demand............................................................2.... 98 Public structures ...........3......................... 5.... 5....2 SWOT analysis of the demand... 94 Edition of brochures...... 86 Activities practised: nature....4.6.................................... Marketing ..... 5.1......7...1...................................1 5.............. 96 National communication campaigns.........8..8..............................1..6..........7................................. 96 Participation to tourism fairs.....3.........2 Private structures and associations ...... 5....................... 106 Opportunities and threats for the supply................................6.............5............1. 5....... 5..2..........4.........................2.......... culture and idleness....................... 89 Satisfaction of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze .... 89 Competitors ..... 5.....................2..................................7................6.... Characteristics of the stays in Haute-Corrèze ......... 5........ 5. 86 Low expenses........2.8......... Conclusion ................. 97 Rest areas of the roads and motorways......... 90 Promotion and communication .................. 109 Strengths and weaknesses for the demand..................1......... 5...8........................ 86 A majority of stays spent in non-market accommodations.................... 5..8. 5. 5..........9....4............. 108 5........................1...................6.........5.................. 98 Tourism organisation on the territory..........3..... 111 SWOT analysis of the tourism organisation.................... 5...................4.......3...... 87 5........................................8.........................

........... 6.....................3 6.... 116 Recommendations for tourism agents...... 120 Recommendations for further studies............................................................................ 118 Improvement of the tourism products..................3 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.............................. 117 The creation of a coordinating tourist board at the destination level .......1 6......116 Conclusion......2 6.................2............ 6. 117 Finding a positioning for the territory ...............................................................123 APPENDICES ..................1....................................................................................................2... 6.....132 x .......................2............CHAPTER 6...........2......................... 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..

my thanks go to Valérie Bordes. for her continual support and encouragement and for always being available when I needed her all along this year. Henri Chassagne. and the persons in charge of the International Office for their support. Philippe Constanti. Cédric Bach. M. for his advice and guidance throughout the long process of this academic work. Nadège Savary. Francisco Serra. I am really grateful to Ariane Portegies from NHTV. Sophie Bonelli. I would also like to thank Mike Morgan for his guidance throughout the whole ETM program. M. and all the tourism agents of Corrèze and HauteCorrèze for their welcome and for the time they took to answer my questions and provide me information. Fay. Concerning the practical part of this dissertation. Breda. xi . I would like to thank all the member of the teachers of NHTV. the knowledge they brought us and for all the things they did for us. Fraysse. Philippe Bordes. Breda.AKNOWLEDGEMENTS I want to thank my supervisor.

1. is not the most attractive kind of tourism anymore. First of all. it is seen as a way to minimise the crisis 12 . These factors. A process of local development has recently been initiated through the creation of a Pays and tourism is of course part of the development plan. It is suffering demographic and econo mic problems. The question of knowing whether tourism can be a tool for development in this region is raised.2 The relevance of the topic Rural tourism is a ‘new’ kind of tourism to which the authorities are giving a great importance for several reasons. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. Factors such as decrease of working time. urbanisation and development of communication means give the opportunity for other kinds of tourism to develop. People coming from the cities want to escape from their stressing daily life and to enjoy during their holidays a peaceful and good quality environment. Haute-Corrèze is a rural territory located in the region Limousin. in the western part of Massif Central. the sector is facing some changes in comparison with its beginning. Mass tourism. The countryside tries to capture these customers that can contribute to diversifying the local economy and improving the dynamism of the territory.1 Introduction While tourism becomes every year more important for national and local economies. mixed with the willing to find means to help rural areas to get out of crisis. even if it keeps attracting a great amount of people and generating important revenues.Chapter 1. for example. mark the beginning of rural tourism. Every agent at local and even national level says that tourism can be used as a tool for development in rural disadvantaged areas.

There is also an article from Bossuet (2001) that asks the question: “Rural Tourism. B. Paris 3 DATAR. M oreover. initiatives such as LEADER (Liaison Entre Actions de Développement de l’Economie Locale) have as their main objective to help projects in rural less.favoured areas. the countryside is the first destination in terms of stays with 36 % of the stays 2 . between conservation and development in every place they visit. another one exposes the factors that could prevent rural tourism development (Sarasa. (2003) Quelle France Rural pour 2020 ? Contribution à une nouvelle politique de développement rural durable.. An article presents the potential problems that can cause rural tourism (Sharpley. In France. Piramide.of traditional beach tourism. 2002). the same or other articles and studies show that tourism is not always a solution for rural areas. that is developed at a smaller scale than beach tourism. tourists are now looking for a balance between tourism. an opportunity for local development 1 2 Garcia Henche. Direction du Tourisme. as explained by Blanca García Henche 1 (2003). That is why they are more attracted by rural tourism. Indeed. This figure gives an idea about the economical importance of rural tourism for local economies. La Documentation Française. nature and culture. such as the study “Quelle France that reserves a chapter to the entertainment and touristic function of the countryside. However. such as the countryside that answers to their need for more authenticity and contact with nature and culture . Sarasa. rural tourism is considered as a tool for rural development. Moreover. Secrétariat d’Etat au Tourisme. This new state of mind gives opportunity for developing non-traditional tourist destination. Paris 13 . tourists no longer want to be seen as a mass. Some articles present the solutions that tourism could provide to rural less. In France. rurale pour 2020?”3 Numerous studies and books are focusing on this theme. (2003) Tourisme Rural. 2002. at the European level. (2003) Marketing del turismo rural. 2001). Madrid. leading to the development of many tourism projects. The authorities also see rural tourism as a way to get disadvantaged rural areas out of crisis. 2001). They need personalisation during their holidays.favoured areas problems (Sharpley.

It first implies to find out if the region has the sufficient potential to develop tourism. 14 . Firstly. Secondly. 1.3 The research area of the study In this research. After defining what is local development and what are the stakes in the topic. primary data will be easier to collect and the affective link with the area makes the research even more interesting. These problems are due to the crisis affecting areas that could not find a new dynamism after the rural exodus of the midtwentieth century. the question of the ability of tourism to be a tool for rural development will be applied to the French region of Haute-Corrèze . The reasons for having chosen this area are multiples. 1. All those articles and studies show the relevance of the question about the ability of tourism to be a tool for rural development.or a potential loss of identity?”. Living close to this area. there is at the same time an affective and a practical reason. this area corresponds to a less-favoured rural territory with demographic and economical problems . After this research. it will be interesting to know to what extend tourism can be a tool for rural development. primary data research gives a point of view on the way in which tourism can be used as local development tool in the specific territory of Haute-Corrèze. This second question will lead to the identification of the problems of Haute-Corrèze and means to solve them.4 The objectives of the research The goal of this research is to understand if and how tourism can be a tool for rural development in a specific area: French Haute-Corrèze . The result of the research points out the strengths and weaknesses of the territory in terms of tourism and give some recommendations for further studies and for the tourism and local development agents of the territory.

15 . it has to conform to an academic structure. 1. how people perceive it and what they are waiting from it. Primary data research consists of 12 in depth interviews of about two hours with local tourism stakeholders suc h as tourism and development agents and tourism service providers in order to check out if tourism can be a tool of development in the area. Series of factors will be brought out in order to check the conditions under which tourism can be a tool for local development.6 The dissertation structure As the dissertation is an academic piece of work.1. The secondary data research aims firstly at defining the terms related to the research and secondly exposes the different points of view of experts about tourism as a tool for local development.5 The research methodology The research is carried out on the basis of a combination of secondary and primary data sources. It is composed of a mix of descriptive theoretical parts and analytical practical data.

Figure 1: Structure of the dissertation Theoretical part Introduction Literature review Methodology Territory diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze Tourism diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze 1. The literature review allows to situate the topic in a context.SWOT analysis Recommendations and conclusion Source: author’s own Chapter one is the general introduction that presents the interest of the topic and introduces the structure of the work. explains what methods.Presentation of the territory 2.SWOT analysis 1. It presents the different possibilities of methodology.Measurement of the tourism potential of the territory 2. instruments and techniques have been chosen and how the research is conducted. 16 . Chapter three presents the hypotheses of work and the explanation of the methodology used in the empirical part of the study to obtain the results. Chapter two is composed of the theoretical part with a presentation and an analysis of the literature about the theme.

accommodations. Chapter five presents and analyses the touristic characteristics of Haute-Corrèze such as resources. In the last chapter are the conclusion and recommendations. etc. demographic and socio-economic characteristics and analyses the aspects of these characteristics that influence tourism. 17 .Chapter four presents Haute-Corrèze and the general aspects of the territory such as the geographic. activity.

LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 2001. November.Chapter 2. Introduction Rural tourism is an important trend in tourism since it is taking every year more importance in the choice of holiday destinations. The sentence of the World Tourism Organisation (1996) ‘Rural tourism at the rescue of Europe’s countryside’ shows this importance. At the European level.1. Indeed. p14 Commission of the European Communities. the European Parliament. (2001) Working together for the future of European tourism. It is a real phenomenon in France where rural areas represents the first tourism destination in number of stays with 36 % 4 . 18 . 4 5 Op. Proceedings from a commission communication to the Council. cit. All these themes and the discussion about tourism as a tool for development will be developed in this chapter through the presentation and the analysis of the related literature . tourism is a sector of great importance since it comprises some two million businesses5 and rural tourism has often been seen as an opportunity for the development of rural areas. 2. ‘rural areas’ and ‘local development’ will be given in the European and above all the French context. Definition of the principal terms of the theme Before starting to analyse the discussion found in literature about the role of tourism as a tool for rural development. it answers to the current needs of the tourists that are unhappy with mass tourism. The definition of the terms ‘rural tourism’. It constitutes an alternative to traditional beach tourism.2. it is relevant to define the different concepts this theme implies. the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.

Kayser (1993) gives a definition of rural areas that uses geographical.2. At a regional level. a population density of 150 person per square kilometre is the perfect criterion.501 and 19. The American ERS (Economic Research Service) refers to all non metropolitan counties in three categories: urbanised with a population of at least 20. less urbanised with a population between 2. geographic units are grouped by the share of their population that is rural into the following three types: predominantly rural (50 %).500. economic activities or identity of rural areas. in its report Tourism Strategies And Rural Development (1994) says that since the criteria vary enormously between and within the OECD countries. Rural areas: a multiple definition It is necessary to define what is a rural area. The INSEE (French National Institute of Statistics) says that a rural area is an area compounded with agglomerations of fewer than 2. It is not the simplest thing to do since many distinct definitions are given in literature.999 and rural with a population of less than 2.1.000 people with no more than 200 meters between the houses. He asserts that rural areas are defined by a particular way of using space and social life.” These three definitions are really quantitative and give no importance to the culture. It is characterized by: 19 .000. they are important since they allow to classify in a systematic way what are and what are not rural areas. significantly rural (15-50 %) and predominantly urbanised regions (15 %). “at local level. A more cultural definition would be important to understand that rural areas are not only figures but also symbolise a particular way of life and a culture. However.1. This second definition will not be acceptable at a European level since the scale of the towns is very different. sociological and economic criteria. The definition of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development).

small industries)”. The origin of rural tourism is really anc ient since rural areas have always been a place of inspiration for artists.1.2. at the beginning of the nineteenth century. rural tourism has developed with the visits of friends and relatives to their home.htm 20 .eu. with quantitative and sociological aspects. rural tourism is more adapted to short breaks (García Henche. They allow to understand the specific stakes in rural development and of the preservation of a specific rural identity. since the seventies. This situation had converted rur al tourism in a cheap tourism dedicated to the working class. Rural tourism: a multi. villages and small towns. After rural exodus. The Cork declaration6 writen during the European Conference on Rural Development in 1996 says that “rural areas .which are the home of a quarter of the population and account for more than 80% of the territory of the European Union are characterized by a unique cultural.faceted concept Rural tourism is also an important notion to define. Moreover. A way of life characterized by the belonging of the inhabitants to a small community and by their particular relationships with space. an extraordinary patchwork of activities. 2. However. economic and social fabric. gives a complete view of what are rural areas. Rural tourism corresponds to tha t demand. rural tourism has started to develop as an alternative to mass tourism. 6 http://europa.- A low demographic and building density and a domination of vegetable landscapes. regional centres. with a better environmental quality in less touristIC places. unspoiled natural sites. People want quality and specialization for their holidays. A combinatio n of all those definitions. 2003). and a great variety of landscapes (forests and farmland. These last two definitions give a more human and social definition of rural areas. - Specific identity and representation linked with the peasant culture. forestry or breeding.int/comm/agriculture/rur/cork_en. - Economic activities based on agriculture.

March 1995. (1995) Marketing Quality Rural Tourism.For this concept too. the more benefits there are for local population. green tourism.tourism. In the first one. The common point between all these activities is their location in a rural area as defined in the paragraph above. the term ‘rural tourism’ is used when the rural culture is a key component of the product. the distinction used is the percentage of revenue benefiting to the local community. A representation would be like this: Figure 2: Rural tourism definition scheme Agritourism Rural tourism Countryside tourism Source: author’s own The smaller is the circle. etc. 21 . In the second trend. Depending on the key activity proposed by this 7 European Commission. The definition given by a document produced by the European Commission7 divides the definition of rural tourism into two trends . Leader Technical Dossier. nature tourism. eco-tourism. diverse definitions can be given since rural tourism includes various activities and concepts such as agri.

8 Mac Nulty. The first characteristic of ‘agri-tourism’ is that it is the business of farmers (Beteille. etc. a kind of tourism where the rural culture is a key component.. 2003). A more precise definition of each term can be given. ‘Agri-tourism’ is an important part of rural tourism since the aims of developing rural tourism are often to increase the revenue of farmers. 1996). the terms ‘nature’. as explained above. ‘green’. in a meaningful and authentic way”. It has to be related to the agricultural activities and to complement the revenue of farmers (García Henche. P. Belgrade. are used. Another definition is given by the WTO8 . the landscape is a key variable and the principal objective is the integration of the visitor into the local natural and human environment (García Henche. In ‘green tourism’. ‘Sports tourism’ uses the natural environment as a resource and a base for the practice of a sport activity (García Henche. 2000) or former farms. ‘eco’. that rural tourism “is tourism away from areas of intensive tourism activity” and that “it is engaged in by visitors who wish to interact with the rural environment and the host community. 2003). It takes place in farms (Keane. Yugoslavia. Proceedings from WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism in Europe: Experiences and perspectives. 2002 22 . ‘Rural tourism’ is. 2003). June. This definition is the most digest that could be found. It is a definition oriented towards the alternative that rural tourism represents to mass tourism. ‘agri-‘. ‘Nature tourism’ is a kind of tourism where the observation and appreciation of nature is the principal component (World Tourism Organisation. 2003). 2002). It explains that tourists seek “rural peace”. The term ‘eco-tourism’ is used when the priority is to preserve the natural environment where the activity takes place (García Henche.product. (2002) Conclusions.

strong relation with nature. 1998). roots. people choose the countryside for their holidays because of the representation and the image they have of these places. social and cultural development of the territory. The notion of endogenous development helps to define the concept of local development since it shows that development has to come from the agents of the territory and not from national policies. The goal of a process of local development is the economic. heritage. 1998. like the one of WTO (2002). identity (Dewailly. This definition. gives great importance to rural culture and refers to the motivation of people for going to rural areas for their holidays. It is defined as a voluntarist approach that favours endogen resources based on local industries and that takes into account cultural values. 23 . implying positive transformation or ‘good change”. The concept of endogenous development is first presented at the end of the fifties by Friedman and Stöhr. 2. 1998.3. the economic.The definition that will be kept for this research is the one that refers to rural tourism when the rural culture is a key component of the product and considers that the other terms depend on the central activity of the product. Hall. Houée (1989) exp lains that development is a global process gathering local agents for the development of human and material resources of the territory in relation with the decision centres. social and politic organisations in which the territory is integrated. Joyal (2004) insists on the notion of partnerships that is very important for local development as well as the notion of networking. This image is very often linked to rural culture: authenticity. Indeed. Local development can not be led by one single actor even if there is a need for a leader that carries the process.1. Butler. Local development Development is defined by Sharpley (2002) as “virtually synonymous with progress.

1996). Rural tourism could also contribute to the preservation and improvement of environment since it depends on its attractiveness. Proceedings from WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism: Rural tourism: Pathway to Sustainable Development. 2003 10 Mac Nulty. such as transport. Even the WTO commission for Europe organised various conferences about rural tourism in Europe 9 to present the trends and evolutions of rural tourism in western and eastern Europe. authorities want to use tourism for developing rural areas but are also conscious of the negative effects to which this development could bring.3. WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism: Rural tourism: Guidelines for Development. Rural tourism as a tool for development: the danger of possible negative impacts The WTO commission for Europe points out that rural tourism could be used as a tool for rural development since it could “deliver additional sources of income to rural communities”10 . (2003) Conclusions. what would prevent local people from buying it.2. 2003. It also could break the isolation of some communities and give cultural exchange opportunities.1. Kielce. 2. Many publications were done about the issues of tourism in Europe. 2003. 24 . Poland. Rural tourism takes an important place at the European level and the European Community is doing a lot to develop it. These statements show that. Rural tourism in Europe As it is said above. June.. at the European level. 2002. 9 WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism in Europe: Experiences and perspectives. rural areas represent the home of a quarter of the European population and more than 80 % of the European territory (Cork Declaration. increase in the prices of land and traditional buildings and even of goods. and to establish a document on the European way to organise and develop rural tourism. services or health.3. P. WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism: Rural tourism: Pathway to Sustainable Development. This commission drew the economic and social costs that could create the development of rural tourism: increase demand for public services.

It encourages integrated strategies and innovative projects with the purpose of a high-quality and sustainable development. As explains the European Commission on its website11 . LEADER + aims also. www. LEADER I in 1991 was a new approach of rural development policy territorially based. Its role is to make rural actors aware of the long-term potential of their region. Rural tourism being considered as part of rural development. for the period 2000-2006. promotional activities and training.int 25 . at the implementation of integrated development programmes for local rural areas. the use of new know. drawn and implemented by LAGs (local action groups) that represent the partnership between the private and public sectors and ensure the local adaptability of the LEADER + programme. marketing.3. it can be funded through its instruments in the areas of information. The priority themes of LEADER + are: 11 making the best use of natural and cultural resources. integration of the tourist activity in the area. integrated and participative.eu. European Social Fund to promote training. European funding for rural tourism As rural development is a priority at the European level. LEADER + is the third generation of LEADER programme.how and new technologies. training. LEADER is one of the four initiatives financed by EU structural funds. EU (European Union) has adopted measures that support it. The European funds granted for rural development are: European Regional Development Fund to assist infrastructure development. adding value to local products.2.europa. It gives a large place to partnerships and networks to exchange experiences. improving quality of life. LEADER II in 1994 put the emphasis on the innovative aspects of projects.2. European Agriculture Guarantee and Guidance Fund to promote agricultural adjustment and diversification.

