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'I hereby declare that the dissertation submitted is wholly the work of Marie SAULE. Any other contributors or sources have either been referenced in the prescribed manner or are listed in the acknowledgements together with the nature and scope of their contribution.'
MA European Tourism Management Bournemouth University August 2004
Rural tourism is taking more and more importance in the tourism sector at the international since it represents an alternative to mass tourism. In France, stays in rural areas represent more than one third of the stays. This new type of tourism started to develop after the beginning of rural exodus and is now considered by experts and political authorities as an activity that can contribute to the development of rural areas, especially of less favoured rural area. Haute-Corrèze is a less-
favoured rural area suffering old problems of depopulation and lack of dynamism. Agriculture is one of the major activity of the area but it is suffering restructuring problems. This study aims at finding if tourism is currently a tool of development for Haute-Corrèze and if it is not, the purpose of the study is to find if and how tourism could be a tool for Haute-Corrèze development.
A review of the literature about rural tourism and local development allowed to establish a list of hypotheses checked during the study to know if tourism may be a tool for development: necessity of quality, of co-ordination, of federation, of
implication of the local population, of awareness of local agents. It is also necessary for the territory to have a touristic potential. In order to check all these hypotheses, a territorial and a tourism diagnosis are led. Once all the data are collected and analysed, some conclusions can be drawn:
The findings of this study confirm that Haute-Corrèze benefits from an important tourism potential thanks to its natural and cultural resources. The accommodations such as gîtes and B&Bs have a good quality. However, the territory has problems of dynamism, of positioning, of organisation and of mentalities that prevent it from being as strong as it could be. The territory needs financial and human means to organise and develop new products corresponding to the expectations of the customers. In the last part of the study, some recommendations are developed for local tourism agents and for further research.
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Figure 3: Evaluation of the local touristic potential.................................................. 48 Figure 5: Localisation of Haute-Corrèze ................................................................... 54 Figure 6: Federation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze - list of municipalities................... 55 Figure 7: Evolution of the population in Haute-Corrèze between 1990 and 1999 ... 57 Figure 8: Population pyramid.................................................................................... 58 Figure 9: Level of equipment of the Pays ................................................................. 60 Figure 10: Distribution of heritage in the Corrèze département ............................... 66 Figure 11: Distribution of the products "Bienvenue à la ferme" in the Corrèze
département ................................................................................................................ 71 Figure 12: Nights spent in rural areas by French people in 2001 per type of
accommodation - in thousands of nights.................................................................... 73 Figure 14: Evolution of the number of gîtes and B&B in Haute-Corrèze between 1999 and 2003 ............................................................................................................ 76 Figure 15: Distribution of Haute-Corrèze camping sites per category ..................... 77 Figure 16: Evolution of the occupancy rates in the camping sites of the Corrèze département. ............................................................................................................... 78 Figure 18: Figures about the frequentation of Corrèze competitors ........................ 91 Figure 19: Focus on the image given by the tourism agents interviewed ................. 92 Figure 20: Evolution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze and Haute-Corrèze/Corrèze ratio .................................................................................... 101 Figure 21: Distribution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze in 2003.......................................................................................................................... 102
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CAP CC CDCE Common Agricultural Policy Communauté de Communes / Communauty of Municipalities Economic Chambers Departmental Committee / Comité Départemental des Chambres Economiques DATAR ERS EU GRP INSEE LAGs LEADER LOADDT Délégation à l’Aménagement du Territoire et à l’Action Régionale Economic Research Service European Union Grande Randonnée de Pays / Pays Hiking Trails National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies Local Action Groups Link Between Actions of Local Economic Development Loi d’Otientation sur l’Aménagement et le Développement Durable du Territoire NRP/PNR OECD Natural Regional Park / Parc Naturel Régional Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PCRT/CPTR Permanent Conference on Rural Tourism / Conférence Permanente du Tourisme Rural SRLA SWOT TDC/CDT Service Réservation Loisirs Accueil / Booking Centre Strengths/Weaknesses/Opportunities/Threats Tourism Departmental Committee / Comité Départemental du Tourisme TDDS/SDDT Tourism Departmental Development Scheme / Schéma Départemental de Développpement Touristique TO TRC/CRT UDOTSI Tourist Office Tourism Regional Committee / Comité Régional du Tourisme Union Départemental des offices de Tourisme / Departmental Union of the Tourist Offices WTO World Tourism Organisation iv .
...............CONTENTS ABSTRACT .... 14 The objectives of the research........... 20 Local development........1....18 Introduc tion....................................6 GENERAL INTRODUCTION........................ 12 The research area of the study.....................2.................. 2.4 1. 23 Rural tourism in Europe ............................... 2................. 2......................... LITERATURE REVIEW ...... 14 The research methodology ............................................. 2............................................................................................. 2............ 15 The dissertation structure ........... 12 The relevance of the topic .....XI CHAPTER 1.........................II LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ...IV CONTENTS ......................3 1......................... 18 Rural areas: a multiple definition ............... V AKNOWLEDGEMENT ...1.1 1.................................................................................2.............. 2......................................................................1........... 18 Definition of the principal terms of the theme .. 1.................................3.....................................................................................................3...........................................5 1....................................12 Introduction...................... 15 CHAPTER 2.....................1................... III LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .... 19 Rural tourism: a multi-faceted concept.........................1.................................................................................... 24 v ......2 1...........................................................................
.. 3.1 2...................3....................... 37 CHAPTER 3......4.....1 2......................2 2....5 Evolution of the perceptions of the countryside and consequences for the development of rural tourism................ 24 European funding for rural tourism .............1.................................. 3...........4......1............................ 33 Economic...............................................................................4....................1.................1.................6.........................2... 39 Sub-hypothesis II: Importance of quality .... 32 2.............................1.................. 38 Hypotheses about the key factors for tourism to be a tool for development and falsification.... 28 After 1975: the crisis and the questioning .......... 2.............................4.6...2................3................................................3........ 30 Three types of rural areas in France ............2...............................3 Rural tourism as a tool for development: the danger of possible negative .............1 2............................ 3........................4........... 27 1960-1975: The world growth........ 31 The new countryside.................4.....1.1.....2... 27 1945-1960: Technical progress for rebuilding ...................................... the area 3.......3....38 Approach of the topic:.........................2...............................................................2............................1 2....................7 Conclusion:............................................... 39 3.............. 28 2....................3.............................. METHODOLOGY .......................................4......... 39 Sub-hypothesis III: Importance of co-ordination ... 37 2.4....................1............................................................ 31 The urban countryside..................... 32 2.........2............................................1... Sub-hypothesis I: Importance of the awareness of local agents of the problems of .....................2 2.................. 40 Sub-hypothesis IV: importance of the federation of the different stakeholders ...............4.........2................................... social and environmental negative impacts.............................................. 36 Social repercussions of tourism. 33 Challenges and opportunities......2 2......... 38 3....3 The four functions of rural areas in France................................ 40 vi ....... 2....................................1....4....3 2. 25 General trends in the economic and social situation of rural areas in France 26 Socio-historical analysis of the evolution of rurality............................. 31 The declining countryside....3.............2 2..........4........................... 36 Mitigated economic repercussions ...6.............................................................2.......................... Hypothesis I: the territory and the tourism sector have to be in a local development process . 3...................2.........6..............................6 2....................................................................................2 Tourism as a tool for local development .........1.........2.....1 2........... impacts 2...