They also have to evaluate each project funded by LEADER + making a mid-term evaluation by the end of 2003 and another one in 2006. since they are responsible for the implementation of the LEADER initiative. this statement shows how slow tourism development has been. about one third of LEADER I initiative was already turned towards tourism. especially in the rural areas of southern Europe. It is regarded as a ‘bottom-up’. it is the dominant activity in the business plans of the local action groups”.4.6 % in 1846. an article from Info LEADER magazine explains that “tourism seems to offer a natural development path for rural areas in Europe. Indeed. rural areas represent 80 % of French territory and only 23 % of the population while it represented 26 % of the population in 1946 and 75.Member States have also an important role to play through the principle of subsidiarity. The crisis started a 26 . Indeed. However. 2. (1997) as “ one of the most significant strategies for rural development ”. even if Kearney remarked in 1992 that “European tourism has long suffered from the benign neglect of governments which have still to recognise its economic importance in modern economies”. This observation is reinforced by Airey (1983) that noticed that regional development was the most frequent justification for tourism policies. an endogenous approach to problems of rural development. Indeed. The LEADER programme has been of significant use for rural tourism projects. They have to settle national and regional programmes and plans. facing a an economic and demographic crisis that they have difficulties to overcome. LEADER is considered by Jenkins et al. particularly in the most disadvantaged of them” since “in 71 of the 217 LEADER 1 areas. General trends in the economic and social situation of rural areas in France The question on the ability of tourism to help rural development is also a relevant issue regarding the situation of some French rural areas.

One farmer could feed four people in 1910. This depopulation put rural areas in a vicious circle that led to the closure of many industries. Every economic books talk about an axle between Le Havre and Marseille that separated. The industrial revolution disrupted the distribution of agricultural activities.1. The expansion of roads and railways make the cities closer to the countryside and announces the development of a more modern and productive agriculture. the most important changes occurred after the Second World War through the processes of industrialisation of agriculture .1 1945-1960: Technical progress for rebuilding After the Second World War.. 2. The general trend was to go from a rural economy to an urban one . Farmers prefer to go to the city to find job and security. one farmer out of four leaves the countryside. rural economies have experienced fundamental restructurings. in 1960. 2003).historical aspects of the evolution of rurality (Torrente et al. Hall and Troughton (1998). shops and services. 2. However. According to Jenkins. five in 1946 and ten in 1960. 27 .1 Socio. “this latest phase has been among the most disruptive to the rural system as a whole and to its more traditional landscapes”. rural exodus is amplified.historical analysis of the evolution of rurality Since the Second Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions in the 18th and 19th centuries. 2004) and then presents the different kinds of rural areas that exist nowadays (DATAR. densely populated region in the eastern part of the country and less developed regions in the western part of the country. This part of the research first explores the socio. During this period.long time ago but was accelerated at the end of the Second World War with industrialisation and rural exodus.4. It reinforced the domination of the capital city Paris and brought a great part of the population in accessible and rich in raw material regions .4.

This situation leads to the creation of dissident movements that criticize the capitalist domination. Frenc h agriculture enters quickly in this scheme. 2.4. This new social composition of the countryside marks the beginning of a new approach to local development.2. 2004) whereas they represented 28 % of the working force in 1955. Other people that have an affective link with rurality are also moving there. The y represent today less than 5 % of the French working force (DATAR. the Rome Treaty gives to the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) a productivist orientation. Houée (1989) explains that the crisis of 1968 brings a new importance to the regionalist aspirations and the wish to live in the area where you are coming from starts to affect more and more people.1.1. the over-production. the various aids that they receive and the standardisation of their production. the pollution. Between 1954 and 1990.4.1 to 1. 28 .3 After 1975: the crisis and the questioning The mid-seventies mark the end of illusions with the oil crisis and an overproduction that provoke a decrease in the sales’ prices and in the income of farmers. In 1957. Farmers are not the only occupants of the countryside anymore . 2003). farmers are denounced for the deficient quality of their products. In this context is created in 1963 the DATAR (Délégation à l’Aménagement du Territoire et à l’Action Régionale) that advocates a qualitative and cross-disciplinary approach. In the eighties. active and competitive nation on the European and international markets” (DATAR.2 1960-1975: The world growth France wants to be “an independent.2 millions of workers. This period marks the acceleration of industrialisation and urbanisation. The number of farms still decreases and only a few endogenous actions are led during this period. the number of farm workers falls from 5.

France is characterized by regional disparities that territorial development policies are trying to alleviate. Bessières. The goal of this decentralisation was to give more power to local communities in order to allow them to develop local projects. that is to say the development of all the human and material resources ignored by the market. aged farmers are staying. In 1982-83. (Aphandery. 29 .This crisis is affecting unequally the different rural territories. Three kinds of territories can be distinguished (Torrente. Torrente et al. Barthes. Each region is composed of ‘départements’ and each ‘département’ of ‘communes’. It marks the death of many small villages situated away from urban centres. intensive agriculture - Disadvantaged territories that are deserted and try to survive. This agriculture plays an important role for the revitalisatio n of the area through the composition of networks of economic. In those territories shops and services have difficulties to survive. This situation shows that local development is a product of the crisis and needs a sparking off event such as an economic crisis to start (Houée. etc. Only a few. The government understood the importance of local development and wanted to give to the territories more opportunities to take the responsibility of their own development in a crossdisciplinary logic. 1989). the French government decided to reinforce decentralisation by giving more power to the 22 regions that compose the country. 2004): - Territories of agricultural production with a dominant. the invention of technologies. 1989). Bitoun. Godard. The Massif Central is in this category. - Diversified territories led by a small agriculture looking for new models of production. They are organising cross-disciplinary projects. call that an ‘auto-centred development’. Dupont. social and cultural actors. the use of local structures.

2.4.2 The four functions of rural areas in France

Rural areas can be characterized by the function they have. The French organism DATAR (2003) brought out four functions that can define rural areas.

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The residential function is developed mainly in areas situated in the periphery of urban centres. The population working in this urban centre chooses to live in the countryside instead of in the city centre. Thus the majority of rural areas are not experimenting rural exodus anymore. Even some ‘isolated’ areas are experimenting for the first time a positive migratory balance of +0.29 % (INSEE). In spite of this positive aspect, 7.6 million of people live in declining areas with a poor services quality, in particular in small and isolated rural communes.

-

The productive function of the countryside deals with all economic activities taking place in rural areas. countryside. A lot of industries employ people in the

Since 1990 the growth of employment has been the most

significant in the municipalities situated in the periphery of urban areas. Agriculture is not the predominant activity in terms of employment and added value anymore but it keeps being the activity that structures and manages the landscape. The service sector provides the majority of rural jobs with 50 % (DATAR, 2003).

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The tourist and recreation functions of the countryside are linked to several reasons such as its accessibility, its interest for urban people and the increase of spare time. However, the majority of the rural tourism activity does not give rise to trading since the majority of rural tourism accommodations belong to families or relatives. Only 22 % of the nights are spent in market accommodations.

30

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The last function of rural areas is the ‘nature’ function. Natural issues are considered as very important by our society. They deal with the protection of natural resources and living environment.

2.4.3 Three types of rural areas in France

Rural areas are combining these four functions in very different ways. The DATAR (2003) lays stress of three types of rural areas that can be distinguished in France.

2.4.3.1

The urban countryside

According to the DATAR, 18.5 % of the French ‘cantons’12 are part of this category. There are two kinds of urban countryside, the first one being rural areas situated in the periphery of big cities and having a residential function. The second type is composed of rural areas less densely populated that constitute the large periphery of cities. This second type is much more agricultural and provides more jobs than the first one. Jenkins, Hall and Troughton (1998) lay stress in these areas on the competition for land conservation against the process of urbanisation.

2.4.3.2

The declining countryside

This kind of area, still according to the DATAR, represents 19.8 % of the ‘cantons’ and 1/3 of the national territory. Usually, it combines three handicaps : low density of population, mono-activity and negative demographic evolution. Two kinds of areas can be distinguished. There are the agricultural areas with aged population. They are located in and around the Massif Central, in Aquitaine and in the Pyrenees, and in Central Brittany. Those areas suffer hard physical conditions and could not convert to the modern agriculture (Jenkins, Hall and Troughton, 1998). They are not competitive anymore. The population is declining, like the agriculture or the

services. Living conditions are not very good and there are a lot of empty houses. The second type of regions is more characterized by a declining industry like in the
12

Administrative division of the département that is composed of one or more municipalities (Wikipedia encyclopaedia)

31

North and North East of the country. Population density is higher but the unemployment rate is high.

2.4.3.3

The new countryside

The ‘new countryside’ is compound of territories that managed to develop by themselves through endogenous projects or to adapt to the needs of productive economy. These territories have a diversified econo my and are attracting residents as well as tourists since they are developing rural tourism activities. They represent 7.4 % of the ‘cantons’ but there is a great potential for many territories to move to this category and this is the challenge of the pub lic policies to give to a majority of territories the opportunity to achieve this development. The appeal of these ‘cantons’ is based on a good quality of life. It attracts French people and foreigners, retired and young people that may have some difficulties to find a job in the area. The tourism activity brings important revenue to these communities.

2.5 Evolution of the perceptions of the countryside and consequences for the development of rural tourism

After having explored what kind of rural areas can be found in France, it seems to be relevant to understand what is the place given to rural tourism. The analysis of the evolution of the perceptions of the countryside shows partly how rural tourism has taken such an importance in France.

The social function of the countryside has evolved with the image of rural areas, resulting in the current situation. The countryside is today the first tourist destination in France with 36 % of the stays in 2002. In the past, even if writers and artists had been inspired by it, the countryside had always been seen as boring, very rude and poor, with no facilities. It is only since the middle of the 20th century that the countryside has become interesting for tourism. It corresponds to the period following the rural exodus and the beginning of tourism. People native from rural

32

6 Tourism as a tool for local development 2. The growing interest in rural areas is not only dedicated to the natural environment but also to the people living there. 2004). It was a cheap tourism. 2004). In the late eighties. That is why the countryside is so fashionable for holidays. 33 . isolated and archaic (Torrente et al. The only problem that can be raised is the false perception that tourists and urban people have from the countryside. Nevertheless. “people may want development and employment but many also want traditional images of the countryside to be retained”. There is an opposition between the modernisation of rural areas and the traditional values that people expect from them. The saturation of mass tourism resorts and the need of being recognized brought the tourist to change its practices for more ecological.. after 1968. This literature analysis shows the different points of view of the writers on this theme. the countryside became interesting not as a cheap destination but as a chosen one . It is the beginning of nostalgia. cultural and small-scale activities. the importance of rural tourism can also be explained by the fact that it has been seen by the governments as a way to help rural areas to develop.6. to the knowhow developed.1 Challenges and opportunities If the trend of rural tourism can partly be explained by the fact that its image represents what tourists need and want.areas were coming back to visit their family. As noted by Jenkins and Hall (1998). the modernity myth is questioned to rural values. People are starting to feel the need of finding their roots and of being closer to the authenticity that urban stressing life has moved away (Torrente et al. since the values and rurality they are looking for have disappeared. while the population is concentrated in the cities. The countryside was perceived as unfriendly. People are more and more nostalgic and m and more attracted by anything reminding ore them of the past.. to the buildings and to everything recalling the past. 2.

to encourage the development of other industrial sectors […]. Tourism is not necessarily the 34 . employment and growth.All writers agree to say that tourism is considered as a tool in rural development in western countries (e. For instance. is a popular response to restructuring processes” . Jenkins. In France. Hall. often developed with at least some recognition of the potential of rural tourism. 1998.g. many policies aims at helping territories to enter in an endogenous development process. as showing by Marsden. 1998). Lowe and Whatmore (1993) when they wrote “Rural development policy. At European level as well as at national level. 1998) The final objective of rural tourism development is the increase of quality of life for local residents through the achievement of social and economic goals. The tools of the governments to achieve these goals are policy instruments that can influence the actions of the economic agents by providing financial incentives for appropriate behaviour or disincentives for inappropriate ones (Hall and Jenkins. Jenkins. to contribute to the conservation of environmental and cultural resources […]” (Hall. etc). tourism has been used as a tool for rural development. to contribute to local resident amenities and services […]. The LEADER initiative is a demonstration of this strategy. Tourism is used to achieve several goals that can be: “to sustain and create local income. to contribute to the costs of providing economic and social infrastructure […]. the policy of the Pays d’Accueil Touristiques wants to develop a tourism based on the development of local resources. Rural tourism projects are used as an impetus to federate local agents and residents around a common project. The policy of the ‘Pays’ has also the objective of bringing the territory to a process of endogenous development. The goal is to deve lop an endogenous process that can lead the territory to find the means to develop by itself.

but also “a s a member of the local community and potential beneficiary of the expected collective development” (Thibal. 1988). Houée (1989) has got the same point of view and insists on the fact that initiatives are coming from the awareness that local community have of the problem. Tourism is part of a global process of improvement of the quality of life. He insists on the fact that “in many ways. The territory of the ‘Pays’ is chosen according to the cultural and economic unity of the place (Loi d’Otientation sur l’Aménagement et le Développement Durable du Territoire. Moreover. The strength of rural tourism as a tool for development is that it is based on the natural and human environment of the countryside . tourism can gather the different agents around a common project. it is a way to potentially involve every inhabitant. Keane (2000) explains that “ heart of the rural development problem is the the lack of economic diversity”. for the tourists as well as for the residents. Being a crossdisciplinary activity.central aspect of this policy since the development policy of the ‘Pays’ is based on a cross-disciplinary approach that mixes the potential of different economic sectors in order to put the territory in a homogenous process of development. Indeed. Tourism is most of the time part of this cross-disciplinary process since the local development agents consider tourism as a tool for development. It is not based on an administrative segmentation (LOADDT. the development of rural tourism not only leads to the improvement of the structures for the tourists. Moreover. Diversification brings stability and growth to the community. if a territory is more attractive for tourists. Rural tourism is part of local development. it will also be more attractive for new and current residents. 35 . 1999). this law brings the aspect of sustainability that shows the conscience of the importance of the preservation of the environment. A special event often triggers the process of local development. development is something that occurs because of necessity”. not only because he can have a project. LOADDT. It is based on local resources. 1999).

and the spending is lower than in other type of tourism. 36 . They presented rural tourism as a kind of miracle that could do everything for disadvantaged rural areas. like the governments or the European Union. etc. measuring the tourism potential of the territory. It is possible to read everywhere in the official documents of the governments’ authorities that rural tourism is an incredible tool for helping rural areas to get out of the crisis by which they have been affected for years. Rural tourism can actually be a tool for rural development but under some conditions that have to be clearly defined to avoid over-estimation of the potential of tourism. In spite of this apparently very positive view. This situation led to the failure of many projects due to lack of preparation.market accommodations.2. create jobs and. did not insist enough from the beginning on the importance of planning.2. the majority of the stays in rural areas are done in non. the specialists reacted by explaining the different negative impacts rural tourism can have if it is not developed well. social and environmental point of view.6. Tourism authorities. realism and planning. social and environmental negative impacts After having explained how tourism can be a tool for development. it is important to see the negative impacts that tourism can also have from an economic.2 Economic. After having realized the negative repercussions of this official line. 2. […] promote the socio-economic development of disadvantaged areas” (LEADER. the balance of this initiative is mixed. 1995).1 Mitigated economic repercussions “The benefits from tourism are equal if not greater than the benefits from other economic activities” affirms Keane (2000). However. the problem of economic repercussions has to be stated. It is supposed that rural tourism can “retain the population.6. Indeed.

2001). Tourism has to be developed in a controlled way so that it stays representative of what the area is. In the next chapter will be determined the hypotheses stated on the basis of the literature review and the methodology necessary to check them and to achieve to goal of knowing if and how tourism can be a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze.2. 2. However.2 Social repercussions of tourism From the social point of view the objective of developing tourism is to reinforce the attractiveness and the identity of the area for residents as well as for tourists by a development based on local resources and on the population participation. 37 .6. some examples show that instead of reinforcing these aspects. as well as its traditions. if tourism is developed for the tourists and not at all for the local residents. The literature review is a tool to understand the different points of view of experts. it will lead to conflicts between them and the tourists and to loss of identity. Indeed.2. tourism can lead to a loss of identity (Bossuet.7 Conclusion: This literature review gives an overall image of rural tourism as a tool for development in rural less favoured areas. It gives a basis for the specific analysis of a rural area: Haute-Corrèze.

It is also possible that the hypotheses are falsified if it appears that tourism is a tool for development whereas the situation does no t conform to the criteria. METHODOLOGY 3.Chapter 3. Of course. different hypotheses representing the key factors for achieving this goal will be stated. Hypotheses about the key factors for tourism to be a tool for development and falsification The objective of the research being to know if and how tourism can be a tool for local development in Haute-Corrèze. it will not be done through a questionnaire but through the analysis of data already gathered by local and regional agencies. The aim of the study is oriented on the way by which tourism can federate local population around a project in order to put the territory in a self-development process.Approach of the topic: The goal of this research is not to find out how to increase the number of tourists in Haute-Corrèze. The practical part of the research will aim at checking if the territory answers to this list of criteria and if not. Secondary and primary data will be used to answer this question. what could be the means to use to change the situation. but to know if and how tourism can be used as a tool for local development. 3. However. That is why one part of the study will be dedicated to the study of the demand side. if the territory does not attract any tourists. tourism cannot be used.1. 38 .2.

it gives a good image of the territory.2. The concept of quality is difficult to define.1. Sub-hypothesis I: Importance of the awareness of local agents of the problems of the area The awareness of local agents of the problems of the area is the first factor that can put the territory in a development process.3. Sub-hypothesis II: Importance of quality Quality is seen by the European Union (LEADER. who can fund and promote it.2. It has to meet the requirements of the customers. These sub. It is true that quality is important to increase the number of tourists. 2001).1.1. However. travellers are always more aware of what they want. local agents will tend to become leaders. Their 3. Moreover.1. being aware that there is a problem is not sufficient to be able to find the means to solve it. the development of tourism in a community depends on people who understand the importance of tourism. 1995) as one of the major components of the success of rural tourism. A good quality means that tourism professionals know their customers and are involved in the tourism development process. If they are aware of the problems and want to change the situation.2.hypotheses are confirmed by Wilson et al. Indeed. Indeed. (2001). 3. this stage is the starting point of any development process.2. They have more experience and are fed up with mass tourism. 39 . They want to be closer to the nature and to have a better quality during the ir holidays. As Houée (1989) says. Hypothesis I: the territory and the tourism sector have to be in a local development process A list of sub-hypotheses can be drawn on the basis of the main hypothesis. enthusiasm is crucial for the success of tourism (Wilson et al.

the population is the best ambassador of its territory. Butler. Sub-hypothesis III: Importance of co-ordination Co-ordination i a key factor for the success of tourism as a tool for development. tourism can not be a tool for development. Bossuet.4.2.1. it is important for rural tourism to be supported by a community structure.).5. Moreover.1.2. Sub-hypothesis IV: importance of the federation of the different stakeholders Without federation.3. 3. it will give a great dynamism to the territory and will improve its image towards the tourists. All the other factors are important but nothing can be done without co-ordination and partnerships. To achieve its objectives of local development. a tourism project will have difficulties to develop if the population does not agree with it: If the population can 40 . Writers agree to say that co-ordination is a major component of the success of rural tourism (Keane. If local people understand the interest of developing tourism and are involved in it. co-ordination is what allows the different agents of the territory to work together to develop a coherent project for the territory.2. tourism can be a tool for development. The co-ordination of tourism projects can be done by an agency created especially for that purpose or by an agency already present on the territory and able to play this role. If there is no leader from a local development support structure.1. In this way. s Indeed. Federation is what makes people working together and what put them in an endogenous development process. It is linked to the federation of the different actors of the territory.3. as a cross-disciplinary sector can lead to the federation of tourism and non-tourism agents and even the local population. 3. etc. Actually. Tourism. it will be impossible to put the territory in a progress and development logic. Sub-hypothesis V: importance of the participation of local population Participation of local population is also an important factor. that can federate the different stakeholders of the tourism sector on the territory.

Hypothesis II: the tourism potential of the territory has to be important enough The measurement of the potential of the territory is essential for the success of rural tourism. It is a tool to improve tourism and other aspects of the territory. secondary data give the background of the research and allows to establish a list of criteria that define the way in which tourism can be used for rural development.3. the population will feel better and proud of its territory. It consists of reviewing the literature written on the topic chosen (Veal. Literature review: The literature review allows to enter into the topic and to be aware of the different issues of the theme. Moreover. it can also be the worst enemy of tourism development if it does not subscribe to the project. It is obvious that if the territory does not have the potential to develop tourism. This information is necessary to implement the case study.1.3. 1997). it will not be possible to use tourism as a tool for rural development. rural development and tourism as a tool for rural development. The literature reviewed gives information about rural tourism.2.2. 3. Secondary data: Secondary data research is the first step of any research process. If the territory is developed. the study of the tourism potential allows to highlight the general strengths and weaknesses of the territory. In this study.be the best ambassador of its territory. 3. Veal (1997) explains that secondary data are “data which already exist and which were collected for some other purpose but which can be used a second time in the current project” 3. 41 .

3. 1997). depending on the purpose of the research. context helps to know how tourism should be organised and developed. Primary data: Primary data are data for which “the researcher is the primary user” (Veal.The types of sources used are: data available from organisations data available from the Internet data available from guidebooks data available from academic books and journals 3. Different ways exist to collect these data.4. The definition of the territory and its limits shows that this territory is particularly involved in an endogenous local development process. etc. at least in theory.2. to define its limits. the demography. 3. These data allow to set up the background of the territory of Haute-Corrèze. Some surveys are also specialized in the tourism sector and give information about tourism resources and about the customers. This The concrete observation then helps to know the differences between theory and practice. 42 . Secondary data about Haute-Corrèze: Many studies and surveys were collected as a base for the case study. to justify its organisation. The two main approaches are the quantitative and the qualitative ones. They give general information about the economy. their motivations and the characteristics of their frequentation.

to a certain extent.3. If quantitative research is rejected for this study. these data are not always reliable since it concerns some territories sometimes bigger or smaller that the area studied.4. Indeed. it could be used to complete this research in further investigations. Quantitative versus qualitative data collection Qualitative research is appropriate for getting in-depth information from a small number of people. Qualitative data collection: In-depth interviews: This research is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of tourism service suppliers’ representatives and local tourism and development agents. the basis for further research and maybe for quantitative ones. to know if they have entered in a development process. quantitative research does not give enough space to develop opinions and the way the surveys could influence the answer of the respondent.4. the goal is to understand if the territory of Haute-Corrèze can use tourism as a tool for development.2. available on the topic and on the territory. Another reason for having conducted a qualitative research is that quantitative data are already. what is the place given to tourism on the territory and finally to draw the means that could be used to improve the current situation. It has been decided to interview tourism service suppliers’ representatives because it would be 43 . the quantitative research is. Of course. However. 3. Qualitative research presents some disadvantages and difficulties. like Veal (1997) explains. In the context of this research.1. That is why it is important to interview some of the main tourism agents of the territory to understand their opinion about the real situation of the territory. This limitation is taken into account in the research and the combination of different sources allows to give more reliable results. Data are less easy to compare and to analyse than with quantitative research. Moreover. data are collected from a smaller number of person and can not be used for statistical analysis. particularly in the analysis stage.

Interview design The interviews are conducted in the semi.1.2. due to the length of the interviews. to interview all the suppliers and these representatives can give a general opinion of what think the suppliers.4. that is to say that the questions broach the different themes of interest and lead to broad and open discussions during the interview. what are the results of this strategy.4. 3.impossible. o what could be improved in term of tourism infrastructures. organisation. The interviews can last between one and a half and two hours.2.structured way.2. - Interviews with representatives of shopkeepers and tourism services providers aim at knowing: o the image they have of their territory. why or why not. The interviewees give their opinion on the current situation of the tourism sector in Haute-Corrèze. Aims of the research The objectives of these interviews are different according to the category of people interviewed: - Interviews with local tourism and development agents aim at knowing: o if tourism is part of the future projects. why or why not. o if they organise on the territory some partnerships in order to develop coherent policies. o the place of tourism on the territory. o if they feel involved in the tourism development process launched by tourism agents. o if they work in partnership with their colleagues 3. The purpose of using this kind of method is to let the interviewee talk 44 . o what they are expecting from the tourism policy of the territory.

Interviews directed to local tourism and development agents are designed in the following way: o Questions about the territory: the questions and the discussion are argued by the data obtained about the territory o Questions about the tourism activity: the questions and the discussion are argued by the data obtained about tourism in Haute-Corrèze o Questions about organisation and planning of tourism in HauteCorrèze.3. Appointments have been taken with some of them. according to their different missions. the agents advised to go and see other people because they thought they could bring other relevant information and a different approach of the topic. 45 . Selection of the sample The sample has been selected after the evaluation of the different tourism agents of Haute-Corrèze. The interview starts with an explanation of the context of the research and with some general questions to create a suitable atmosphere.4. This structure can vary according to the profession of the people interviewed.and not to close him in a scheme of question/answer. During the interviews. o Questions about their degree of implication in this development and of cooperation with other tourism agents. 3. Two different models of interviews are designed according to the people targeted.2. - Interviews directed to representatives of tourism service suppliers are designed in the following way: o Questions about their feeling about tourism development and organisation in Haute-Corrèze.

the research is more reliable. Federation for the Pays Haute-Corrèze => Ms Savary. Bach. Tourist Office of Meymac => Ms Bonelly. polyvalent agent. For the tourism service suppliers and the shopkeepers’ representatives. Committee for the Working Area of Ussel => Ms Lacouture. Conseil Général of Corrèze => Ms Bordes. permanent employee. president of the departmental chain “Logis de France” => Hotel ** Logis de France “Les Gravades”. president. Saint Dézery o Ms Fay. director of the NRP è No interview because the interviewee had no time for it. in charge of tourism development. the selection would have been oriented. in charge of Local Development. in charge of the creation and organisation of the Pays. With a randomly selected sample. they were selected according to the sector they represented. hotel manager. It could have been possible to ask the advice of the agents of local organism but then. Tourist Office of Ussel and Union of the Tourist Offices of Haute-Corrèze => Mr. president of the Union of Correzian Hotels and Restaurants => Hotel ** “ Les Voyageurs”. in charge of the animation of the structure. Chassagne. Meymac o Mr. Natural Regional Park => Ms Dubosclard. è No interview because the interviewee had no time for it. Tourism Departmental Committee (TDC) => Mr Constanti. in charge of the promotion. Fraysse. Deschamps. The list of representatives of tourism service suppliers interviewed is the following: Hotel and restaurant business representatives: o Mr. hotel manager. hotel manager => Hotel ** “Le Meymacois”. 46 . Tarnac.The list of tourism agents interviewed is the following: Chamber of Commerce and Industry => Mr.

3. 3. - Shopkeepers representative: o No shopkeepers’ association in any town of Haute-Corrèze. This analysis will be divided into two parts. Secondary data about the territory are analysed 47 .5. the first one being the analysis of the HauteCorrèze tourism potential in terms of tourism facilities and the second being the analysis of the tourism organisation and relationships between the stakeholders in Haute-Corrèze. The second stage if a tourism diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze. It is also important to take into account external data such as the trends and possible opportunities and threats that could affect tourism on the area.Analysis of the tourism potential of the territory The tourism potential of a territory is not so easy to evaluate. Bordes. It consists of an evaluation of the territory resources. in charge of the departmental association of the brand “Gîtes de France”.1.5. of the supply and the demand sides to see if they match and of the organisation of tourism on the territory. how this situation could change. Discussion of the results: The purpose of this research is to establish a diagnosis of the tourism sector in HauteCorrèze in order to know if tourism can be used as a tool for development or. - Camping sites representative: o Departmental Association of the Correzian Camping sites è on holiday during the summer. if not.- Gîtes owners representative: o Mr. The first stage is the realisation of a territorial diagnosis that allows to understand the problems and strengths of the territory. The analysis of the research will consist in a comparison between the different data obtained about the territory in order to establish a tourism diagnosis and a SWOT (Strengths / Weaknesses / Opportunities / Threats) analysis of the touristic situation of the territory. impossible to have an interview.

This scheme shows the way to approach the diagnosis and the following scheme shows how will be studied the different aspects of this diagnosis: 48 .in order to make a SWOT analysis about the tourism potential of the territory in terms of resources and demand. Figure 3: Evaluation of the local touristic potential Analysis of demand Analysis of competition Analysis of supply The situation in the tourism sector Analysis of strengths / weaknesses Analysis of opportunities / risks Analysis of trends Source: adapted from LEADER II. A methodology is proposed by LEADER II proposes a scheme that shows all what has to be studied to make a diagnosis of territory. Evaluating a territory’s touristic potential.

The NRP Charter . Documentary research and analysis On the basis of existing studies and reports from: .The Pays Charter .The Federation of Gîtes de France .Figure 4: Methodology for the case study ANALYSIS OF THE SUPPLY AND COMPETITION ANALYSIS OF THE DEMAND TWO METHODS : Documentary research and analysis On the basis of existing studies and reports from: .The tourism ministry .The TDC (Tourism Departmental Committee) . TOURISM DIAGNOSIS OF HAUTE-CORREZE Source: author’s own.The TRC (Tourism Regional Committee) .The TDC (tourism departmental committee) .Touristic brochures .The Federation of Gîtes de France . Interviews realized in July 2004. 49 .Etc.The departmental union of tourist offices . Interviews realized in July 2004.The tourist offices Interviews with tourism agents and professionals Face to face in-depth interviews with 12 tourism agents. ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM ORGANISATION Interviews with tourism agents and professionals Face to face in-depth interviews with 12 tourism agents.

The research is focused on the area of HauteCorrèze. as it is suggested by the literature review. 50 . an observation of the territory is done trough the analysis of interviews in order to evaluate the organisation of the supply side and of the organisational part of the tourism sector in the area. The information collected is classified according to the different topics broached. tourism can be a tool for development. 1997) and then the sub-questions. on the basis of the notes taken. The methodology used is a combination of secondary data collection in books. in a critical way and compared with the theoretical criteria of local development. tourist guides and primary data collection with interviews. This classification simplifies the analysis. technical reports. It allows to establish a territorial and a tourism diagnosis that are presented in the following chapter.5. when the questions are similar. If the answer to those questions does not correspond to a favourable situation. The data is analysed. 3.2. Primary data will not be exactly compared since the questions were not necessarily the same for the different interviewees. that is to say with the hypotheses to see if tourism is currently a tool for local development. First the original question is considered (Veal. Interviews were given by different kinds of actors in order to have different approaches on the question of tourism as a tool for development. the answers will be compared. a reflection will be engaged on the means to employ in order to change this situation.3. The last chapter presents the conclusions of this study. Specific analysis of the organisation of tourism on the territory A list of hypotheses is elaborated at the beginning of this chapter on the basis of the literature review. This last part will be done in the last chapter of the research work. Thanks to these hypotheses. However.6 Conclusion The goal of this study is to establish if.

It is a Pays. of its geographic. Moreover. It will finally allow to elaborate a SWOT analysis of the territory. Haute-Corrèze is a specific area located in the Limousin French region. Indeed. in relation with tourism. It will allow to understand the specificities of the territory. This chapter aims at giving the context for tourism development in Haute-Corrèze. geographic or cultural issues. according to the Loi d’Urbanisme et d’Habitat of 2003. in the Eastern part of the Corrèze département. demographical. That is why this chapter is dedicated to the study of the general characteristics of Haute-Corrèze. . The Pays is.Chapitre 4 HAUTE-CORREZE TERRITORIAL DIAGNOSIS 4.1 Introduction Rural areas are diverse and a specific study is necessary to understand each rural area. tourism is a cross-disciplinary sector and it influences and is influenced by all the other aspects of the territory. “a territory 51 .2 What is a ‘Pays’? The Pays is a French initiative developed to encourage local development initiatives in disadvantaged rural areas. equipment and socio-economic characteristics. 4. either socio-economic. tourism is not the only activity of the territory and it is important to have a global vision of Haute-Corrèze in order to realise a good tourism diagnosis.In the following paragraphs the notion of Pays is explained before a general presentation of the territory. It takes place in the context of the general decentralisation policy started up in the early eighties by the French government.

with low temperature and snow. The average size of the Pays already created is 80 to 100 municipalities. on the basis of a territorial diagnosis.that presents a geographical. economic or social cohesion at the scale of a labour market area or a living area”. through the constitution of the development council and the elaboration of the development charter of the Pays. The most important key factor for the success of the Pays is the mobilisation of the different stakeholders . The development council represents the different stakeholders of the Pays and constitutes the working structure of the Pays.6 % of the Corrèze département. The key element is that a Pays is the expression of an identity. The Pays is created by the municipalities.3 Geographic presentation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze is located in the western part of the Massif Central. The Spring and Autumn are often wet and the summer mild. The next paragraph presents the perimeter of the Pays and its geographic specificities. The Pays covers 2 141. the departmental.28 km². regional and national authorities. 4. It is the framework for the elaboration of a common project of sustainable development. A Pays is often created to answer to a need for local development. cultural. It is a region of low mountains and plateaus where the climate is hard during the winter. It cannot be invented. The charter is validated by the municipalities. 52 . There is no limit of size. The Pays is not a new administrative grade . It is based on intermunicipal links that are a specificity of France due to the high number of municipalities (36 000). 36. The development charter expresses the orientations that the stakeholders want to give to the Pays and the actions they want to lead.

6 % of the Corrèze population. Egletons. First of all. The unity of an area is often not sufficient to allow a decision of that importance. The main cities are Ussel with 10 753 inhabitants. Bort. Political opinions and rivalries have to be taken into account and often slow down the process. a lack of visibility for new inhabitants.4. This situation poses a problem for the implementation of the charter. resulting from this competition. from the Fédération du Pays Haute-Corrèze already deplores the lack of communication between the two structures. Besides. with 4 087 inhabitants. 18.les-Orgues with 3 534 inhabitants and Meymac with 2 627 inhabitants. it shows that it is not so easy to define an area that presents “a geographical. a lack of cooperation ending up in a redundancy of the actions proposed. 53 . then a competition between the two structures and also. cultural. the Pays is partly situated on the territory of the Millevaches Natural Regional Park (NPR). Mrs Savary. It is composed of 83 municipalities and of 43 130 inhabitants. This situation presents some risks for the Pays. economic or social cohesion at the scale of a labour market area or a living area” like the law explains. Moreover.3. Two areas are studied for the constitution of the Pays since another Pays might be created in the western part of Haute-Corrèze.1 Perimeter of the territory The Haute-Corrèze Pays is situated in the Eastern part of the Corrèze département and of the Limousin region.

Figure 5: Localisation of Haute-Corrèze THE CORREZE DEPARTEMENT FRANCE HAUTE CORREZE Sources: CPIE Corrèze. CDT Corrèze. 54 .

3. is the river Dordogne and its barrages (Fédération of the Pays. Haute-Corrèze has always been marked by water. 2003/2005 4. Water is 55 .2 Importance of water in the culture of the pays Historically.Figure 6: Federation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze . In the Northern part is the “Pays de Millevaches” that means Pays of 1000 sources and in the southern part. 2004).list of municipalities Source: Pays Haute-Corrèze pratique.

The table of evolution of the population by ‘canton’ shows the importance of this problem. marked by three valleys: The Dordogne Valley in the south. 4. In the south.3 Two geographical entities in the Pays Protected and listed natural areas mark the landscapes. at the beginning of the Massif Central.3. 4. These entities are two fragile rural areas separated by the A89 highway as shows the map of the previo us page. the landscape is marked by the valleys and gorges of the Dordogne river. The Vézère Valley in the north. Here can be found the pick of the département: the Bessou Mount (986 meters).one of the elements that expresses better the identity of the Pays. Two strong geographical identities can be distinguished: In the north. the Millevaches plateau.4 Demographic characteristics The demographic characteristics of the Pays are worrying for two reasons: the depopulation and the age of the population. 56 . The Corrèze Valley in the north.

This drop is caused by a deficit of birth not sufficiently compensated by the arrivals of new inhabitants.47 % -3. 13 INSEE 57 .41 % -0.11.65 % . The average population density varies from 3 to 235 inhabitants per km². Most of the rural and urban municipalities have lost population. It decreased by 6.24 % -4.64 % -9.76 % -6.08 % -2.8 % -9.Figure 7: Evolution of the population in Haute-Corrèze between 1990 and 1999 Cantons Bort-les-Orgues Bugeat Elgetons Eygurande Lapleau Meymac Neuvic Sornac Ussel Total Years of census 1990 5 838 2 542 7 365 3 125 1 883 4 772 3 829 2 767 13 900 46 021 1999 5 149 2 295 6 876 2 829 1 825 4 657 3 804 2 456 13 239 43 130 -11.28 % between 1990 and 199913 .72 % -6.28 % Evolution Source: adapted from the Pays’ Charter The demographic evo lution is negative.

Figure 8: Population pyramid Source: Pays’ Charter According to the data of the CDCE (Departmental Committee of the Economic Chambers) and the study of the population pyramid shows that 40 % of the population is composed of people over 60 years of age. Depopulation is stronger in the municipalities where infrastructures and socioeconomic activities are the less numerous. The Millevaches Plateau is suffering important problems of desertification14 . 58 . 14 See Appendix 1: Distribution and densities of population in Haute-Corrèze. People of less than 15 are a minority: only 20 % of the population and they are localised in the two urban centres of Ussel and Egletons.