.............. 47 Specific analysis of the organisation of tourism on the territory...................................... 3..........................4...........4 4................................................................................... 59 Equipment...............................3........................................................ 56 Demographic characteristics .................................................... 44 Interview design....................5..................1 4.....5.....2 4................................................. 60 Socio-economic characteristics................................................4..... 50 Conclusion...................................................2 4.........2 4............................... 3......4................ 41 Secondary data: ........................................ 51 What is a ‘Pays’? ...4........................................................3 4.....................................5......2.................................................. 41 Literature review:.... 47 Analysis of the tourism potential of the territory .......................... 61 Social characteristics ............2..5 4..............4....2.... 52 Perimeter of the territory .... 45 3.................. 40 3....................................... 3....................................1.........1 Introduction.............................................................. 44 Selection of the sample................1 4.3............................................................................................................................................................................................6 Discussion of the results:.....3................................. 59 Accessibility.......... enough 3........... 55 Two geographical entities in the Pays ....................3 4.....................4................2............................... Sub-hypothesis V: importance of the participation of local population...... 3.................. 3..5...............................................2......6 4.......6... 42 Primary data: ...................................... 43 Aims of the research.......3.. 53 Importance of water in the culture of the pays......................................5....... Hypothesis II: the tourism potential of the territory has to be important ....2....................... 59 Housing ...... 56 Equipment and infrastructures .1 4..3..........................................3.........2....................3 4......... 42 Quantitative versus qualitative data collection.. 41 Secondary data about Haute-Corrèze: ................. 3..........................................5............................3...................................................................................1.......... 3............... 50 CHAPITRE 4 HAUTE-CORREZE TERRITORIAL DIAGNOSIS .........................................2.......1.....5...............................2..............1..... 3...................... 3................ 61 vii .............. 43 Qualitative data collection: In-depth interviews: ......1........... 3...... 51 Geographic presentation of the Pays .3...................................................51 4........2. 3.............................
........................................2...................................................3.... 85 viii ........................ 5.... 68 Animations and festivals...............................1.....3........3..... 62 Weaknesses of the territory that can have an influence on tourism.........2...2....... 5............... 63 Threats that can have an influence on tourism .......................... services............. craft industry.................................... 61 Agriculture............ 62 4..... Activity suppliers .....................6.........2 4............... 5.............4........... 65 The territory resources .............................................1 4.................. 70 Agri-tourism and gastronomy: the “Bienvenue à la ferme” network...........7........................... 83 5........................ 80 The demand .......2..........3...1................ industry. 69 5.............................2.............. 73 Camping sites..........7 4................................... 81 New socio-cultural trends................................1..... 71 Hotels ............................6................... 61 Commerce.............................7.1..... 5......4.......2.............2.......2 4............... 62 Strengths of the territory that can have an influence on tourism................................... 81 New purchasing behaviours.................3..........................................8 SWOT analysis.............................. 5.............................3............... 64 Conclusion.....................4.....................3............................................. 78 5..2....... 5........ 5.......................4 4...... 81 General trends of the rural tourists....................................... 70 Accommodations ....... 63 Opportunities that can have an influence on tourism ...................2 Types of economic activities.1.................................................................. 5................................2...... 66 Cultural resources..........................................3................ 5.......3 4........... 68 Gastronomy...................................3...............................................................................2.............4................................................................... 5.......2...................1........... 68 The built heritage............................................2......... Characteristics of the tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze .......................3...........2... 5......4...............................7................................... TOURISM ............2...........................1...............................................1....1 4..65 Introduction.............................. 5..2.... HAUTE-CORREZE DIAGNOSIS 5........................................................4.......2................. Touristic supply.7......... 5............1.............6.......................2.........2................. 5.. 65 Natural resources ............................3...................... 64 CHAPITRE 5........1..4........................... 5.2.............. 5.............................................................. 5.............. 72 Gîtes and Bed and Breakfasts ..................................................2......... 81 New expectations of the customers...........................4......2..3. 77 Second homes.......................
......... Characteristics of the stays in Haute-Corrèze . 94 Creation of websites........................ 86 Activities practised: nature.......................................... 5.5..................3..............................8..........................................3.................... 109 Opportunities and threats for the demand.......2..4..4.3................ 87 5...................4........2.... Motivations of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze........ 5........................5...1 5.......2..2.........5............ 97 Rest areas of the roads and motorways......................4................. 97 5......................2. 5..........4.....4.........................................8.................................... 99 Local structures.....1................................................................... 5........................4........... 5....8...............................4............ Marketing ...................................6........................................ 5............ 5.......................1............................ 106 Opportunities and threats for the supply... 98 Tourism organisation on the territory......2...9...............6. 5...6................... 96 Participation to tourism fairs........ 91 Image.... 5................ 98 Public structures ....... 108 5........1.......................................................................... 89 Satisfaction of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze ........1..................................................1......6..... 5....... 5............. 89 Competitors ......... 100 5..2..............6.. Conclusion .......... SWOT analysis of the positioning of the territory............................................................................................................. 96 National communication campaigns............... 113 5...... 99 Departmental structures................................. 111 SWOT analysis of the tourism organisation. 5...........................3..6......................4.. 5.........8........1...2......................2 Private structures and associations .............................8................. 5......8.... 5.....1............................6...................................................3.......3...............7......... 5.3.... 87 An average length of stay higher than the national trends.................. 110 5.......................8..............1......8...........3..............1 5....2..............7...2.......... 91 Communication and promotion..................2.......... 5.......3.............. 115 ix ....2 SWOT analysis of the demand......................... 5........................................... 5.......... culture and idleness.....7...2.......................6............................................................. 5.....8.................................... 5.......................5........ 5.............. 86 Low expenses............................ 90 Promotion and communication .... 86 A majority of stays spent in non-market accommodations.7..... 106 Strengths and weaknesses for the supply.............................6.1.................................. 94 Edition of brochures............................................2..........7...... 106 SWOT analysis of the supply ...............................................4................................. 109 Strengths and weaknesses for the demand.........1................. 5...............................4... 104 SWOT analysis.
.........................................2........................ 117 Finding a positioning for the territory .... 6... 120 Recommendations for further studies..................2.................. 118 Improvement of the tourism products......2 6....... 116 Recommendations for tourism agents............ 6...116 Conclusion... 6......2.............1 6.............................123 APPENDICES ............................................3 6..........................132 x .............. 117 The creation of a coordinating tourist board at the destination level ..........3 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................... 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................1...............CHAPTER 6.................................2...............................................
M. I am really grateful to Ariane Portegies from NHTV. Henri Chassagne. Nadège Savary. Francisco Serra. and the persons in charge of the International Office for their support. Cédric Bach. and all the tourism agents of Corrèze and HauteCorrèze for their welcome and for the time they took to answer my questions and provide me information. Fraysse. Fay. the knowledge they brought us and for all the things they did for us. Breda. xi . for her continual support and encouragement and for always being available when I needed her all along this year. I would like to thank all the member of the teachers of NHTV. Concerning the practical part of this dissertation. Philippe Bordes. Philippe Constanti. M. my thanks go to Valérie Bordes. Sophie Bonelli. I would also like to thank Mike Morgan for his guidance throughout the whole ETM program. Breda. for his advice and guidance throughout the long process of this academic work.AKNOWLEDGEMENTS I want to thank my supervisor.
Every agent at local and even national level says that tourism can be used as a tool for development in rural disadvantaged areas. The countryside tries to capture these customers that can contribute to diversifying the local economy and improving the dynamism of the territory. the sector is facing some changes in comparison with its beginning. Factors such as decrease of working time. for example. These factors. People coming from the cities want to escape from their stressing daily life and to enjoy during their holidays a peaceful and good quality environment. Haute-Corrèze is a rural territory located in the region Limousin. 1. A process of local development has recently been initiated through the creation of a Pays and tourism is of course part of the development plan. Mass tourism. it is seen as a way to minimise the crisis 12 . GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. It is suffering demographic and econo mic problems. even if it keeps attracting a great amount of people and generating important revenues. The question of knowing whether tourism can be a tool for development in this region is raised.Chapter 1.1 Introduction While tourism becomes every year more important for national and local economies. urbanisation and development of communication means give the opportunity for other kinds of tourism to develop. in the western part of Massif Central. First of all. mark the beginning of rural tourism.2 The relevance of the topic Rural tourism is a ‘new’ kind of tourism to which the authorities are giving a great importance for several reasons. mixed with the willing to find means to help rural areas to get out of crisis. is not the most attractive kind of tourism anymore.
favoured areas problems (Sharpley.of traditional beach tourism. Some articles present the solutions that tourism could provide to rural less. at the European level. initiatives such as LEADER (Liaison Entre Actions de Développement de l’Economie Locale) have as their main objective to help projects in rural less. This figure gives an idea about the economical importance of rural tourism for local economies. Indeed. 2002. that is developed at a smaller scale than beach tourism. There is also an article from Bossuet (2001) that asks the question: “Rural Tourism. nature and culture. 2001). as explained by Blanca García Henche 1 (2003). such as the study “Quelle France that reserves a chapter to the entertainment and touristic function of the countryside. B. That is why they are more attracted by rural tourism.. tourists no longer want to be seen as a mass. (2003) Tourisme Rural. Moreover. In France. the same or other articles and studies show that tourism is not always a solution for rural areas. an opportunity for local development 1 2 Garcia Henche. Paris 13 . They need personalisation during their holidays. Paris 3 DATAR. (2003) Quelle France Rural pour 2020 ? Contribution à une nouvelle politique de développement rural durable. between conservation and development in every place they visit. such as the countryside that answers to their need for more authenticity and contact with nature and culture . An article presents the potential problems that can cause rural tourism (Sharpley. rural tourism is considered as a tool for rural development. rurale pour 2020?”3 Numerous studies and books are focusing on this theme. tourists are now looking for a balance between tourism. Direction du Tourisme. the countryside is the first destination in terms of stays with 36 % of the stays 2 . 2001). 2002). Secrétariat d’Etat au Tourisme. In France. M oreover. However. Piramide. La Documentation Française. This new state of mind gives opportunity for developing non-traditional tourist destination. Sarasa. Madrid. another one exposes the factors that could prevent rural tourism development (Sarasa.favoured areas. The authorities also see rural tourism as a way to get disadvantaged rural areas out of crisis. (2003) Marketing del turismo rural. leading to the development of many tourism projects.
primary data will be easier to collect and the affective link with the area makes the research even more interesting. All those articles and studies show the relevance of the question about the ability of tourism to be a tool for rural development. this area corresponds to a less-favoured rural territory with demographic and economical problems . After defining what is local development and what are the stakes in the topic. The reasons for having chosen this area are multiples. This second question will lead to the identification of the problems of Haute-Corrèze and means to solve them. it will be interesting to know to what extend tourism can be a tool for rural development. 1. The result of the research points out the strengths and weaknesses of the territory in terms of tourism and give some recommendations for further studies and for the tourism and local development agents of the territory.4 The objectives of the research The goal of this research is to understand if and how tourism can be a tool for rural development in a specific area: French Haute-Corrèze . These problems are due to the crisis affecting areas that could not find a new dynamism after the rural exodus of the midtwentieth century. Secondly. 1.or a potential loss of identity?”. Firstly. the question of the ability of tourism to be a tool for rural development will be applied to the French region of Haute-Corrèze . After this research. Living close to this area.3 The research area of the study In this research. 14 . there is at the same time an affective and a practical reason. primary data research gives a point of view on the way in which tourism can be used as local development tool in the specific territory of Haute-Corrèze. It first implies to find out if the region has the sufficient potential to develop tourism.
it has to conform to an academic structure. It is composed of a mix of descriptive theoretical parts and analytical practical data. The secondary data research aims firstly at defining the terms related to the research and secondly exposes the different points of view of experts about tourism as a tool for local development. 1.1. 15 . Series of factors will be brought out in order to check the conditions under which tourism can be a tool for local development. how people perceive it and what they are waiting from it.6 The dissertation structure As the dissertation is an academic piece of work. Primary data research consists of 12 in depth interviews of about two hours with local tourism stakeholders suc h as tourism and development agents and tourism service providers in order to check out if tourism can be a tool of development in the area.5 The research methodology The research is carried out on the basis of a combination of secondary and primary data sources.