Eygurande and Bugeat. The problem for the tourism activity is that it can prevent people from stopping in Haute-Corrèze. Lapleau. Limoges and Brive). Meymac.5.5 Equipment and infrastructures 4.2 Equipment INSEE has calculated on the basis of a list of 36 equipments 16 . Neuvic. To remedy to this threat. the level of landlocking of the municipalities of the Pays. 15 16 See Appendix 2: Map of the rail network in Corrèze See Appendix 3: List of elements used by the INSEE to establish the landlocking level of the territory 59 .5. the Pays is really landlocked 15 . Concerning the rail and bus networks. The municipalities are linked by a good communication network. the Conseil Général of the département and the TDC have opened a modern and attractive touristic information centre in the rest area of the motorway.1 Accessibility The territory is structured around three main urban centres: Ussel. The territory looks really dependent on the regional metropolis. 4. Another important trunk road is the motorway A89 that crosses the territory from west to east linking Bordeaux to Lyon. Other important centres are the county towns: Sornac.4. It also makes the Pays closer to 3 airports (Clermont-Ferrand. Égletons and Bortles-Orgues. It is considered as a way to open up the Pays by the development charter.

5. eve n if the south and the east are also lacking of equipment. 10 % of the number of houses of the Pays.Figure 9: Level of equipment of the Pays Source: Charter of the Pays. this number reaches 2 638 houses. Equipments are concentrated in the most important cities of the Pays. linked to the depopulation is the high number of empty houses. it is easy to notice that the north-west of the Pays is less equipped than the rest of the territory. 60 . 4.3 Housing One of the major problems of the Pays. The low quality and comfort of the houses is also a problem since they do not correspond to the requirements of the demanders. According to the Pays’ charter. converted in attraction and activity poles. The ability of the territory to house new inhabitants is important but the process is slowed down by the reluctance of the owners to rent their houses. This issue is crucial for achieving the main goal of the Pays: welcoming new inhabitants. On the map.

This leads to the closure of the landscapes. In 2001. Forests occupy a great proportion of the territory. the unemployment rate was of 6 % of the population. The average rate of working population is 41.6. In some municipalities. It can be explained by the bigger size of the farms and also by the fact that 30 % of the farmers are more than 50 years old and do not have anyone to take over from them. it can reach 70 % of the territory. If agriculture is a major activity for the territory.1 Social characteristics The number of seniors is in constantly rising. Diversification in agri-tourism keeps being marginal. 4.8 %).2.6 Socio-economic characteristics 4.55 % of the Pays of which 44 % are women and 56 % are men.2 Types of economic activities 46 % of the firms of the Pays are located in the municipalities of Ussel and Égletons . 61 . Forestry is also an important activity. It is due to the specific climate of the area and to the decrease of agriculture that lets the forest invade the former fields.6.1 Agriculture Agriculture represents one of the major activities of the Pays. it suffers some problems such as the decrease in the number of farms .4. Another problem is the lack of diversification of agriculture . 4. It is based on cattle breeding and milk production. This figure is lower than the national average (8.6.

Moreover. working centres for handicapped people. 62 .4. services The number of craftsmen has decreased slightly during the 10 last years. etc. above all in the most rural areas. industry. 4. It is dynamic sector in Haute-Corrèze that ha s to be preserved. Neuvic and Meymac. the development of supermarkets means less frequentation for local shops. Dynamic craft industry. - Good road network that makes good links between the different areas of the territory.7. Local shops are suffering a difficult evolution.7 SWOT analysis 4.86 % in the number of businesses since 1995. old people’s home. Desertification of these areas and ageing of population lead to the closure of many shops and services. there is a decrease of 7. Egletons. 1720 people are working in this sector. Low unemployment rate.1 Strengths of the territory that can have an influence on tourism - Quality of the living environment. For the other activities. Quality of the natural and built rural heritage that can be developed for a bigger attraction.6. The service sector is marked by a high number of social services: hospital.2 Commerce. craft industry. The companies are mostly located in the municipalities of Ussel. The branch more represented of commercial and industrial firms is hotel business with nearly 20 % of the businesses.2. - Many villages and urban centres with a good quality of infrastructures.

3 Opportunities that can have an influence on tourism - The motorway will contribute to reduce the isolation of the territory. from regional urban centres = lack of attractiveness. loss of the rural environment. - Important capacity to welcome new inhabitants in terms of housing if the owners open their mind to it and if a renovation policy is settled. - Worrying depopulation and ageing population = lack of dynamism.tourism. inability to diversify the activity. - Reduction of the number of farms = closure of the landscape. 4. 63 . - Lack of a strong urban centre that could help the Pays to develop = lack of dynamism. - No specific product in the territory = it is important to have some to develop rural tourism. Important isolation of the territory from railway networks. Lack of local shops in the more rural areas = difficulty to develop tourism in such conditions.7. Lack of cooperation between the Pays and the Natural Regional Park of Millevaches. by linking it with big metropolis and allowing installations of new businesses. - Lack of employment and of ability of the firms to develop themselves = lack of dynamism. - Low population density = difficulty to attract people. - Lack of services for businesses = less firms.4. - Lack of diversification of agriculture toward agri.7. less inhabitants and less dynamism.2 Weaknesses of the territory that can have an influence on tourism - Climate sometimes not attractive and that gives a bad image of the territory.

8 Conclusion The general characteristics of the Pays have an influence on the tourism activity. the tourism sector will be analysed. territorial diagnosis has been realised. If the situation of depopulation goes on. 4.4 Threats that can have an influence on tourism - The motorway can prevent potential tourists to cross the territory. It could lead to a total closure of the landscapes and to a decrease of the attractiveness of the Pays. it will prevent any tourism development. 4. tourism is a transversal sector that influences and is influenced by all the other socio-economic. Now a 64 .7. Indeed. - A threat for the quality of the landscapes is the increase proportion of forest on the territory. - Intermunicipal cooperation have an influence on the financial and human resources available for tourism development.- Creation of the Natural Regional Park of Millevaches: opportunities of cooperation and partnerships for tourism actions. natural and cultural specificity of the territory.

The last part of this diagnosis is the evaluation of the tourism and territorial organisation of the territory. 17 Chocat. That is why the analysis of tourism in Haute-Corrèze is essential to know if tourism can be a tool for development. National regional and local authorities are using this opportunity to turn tourism into a tool for development in rural areas. Indeed. HAUTE-CORREZE TOURISM DIAGNOSIS 5. Comité Régional du Tourisme.1.2.Chapitre 5. that is the administrative region where HauteCorrèze is located. France. Limousin. Limoges. (2004) Chiffres clés 2003 du tourisme en Limousin. 65 . the touristic aspects will now be analysed in order to know what are the resources and markets of the territory and how they are exploited. This is a very important issue to understand the ability of Haute-Corrèze to use tourism as a tool for development. The goal of this diagnosis is to know what the current situation is in Haute-Corrèze. After the general analysis of the territory in the previous chapter. The territory resources The following map shows the distribution of natural and cultural heritage on the territory. 5. Introduction In France rural areas are considered as touristic places since they answer to several requirements of tourists for their holidays (see Chapter II).. C. is the less touristic of the French regions with only 1 % of the tourist nights 17 .

this heritage is diffuse on the territory.1.2.Figure 10: Distribution of heritage in the Corrèze département HAUTECORREZE Source: CDCE 5. The great majority of the territory consists in natural landscapes with beautiful sceneries and specific flora and fauna. Its quality has been recognized by its listing as a natural area with fauna and flora of special interest. As shows the map above. Natural resources 18 Nature is the major asset of Haute-Corrèze. There is also a will to develop it as a tourism attraction through bike rides. hiking or pony treks. Natural heritage has to be preserved and that is the goal of this listing. Several hiking trails cross the territory: 18 See Appendix 4: List of natural heritage in Haute-Corrèze 66 .

The Transcorrezian that follows the itinerary of the Tacot. There is no touristic product on the water theme. The paths have to be well kept in order to give a good image of the territory and it is generally the case. It is developed a little through nautical activities around the lakes and through hiking and fishing around the area of the rivers. The owners are not always aware of the importance of these aspects since they only have small parcels and do not want to invest in it. this development keeps being limited and lacks of promotion and organisation. the forests can be a problem since they are not always well-kept and may give a bad image of the territory. a former steam train linking Tulle to Ussel.- The GR 46 that links Vassivière to Rocamadour and crosses the Millevaches Plateau. 19 See Appendix 5: List of the most frequented sites of Haute-Corrèze 67 . - The GR 440 that crosses the Limousin Mountains. The creation of the Natural Regional Park of Millevaches Limousin is an opportunity to develop the attractiveness of nature in the region thanks to the products the Park can develop and to the fame of Natural Regional Parks. it represents an important potential since water is responsible for the majority of the frequentation of Haute-Corrèze 19 . However. There is an important presence of water on the territory that is one of the main components of its identity and of its touristic resources. However. - The GRP (Pays Hiking Trails) between the Dordogne River and Ventadour. However. cyclo-tourism has an important potential for development in Haute-Corrèze with its terrain changing from valleys to mountains. In addition to hiking. - Tourist offices and local associations propose other paths for shorter hiking.

town councils are not aware of the importance of tourism and do not want to give money for it. This comes from the fact that. crosses. These structures and the animation departments of the municipalities are proposing animations and exhibitions targeting at the same time local people and tourists.2. 20 21 See map above and Appendix 6: List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze See Appendix 6: List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze 68 . The built heritage The built heritage is mainly vernacular.2. Moreover. Animations and festivals The Pays is equipped with good cultural structures.2. Here is an example of such an initiative: theatre courses and performances held in the historic site of the Car’s ruims during the summer time.1. 5. It makes the heritage interest of the territory less remarkable for tourists. It can be an asset since all the territory can potentially benefit from tourism. This heritage is well spread on the whole territory. this cultural heritage suffers from problems of accessibility and clarity. often compound of churches.5.2. mills characteristic of life in Haute-Corrèze. Cultural resources are not developed enough from a tourism point of view even if efforts are done in some areas of the territory (in Meymac for example). "Ussel Culture” an association organising cultural animations and 9 museums 21 . with 5 cinemas. 5. but it can also be a weakness since there is nowhere on the territory where the tourists can really find a big tourism spot with a concentration of heritage.2.2. like many local agents stress. a theatre company.2. Cultural resources Cultural resources are numerous in Haute-Corrèze 20 but there is no real important monument that could attract tourists.

it is possible to notice the effort of the managers to develop this kind of products. A special attention is also paid to the development of Marchés de Pays. Developing this aspect of the local culture could be a good way to let the local population discover its history at the same time as the tourists. Some festivals.2. It is an important aspect for the tourists who spend 41. especially in France where good food is integrated in everyday life. Other types of restaurants. The festivals mainly use heritage resources of the territory as scenery.There is also a specific aspect of the Haute-Corrèze culture that could be exploited for tourism but is not developed yet: the troubadours and the medieval period of the Ventadour.2 % of their holiday budget in food and beverage either in restaurants or in food shops (calculated on the basis of data from the Satellite accounts of tourism. The territory must have all types of restaurants. 22 23 See Appendix 7: List of summer manifestations in Haute-Corrèze See Appendix 8: List of restaurants in Haute-Corrèze 69 . with particularly regional food. and above all local manifestations 22 can also be found in HauteCorrèze. from international to French cuisine and they are well distributed on the territory23 . In Haute-Corrèze’s hotels. These food. Troubadours are poets and are the symbols of the lifestyle and refinement of this period. That is why it is necessary to offer a complete range of food possibilities. Many of them came from Haute-Corrèze.markets takes place during the summer in different areas of Haute-Corrèze and they sell food products from local producers. This initiative is organised by the “Bienvenue à la Ferme” department of the Chamber of Agriculture.3. 2002). for every budget can be found. Gastronomy Gastronomy is a major component in rural tourism. mainly during the summer. 5.2.

The only thing that is missing is the development of local products in shops. Craftsmen could promote more typical products from the area, especially during the summer.

5.3.

Touristic supply

5.3.1. Agri-tourism and gastronomy: the “Bienvenue à la ferme” network

Agri-tourism is organised at the departmental level by the Chamber of Agriculture. It is developed through a national network called “Bienvenue à la ferme ” (welcome to the farm) in charge of: The development of the "Bienvenue à la Ferme" brand, The animation of the "Bienvenue à la Ferme" network, The development of partnerships with other rural tourism agents.

This network proposes different kinds of tourism products: Direct sale of farm products Educational farms Discovery farms Equestrian/hiking farms Inn farms Farm snacks Farm accommodations Farm hunting Local products markets

When looking at the map of distribution of all these activities, it is easy to notice that these activities are not as developed in Haute-Corrèze as they are in Corrèze in general. Farmers may do not have time for developing these activities since the size of the farms is increasing. Moreover, agri-tourism may not be profitable in This can also be

comparison with the time and money investments required.

70

explained by the lower awareness that farmers have of the interest of tourism in Haute-Corrèze, as it has been testified during the interviews.

Figure 11: Distribution of the products "Bienvenue à la ferme" in the Corrèze département

HAUTE-CORREZE

Source : brochure « Bienvenue à la ferme »

5.3.2. Accommodations

At the regional level, the Limousin represents, in terms of touristic accommodation, 2 % of the national supply with, and 3/4 of non- market accommodations 24 . The Corrèze département is the most important of the region with 54.5 % 25 of the regional supply. The share of Haute-Corrèze corresponds to 30 % of the departmental supply and 16 % of the regional market beds. The regional trend tends to be confirmed in

24

Chocat, C., (2004) Chiffres clés 2003 du tourisme en Limousin. Comité Régional du Tourisme, Limoges, France. 25 Appendix 9: List of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze

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Haute-Corrèze since the proportion of non- market accommodations reaches 70 % of the total number of touristic beds in the Pays.

5.3.2.1. Hotels

The Pays counts 41 hotels with a total of 526 rooms which represents only 11 % of the departmental supply26 . They are only sma ll hotels with an average of 13 rooms per hotel. This low figure does not allow groups and busses to use the facilities provied. 7 hotels are affiliated to the voluntary chain ‘Logis de France’. This affiliation means that they meet some quality requirements. Only 17 % of the hotels are in a quality process. 59 % of these rooms are in two-star hotels which does not exactly correspond to what the tourists are looking for. A particular

attention has to be paid to the improvement of quality, all the more so as there is no three-star hotel in Haute-Corrèze what excludes a great segment of customers.

Concerning the occupancy rates, the average departmental rate reaches 43 % of occupancy in 2003 which represents a decrease of 2 % in comparison with 200227 . This decrease is constant since 2001.Only the three-star hotel showed a slight increase.

The low number of hotel suggests that it would be necessary to open new structures and to improve quality. However, when looking at the occupancy rates of the hotels, it seems to be impossible to open other establishments. There would not be enough customers to fill them. It is a kind of vicious circle since if there are not enough customers, it is impossible to open new hotels, and without new hotels, it is impossible to attract more tourists. An effort has really to be done to improve quality in the existing establishments.

26 27

Tourism Departmental Committee Tourism Departmental Committee

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3. It seems that this type of accommodation does not correspond to what people want when they go to the countryside.2.4 % 6.4 % Source: Adapted from ‘Comptes satellites du tourisme. 185 gîtes and 46 Bed and Breakfasts affiliated to Gîtes de France can be counted in Haute-Corrèze . heritage is less developed in Haute-Corrèze in comparison with Basse Corrèze. 2001’. hotels are not in the pole position. Another reason can be the fact that. there are less houses than in the rest of the département.2. 5.in thousands of nights Type of accommodation Hotels Gîtes Camping sites Non-market accommodations Number of nights 7 233 20 662 13 889 164 787 Percentage 3. Gîtes and Bed and Breakfasts An interview with the person in charge of the ‘Gîtes de France’ departmental association allowed an analysis of the characteristics of this type of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze. This success can be explained by the fame of the ‘Gîtes de France’ brand to which most of the gîtes and all the Bed and Breakfasts are affiliated. Moreover. This percentage is relatively low. It represents respectively 25 % and 19 % of the departmental supply.3 % 9. Gîtes and Bed and Breakfasts represent the first type of accommodations asked by the demand28 . When observing the type of accommodations chosen for rural tourism.3 % 75. in spite of the 2 600 empty houses in Haute-Corrèze. The fact that people are more turned toward agriculture than 28 See table above.Figure 12: Nights spent in rural areas by French people in 2001 per type of accommodation . The low density and the age of the population can explain it. 73 .

etc. However. It reaches a maximum of 18 % of the total investment 29 . The reason for this is that the charges of opening the gîte during the weekend are more important that the profit generated through the renting.) 29 See Appendix 10: Interview with Philippe Bordes 74 . This shows that regional governments do not want to invest in the preservation of built heritage. The lack of communication and products on activities that can be practiced out of the peak season: fishing. It participates to the rehabilitation of built heritage. gîte owners. hiking. even if with the current occupancy rates. Closure of many activity suppliers out of the peak season. Gîte and B&B creations are really profitable for local development. These figures can be explained by different reasons: A supply not adapted to the demand of the low season. Owners only propose to rent weekly and not for weekends. the manager of the Gîtes de France departmental association. Many owners of empty houses would like to invest in its restoration to convert it in a gîte. The lack of renown of Haute-Corrèze . shopkeepers. It contributes to a diffuse tourism that spreads on the whole territory. 2 000 houses have been preserved by this way in Corrèze during the 20 last years. their first motivation being the preservation of local heritage. It mobilises local energy since it is a tourism implemented by and for the local population (craftsmen. only a few do it since the financial help is limited. it is not profitable. mushrooms picking.toward tourism can also be an explanation according to Philippe Bordes. Occupancy rates are the highest in the area close to the motorway where people stop for one night or two on the way to their holiday destination. etc. Occupancy rates are not maximized since they only reach 12 weeks for the Gîtes and 100 nights for the B&B. The hard climate of Haute-Corrèze that makes difficult to attract tourists during the winter.

14 million of revenue per year. the Haute-Corrèze Pays proposes: 16 farm gîtes (27 % of the departmental supply) 15 farm B&B 2 farm camping sites 3 lodges 2 inn farms 1 holiday farm 75 . data from Gîtes de France departmental association.7 % are 3 ears and the rest is 2 ears. In addition to the gîtes and B&B. On the whole département. the proportion is even better since 73.- It contributes to the development of local economy. Quality of gites and B&Bs in Haute Correze is above average compared to the rest of the departement. For the B&Bs. Figure 13: Distribution of the gîtes and B&Bs per category in Haute-Corrèze Distribution of the gîtes per category 3 ears 2 ears Distribution of the bed and breakfast per category in Haute-Corrèze 1 ear 5% 1 ear 2ears 11% 3 ears 2ears 2 ears 41% 3 ears 54% 3 ears 89% Source: Author’s own elaboration. the average of 3-ear gîtes is only 52. The gîtes activity represents € 1.9 %.