Chapter two is composed of the theoretical part with a presentation and an analysis of the literature about the theme.Presentation of the territory 2. instruments and techniques have been chosen and how the research is conducted.Figure 1: Structure of the dissertation Theoretical part Introduction Literature review Methodology Territory diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze Tourism diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze 1. explains what methods. It presents the different possibilities of methodology. The literature review allows to situate the topic in a context.SWOT analysis Recommendations and conclusion Source: author’s own Chapter one is the general introduction that presents the interest of the topic and introduces the structure of the work. 16 .Measurement of the tourism potential of the territory 2.SWOT analysis 1. Chapter three presents the hypotheses of work and the explanation of the methodology used in the empirical part of the study to obtain the results.
accommodations.Chapter four presents Haute-Corrèze and the general aspects of the territory such as the geographic. demographic and socio-economic characteristics and analyses the aspects of these characteristics that influence tourism. Chapter five presents and analyses the touristic characteristics of Haute-Corrèze such as resources. In the last chapter are the conclusion and recommendations. etc. activity. 17 .
it is relevant to define the different concepts this theme implies. the European Parliament. Introduction Rural tourism is an important trend in tourism since it is taking every year more importance in the choice of holiday destinations. 2001. November. 18 .2. The sentence of the World Tourism Organisation (1996) ‘Rural tourism at the rescue of Europe’s countryside’ shows this importance. cit. p14 Commission of the European Communities. the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. tourism is a sector of great importance since it comprises some two million businesses5 and rural tourism has often been seen as an opportunity for the development of rural areas.Chapter 2. It is a real phenomenon in France where rural areas represents the first tourism destination in number of stays with 36 % 4 . At the European level. The definition of the terms ‘rural tourism’. ‘rural areas’ and ‘local development’ will be given in the European and above all the French context.1. Indeed. Proceedings from a commission communication to the Council. It constitutes an alternative to traditional beach tourism. (2001) Working together for the future of European tourism. All these themes and the discussion about tourism as a tool for development will be developed in this chapter through the presentation and the analysis of the related literature . 4 5 Op. it answers to the current needs of the tourists that are unhappy with mass tourism. 2. Definition of the principal terms of the theme Before starting to analyse the discussion found in literature about the role of tourism as a tool for rural development. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.
A more cultural definition would be important to understand that rural areas are not only figures but also symbolise a particular way of life and a culture. The American ERS (Economic Research Service) refers to all non metropolitan counties in three categories: urbanised with a population of at least 20.000 people with no more than 200 meters between the houses. The definition of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). economic activities or identity of rural areas. He asserts that rural areas are defined by a particular way of using space and social life. significantly rural (15-50 %) and predominantly urbanised regions (15 %). At a regional level. sociological and economic criteria. geographic units are grouped by the share of their population that is rural into the following three types: predominantly rural (50 %).1. It is not the simplest thing to do since many distinct definitions are given in literature. “at local level. in its report Tourism Strategies And Rural Development (1994) says that since the criteria vary enormously between and within the OECD countries. The INSEE (French National Institute of Statistics) says that a rural area is an area compounded with agglomerations of fewer than 2.1.2. This second definition will not be acceptable at a European level since the scale of the towns is very different. less urbanised with a population between 2.500. Kayser (1993) gives a definition of rural areas that uses geographical. Rural areas: a multiple definition It is necessary to define what is a rural area. a population density of 150 person per square kilometre is the perfect criterion. It is characterized by: 19 .” These three definitions are really quantitative and give no importance to the culture. However. they are important since they allow to classify in a systematic way what are and what are not rural areas.501 and 19.000.999 and rural with a population of less than 2.
eu. gives a complete view of what are rural areas.2. rural tourism has started to develop as an alternative to mass tourism. A combinatio n of all those definitions. These last two definitions give a more human and social definition of rural areas. regional centres. The origin of rural tourism is really anc ient since rural areas have always been a place of inspiration for artists. - Economic activities based on agriculture. with a better environmental quality in less touristIC places. small industries)”.int/comm/agriculture/rur/cork_en. villages and small towns. and a great variety of landscapes (forests and farmland. 6 http://europa. However. 2003). an extraordinary patchwork of activities.- A low demographic and building density and a domination of vegetable landscapes.which are the home of a quarter of the population and account for more than 80% of the territory of the European Union are characterized by a unique cultural. A way of life characterized by the belonging of the inhabitants to a small community and by their particular relationships with space. People want quality and specialization for their holidays. After rural exodus. Rural tourism corresponds to tha t demand. Moreover. economic and social fabric. They allow to understand the specific stakes in rural development and of the preservation of a specific rural identity.faceted concept Rural tourism is also an important notion to define. Rural tourism: a multi. at the beginning of the nineteenth century. forestry or breeding. since the seventies.htm 20 . This situation had converted rur al tourism in a cheap tourism dedicated to the working class. with quantitative and sociological aspects. rural tourism has developed with the visits of friends and relatives to their home. unspoiled natural sites.1. The Cork declaration6 writen during the European Conference on Rural Development in 1996 says that “rural areas . 2. - Specific identity and representation linked with the peasant culture. rural tourism is more adapted to short breaks (García Henche.
March 1995. etc. the more benefits there are for local population. In the first one. Depending on the key activity proposed by this 7 European Commission. the term ‘rural tourism’ is used when the rural culture is a key component of the product. Leader Technical Dossier. green tourism. The definition given by a document produced by the European Commission7 divides the definition of rural tourism into two trends . In the second trend. the distinction used is the percentage of revenue benefiting to the local community.tourism. The common point between all these activities is their location in a rural area as defined in the paragraph above. A representation would be like this: Figure 2: Rural tourism definition scheme Agritourism Rural tourism Countryside tourism Source: author’s own The smaller is the circle. 21 . (1995) Marketing Quality Rural Tourism. diverse definitions can be given since rural tourism includes various activities and concepts such as agri.For this concept too. eco-tourism. nature tourism.
the terms ‘nature’. This definition is the most digest that could be found. Belgrade. It explains that tourists seek “rural peace”. It has to be related to the agricultural activities and to complement the revenue of farmers (García Henche. 1996). the landscape is a key variable and the principal objective is the integration of the visitor into the local natural and human environment (García Henche. 8 Mac Nulty. June. 2000) or former farms. 2003). It is a definition oriented towards the alternative that rural tourism represents to mass tourism. etc. A more precise definition of each term can be given. In ‘green tourism’. Yugoslavia. in a meaningful and authentic way”. 2002 22 . ‘agri-‘. are used. 2003). that rural tourism “is tourism away from areas of intensive tourism activity” and that “it is engaged in by visitors who wish to interact with the rural environment and the host community.. The term ‘eco-tourism’ is used when the priority is to preserve the natural environment where the activity takes place (García Henche. ‘eco’. as explained above. (2002) Conclusions. It takes place in farms (Keane. 2002). ‘Sports tourism’ uses the natural environment as a resource and a base for the practice of a sport activity (García Henche. The first characteristic of ‘agri-tourism’ is that it is the business of farmers (Beteille. P. ‘green’. ‘Nature tourism’ is a kind of tourism where the observation and appreciation of nature is the principal component (World Tourism Organisation. Another definition is given by the WTO8 . Proceedings from WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism in Europe: Experiences and perspectives. ‘Rural tourism’ is. a kind of tourism where the rural culture is a key component.product. 2003). ‘Agri-tourism’ is an important part of rural tourism since the aims of developing rural tourism are often to increase the revenue of farmers. 2003).
It is defined as a voluntarist approach that favours endogen resources based on local industries and that takes into account cultural values.1.3.The definition that will be kept for this research is the one that refers to rural tourism when the rural culture is a key component of the product and considers that the other terms depend on the central activity of the product. The notion of endogenous development helps to define the concept of local development since it shows that development has to come from the agents of the territory and not from national policies. heritage. Hall. This image is very often linked to rural culture: authenticity. social and cultural development of the territory. This definition. implying positive transformation or ‘good change”. The concept of endogenous development is first presented at the end of the fifties by Friedman and Stöhr. people choose the countryside for their holidays because of the representation and the image they have of these places. Indeed. strong relation with nature. Joyal (2004) insists on the notion of partnerships that is very important for local development as well as the notion of networking. 2. Houée (1989) exp lains that development is a global process gathering local agents for the development of human and material resources of the territory in relation with the decision centres. Local development can not be led by one single actor even if there is a need for a leader that carries the process. 23 . 1998. Butler. The goal of a process of local development is the economic. Local development Development is defined by Sharpley (2002) as “virtually synonymous with progress. like the one of WTO (2002). 1998). 1998. identity (Dewailly. social and politic organisations in which the territory is integrated. roots. the economic. gives great importance to rural culture and refers to the motivation of people for going to rural areas for their holidays.
.2. 2002. (2003) Conclusions. 9 WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism in Europe: Experiences and perspectives. what would prevent local people from buying it. Proceedings from WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism: Rural tourism: Pathway to Sustainable Development. increase in the prices of land and traditional buildings and even of goods. Kielce. 2003. Many publications were done about the issues of tourism in Europe. Rural tourism in Europe As it is said above. It also could break the isolation of some communities and give cultural exchange opportunities. 24 . 1996). 2003. June. and to establish a document on the European way to organise and develop rural tourism. Even the WTO commission for Europe organised various conferences about rural tourism in Europe 9 to present the trends and evolutions of rural tourism in western and eastern Europe.1.3. authorities want to use tourism for developing rural areas but are also conscious of the negative effects to which this development could bring. This commission drew the economic and social costs that could create the development of rural tourism: increase demand for public services. at the European level. WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism: Rural tourism: Guidelines for Development. WTO Seminar on Rural Tourism: Rural tourism: Pathway to Sustainable Development. Poland. such as transport. These statements show that. 2003 10 Mac Nulty. Rural tourism takes an important place at the European level and the European Community is doing a lot to develop it. services or health. rural areas represent the home of a quarter of the European population and more than 80 % of the European territory (Cork Declaration. Rural tourism could also contribute to the preservation and improvement of environment since it depends on its attractiveness. Rural tourism as a tool for development: the danger of possible negative impacts The WTO commission for Europe points out that rural tourism could be used as a tool for rural development since it could “deliver additional sources of income to rural communities”10 .3. P. 2.
LEADER is one of the four initiatives financed by EU structural funds.2. The European funds granted for rural development are: European Regional Development Fund to assist infrastructure development. LEADER + is the third generation of LEADER programme. integrated and participative. improving quality of life. European Social Fund to promote training. drawn and implemented by LAGs (local action groups) that represent the partnership between the private and public sectors and ensure the local adaptability of the LEADER + programme. Rural tourism being considered as part of rural development. LEADER I in 1991 was a new approach of rural development policy territorially based. It gives a large place to partnerships and networks to exchange experiences. LEADER + aims also. LEADER II in 1994 put the emphasis on the innovative aspects of projects.int 25 . for the period 2000-2006.how and new technologies.3. it can be funded through its instruments in the areas of information. EU (European Union) has adopted measures that support it. The priority themes of LEADER + are: 11 making the best use of natural and cultural resources. It encourages integrated strategies and innovative projects with the purpose of a high-quality and sustainable development.2. promotional activities and training. the use of new know. marketing. European funding for rural tourism As rural development is a priority at the European level. integration of the tourist activity in the area. training. adding value to local products.europa.eu. www. Its role is to make rural actors aware of the long-term potential of their region. As explains the European Commission on its website11 . at the implementation of integrated development programmes for local rural areas. European Agriculture Guarantee and Guidance Fund to promote agricultural adjustment and diversification.
Member States have also an important role to play through the principle of subsidiarity. It is regarded as a ‘bottom-up’. They also have to evaluate each project funded by LEADER + making a mid-term evaluation by the end of 2003 and another one in 2006. rural areas represent 80 % of French territory and only 23 % of the population while it represented 26 % of the population in 1946 and 75. They have to settle national and regional programmes and plans. this statement shows how slow tourism development has been. LEADER is considered by Jenkins et al. The crisis started a 26 .4. Indeed. especially in the rural areas of southern Europe. an endogenous approach to problems of rural development. particularly in the most disadvantaged of them” since “in 71 of the 217 LEADER 1 areas. about one third of LEADER I initiative was already turned towards tourism. Indeed. The LEADER programme has been of significant use for rural tourism projects. even if Kearney remarked in 1992 that “European tourism has long suffered from the benign neglect of governments which have still to recognise its economic importance in modern economies”. an article from Info LEADER magazine explains that “tourism seems to offer a natural development path for rural areas in Europe. (1997) as “ one of the most significant strategies for rural development ”. since they are responsible for the implementation of the LEADER initiative. 2. This observation is reinforced by Airey (1983) that noticed that regional development was the most frequent justification for tourism policies. it is the dominant activity in the business plans of the local action groups”. General trends in the economic and social situation of rural areas in France The question on the ability of tourism to help rural development is also a relevant issue regarding the situation of some French rural areas. facing a an economic and demographic crisis that they have difficulties to overcome. Indeed.6 % in 1846. However.