7 % + 58.8 % Nb of beds Source: Adapted from data from the Tourism Departmental Committee. the evolution in the number of gîtes (of any type) and of B&B is really strong Figure 14: Evolution of the number of gîtes and B&B in Haute-Corrèze between 1999 and 2003 Type of accommodation Gîtes B&B 1998 Nb of structures 280 12 Nb of beds 1596 66 2003 Nb of structures 324 19 Nb of beds 1878 120 Evolution Nb of structures + 15. The number of beds increases more than the number of structures what shows a trend to increase the size of the house to answer to the demand of small groups. 76 .1 % + 81.- 73 gîtes that do not belong to the brand ‘gîtes de France’ and do not have their notoriety and quality (60 % of two-star gîtes) This supply is diversified and generally of good quality even if it stays for some products under the potential of the territory. 2004. However.3 % + 23.

only a few camping sites have good quality: 29 % are 3 or 4-star camping sites. Camping sites Figure 15: Distribution of Haute-Corrèze camping sites per category Distribution of the camping sites per category 2 stars 40% 3 stars 23% 0 or 1 star 31% 4 stars 6% 0 or 1 star Source: Author’s own 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars There are 35 camping sites in Haute-Corrèze. 30 See Appendix 9: List of accommodations of Haute-Corrèze 77 . However. This comes from the trends of the customers to choose 3 or 4-star camping sites. since even some three-star camping sites do not correspond to their classification.3. their capacity keeps being reduced. Moreover.3. It represents nearly 50 % of the accommodation capacity of the département 30 . They are mostly managed by local collectivities and their quality has to be improved. There is a visible erosion of the frequentation in occupancy rates.2.5.

This important figure can be explained by the desertification of the Pays and the fact that people keep in Haute-Corrèze a family house for their holidays.5 % 6. The association of Correzian Camping Sites exists since 1989 and gathers 87 camping sites on the whole département. 5.5 % 7.3.5 % 5% 4. N. 31 Charter of .5 % 31.4 % Source: adapted from « Bilan du Schéma Départemental de Développement Touristique de la Corrèze et mise en adéquation des préconisation avec les Pays.5 % September Average 3.3 % 19.5 % 30. Its role is to federate and help the camping sites. It represents 24 % of the total number of houses in the Pays.Figure 16: Evolution of the occupancy rates in the camping sites of the Corrèze département.5 % 15. Chassagne.4.5 % 8% 9. May 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 4% 4% 5% 4% 7% June 5.5 % August 37.4 % 17.5 % July 28. ».5 % 33 % 39.8 % 16. Second homes There are 6840 second-homes in Haute-Corrèze 31 .5 % 34 % 39 % 42 % 37.2.5 % 4% 5.the Pays 78 .4 % 18.

This map shows that second homes are mainly located in the less populated areas. 2004.Figure 17: distribution of second homes in Haute-Corrèze Source: Charter of the Pays. 79 . However. they are a tool for local development since their restoration gives work to local craftsmen. Moreover. It poses problems since second homes and empty houses can reach 50 % of the number of houses in some villages. Second homes are not open during the major part of the year and it contributes to the lack of dynamism of the villages. negative impacts can not be neglected. ‘tourists’ occupy these houses during the summer whereas they could be rented and occupied by inhabitants all along the year. Moreover. they are restored and it contributes to the preservation of local heritage. There is an important demand for independent houses but there is not enough supply. Second homes have positive impacts since they are not abandoned.

2001. etc. children animations. ‘gabares’ horse riding Visits to cultural place (churches. only to give a good image of the territory.5.3. canoe. the main problem is the closure of most of the activities out of the peak season. villages. “les séjours touristiques dans le Limousin: Enquêtes de fréquentation multi-sites». 35 See Appendix 6 : List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze 80 . According to tourism professionals 32 and to the tourists 33 .3. 32 33 See Appendix 10: examples of interviews BVA. museums. Nearly every rural tourism activity can be found in Haute-Corrèze: Hiking Nautical sports. 34 CRT. 2004. Activity suppliers The majority of tourism activities are based on the natural and cultural resources of the territory. On the one hand that is a problem not to develop tourism out of the summer since people complain they have nothing to do during the low season. Limoges. According to a regional study34 . castles) Steam train Hunting golf village fêtes Local animations such as flea markets. “Eléments de réflexion pour le plan marketing 2005-2008 pour le tourisme limousin». Villofray. On the other hand it seems to be impossible to ask activity and accommodation suppliers to open at this period of the year whereas they will not earn money. 1/4 of the departmental tourist spots are located in Haute-Corrèze 35 .

As it can be notice through the expansion of low cost airlines and last minute sales. 5. 33 % of the French tourists choose the countryside as their holiday destination. Reunion with family.4. Carnet de route de la montagne. Tourism service suppliers will have to compose with these new trends and to adapt their supply to these new requirements. etc. at the national level. with urban life rhythm and stress. 5.5. The following paragraphs are based on the results of this study. 2000. they know that they 36 37 Permanent conference on rural tourism.4. 5. Going back to the roots. The results of this study show three main trends: Break with daily life. New expectations of the customers The Cofremca study gives information about the expectations of French people during their holidays. couple or friends to enjoy this time out of the constraints of daily life. New purchasing behaviours è Customers have more requirements Customers expect for their holidays a good value for money. The demand As confirm many studies and documents from the ministry of Tourism36 .1. 81 .1.1. tourism ministry. the firm Sociovision Cofremca realised a very detailed study37 on the new trends of customers.2. Paris : AFIT. de l’écoute des clients à l’action marketing.4.4. the countryside is the first touristic destination. General trends of the rural tourists In 2000.1. Holidays represent the moment when people want to develop and to take care of themselves. AFIT.

can play on competition to obtain the best prices. Customers are not shy anymore. They know their rights and their power. è New way of choosing the destination:

Tourists have now a great experience of going on holiday. That is why they will not buy very early their tourism product. They prefer gathering information on

different destinations and finally, they buy the product that answers better to their requirements. They do not choose a destination but a product. It means that it is not because the communication campaign is very good that customers will choose a destination. Products and quality have to meet their requirements. è News types of customers

Two types of customers can be dis tinguished: Traditional customers that are organized, loyal to a destination and anticipate their purchase. Modern customers that are looking for a good deal and are merely loyal.

Whatever type of customers it is, they do not want anymore to be considered as a mass. They need to be seen as individuals with individual needs. However, tourists can not be considered one by one. That is why new small segments have been distinguished: Seniors = active retired people with high purchasing power Tribes = groups of customers that can be mono-parental families, groups of families, etc. Juniors = young people travelling together, in individual or organised forms.

People can also be segmented according to their area of origin. That is why the idea of the average customer must be forgotten and a differentiated marketing has to be developed.

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5.4.1.3. New socio-cultural trends

Socio-cultural trends express the main expectations of the customers to which professionals are confronted. The Cofremca study, beyond the three major

motivations cited above has noticed several socio-cultural trends answering to strong expectations of the tourists. è Convenience

Tourists want to make a real break with their daily life and holidays have to be 100 % pleasure and 0 % trouble. That is why the information has to be accessible, booking has to be simple, quality has to be certified by labels for instance. During the holidays, everything must be easy. Tourists consider all- inclusive pack as too strict. They prefer ‘A la carte’ ready to consume holidays.

Tourists do not want to be stressed by over- frequentation. They are attracted by nature, rest, simplicity and authenticity. completely adapted to these expectations. è Non-market tourism Rural and low mountains tourism is

In a society where everything has to be paid, tourists are happy to have during their holidays simple relationships with people and with nature, based on money. Tourists do not want to be considered as consumers but as persons. Free services and spontaneous relationships with local people are really appreciated, like the free contact with nature or monuments. They also appreciate to have free access to animations or specific services. Proposing a product in which everything is included can be a solution. è Importance of recreational activities People want to entertain during their holidays, to relax and share good moments with their relatives. It does not mean that people want to be entertained like in a

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Club-Med village but that they want to be together with their family during a relaxing moment. è Soft vitality

For many people, holidays are a period to relax, to rest in order to recharge the batteries. Those people do not want to practice many activities and to make efforts. They do not want to do nothing either. They want to practice soft activities that bring satisfaction, harmony and shared pleasure. Tourism professionals have to take this into account if they want to seduce this type of customers. è Need for well-being

During the holidays, people to take care of themselves. That is why thalassotherapy and balneotherapy are so successful. Tourists are also attracted by the beneficial effects of countryside or mountain air. These elements count in the choice of the destination. Quality of accommodations are also taken in account since the

environment has to contribute to feel good and healthy. During the holidays is noticed a negative sensitiveness to everything annoying: stress, noise, pollution. For all these reasons, tourist are tired of being closed in small flats like during the seventies. They wanted a higher quality than at home. è Quality and aestheticism of life

This point is a bit similar to the one about well-being since it is linked to quality of life. This need is expressed by the attention paid to details that create emotion. People are not centred anymore on primary but more cultural secondary needs. è Contact with nature

People want contact with nature. They need it. However, they do not want to be confronted alone to wild nature. They need some intermediaries to give them

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5. 67. The study realised in 2001 on touristic frequentation in Limousin confirms the statements of local agents by exposing the following profile of the tourists visiting Corrèze: 89 % of French people vs.7 % of the people coming in Corrèze are coming during the peak season. Characteristics of the tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze According to what the tourism agents said during their interview and to the statistics found. 43.4. Germany and Belgium. 24. That is why people are interested in practicing hiking with a guide able to “translate” the nature. Paris .7 % of couples or families with young children. Families with young children Young seniors People that do not have a high purc hasing power People coming from Paris. Concerning the exclusivity of frequentation of the countryside. May. France. mountainous and urban areas: “In 1997. 10.3 % of senior executives.2. the main characteristic of the tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze are the followings.1 % of the tourists).6 % of them are 30 to 39 years old. People coming mainly from Paris (21. 64. A lot of passing through people who stay one night or two. (2004) Bilan des trois années d’activités.7 % of foreigners. 2004 85 . People coming by car since there is no real other means to get there. the North of France and Bretagne Foreigners coming from England. Proceedings from the Session Plénière. a study38 explains that most of the tourists frequenting rural areas for their holidays are also frequenting coastal.access to nature . less than one 38 Conférence Permanente du Tourisme Rural.

86 .2. France. people staying in non. culture and idleness 39 Chocat.market accommodations 39 . A majority of stays spent in non-market accommodations The study on touristic frequentation in Limousion says that there is a majority of stays spent in market accommodations (64.3.market accommodations may frequent less the tourist sites than people staying in market accommodations since they may already know the region or prefer to give prior to relations with their friends and family. 5.6 % of the market nights and then by the holiday and gîte villages 40 . 40 Observatoire Départemental du Tourisme. This is very different from the national trends but it can be explained by the fact that the survey took place in touristic sites.3. (2004) Chiffres clés 2003 du tourisme en Limousin. Moreover. Comité Régional du Tourisme.” Concerning the loyalty to rural areas. 5. France.3 %). Mountainous areas are most of the time chosen in substitution to the countryside and vice versa. this theory is falsified by another regional study realised by the TRC stating that tourism in Limousin is characterized by 73 % of the nights spent in non.4. A departmental study shows that non.4.market accommodations are followed in percentage of the nights by the camping sites that attracts 27.French person out of four that has spent holidays in a rural area had just frequented the countryside.4. Activities practised: nature.. Comité Départemental du Tourisme.1. Indeed. (2004) Bilan année touristique 2003. Characteristics of the stays in Haute-Corrèze 5.3. this study reveals that one third of the people having frequented rural areas for summer holidays are loyal to the countryside . C. Limoges. Tulle.

France 42 Secrétariat d’Etat au Tourisme. However. 5.3. 2001 87 .4. they can complain because there is nothing to do.1 and 65. 1/3 of the stays lasts less than 5 days and another third lasts more than 10 days. Limoges. It means that people like doing nothing.9 %). Low expenses National studies say that rural tourism is not really remunerative since it represents only 21 % 42 of the touristic expenses whereas it represents 33 % of the stays.3 days.5. It is followed by visiting monuments. It can be explained by the high percentage of non. It shows that it is necessary to give them the opportunity to participate to animations or activities even if at the end they do not do anything.The first activity practised 41 by people visiting the Corrèze département is ‘walking’ (72. The fact that 39 % of the people interviewed answered that they rest or do not do anything has to be taken into account. Paris. not every tourist is like this. However. Observatoire Régional du Tourisme. The average number of activities practiced during a stay is 5. markets and flea markets are activities practised by 49.4. Secrétariat d’Etat au Tourisme . (2001) La demande touristique en espace rural. However those data are national and it was impossible to obtain more precise information about the behaviour of tourists visiting Haute-Corrèze. France 43 Direction du Tourisme. that is why they stay longer.4.3.5 % 43 of the stays last less than 4 nights and that people staying longer in rural areas are foreigners. Visiting fairs.market accommodations.3 %). An average length of stay higher than the national trends The average length of stay in Limousin is quite long with 10.3. 5. (2001) Les séjours touristiques dans le Limousin: Enquêtes de fréquentation multi-sites. museums' and 'natural sites' ' (69. This average is really higher than the national average saying that 61.6 % of the people staying in Corrèze. 41 BVA. It can be explained by the fact that people coming in Limousin are coming in their family or have a special attachment to the region.

there is also in Haute-Corrèze a lot of passing through. 88 . mostly in accommodations located around the motorway A89.On top of this.

as it appeared above. the cleanliness of the places visited (82 %) and the quality of 44 Conférence Permanente du Tourisme Rural. Proceedings from the Session Plénière.4. like the calm. 2004 45 BVA. (2001) Les séjours touristiques dans le Limousin: Enquêtes de fréquentation multi-sites.4. This survey reveals that the general rate of satisfaction reaches 83%. the regional trends correspond more or less with the local ones. the general motivations for people to spend holidays in rural areas are: Having quiet holidays. Cultural heritage and water (lakes and rives) are the other aspects that attracted people in Corrèze. France.4. the quality of the environment and their attachment to the region. the quality of reception (83 %). Observatoire Régional du Tourisme. France 46 Ibid.5. 5. Having healthy holidays. the principal motivation for people to come in Corrèze are the nature. (2004) Bilan des trois années d’activités. 89 . Motivations of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze According to the PCRT 44 (2004). May. People are particularly satisfied by the quality of natural environment (86 %). Limoges. Going to a destination adapted to children even if the sea keeps being the favourite destination for children For authenticity For being with relatives For the feeling of freedom According to the regional study lead in 2001 45 .5. That is why there is no local data about this theme. That is why a regional survey46 will again be used in this paragraph to have an overview of the tourist’s satisfaction in Haute-Corrèze. However. Paris . Satisfaction of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze Data about the satisfaction of tourists are difficult to obtain since tourists just say it when there is something really wrong. even if the mountains keeps being the healthiest areas for the tourists.

For the departments of Auvergne (Puy de Dome and Cantal). Cantal.5.cultural heritage (82 %). the city benefits from an image related to the south-west culture and to Périgord. The territories considered as competitors by Haute-Corrèze tourism agents are territories that can be identified clearly according to the products they propose. They are more specialised than Haute-Corrèze and have been developing tourism for more time than Haute-Corrèze. They propose an important cultural and gastronomic heritage that can also be found in Haute-Corrèze but is less developed and less famous. Concerning the departments of Dordogne and Lot. they are proposing contact with the nature. It is considered as a competitor because the tourism agents of the city managed to develop tourism and quality. they increase their notoriety and improve their image. soft vitality but they can offer more specified landscapes: mountains and volcanoes. Competitors According to the tourism agents of Haute-Corrèze. Moreover. 90 . 5. - Brive-la-Gaillarde : it is the main city of the Corrèze département. above all for people coming during the low season (72 %). Moreover. Dordogne and Lot: those territories are considered as competitors since they propose the same kind of products than Haute-Corrèze but their resources are more important and more known. the lowest levels of satisfaction concern the animations (69 %) and the activities and leisure. they are really famous even abroad. with the creation of the attraction park Vulcania. However. the main competitors are: The départements of Puy-de-Dome.

14 ˜2 This table shows that competitors are really more frequented than Corrèze . 51 www.Figure 18: Figures about the frequentation of Corrèze competitors DEPARTEMENT Dordogne 47 Lot 48 Cantal49 Puy de Dome 50 Corrèze 51 Source: author’s own NUMBER OF NIGHTS (in millions of nights) 26 10. Promotion and communication 5.13 6.com 49 www. 5. the image of Corrèze and above all of Haute-Corrèze corresponds to the image of the region. A solution could be to look how they work and how they promote themselves in order to do the same in Corrèze.cg19. in the 47 48 www. political agents seemto be more aware of the importance of tourism and are ready to fund it.auvergne-tourisme.6.3 2.fr/cdt www.6. That is why. Limousin.info 50 Ibid. It also seems that they give more importance to tourism than Corrèze does. Concerning Brive. They have a real positioning. and even their organisation seem to work better than in Corrèze.fr 91 . Their websites and products. That is what is missing in Corrèze.1.perigord. Image According to the tourism agents interviewed. This exp lains the success of tourism in this area.tourisme -lot. The budget of the tourist office is higher than the one of the TDC.tm.

Figure 19: Focus on the image given by the tourism agents interviewed Territory General image Strengths Weaknesses Inhabitants that have a Water. regional.following analysis. 92 . the image of Limousin is linked to the countryside and the nature but image often not clear and despised. Limoges. tourism agents answered the aspects enumerated in the table below. departmental and local data will be mixed in order to define the image of Haute-Corrèze. If the south of the Corrèze département is seen as the ‘South’ with sun and often assimilated to the Périgord. When asked about the image of Haute-Corrèze. sources depreciated image of the territory Good level of comfort Nature Not expensive HAUTECORRÈZE Green and wild territory Quietness Beautiful landscapes Plateau de Millevaches famous Specific fauna and flora Troubadours Natural Regional Park Source: elaboration author’s own and data collected during the interviews Not dynamic territory No strong tourist attraction Hard climate Tough inhabitants Quiet place but sometimes too much According to a regional study52 . “Eléments de réflexion pour le plan marketing 2005-2008 pour le tourisme limousin”. the 52 CRT. 2004.