According to Jenkins. densely populated region in the eastern part of the country and less developed regions in the western part of the country. 2. rural economies have experienced fundamental restructurings. The expansion of roads and railways make the cities closer to the countryside and announces the development of a more modern and productive agriculture. rural exodus is amplified.4. five in 1946 and ten in 1960..1 1945-1960: Technical progress for rebuilding After the Second World War. one farmer out of four leaves the countryside. One farmer could feed four people in 1910.1 Socio. Every economic books talk about an axle between Le Havre and Marseille that separated. 27 . 2.historical analysis of the evolution of rurality Since the Second Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions in the 18th and 19th centuries. During this period. Farmers prefer to go to the city to find job and security. in 1960. Hall and Troughton (1998). shops and services. The general trend was to go from a rural economy to an urban one .historical aspects of the evolution of rurality (Torrente et al. This depopulation put rural areas in a vicious circle that led to the closure of many industries. 2003). the most important changes occurred after the Second World War through the processes of industrialisation of agriculture .long time ago but was accelerated at the end of the Second World War with industrialisation and rural exodus.1. The industrial revolution disrupted the distribution of agricultural activities. This part of the research first explores the socio.4. It reinforced the domination of the capital city Paris and brought a great part of the population in accessible and rich in raw material regions . “this latest phase has been among the most disruptive to the rural system as a whole and to its more traditional landscapes”. However. 2004) and then presents the different kinds of rural areas that exist nowadays (DATAR.
Other people that have an affective link with rurality are also moving there.2. active and competitive nation on the European and international markets” (DATAR. Houée (1989) explains that the crisis of 1968 brings a new importance to the regionalist aspirations and the wish to live in the area where you are coming from starts to affect more and more people. This period marks the acceleration of industrialisation and urbanisation. Between 1954 and 1990.1. 28 . This new social composition of the countryside marks the beginning of a new approach to local development. In 1957. This situation leads to the creation of dissident movements that criticize the capitalist domination. The y represent today less than 5 % of the French working force (DATAR. Frenc h agriculture enters quickly in this scheme. the number of farm workers falls from 5.1. farmers are denounced for the deficient quality of their products. Farmers are not the only occupants of the countryside anymore . The number of farms still decreases and only a few endogenous actions are led during this period. 2003).4. the pollution. the Rome Treaty gives to the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) a productivist orientation.3 After 1975: the crisis and the questioning The mid-seventies mark the end of illusions with the oil crisis and an overproduction that provoke a decrease in the sales’ prices and in the income of farmers.4.2 millions of workers. 2.1 to 1. In this context is created in 1963 the DATAR (Délégation à l’Aménagement du Territoire et à l’Action Régionale) that advocates a qualitative and cross-disciplinary approach. 2004) whereas they represented 28 % of the working force in 1955. In the eighties. the over-production. the various aids that they receive and the standardisation of their production.2 1960-1975: The world growth France wants to be “an independent.
(Aphandery. the use of local structures. France is characterized by regional disparities that territorial development policies are trying to alleviate. 29 . that is to say the development of all the human and material resources ignored by the market. In 1982-83. Only a few. They are organising cross-disciplinary projects. Dupont. Torrente et al. 2004): - Territories of agricultural production with a dominant.This crisis is affecting unequally the different rural territories. aged farmers are staying. intensive agriculture - Disadvantaged territories that are deserted and try to survive. 1989). social and cultural actors. In those territories shops and services have difficulties to survive. the French government decided to reinforce decentralisation by giving more power to the 22 regions that compose the country. Each region is composed of ‘départements’ and each ‘département’ of ‘communes’. call that an ‘auto-centred development’. - Diversified territories led by a small agriculture looking for new models of production. The government understood the importance of local development and wanted to give to the territories more opportunities to take the responsibility of their own development in a crossdisciplinary logic. Three kinds of territories can be distinguished (Torrente. Bitoun. 1989). etc. Bessières. The goal of this decentralisation was to give more power to local communities in order to allow them to develop local projects. It marks the death of many small villages situated away from urban centres. the invention of technologies. This situation shows that local development is a product of the crisis and needs a sparking off event such as an economic crisis to start (Houée. This agriculture plays an important role for the revitalisatio n of the area through the composition of networks of economic. Godard. Barthes. The Massif Central is in this category.
2.4.2 The four functions of rural areas in France
Rural areas can be characterized by the function they have. The French organism DATAR (2003) brought out four functions that can define rural areas.
The residential function is developed mainly in areas situated in the periphery of urban centres. The population working in this urban centre chooses to live in the countryside instead of in the city centre. Thus the majority of rural areas are not experimenting rural exodus anymore. Even some ‘isolated’ areas are experimenting for the first time a positive migratory balance of +0.29 % (INSEE). In spite of this positive aspect, 7.6 million of people live in declining areas with a poor services quality, in particular in small and isolated rural communes.
The productive function of the countryside deals with all economic activities taking place in rural areas. countryside. A lot of industries employ people in the
Since 1990 the growth of employment has been the most
significant in the municipalities situated in the periphery of urban areas. Agriculture is not the predominant activity in terms of employment and added value anymore but it keeps being the activity that structures and manages the landscape. The service sector provides the majority of rural jobs with 50 % (DATAR, 2003).
The tourist and recreation functions of the countryside are linked to several reasons such as its accessibility, its interest for urban people and the increase of spare time. However, the majority of the rural tourism activity does not give rise to trading since the majority of rural tourism accommodations belong to families or relatives. Only 22 % of the nights are spent in market accommodations.
The last function of rural areas is the ‘nature’ function. Natural issues are considered as very important by our society. They deal with the protection of natural resources and living environment.
2.4.3 Three types of rural areas in France
Rural areas are combining these four functions in very different ways. The DATAR (2003) lays stress of three types of rural areas that can be distinguished in France.
The urban countryside
According to the DATAR, 18.5 % of the French ‘cantons’12 are part of this category. There are two kinds of urban countryside, the first one being rural areas situated in the periphery of big cities and having a residential function. The second type is composed of rural areas less densely populated that constitute the large periphery of cities. This second type is much more agricultural and provides more jobs than the first one. Jenkins, Hall and Troughton (1998) lay stress in these areas on the competition for land conservation against the process of urbanisation.
The declining countryside
This kind of area, still according to the DATAR, represents 19.8 % of the ‘cantons’ and 1/3 of the national territory. Usually, it combines three handicaps : low density of population, mono-activity and negative demographic evolution. Two kinds of areas can be distinguished. There are the agricultural areas with aged population. They are located in and around the Massif Central, in Aquitaine and in the Pyrenees, and in Central Brittany. Those areas suffer hard physical conditions and could not convert to the modern agriculture (Jenkins, Hall and Troughton, 1998). They are not competitive anymore. The population is declining, like the agriculture or the
services. Living conditions are not very good and there are a lot of empty houses. The second type of regions is more characterized by a declining industry like in the
Administrative division of the département that is composed of one or more municipalities (Wikipedia encyclopaedia)
North and North East of the country. Population density is higher but the unemployment rate is high.
The new countryside
The ‘new countryside’ is compound of territories that managed to develop by themselves through endogenous projects or to adapt to the needs of productive economy. These territories have a diversified econo my and are attracting residents as well as tourists since they are developing rural tourism activities. They represent 7.4 % of the ‘cantons’ but there is a great potential for many territories to move to this category and this is the challenge of the pub lic policies to give to a majority of territories the opportunity to achieve this development. The appeal of these ‘cantons’ is based on a good quality of life. It attracts French people and foreigners, retired and young people that may have some difficulties to find a job in the area. The tourism activity brings important revenue to these communities.
2.5 Evolution of the perceptions of the countryside and consequences for the development of rural tourism
After having explored what kind of rural areas can be found in France, it seems to be relevant to understand what is the place given to rural tourism. The analysis of the evolution of the perceptions of the countryside shows partly how rural tourism has taken such an importance in France.
The social function of the countryside has evolved with the image of rural areas, resulting in the current situation. The countryside is today the first tourist destination in France with 36 % of the stays in 2002. In the past, even if writers and artists had been inspired by it, the countryside had always been seen as boring, very rude and poor, with no facilities. It is only since the middle of the 20th century that the countryside has become interesting for tourism. It corresponds to the period following the rural exodus and the beginning of tourism. People native from rural
6 Tourism as a tool for local development 2.. “people may want development and employment but many also want traditional images of the countryside to be retained”. People are more and more nostalgic and m and more attracted by anything reminding ore them of the past. after 1968.. the countryside became interesting not as a cheap destination but as a chosen one . 2004). Nevertheless. to the buildings and to everything recalling the past. The countryside was perceived as unfriendly. 2004). while the population is concentrated in the cities. 2. to the knowhow developed. The growing interest in rural areas is not only dedicated to the natural environment but also to the people living there. People are starting to feel the need of finding their roots and of being closer to the authenticity that urban stressing life has moved away (Torrente et al. As noted by Jenkins and Hall (1998). The only problem that can be raised is the false perception that tourists and urban people have from the countryside. It is the beginning of nostalgia. cultural and small-scale activities. The saturation of mass tourism resorts and the need of being recognized brought the tourist to change its practices for more ecological. In the late eighties.6. There is an opposition between the modernisation of rural areas and the traditional values that people expect from them. This literature analysis shows the different points of view of the writers on this theme.1 Challenges and opportunities If the trend of rural tourism can partly be explained by the fact that its image represents what tourists need and want. since the values and rurality they are looking for have disappeared. isolated and archaic (Torrente et al. the importance of rural tourism can also be explained by the fact that it has been seen by the governments as a way to help rural areas to develop. It was a cheap tourism. the modernity myth is questioned to rural values. That is why the countryside is so fashionable for holidays.areas were coming back to visit their family. 33 .
1998) The final objective of rural tourism development is the increase of quality of life for local residents through the achievement of social and economic goals. to contribute to the costs of providing economic and social infrastructure […]. 1998. tourism has been used as a tool for rural development. Jenkins. The tools of the governments to achieve these goals are policy instruments that can influence the actions of the economic agents by providing financial incentives for appropriate behaviour or disincentives for inappropriate ones (Hall and Jenkins. Tourism is not necessarily the 34 . Tourism is used to achieve several goals that can be: “to sustain and create local income.g. to contribute to the conservation of environmental and cultural resources […]” (Hall. often developed with at least some recognition of the potential of rural tourism. For instance. Hall. to contribute to local resident amenities and services […]. is a popular response to restructuring processes” . as showing by Marsden. The LEADER initiative is a demonstration of this strategy. 1998). At European level as well as at national level. employment and growth. In France. many policies aims at helping territories to enter in an endogenous development process. Jenkins.All writers agree to say that tourism is considered as a tool in rural development in western countries (e. Lowe and Whatmore (1993) when they wrote “Rural development policy. Rural tourism projects are used as an impetus to federate local agents and residents around a common project. to encourage the development of other industrial sectors […]. etc). the policy of the Pays d’Accueil Touristiques wants to develop a tourism based on the development of local resources. The policy of the ‘Pays’ has also the objective of bringing the territory to a process of endogenous development. The goal is to deve lop an endogenous process that can lead the territory to find the means to develop by itself.
it will also be more attractive for new and current residents. this law brings the aspect of sustainability that shows the conscience of the importance of the preservation of the environment. if a territory is more attractive for tourists. 1988). Indeed. Moreover. the development of rural tourism not only leads to the improvement of the structures for the tourists. not only because he can have a project. development is something that occurs because of necessity”. 35 . Rural tourism is part of local development. The strength of rural tourism as a tool for development is that it is based on the natural and human environment of the countryside . 1999). Houée (1989) has got the same point of view and insists on the fact that initiatives are coming from the awareness that local community have of the problem. It is not based on an administrative segmentation (LOADDT. for the tourists as well as for the residents. but also “a s a member of the local community and potential beneficiary of the expected collective development” (Thibal. The territory of the ‘Pays’ is chosen according to the cultural and economic unity of the place (Loi d’Otientation sur l’Aménagement et le Développement Durable du Territoire. He insists on the fact that “in many ways. LOADDT. It is based on local resources. 1999). Diversification brings stability and growth to the community. A special event often triggers the process of local development. Tourism is most of the time part of this cross-disciplinary process since the local development agents consider tourism as a tool for development. it is a way to potentially involve every inhabitant. Keane (2000) explains that “ heart of the rural development problem is the the lack of economic diversity”. Tourism is part of a global process of improvement of the quality of life. tourism can gather the different agents around a common project. Moreover. Being a crossdisciplinary activity.central aspect of this policy since the development policy of the ‘Pays’ is based on a cross-disciplinary approach that mixes the potential of different economic sectors in order to put the territory in a homogenous process of development.