Three guidebooks 53 have been studied. However. They are not proud of their region and are not the ambassadors of their territory. Moreover. le Limousin Even if the three guidebooks are national editions. The last one only focuses on Corrèze: Petit Futé Corrèze. 2003 . It is also interesting to consult tourism guidebooks to know what image they give of Haute-Corrèze. 93 . the checking shows that the identity of the region is not clear: One guidebook focuses on the Limousin region: grandeur nature. the inhabitants do not carry this image. crepes. it appears that the image given of the Pays is more or less similar in every guidebook and refers to the same aspects than those given by the tourism agents and by the regional study. tourist spots. For nature lovers Wild. Another one mixes Limousin and Auvergne (Massif Central regions): Guide du Routard Auvergne-Limousin. They often feel inferior to other areas in terms of wealth. By this is meant the fact that it is not really known. they do not have the same vision of the touristic area around Haute-Corrèze. Petit Futé. moor and heather Gastronomy: mushrooms. Guide du routard. It also allows to check the tourism attractiveness of the region through the focus of the guidebooks. even if it is more precise: 53 Wild nature: forest and conifers. berries. Corrèze. 2003. etc. austere and tough as well for the territory as for the population Ici & Là Magazine : Le Limousin grandeur nature. It means that the region does not have a clear identity. when consulting these books to know what they say about Haute-Corrèze. Concerning the identification of the touristic region. climate. 1995 . financial and human means.image of Haute-Corrèze corresponds better to the image of the region. Ici&là. Auvergne-Limousin. it is seen as a ‘green’ reserve but there is not much to do there.

TDC. are all playing an important role in terms of promotion of the territory at different levels. The territory would be more attractive if the image corresponded to the markets targeted.- Warm welcome Water: sources. dams Hard climate with long winter Character Legends Unknown region Some aspects of this image are really positive since it gives the image of a territory were nature is preserved.6. representing the département. This image does not correspond to the public that frequents the territory: families.1.6. lakes. Edition of brochures Nearly every tourism structure edits at least one brochure to promote its activity. The following paragraphs present the different kinds of promotion actions that are developed by these different structures. this image can be negative and frighten some potential visitors with the evocation of the ‘long winter’. In this paragraph only the brochures edited by TOs and TDC will be presented. Tourist offices (TO) representing the municipalities. Communication and promotion Different types of organisms work for the promotion of Haute-Corrèze. 5. 5. TRC representing the region. However. of a region with character and legends . This image positions the territory as an area that can attract niches of customers since it is a really special territory that is not accessible to everyone.2.2. 94 . rivers. the mentalities. the fact that it is unknown and that there are not many inhabitants.

documents. Hiking - Nautical leisure Fishing Summer animations 95 . A question can be raised about the interest of promoting the territory for tourism all along the year whereas it is obvious that tourists can not be welcome during the winter because most of the activities and accommodations are closed and the climate is very hard. in the brochure there is no contact with any reservation centre where the tourists could book their holidays. In Haute-Corrèze. Camping sites. They edit one general brochure to present the activities that can be practiced in Haute-Corrèze all along the year. It gives an image of wellbeing. è Tourism Departmental Committee The TDC edits 12 brochures that present all the assets of the département. calm and convenience. There is a general brochure. Moreover. but. It presents a map of the territory and the Tos contact list. a touristic map and thematic brochures: - Hotels and restaurants. each tourist office edits some general They also developed a special structure for the promotion of all the Haute-Corrèze area: The Haute-Corrèze ENOTSI (union of tourist offices). they may propose their own brochure presenting the territory and gathering all the information. This structure only works on promotion. It also insists on local gastronomy and atmospheres.è Tourist offices: The role of TOs is to transmit information to the tourists and to promote their territory. Sometimes they give directly the brochure of each service supplier. only to inform the potential customer and to give him a positive image of the territory. This brochure does not have the objective of selling anything. These brochures can be general or divided by theme. according to their financial means.

general documents (10 %). Office de Tourisme. Creation of websites Only Ussel and Bort-les-Orgues’ TOs have a website and the one of Bort is really more attractive and modern than the one of Ussel. The frequentation of the tourist office of Ussel is increasing every year: from 4 802 visitors in 2001 to 29 260 visitors in 2003 55 . industrial tourism (9 %). art.6.There are also territorial brochures: Vallée de la Dordogne Pays de Brive Pays de Tulle Vézère-Auvézère Haute-Corrèze. They are composed of 320 bills in the 54 Comité Départemental du Tourisme. The positive aspect of Ussel’s website is that it presents all the Haute-Corrèze territory. 56 www. a website 56 has been created this year and presents all the activities that can be practiced and all the resources of the département. the TDC has realised national campaigns since 1999. outdoor leisure (12 %). 5.2.6. Concerning the TDC. gastronomy (9 %). 55 Office de tourisme d’Ussel. 5.3.2. France. The TDC also participates to many other departmental or regional publications that contained information about: natural and built heritage (33 %).net 96 . France. National communication campaigns To improve the notoriety of the département that was really unknown. statistics (3 %) 54 . (2003) Compte-rendu d’activités 2002. (2004) Compte-rendu d’activités 2003. Comité Départemental du Tourisme de la Corrèze. It is a descriptive and general website where it is possible to order the brochures but not to book.vacances-en-correze. accommodations (9 %). Ussel.2. handicrafts. manifestations and animations (15 %). Tulle.

Indeed.2.4. Information agents are present in July and August and during the week-ends. that is why they created the ENOTSI.6. 5. the TDC represents Haute-Corrèze in fairs where tourist offices can not go.metro in Paris. There are 3 areas in Corrèze : - Rest area of the N89 in Merlines – Haute-Corrèze : this structure exists since 1986 and information agents are present in July and August.. Bilan du schéma départemental de développement touristique de la Corrèze. 5. The list of the fairs can be found in appendix 11. The frequentation of 57 Chassagne N. they gather human and financial means to participate to some fairs either directly or through the participation of the TDC. The TRC represents all the local professionals in international fairs. - A20 rest area ‘Portes de Corrèze’ in the north of the territory: 53 000 touristic brochures were distributet there in 2002.6. Indeed.5..2. 2003. advertisement in the newspapers Figaro and TV magazine in January and march. it is really successful since it generated in 2002 3 322 demands for information and more than 10 000 in 4 years. 97 . The participation to tourism fairs allows to make the territory known and to attract visitors. Rest areas of the roads and motorways The TDC created tourism information places located at the entrance of the Corrèze département. When has opened the A89 motorway in 2000 the frequentation decreased by 27 % from 4 600 visitors in 1999 to 3 400 in 2000 57 . Thanks to this structure. Participation to tourism fairs The TOs do not have enough money to participate in tourism fairs. the majority of the visitors are coming from regions where tourism agents participate in tourism fairs.

politics. This multiplicity sometimes make difficult the identification of the role of the different structures and of the links between them. environment.6 % are in HauteCorrèze . This paragraph aims at clarifying the role of each structure and at showing the interrelations that contribute to tourism organisation. - A89 rest area ‘Corrèze’ in the east of the territory only opened in 2003. groups.the tourism structure is increasing every year reaching 5 000 visitors in 200258 .6. 98 . The SRLA is the organism in charge of “selling” the département. The supply is sold at the departmental or regional scale. 58 59 Ibid. Tourism organisation on the territory Tourism is a complex sector linked to other sectors such as agriculture.correze-vacances. craft industry. It is possible to book by phone or on the website 59 . Independent organisms like Gîtes de France also have their own booking centre. That is why a multitude of private and public agents intervene in tourism development. general products.7. 105 products are on sale and 27. Marketing There is no booking centre in Haute-Corrèze . 5. That is why there is no statistics yet. 44 % of Haute-Corrèze products are dedicated to juniors.com. 5. In these three brochures. etc.3. www. The TDC with the SRLA edits some brochures presenting the tourism products that can be bought. There are different brochures: juniors. either for holiday camps or for school trips. The focus will be done on the activity of the SRLA (booking departmental service) since they sell the majority of the products.

For several months this structure does not have any director. èConseil Général The Conseil Général is the administrative organism that runs the département. it seems that agents are aware of the important role that can play tourism for local development. the post in charge of supporting tourism professionals is not filled and this mission of the TDC is not achieved.1.7.7. Moreover. its role is to define the orientation of the département in terms of tourism development.1. the tourist office of Brive.la-Gaillarde benefits from a budget superior to the one of the TDC. At the départemental level. Departmental structures è Tourism Departmental Committee The TDC is in charge of i plementing the tourism development strategy in the m département. However. Concerning the TDDS. This situation slows the actions and the involvement of the TDC in its missions . Its role in terms of tourism is important since it is in charge of the realisation of the TDDS (Tourism Development Departmental Scheme). Another point that has to be highlighted is the fact that the TDC does not have the financial means in respect of the tourism potential of the territory. the TDC of the Corrèze département is suffering some organisation problems . Indeed. Public structures 5. The former TDDS was not really known by the 99 . It is in charge of the promotion of the territory and of the support of tourism professionals in the realisation of their projects. The service in charge of tourism is the ‘local development’ department.5.1. This scheme defines the tourism development strategy of the département.

They can elaborate in collaboration with the municipalities a local development plan for tourism. The TOs that have three stars are the more frequented ones. Local structures è Tourist offices and ENOTSI TOs are in charge of the promotion and animation of the territory. 100 . They are classified from 0 to 4 stars according to their ability to the general organisation of the tourist office and to the services provided to tourists and professionals. Their role in tourism development is to support local professionals. the Conseil Général wants to organise a meeting with local agents to present the TDDS and to involve them in its implementation. 5. For the elaboration of the new TDDS the Conseil Général tried to consult the main tourism and political agents of the département to collect their point of view and their needs in terms of tourism.local tourism agents and professionals. The quality of the work of the TOs depends on the number of stars since it means that they have or not permanent employees and financial means. In Haute-Corrèze. It is also a way to include them in the planning process even if they are not really involved. there are 11 TOs. It had been realised in 1998 and it was the first time that had appeared the awareness of the necessity of a tourism development plan in Corrèze.2.1. èEconomic Chambers The economic chambers are the Chamber of Agriculture and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Only three of them are 3-star offices.7. It was an important step. After having finished its elaboration. 4 offices have 1 star and 4 offices do not have star. The Chamber of Commerce and Industry is supporting hotel managers and the Chamber of Agriculture is supporting farmers.

46% 7.50% 12. There is no development plan and there are only agents in charge of the reception of tourists.30% 29.58% -3.46% 61.34% Evolution 3.11% 7.57% -34.02% 10.les-Orgues Bugeat Lapleau Meymac Neuvic Eygurande Peyrelevade Sornac Soursac Egletons Ussel Total Haute-Corrèze Total Corrèze Ratio Haute-Corrèze / Corrèze Source: adapted from UDOTSI Frequentation 2002 21665 3413 612 10015 6601 1067 886 324 12929 9856 67368 399929 16.52% 0.04% 290.The main problems of Haute-Corrèze TOs is that they have no financial. Figure 20: Evolution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze and Haute-Corrèze/Corrèze ratio Cities Bort.74% 12.68% 2. human and material means to improve the quality of their work.49% Number of stars ** * 0 * * 0 0 * 0 ** ** 101 .84% Frequentation 2003 22423 3824 2390 10089 7431 1524 701 1147 522 13894 10548 74493 385195 19.

Concerning the employees. The tourist offices are mostly funded by the municipalities. the majority of them have no tourism education. There are only presidents that are often retired people. Only the tourist office of Neuvic is intermunicipal. The tourist offices are gathered in a structure called ENOTSI that has mainly been created to gather promotion means. This situation shows that the local councillors are not aware of the tourism potential of their territory and of the importance of tourism development for the local economy. In spite of the figures showing that frequentation is increasing. they do not give more funds to develop tourism. They nevertheless have the opportunity to participate to training courses organised by the departmental association of tourist offices (UDOTSI).Figure 21: Distribution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze in 2003 USSEL 14% BORT 29% BORT BUGEAT LAPLEAU MEYMAC EGLETONS 19% NEUVIC EYGURANDE PEYRELEVADE SOURSAC 1% SORNAC 2% PEYRELEVADE 1% EYGURANDE 2% NEUVIC 10% BUGEAT 5% LAPLEAU 3% MEYMAC 14% SORNAC SOURSAC EGLETONS USSEL Source: adapted from UDOTSI There are also problems of education since there is no director in any office. The fact that they are not able to provide very professional services is due to the lack of financial means coming from the municipalities. No product are created and no information is 102 .

These structures have been created by the law ‘Administration territoriale de la République’ of 1992. However. all the CC60 have the tourism competence. They have been created to reduce the effects of the important number of municipalities in France. In Haute-Corrèze.exchanged. associations and local population. Others have also decided to develop tourism projects or sites. Their aim is to increase solidarity for economic. there is still a lot of work to do before the ENOTSI reaches its goal of tourism coordination structure in Haute-Corrèze. those structures are very young. 103 . 60 See Appendix 12: List of CC. Most of them only instituted a partnership with the tourist offices. It has also been created to facilitate the federation of the different types of agents such as private professionals. The ENOTSI is a first step in the federation of the tourist offices since a few years ago. The role of the Pays is to give a boost to the territory and to stimulate projects. Its role is to work with other local structures and to develop partnerships. they were not even speaking together. Some of those are obligatorily exercised by the intermunicipality: territorial development and economic development that concerns all the community. public agents. è Intermunicipal structures The territory of the Haute-Corrèze Pays is composed of 6 intermunicipal structures called ‘Communauté de Communes’ (CC). They take some of the competences of the municipalities. èFederation of the Haute-Corrèze Pays The Federation of the Pays is the structure that corresponds exactly to the objective of coordination of the territory. They have been created recently and have not developed concrete actions yet. However. Other competences are optional. territorial and environmental development.

There is no common project to develop the territory. they often work alone. Often small. etc. hotels. Private structures and associations The Haute-Corrèze Pays counts numerous tourist service suppliers.The problem are again the funds. gîtes. Local in.7. Logis de France. Maybe that is one explanation of the fact that they do not feel involved in the local development process. 61 See Appendix 13: List of people that participated to the tourism commission for the redaction of the Pays’ Charter. Many associations are existing to federate them. It seems that they have not been involved by the organizers since their representatives where invited. In spite of their will to participate to the touristic development of the territory.2. without partnerships. The federation does not have proper funds or employee. many of them do not have any tourism education. such as Gîtes de France. they face problems of lack of cooperation and coordination. The list of people that have participated to the reflection and redaction of the charter 61 confirms the results of the interviews: tourism professionals have not been included in the creation of the Pays. 104 . etc. Some elements can nevertheless be examined. 5. These associations are often organised by sector like camping sites. it is difficult to analyse the results of the Pays policy since it has been created very recently and everything is not organised yet.fighting still prevents people from working together. The problem is to know if they have not been invited to participate or if they do not want to participate. However.size businesses scattered on the territory. It seems that there is no leader in Haute-Corrèze that could stimulate all the professionals around a common development project. Moreover. The person working for the implementation of the Charter is employed by the Conseil Général and has also other tasks. it does not mean they are aware of the importance of giving means to this initiative. This lack of funding shows that even if the creation of a Pays means that local people are aware of the necessity to engage a local development process.

fights between the shopkeepers that are still in a mentality of working alone not to share the profit. there is no association of this kind in Haute-Corrèze. However.Shopkeepers’ and professionals’ associations are important for developing animations and create a dynamic atmosphere. There are in. 105 . They do not understand the interest of working together or have difficulties to enter in the process. People are not used to work together and they are not ready to involve themselves in such associations.

1.8.1 Strengths and weaknesses for the supply Strengths Resources: quality and preserved natural environment: beautiful Resources: - Weaknesses presence of too many forests that enclose the territory cultural heritage too diffuse in the territory.8. interest of flora and fauna important presence of water: very positive for the summer. SWOT analysis 5.1. to attract families and to practice nautical sports => important potential Numerous and quality built heritage well spread in the whole territory Numerous animations during the summer - history and image of the troubadours not enough exploited 106 .5.8. no strong element cultural heritage suffering from problems of accessibility and clarity => not well developed landscapes. SWOT analysis of the supply 5.

etc. fishing. swimming. - Weaknesses Tourism practices and products: lack of local food shops lack of development of ‘Bienvenue à la ferme’ products in Haute-Corrèze in comparison with other areas of the département Limousin represents only 1 % of the national accommodation supply No big hotel to receive groups Lack of three and four-star hotels => low quality of the hotels Occupancy rates are not very high for hotels Quality of the camping sites has to be improved numerous second homes that contributes to the lack of dynamism of villages Lack of animations out of the peak season Not enough elaborated products ready to consume for the tourists lack of organisation and promotion for water activities 107 . canoe.Strengths Tourism practices and products : Wide range of restaurants Good quality of the gîtes and B&B Second homes and gîtes give work to local craftsmen Good supply of products for juniors Numerous possibilities of activities related to nature: hiking. horse riding.

especially for gîtes and B&Bs 108 .5.1.2 Opportunities and threats for the supply Opportunities Gîtes and B&B correspond to the kind of accommodations that customers want => opportunity for building other gîtes and B&B Natural Regional Park = will create specific products oriented toward nature Increasing motivation for rural tourism Trend toward a classification of the accommodations.8. - Threats Non sustainable use of natural resources Accentuation of the dispersion of the activity suppliers Disappearance of the cultural heritage: living heritage and built heritage if it is not preserved No interest of the farmers for agri-tourism Low financial helps from the governments to renovate built heritage.

5.8. Insufficient knowledge of the customers at the local level 109 .2.8. Increasing number of visitors in Haute-Corrèze Tourists are satisfied by their stays in the area - Weaknesses Attention has to be paid on the activities and animations proposed for children A majority of stays in non-market accommodations People coming in Haute-Corrèze do not have a high purchasing power.1 Strengths and weaknesses for the demand Strengths Haute-Corrèze characteristics correspond with the new expectations of the tourists. Tourist are staying longer in Limousin than in other rural areas. less attractive French region. SWOT analysis of the demand 5. People do not spend much during rural holidays Limousin.2.

a lot of passing through tourists that could be captured - Threats Tourists on holiday in rural areas are practicing free activities not profitable for the area.2 Opportunities and threats for the demand Opportunities Important potential of development since Haute-Corrèze is not yet on the top of the rural tourism destinations Rural areas = 2nd touristic area in France and 1st destination in terms of stays Change in the expectations of the customers that correspond to the supply of Haute-Corrèze Opportunity to target the customers living in the neighbouring département for short stays out of the peak season.5.2. wild nature that can frighten some tourists in a few years. the customers will change and it will not be tourists originating from Haute-Corrèze anymore => efforts will have to be done to keep them 110 .8.

Notoriety of the millevaches plateau Creation of the enotsi to federate the promotion means Awareness of the tourism agents of the needs for promotion and initiatives are taken: national campaigne.1. SWOT analysis of the positioning of the territory 5.8. enotsi. Strengths and weaknesses for the positioning Strengths Image and promotion: Image linked to the countryside: preserved nature Notoriety of the corrèze département thanks to the promotion campaign and to the fact the french president of the republic is originating from corrèze.3.5.3.8. - Weaknesses Image and promotion: Green image sometimes too marked and image of a place where there is nothing to do Image not clear since there is no strong product Image of a non dynamic territory Negative image of the territory for its inhabitants and for other people of the département = lack of attractiveness and impossibility to consider the inhabitants as ambassadors of their territory Reduced activity of the ENOTSI Insufficient knowledge of the customers at the local level 111 . etc.

It may not be the good area to organise tourism promotion and positioning.3. it will suffer from an important competition from the other Pays.2. Opportunities and threats for the positioning supply not as specific as the competitors image less strong than the competitors Opportunities Creation of the NRP: tool for image and notoriety of the area like are the other parks Creation of the Pays: area to develop tourism coordination and organisation As there are many other Pays that are developing tourism. If the Pays is considered as a good scale to develop tourism.8. it is possible to look at what they are doing in order to improve the development in Haute-Corrèze Haute-Corrèze proposes products and types of tourism that could attract niches of customers that are not interested by what propose the competitors - Threats Pays do not always correspond to touristic entities. . 112 .Strengths Competition: Competition - Weaknesses the competitors of the département are stronger than Corrèze in terms of frequentation 5.

3. Awareness of the necessity to preserve the heritage and will to do it => motivation for opening a gîtes: preserving the built heritage.1 Strengths and weaknesses for tourism organisation Strengths Improvement of the organisation and cooperation of tourism stakeholders in haute-corrèze and in the whole département. 113 .8. Awareness of local agents of the problems of haute-corrèze Territory entered in a local development process through the constitution of the Pays.4. People working in the tourism sector do not have any tourism education Too many structures and administrative divisions of the territory = lack of clarity for new inhabitants and for people willing to develop new projects. SWOT analysis of the tourism organisation 5. Problem for local people of awareness of the tourism potential and of its effect on the development of the territory. No coordination structure in haute-corrèze = imbroglio of structures that makes really difficult the organisation of projects. Problem of communication between the different organisms.8. - Weaknesses Problem of mentality of local people that are not used and maybe not ready to work together.5. Awareness of local agents of the importance of tourism for local development. It also makes the definition of the territory identity difficult.

8.2 Opportunities and threats for tourism organisation Opportunities Creation of the Pays that as the role of a coordination structure Development agents are changing: A new generation of - Threats The federation of the Pays will not be a specific structure to coordinate tourism Low financial helps from the governments to renovate built heritage development agents is arriving in Corrèze and Haute-Corrèze and contributes to change the mentalities 114 .5.3.

This analysis is a first step in the elaboration of solutions to improve the tourism sector in Haute-Corrèze. It seems that tourism can be a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze since the territory has got the natural and cultural resources necessary to develop tourism. such as coordination and partnerships between the tourism agents. In the next and last chapter are presented some recommendations for tourism agents and also for further investigations in order to change the current situation and make of tourism a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze.5. 115 . The final goal of this diagnosis is to reveal if and how tourism is a tool for development. organisation of tourism strategies and products. it seems that some aspects prevent this use of tourism as a tool for development. However. Conclusion This tourism diagnosis allowed to understand the tourism potential of Haute-Corrèze and to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the territory.9.

isolation. implication of local population. tourism is not yet a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze since the stakeholders are not aware of the importance of some aspects such as co-ordination. the final objective of rural tourism development is the increase of quality of life for local residents. it is a proof that the hypotheses were true. The territorial diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze (chapter 4) led to an understanding of the assets (quality of the living environment.Chapter 6. 116 . The study shows that the territory and the tourism sector have to be in a local development process in order to make of tourism a tool for development (hypothesis I). lack of cooperation between the structures. The literature review has allowed to define some hypotheses (chapter 3) that may allow the success of tourism as a tool for development. Indeed. good quality of infrastructures. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6. These aspects are still important brakes that affect the tourism organisation of the territory. but only under the condition of changing some aspects. lack of dynamism. The tourism diagnosis (chapter 5) pointed out that the tourism potential of the territory is important but has to be more and better exploited. etc). depopulation. federation of the different stakeholders. The conclusion of this study being that tourism could be a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze. the possibility to attract new inhabitants is also very important since it is the main objective of the creation of the Pays.1. Conclusion As explained in the literature review (chapter 2). In the case of Haute-Corrèze. low unemployment rate) and weaknesses (climate.

There are also some recommendations for further research since some aspects of this study could be deepened. Even if some aspects are not sufficiently exploited. Its mission would be to make local population and councillors aware of the importance of tourism for Haute-Corrèze and to convince them of the potential of the territory.1 Coordination and partnerships between the local tourism stakeholders The first aim of this coordinating tourist board would be to allow partnerships and to make people work together. The following paragraph is dedicated to recommendations that can be done to tourism and development agents in order to achieve this mission. there is no coordination structure yet and no organism able to give an impulse for tourism development. Concerning the second hypothesis. Indeed.2. the stakeholders do efforts and it seems that they are aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the territory.1 The creation of a coordinating tourist board at the destination level The creation of a tourist board at the local level is something important for HauteCorrèze. 6. Indeed. 6. The study demonstrates that Haute-Corrèze has a great tourism potential.1. 117 . their mission is to give themselves the means to go in the good direction.2. the study revealed the importance of giving human and above all financial means to develop tourism. Recommendations for tourism agents 6. Now.2. This tourist board would have different missions in order to improve the role of tourism as a tool for local development. it is obvious that tourism can not be used as a tool for development if there is no potential.One key factor could be added to the sub-hypotheses.

the TDC.2 Creation of a local tourism development plan The tourist board has to gather human and financial means to create a tourism development plan for the territory. so this structure has to initiate partnerships.2 Finding a positioning for the territory Finding a positioning is one of the major aspects of tourism development. information. Partnerships have also to be created between this tourist board and other structures located in and outside the territory such as the Millevaches Limousin NRP. Indeed. 6. It is essential for tourism development.Indeed. the main problem for tourism development in Haute-Corrèze is that people work alone. This plan would be realised by the different agents in order to direct all the means to one direction. In this process. This board has to allow local agents to exchange This board would go further that the ENOTSI that has only been created for promotion. 6. Moreover. even if promotion would be one of the missions of the board. 118 . at least through occasional meetings and promotion or communication events.2. the SLA. it gives a clear image of the territory and allows to develop products and to target markets that are related to this positioning. Indeed.1. This plan would be the basis for a sustainable. this plan could be linked to the objectives of the charter of the Pays in order to contribute to the fight against the territory’s problems such as depopulation. Local professionals have to feel involved in the development and success of tourism in Haute-Corrèze and have to be informed of the trends of the sector. long-term and organised development of tourism. All the tourism agents have to be involved in this structure.2. tourism would really be a tool for local development. there is no pla nning and no reflection in Haute-Corrèze on the use of tourism as a tool for development.

This change in the mentalities would improve tourist experiences on the territory and increase quality of life for local population. It is necessary to define a specific positioning for Haute-Corrèze that could allow tourists to define easily the image of the territory and to know what to do there.2 Making local population ambassador of their territory One important problem for the image of Haute-Corrèze is that the local population has a depreciated image of its territory. it is necessary to open the eyes of the local population on its territory by showing people all the assets of the place they live in. nature has to be completed by activities. but without any stress or pressure. Anyway. 6.6. Organization and cooperation of tourism agents is a key factors for positioning the territory. This mentality has to be changed since the contribution of local population is essential to transmit a good image of the territory outside. The idea of Mrs Savary from the Haute-Corrèze Pays’ Federation of organising a photo competition and exhibition for the inhabitants seems to be a good way to start this re-appropriation of the territory by its own inhabitants.2.1 An image turned toward active na ture The image of the territory has to be turned toward the preserved nature.2. 119 . it seems that time is needed before seeing the effects of promotion.2. The image has to be turned toward a polyvalent territory where everything can be done.2. Some agents also suggest to create a tourist attraction center in order to specialize the territory. People have to become proud of their territory. To achieve this objective. 6. HauteCorrèze is a territory accessible to everyone to spent family holidays but it is also a place where it is possible to experiment strong sensations. since it seems that it is what comes first when thinking to Haute-Corrèze.2.2.3 Competition The solution for competing with the current competitors is to give a positioning to Haute-Corrèze. However.

mushrooms picking).3 Improvement of the tourism products 6. It represents a good opportunity for Haute-Corrèze since the area could widen its touristic season. An important promotion has to go with this action in order to ensure its success and to support the activity and accommodation providers. the needs of people to have breaks. the easy communication. People from the West. The NRP of 120 . However. these customers could increase the occupancy rates of hotels and B&Bs if “à la carte” products were proposed in these types of accommodations with activities linked to the assets of the region (landscapes.2. It seems to be necessary to develop a public awareness campaign in Haute-Corrèze.1 New target markets è Working on proximity customers Short stays are developing thanks to the decrease of working time. Products have to be developed for niches of customers interested in those themes. The problems are the lack of accommodations such as gîtes that are not rented for short breaks and the activities that are closed out of the summer. whereas people from the East of the region will be more attracted by more southern aspects. gastronomy. They have to understand that tourism could be a significant part of local economy if some little things were changed.3. to make sensitive the tourism agents to the necessity of making efforts to develop tourism. the North and the South-West could be attracted by the mountainous aspect of the territory.2. by the rivers and by the forest since it is really different from what they know. èDeveloping niches of customers Haute-Corrèze is a specific territory oriented toward nature.6.

it is possible to attract them in other parts of the territory through specific products. etc. That is why developing more products ready for consumption seems to be a good idea. These products have to contribute by their form (“à la carte”) to the satisfaction of the costumers’ needs and to the increase of tourism activity in Haute-Corrèze (developing tourism during the low season to allow tourism activities to open). chestnuts and cooking.2. they do not want to pay for everything. hunting. This is the role of the TDC and of the tourist offices to develop these products with local professionals.2 Creation of new products The development of tourism products is essential in Haute-Corrèze where there is nearly nothing already developed. It would contribute to the animation of the territory. èReady for consumption products As explained in the new trends of the touristic demand. tourists do not want to worry during their holidays. autumn landscapes and painting.Millevache is an opportunity to communicate on Haute-Corrèze to this type of customers. These products could be developed during the low season in order to attract tourists for specific occasions such as mushrooms. Moreover. above all if animations are developed out of the peak season. Everything has to be easy. èAnimations about the troubadours The troubadours are part of an interesting period of Haute-Corrèze’s History and it could be interesting to develop activities around this theme. 6. Even if the whole Haute-Corrèze does not belong to the NRP. 121 . They could develop thematic products based on the assets of the territory.3.

At the level of Haute-Corrèze.2.3 Recommendations for further studies Although rural tourism has already been explored by a lot of academic and practical researches. Additional studies such as financial studies would also be necessary to establish an action plan. at the level of a destination. They understood the necessity to work on quality to satisfy the customers.3 Improvement of quality Tourism agents are already organising labels and quality criteria to improve the quality of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze. it is not sufficient to look at these studies for defining the good tourism strategy. 122 . nothing is done for the tourist offices. further studies could be lead since the research that has been done for this study is only based on qualitative data collection. it would be necessary to deepen the research on the competitors and on the possibilities of positioning for Haute-Corrèze to have a reliable basis to establish a good positioning for Haute-Corrèze. However. Concerning the positioning of the territory.6. 6. It could be interesting to give them the opportunity to work together and to define what are the things that they all want to improve.3. Quantitative research could be led on tourism demand since it has not been realised yet.

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APPENDICES Appendix 1 Distribution and densities of population in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 2 Map of the rail network in Corrèze 132 133 Appendix 3 List of elements used by the INSEE to establish the landlocking level of the territory Appendix 4 List of natural heritage in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 5 List of the most frequented sites of Haute-Corrèze Appendix 6 List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 7 List of summer manifestations in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 8 List of restaurants in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 9 List of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze Appendix10 Examples of interviews Appendix 11 List of tourism fairs to which the TDC participates Appendix 12 List of communities of municipalities Appendix 13 List of people that participated to the tourism commission for the redaction of the Pays’ Charter 170 134 135 136 137 139 147 150 151 166 169 132 .

Appendix 1 Distribution and densities of population in Haute-Corrèze Source: Charter of the Pays 133 .

Appendix 2 Map of the rail network in Corrèze HAUTE-CORREZE Source: Charter of the Pays 134 .

Appendix 3 List of elements used by the INSEE to establish the landlocking level of the territory post office firemen centre tax office police bank solicitor veterinary surgeon supermarket grocery bakery butcher’s shop hair dresser clothes shop shoe shop ironmonger’s shop electrical goods shop furniture shop book shop tobacconist’s shop petrol station building contractor plaster works joiner’s workshop electricity workshop garage primary school high school hospital ambulance doctor pharmacy dentist physiotherapist analysis laboratory nursing staff cinema 135 .

Viam. Soursac. firs.les-Orgues that offer a great view point on Massif Central and on the lake of Bort. and a carnivore plant. Eygurandes. according to the legend.) that constitutes the forests of the territory A great variety of lakes (Bort. pines. etc. Meymac. the drosera. spruces. Neuvic. to practice nautical sports or to go angling An important web of hiking paths The gorges of the Luzège The plateau of Millevaches with. Egletons. Ussel. It is a protected natural area The roads of panoramic view points on the gorges of the Dordogne where can be observed owls and falcons The basalt columns of Bort.les-Orgues. Tarnac. A large range of conifers (larches. a thousand of sources The Bessou Mount that is the peak of the département The Chavanon Valley that presents special botanic interests 136 . dragonflies. Lapleau) and rivers where it is possible to swim.Appendix 4 List of natural heritage in Haute-Corèeze Tourbière du Longeyroux èwhere can be found animals like otters.

les-Orgues Dam Launches of the lake of Bortles-Orgues Rochers Noirs Viaduct Steam touristic train Arboretum Park Auvergne-Limousin ‘Gabares’ Luzège Festival Millesources & Dordogne Festival Chélidoine Theatre Company Saint-Angel 38 days 5 054 2 869 Lapleau Haute-Corrèze 15 days 2 months 3 073 3 500 1 715 Egletons Meymac Meymac Neuvic Ussel Bort.Appendix 5 List of the most frequented sites of Haute-Corrèze Sites Municipalities Opening period 12 months 3 months 5 months 12 months Number of entrances 2001 Leather and Tanning Museum Bort.les-Orgues Medieval Centre Marius Vazeille Museum National Centre of Contemporaneous Art Henri Cueille Museum Ussel’s Pays Museum Val Castle Bazaneix Castle Bort.les-Orgues Saint Fréjoux Bort.les-Orgues Bort.les-Orgues Lapleau Millevaches Plateau Saint Setiers Soursac 5 898 3 633 2 379 6 051 3 637 2 499 35 536 2003 6020 3 000 3 502 4 118 3649 2 569 29 868 500 3 325 29 168 10 000 2 691 455 6 728 20 649 15 000 2 898 726 9 489 5 months 2 months 8 months 3 months 10 weeks 5 months 12 months 2 months 6 months 2 months 137 .

viaduc of the Chavanon. l’Aigle the Razel mills in Pérols-sur-Vézère the wind mill of Valiergues numerous vernacular buildings such as fountains. Marèges.les-Orgues.Appendix 6 List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze Sites. wells are scattered on the territory Museum and exhibition centres: museum of tanning and leather in Bort. mills. monuments and vernacular heritage: the Val Castle on the banks of the lake of Bort the Bazaneix Castle the Mothe Castle the ruins of the Ventadour Castle the medieval city of Ussel the medieval city of Meymac the medieval city of Egletons the gallo-roman site of the Cars the Rochers Noirs viaduct the viaducts of the motorway A89: viaduct of the Bergères. bridges. the dams on the Dordogne river: Bort.les-Orgues the medieval centre that recreates the medieval life in Egletons the transcorrézian road that allows to discover the heritage of this train the graphology house in Laroche-Près-Feyt the National Contemporary Art Centre in Meymac the house of fishing and water in Neuvic the resistance museum in Neuvic the heritage house in Saint-Merd-de-Lapleau the Ussel Pays museum in Ussel 138 . viaduct of the Barricade.

Religious heritage: Saint Martin medieval church in Ussel The penitent chapel in Ussel The Meymac Abbey The various gothic churches of Limousin The Manants Chapel in Confolent Port-Dieu The ruins of the Priory in Saint Pantaléon-de-Lapleau The churh pulpit in Lamazière-Basse Numerous other churches scattered on the territory 139 .

Appendix 7 List of summer manifestations in Haute-Corrèze 140 .

141 .

142 .

143 .

144 .

145 .

146 .

147 .

Le Jardin De Ventadours. Bugeat 2 Hotel-Restaurant Les Touristes Chirac-Bellevue Combressol Couffy / Sarsonne Darnets 1 1 1 1 Hotel-Restaurant La Maillade Hotel-Restaurant Le Chatel Restaurant Mrozicky Auberge Du Presbytère Hotel-Restaurant Borie. Restaurant Chez Yvette. HotelRestaurant Le Relais Gourmand. Relais Du Château De Val. Restaurant Relais Du Lys. HotelRestaurant Aux Armes De Ventadours. Crêperie La Pradelle. Outre Val. Hôtel Le Bon Accueil. Restaurant De La Mairie. La Corne D’or. Le 148 . Hotel-Restaurant Ibis.Appendix 8 List of restaurants in Haute-Corrèze Municipalities Aix Number of restaurants 1 Name of the restaurants La demi-lune Hôtel le Rider. Central Hôtel. Auberge Des Messagers. Ristorante Bort-Les-Orgues 14 La Mamma. Hotel-Restaurant Egletons 14 Le Relais D’Egletons. SucreSale. Snack Restaurant Chez Yvette Crêperie Le Millevaches. Restaurant Montbelet A La Truite D’auvergne. RestaurantPizzeria Bova Marina. Crêperie -Restaurant Des Orgues. HôtelRestaurant Dordogne.

la Fontaine Les Landiers Auberge de la Marguerite Hotel des Gorges Les Charbonniers. Restaurant Bellevue. RestaurantCrêperie Liselotte. Neuvic 8 Château-Hôtel du Mialaret. Hôtel Tatet Hotel-Restaurant le Soursacois 149 . Hotel-Restaurant le Meymacois. le Franceix Auberge du Plateau Hôtel de France.Bosphore. L’arobar Eygurande Lamaziere-Basse Liginiac Margerides Maussac Merlines 2 1 1 1 1 1 Thiolas Café De La Mairie. le New-Vic. bar grill Gérard Broutin Perols sur Vézère Peyrelevade Rosiers d’Egletons Saint Hilaire Luc Saint Julien Près Bort Saint Remy Saint setiers Sornac Soursac 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Auberge du Puy Chabrol Hotel-Restaurant la Cramaillotte. Snack le Bistrot Hotel-Restaurant du Lac. les Voyageurs. L’étape. Hôtel-Restaurant L’escargot. Pinocchio. chez Françoise. Chez Suzanne Auberge Du Chêne Vert Hotel-Restaurant Chassac Auberge Du Moulin Inter hotel Europa Le Chavanon Hotel-Restaurant le Limousin. Grill de Séchemailles. Les Remparts. Meymac 8 Pizzeria la Gondole. au Petit Creux.

Les Gravades. le Parc. Le Paris. Montcourrier. La Taverne. Auberge de L’empereur. L’arlequin Pizzeria. Le Tacot 150 . la Bolée Creperie. le Flamboyant. Café Restaurant Thierry Berthonneche. Le Troubadour. Ussel 32 Pizzeria Bodrum. Cafétéria Festodine. Cafétéria Golden Beef. le Grand Hôtel de la Gare. Istanbul Kebab. Jim Pizz’. Auberge de L’étang. la Grignotte. le Drop. le teRminus . L’afrodite. Grill de Ponty. Le Lucky. le Marmontel. L’orchidée. Pizza Totor. La Chope. le Palais de Ly Ly. chez Antoine. Piaulet JeanMarc.

228037383 0.303957382 0.461811723 0.292827579 Type of accommodation Nber of structures Nber of beds Nber of structures Nber of beds polyvalent accommodation structures3 holiday villages TOTAL HAUTE-CORREZE Total number of beds Limousin 8 361 72716 151 .175461741 0.114754098 0.252313687 0.361423221 0.245660881 0.192307692 0.Appendix 9 Distribution of market accommodations per type in Haute-Corrèze 1998 2003 Total beds Corrèze % of HauteCorrèze in the département non classified camping sites Bed & Breakfas ts Children Gîtes Stopping Gîtes Rural Gîtes village of gîtes Camping sites Hotels non classified gîtes 8 12 1 5 204 6 28 22 64 579 66 7 69 816 458 6600 914 256 214 1815 11794 8 19 1 9 184 8 28 25 122 3 8 415 579 120 7 129 736 518 5991 798 488 260 1977 11603 1602 624 61 430 2996 2053 19710 4548 2140 563 4592 39624 0.3 0.430531359 0.

water. since it is a cross-disciplinary activity: when houses are restored. tourism can be considered a tool for development. However. revenue. its history nature. employment. They prefer acting for their voters.Appendix10 Examples of interviews INTERVIEW CONSEIL GENERAL CORREZE Organism : Conseil Général Function : responsible for tourism department Name : Valérie Bordes First part: the territory: Presentation of the territory: strengths and weaknesses development perspectives for Haute-Corrèze : opportunities and threats the specific charateristics of Haute-Corrèze in comparison with the département è the answers to all that questions will be given in a separate document = secondary data Second part: tourism: the role of tourism as a tool for local development in Haute-Corrèze Local councillors consider tourism as a plus but not as a priority. the place of tourism in Haute-Corrèze. it is an asset at the same time for tourism and for the local population. frequentation don’t know the image of the territory. in terms of economy. sources 152 .

activities.what can bring the new departmental tourism scheme? This new scheme is realised by the Conseil Général whereas the former one had been done by an external consultancy. 120 interviews where done with local councillors and tourism service providers to know their projects and points of view. the balance of the former scheme Most of the actions forecasted for this scheme were realised. The new orientation will go towards the development of projects that are not purely touristic. 153 . when there is a strong specificity that is not representative of all the département but only of one part of it. From the scheme. etc). In this scheme the thinking is done in terms of territorial planning and not of sectors (like accommodations. Local tourism stakeholders can expect from this structure a help in the elaboration of their projects. It is also interesting from the point of view of the dialogue that the structure of the Pays can favour. A lot of actions will be carried on from the former scheme. how are the specificities of Haute-Corrèze taken into account in the departmental scheme there is no specific sub-division in the scheme for Haute-Corrèze. However. they can expect an answer to their needs in the future touristic orientations of the département. the supply: what can expect the tourism service providers from initiatives such as the constitution of the Pays or the tourism departmental scheme? The Pays is an interesting scale for the development of projects on a territory. but that can be more cultural for example. this aspect is highlighted.

etc. they did not participate to the elaboration of the scheme are actions lead to make the different stakeholders of the territory sensitive to tourism (shopkeepers. more often. The goal of this action was to know their expectations and to inform them about the redaction of the scheme. In spite of the fact that the tourism departmental scheme is being actualised. before the interviews were not aware of the existence of a departmental tourism scheme. no leader. is there someone that can be considered as a leader for tourism development in Haute-Corrèze? There is no real leader on the territory that could impulse the tourism development. Most of them. What are the tourism projects in Haute-Corrèze? The ENOTSI is an informal group gathering all the tourist offices of Haute-Corrèze. They are not aware of those problems. associations.… 154 . can you bring out the first trends in terms of evolution of the supply? The national trends can be applied to Corrèze: shorter holidays. no structure for the coordination of tourism. Specific trends: no possibility to welcome groups. with shop and even restaurants that are close during the peak season or that close at 8 in the afternoon. no awareness of the interests of touris m. population)? The major problem of tourism in Haute-Corrèze is the bad quality of reception. There is no big tourism project on the territory. Apart from that.Do they take part in the elaboration of the scheme? Local councillors and some tourism service providers have been interviewed for the elaboration of the scheme. They have projects such as a brochure or a project around fishing but they have no financial means.

only from the former scheme Satisfaction in terms of welcome. the agriculture chamber. There is no local coordination structure for tourism in Haute-Corrèze. of quality of the services in Haute-Corrèze No recent data available. lack of professionalism. What could be done in the future? What could be envisaged is that an intermunicipal structure gives importance to tourism and that it have a good influence on the other municipalities. lack of human and financial means to develop tourism. from where? when? Kinds of accommodation used? Length of the stay? No recent data available. 155 . only from the former scheme Motivations for coming in Haute-Corrèze See documents from the departmental tourism committe Third part: organisation: Are there partnerships with the Departmental Committee of Tourism.The demand: frequentation: kinds of tourists. Partnership with all the departmental tourism associations: often for financing What are the assets and brakes to tourism development in Haute-Corrèze? No awareness of the importance of tourism. the Regional Committee of Tourism. the regional natural park to organise tourism on the territory? Partnerships with the region for financial helps.

It ca be positive for restoration of 156 . However. There is a dominance of water and of specific fauna and flora.INTERVIEW FEDERATION OF THE HAUTE-CORREZE PAYS Organism: Conseil general – direction of local development – Function: in charge of the creation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze Name: Nadège SAVARY First part: tourism: The main orientations for the development of the Pays is the attraction of new inhabitants: what is the place of tourism? Tourism is a tool for economic development and for the development of natural heritage. since tourism is also done for the local population Economic. Corrèze is a nice place to live for old people. There is a culture of troubadours that has to be developed. Do you consider that tourism could be a tool for local development Yes. Touristic strengths and weaknesses of the territory Problem of empty houses and second homes that are not really used. tourism is not really a priority. its roots Problem of mentalities: inhabitants have a bad image of their territory. Its place depends on the projects since there are important needs in terms of accommodations. People are keeping there houses for when they are retired since according to a national study. employment. frequentation importance of tourism on the territory No data The image of the Pays. Idea of organisation of an exhibition of photos of the territory taken by the inhabitants.

presence of many houses that give opportunities to develop quality accommodations. Moreover. Tourism assets are: quality of the landscapes characteristic of low mountains. Tourism is a tool for the diversification of their activity. Tourism weaknesses: lack of animation lack of professionals to organise animations lack of restaurants proposing local menus lack of activities lack of direct sales of farm products to tourists lack of quality in the welcoming of people Tourism and farmers? Tourism can give a job to the wife of the farmer. 157 . it can allow to maintain the farming activity Are local councillors aware of the stakes of tourism and are they ready to work for its development? Problem of awareness of local councillors that don’t see the opportunities offered by tourism. a lot of houses are not restored since the owners don’t want to invest or to sell. The heritage: water. The arrival of English people can have positive consequences since they buy and restore houses.building heritage but negative for the image and dynamism of villages. The bad aspect is that it make increase the price of land and of houses. proximity of Cantal.

gastronomy. Who has participated to the reflection for the redaction of the Charter? See the list printed Are there actions to make tourism stakeholders aware of the importance of tourism? Not really through the exhibition “succeeding in Haute-Corrèze” that shows the success of some hotel and restaurant managers. There is a clog factory on the territory (Saint-Exupéry) and it could be transformed for tourism. Leader for tourism on the territory Not really Tourism projects? Thematic hiking based on the specificities of the territory: mushrooms. 158 . Project of creation of a panoramic tower and of an observatory on the Bessou Mount.The supply: What can expect tourism service suppliers from the creation of the Pays? They are not expecting federation and structuring since they are not aware of this need. Development potential around the lakes Project of Bistrot de Pays that are Cafés that also offer a grocery service for villages where there is no shop. Project of welcoming scholar groups and seminars in former holiday camps. etc. They expect financial helps and the creation of a strong tourism product and tourism communication. stag.

Problem of professionalism of tourism agents since there is no one able to work for tourism planning 159 . they are available for short breaks and they love local products. There is a will of partnership with the natural regional park but difficulties of communication due to a logic of competition and to the problem of the superposition of the structures. There are many associations on the territory but a problem of coordination. assets and brakes to tourism development in Haute-Corrèze problem of awareness and implication of local shopkeepers and of tourism service providers.the demand: frequentation: types of tourists. Problem of mentalities because people don’t like their territory and think that to have success. when? types of accommodation? Length of the stay? No data necessity to target camping-cars since they have a high purchasing power. it is necessary to leave Haute-Corrèze è the federation of the Pays is trying to change this view through an exhibitions with the theme “succeeding in HauteCorrèze”. from where. Satisfaction of the tourists in Haute-Corrèze No data Motivations of tourists for coming in Haute-Corrèze First motivation for coming in Limousin = hiking Second part: tourism organisation: partnerships no real partnership with the tourism departmental and regional committees or with the chamber of agriculture.

coordination structure for tourism in Haute-Corrèze Need for animation of the territory => role of the Pôle Local d’Accueil since there is no animation structure. other services that could have an influence on tourism? Restoration of built heritage. the culture. INTERVIEW TOURIST OFFICE OF MEYMAC Organism : Tourist office of Meymac Function : polyvalent agent and permanent Name: Sophie Bonnelie First part: tourism supply: Type and quality of the touristic supply: Accommodations: The supply is not sufficient. There are only 50 touristic beds in hotels. The quality of the gîtes and of the camping sites is not good but it will improve with the building of chalets in the camping site and the creation of a label for the gîtes. That can be explained by the fact that tourism is not the ir 160 . sports. Another structure for coordination is the ENOTSI (union of all the tourist offices of Haute-Corrèze) but problem of financial and human means. cultural development with cinemas. There is also a problem of adaptation of the accommodations to the new requirements of the tourists: they only rent the gîtes weekly whereas there is a new demand for short beaks. Many associations in charge of culture and quality programme. The intermunicipal structure of Ussel-Meymac did a survey to know the needs of every municipality. theatres. Actions lead for the heritage. 4 beds and breakfasts.

They did not understand the importance of the image of dynamism of the village when tourists are there. It is an investment that has to be done. the town and the plateau are famous. 161 .main activity. shopkeepers think that nothing as to be done to attract them. The natural/cultural resources and tourist attractions Landscapes (Tourbière du Longeyroux. Musicales of the Millevaches Plateau. In terms of museums and exhibitions: contemporaneous art museum that has a national fame exhibition centre artists’ house that offers a good cultural programme festivals and animations: Luzège festival. that is just a plus and some of the owners don’t want to invest more in quality. there is an important proportion of tourists that are coming in second home and that are originating from the region. Millesources and Dordogne Festival. Are there enough shops? There is a sufficient number of shops but they don’t adapt their activity to the requirements of tourism. tourists are coming. Owners are not easy to make aware of that problem because they think in terms of business. even if they don’t necessarily buy. The only problem linked to the landscape is the over presence of forests with too many coniferous trees what give a monotone impression. that is easy. Bessou mount) and vernacular heritage (ruins of the Cars) are well restored and protected. whereas it is now the third generation of tourists and they are less attached to the region. they don’t need to make efforts to welcome them. è good cultural supply but nothing that really marks. like the hiking paths. Moreover. For the shopkeepers. This will change with the creation of the label. There is a holiday village on the territory but they live in autarchy.

Germany and Holland. Out of the peak season. satisfaction? No data except for the hiking product since there is a satisfaction sheet to fill in. they are families but the type of tourist is broader. Paris. Bretagne. they are families with babies and they spend less than in august. in some farms. When? Above all between June and September. evolution of the demand tourists want to buy products ready for consumption. nature. it is possible to buy directly the food products. Second part: touristic demand: Who? They are young seniors. English people are starting to buy houses. and this year. Foreigners are mainly coming from England. They are coming from Pays de la Loire. However.Farm products: there are no accommodations in farms since farmers don’t have the financial means and the time to invest in tourism. and young couples without children in June and September In July. from Gironde (participation to the tourism fairs of Bordeaux) and south of France. From where? French tourists are the majority. In august. They are doing shorter stays but more often. Why? Quietness. In October. 162 . people are coming in may when there are long breaks. some tourists are coming for the mushrooms.

There are more and more caravans.

Third part: the competitors:

Who are the competitors? At the beginning, they thought it would be Vulcania in Auvergne, but in reality it is not since people are still stopping in Meymac. The competitors are: Brive since it is a part of the département that is more known than Haute-Corrèze and it is located at a cross-road between two motorways. Moreover, they have a 3-star tourist office that work very well. Auvergne since here are really the mountains and have a good image (volcanoes, food, etc)

Strategy? Cooperation with other tourist offices of Haute-Corrèze in order to propose more products.

Strengths and weaknesses of Haute-Corrèze in comparison with its competitors: Haute-Corrèze has got a diversified supply with many activities and heritage. However, Haute-Corrèze does not have any strong attraction.

Fourth part: the territory:

Do you consider that tourism could be a tool for local development in HauteCorrèze? yes, through for example the investment of English people in houses. It brings dynamism for the local economy and contributes to the preservation of the built heritage. However, tourism is not important enough to impulse dynamism on the territory. It contributes to this dynamism.

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importance of tourism in Haute-Corrèze? No real data

Image and promotion Before, they didn’t know how to make tourism. è people had the image of the Plateau de Millevaches because they had learnt it at school: sources and cows. è they had a depreciated image of the territory Today, thanks to the communication campaign of the Tourism Departmental Committee in Paris, the image is improved. Moreover, the Natural Regional Park will bring a good image. In terms of promotion, the ENOTSI participates to tourism fares and edits brochures They don’t have any website but want to create one.

Fifth part: the tourism organisation on the territory:

Role of the tourist office: Promotion and animation of the territory. No enough persons to organise animations even if there is someone for the town council in charge of animation.

No coordination structure in Haute-Corrèze? What can be done for the future? The Natural Regional Park can give orientations, but it won’t have direct funds, only financial helps from the government, EU, the region. There is also the ENOTSI but it does not have any financial and human means. Moreover, the tourist offices are not ready for unity.

What is the level of quality for welcoming tourists in Haute-Corrèze? The tourist office is a one-star office with a permanent employees. Would like to move to a two-star office but need to hire someone else and don’t have the financial means. To improve the quality of welcoming, adaptation of the opening hours during the peak season.

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Objectives and future of the ENOTSI The first objective was to make people meeting. It has also the objective of communication for the Pays with participation to fares and creation of a promotion document. The next steps would be to have a common website but it is not easy because everybody hasn’t yet enter in a federation project. People still to work for and by themselves. In the end, it can become a structure of coordination but without financial means.

partnerships with tourism departmental committee, the agricultural chamber, the tourism regional committee, the natural regional park, tourist offices, the fédération of the Pays for the organisation of tourism on the territory? With the other tourist offices, it was not easy but now, there is a communication between the employees of the different tourist offices even if there is no real cooperation except for the ENOTSI (tourism fares)

according to you, are the departmental and regional tourism agents taking into account the specificities of Haute-Corrèze in their tourism strategies? Département = OK But nothing is done by the region. They don’t open the eyes on Haute-Corrèze.

Are there partnerships with local tourism service suppliers? Yes, with one hotel and one B&B for the organisation of a hiking product. Nothing with the others.

what is expected from the creation of the Pays, the PNR, etc.? they are really recent structures, it is still difficult to say what they will bring since they have not been associated to the procedures yet.

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associations. è the tourist office works to make them aware of the stakes of tourism each animation since it only works if everybody wants to imply a bit. Specific expectations in terms of tourism organisation and development: Financial means 166 . strengths and weaknesses of tourism organisation in Haute-Corrèze no director for any tourist office in Haute-Corrèze lack of political will lack of formation even if formation organised for the tourist offices too many structures: difficult to know who does what no leader on the territory.Are there actions organised to make people (shopkeepers. People from the pays don’t see the importance of tourism. They see the tourist office as representative of the local administration the shopkeepers’ associaton doesn’t work very well. population) aware of the stakes of tourism? only the people that are not from the territory are doing things for tourism. no strong association lack of an association for hiking problem to welcome buses since there is not enough accommodations in one establishment the formation organised by the UDOTSI (departmental union of tourist offices) for tourist office is very good.

Appendix 11 List of tourism fairs to which the TDC participates 167 .

168 .

169 .

Appendix 12 List of communities of municipalities Name of the intermunicipal structure CC Ventadour Doustre Luzège CC Pays d’Eygurandes Tourism competence Partnership with the tourist office Financial help to the tourist office Development of tourism sites. No specific action yet. heritage CC Bugeat Sornac Millevaches au Coeur development scheme. 170 . recruitment of one person to develop actions CC Gorges de la Haute Dordogne Creation of an intermunicipal tourist office CC Plateau Bortois Creatio n of a hiking trail and partnership with the shopkeepers to develop tourism Actions that participate to tourism CC Ussel Meymac development and promotion of the territory.

direction of local development. tourism service Representative of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ussel Vice-President of the Gorges de la Dordogne Association Henri Chassagne Félix Chaussade Jean-Luc Cheyssial Laurent Crémont François Desproges M. Eymard Gilbert Fournial President of the ENOTSI President of the UDOTSI CC Bugeat Sornac President of the tourist office of Neuvic President of the tourist office of Bugeat Tourist office of Bort-les-Orgues Representative of the Gorges de la Dordogne Association Pierre Gathier Jean Jacques Labesse Pierre Lainé Jean-Pierre Lauby Michel Lefai Anne-Marie Mossolin Georges Nadalon Alain Normandon Conseil Général and Ussel city hall councillor Watersports centre of Voilco Fisher guide Equestrian farm of Saint-Setiers Mayor Manager of the TDC President of the tourist office of Sornac Manager of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Gérard Nussac Jean-Marie Roche Patrice Seuniac Georges Sully Paul Teullet IMAREL of Liginiac Manager of the rural gîtes structure President of the tourist office of Eygurande President of the tourist office of Bort Headmaster of the Forest High School of Meymac Jean-Pierre Valade President of the departmental committee of hiking 171 .Appendix 13 List of people that participated to the tourism commission for the redaction of the Pays’ Charter NAME Valérie Bordes Isabelle Bistos Jacques Champy TITLE Conseil Général.

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