It is possible to read everywhere in the official documents of the governments’ authorities that rural tourism is an incredible tool for helping rural areas to get out of the crisis by which they have been affected for years. 36 . In spite of this apparently very positive view. the majority of the stays in rural areas are done in non. Indeed.1 Mitigated economic repercussions “The benefits from tourism are equal if not greater than the benefits from other economic activities” affirms Keane (2000). it is important to see the negative impacts that tourism can also have from an economic.2. like the governments or the European Union. However.2. It is supposed that rural tourism can “retain the population. social and environmental point of view.6. 2.2 Economic. 1995). measuring the tourism potential of the territory. create jobs and. the specialists reacted by explaining the different negative impacts rural tourism can have if it is not developed well. did not insist enough from the beginning on the importance of planning. This situation led to the failure of many projects due to lack of preparation.6. etc.market accommodations. Rural tourism can actually be a tool for rural development but under some conditions that have to be clearly defined to avoid over-estimation of the potential of tourism. realism and planning. the balance of this initiative is mixed. social and environmental negative impacts After having explained how tourism can be a tool for development. […] promote the socio-economic development of disadvantaged areas” (LEADER. and the spending is lower than in other type of tourism. After having realized the negative repercussions of this official line. They presented rural tourism as a kind of miracle that could do everything for disadvantaged rural areas. the problem of economic repercussions has to be stated. Tourism authorities.
Tourism has to be developed in a controlled way so that it stays representative of what the area is. It gives a basis for the specific analysis of a rural area: Haute-Corrèze. tourism can lead to a loss of identity (Bossuet. it will lead to conflicts between them and the tourists and to loss of identity.6. as well as its traditions. In the next chapter will be determined the hypotheses stated on the basis of the literature review and the methodology necessary to check them and to achieve to goal of knowing if and how tourism can be a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze.7 Conclusion: This literature review gives an overall image of rural tourism as a tool for development in rural less favoured areas. 2.2.2. However. 37 . if tourism is developed for the tourists and not at all for the local residents. some examples show that instead of reinforcing these aspects. Indeed. The literature review is a tool to understand the different points of view of experts. 2001).2 Social repercussions of tourism From the social point of view the objective of developing tourism is to reinforce the attractiveness and the identity of the area for residents as well as for tourists by a development based on local resources and on the population participation.
but to know if and how tourism can be used as a tool for local development.2.Approach of the topic: The goal of this research is not to find out how to increase the number of tourists in Haute-Corrèze. Of course. METHODOLOGY 3. different hypotheses representing the key factors for achieving this goal will be stated. Secondary and primary data will be used to answer this question. tourism cannot be used. 3.1. what could be the means to use to change the situation. It is also possible that the hypotheses are falsified if it appears that tourism is a tool for development whereas the situation does no t conform to the criteria. However. 38 . The practical part of the research will aim at checking if the territory answers to this list of criteria and if not. The aim of the study is oriented on the way by which tourism can federate local population around a project in order to put the territory in a self-development process. Hypotheses about the key factors for tourism to be a tool for development and falsification The objective of the research being to know if and how tourism can be a tool for local development in Haute-Corrèze. it will not be done through a questionnaire but through the analysis of data already gathered by local and regional agencies. That is why one part of the study will be dedicated to the study of the demand side. if the territory does not attract any tourists.Chapter 3.
hypotheses are confirmed by Wilson et al. (2001). 39 . They want to be closer to the nature and to have a better quality during the ir holidays. These sub. Sub-hypothesis I: Importance of the awareness of local agents of the problems of the area The awareness of local agents of the problems of the area is the first factor that can put the territory in a development process. Their 3. enthusiasm is crucial for the success of tourism (Wilson et al.1.2. this stage is the starting point of any development process.1. 3.2. it gives a good image of the territory. Hypothesis I: the territory and the tourism sector have to be in a local development process A list of sub-hypotheses can be drawn on the basis of the main hypothesis. As Houée (1989) says. 2001). They have more experience and are fed up with mass tourism.1. local agents will tend to become leaders. the development of tourism in a community depends on people who understand the importance of tourism. travellers are always more aware of what they want.2. However. Sub-hypothesis II: Importance of quality Quality is seen by the European Union (LEADER. A good quality means that tourism professionals know their customers and are involved in the tourism development process. Indeed. It has to meet the requirements of the customers. The concept of quality is difficult to define. 1995) as one of the major components of the success of rural tourism. being aware that there is a problem is not sufficient to be able to find the means to solve it. Moreover. It is true that quality is important to increase the number of tourists.1.3. Indeed. If they are aware of the problems and want to change the situation.2. who can fund and promote it.
5. To achieve its objectives of local development.3. The co-ordination of tourism projects can be done by an agency created especially for that purpose or by an agency already present on the territory and able to play this role. Sub-hypothesis V: importance of the participation of local population Participation of local population is also an important factor.).2. Bossuet.3. that can federate the different stakeholders of the tourism sector on the territory. it will give a great dynamism to the territory and will improve its image towards the tourists. it will be impossible to put the territory in a progress and development logic. etc. Actually. as a cross-disciplinary sector can lead to the federation of tourism and non-tourism agents and even the local population. In this way. Butler. Sub-hypothesis IV: importance of the federation of the different stakeholders Without federation.4. Writers agree to say that co-ordination is a major component of the success of rural tourism (Keane. 3. tourism can not be a tool for development. If local people understand the interest of developing tourism and are involved in it. All the other factors are important but nothing can be done without co-ordination and partnerships.2.1. it is important for rural tourism to be supported by a community structure. tourism can be a tool for development. a tourism project will have difficulties to develop if the population does not agree with it: If the population can 40 . Moreover.1. If there is no leader from a local development support structure.1.2. s Indeed. It is linked to the federation of the different actors of the territory. 3. co-ordination is what allows the different agents of the territory to work together to develop a coherent project for the territory. the population is the best ambassador of its territory. Federation is what makes people working together and what put them in an endogenous development process. Tourism. Sub-hypothesis III: Importance of co-ordination Co-ordination i a key factor for the success of tourism as a tool for development.
the population will feel better and proud of its territory.2. If the territory is developed. the study of the tourism potential allows to highlight the general strengths and weaknesses of the territory. Hypothesis II: the tourism potential of the territory has to be important enough The measurement of the potential of the territory is essential for the success of rural tourism. Moreover. It consists of reviewing the literature written on the topic chosen (Veal.2.1. 3. 3.3. This information is necessary to implement the case study. The literature reviewed gives information about rural tourism. It is obvious that if the territory does not have the potential to develop tourism.be the best ambassador of its territory. In this study. It is a tool to improve tourism and other aspects of the territory. it will not be possible to use tourism as a tool for rural development. Veal (1997) explains that secondary data are “data which already exist and which were collected for some other purpose but which can be used a second time in the current project” 3. rural development and tourism as a tool for rural development. it can also be the worst enemy of tourism development if it does not subscribe to the project. Secondary data: Secondary data research is the first step of any research process. secondary data give the background of the research and allows to establish a list of criteria that define the way in which tourism can be used for rural development. 1997). 41 .3. Literature review: The literature review allows to enter into the topic and to be aware of the different issues of the theme.
Different ways exist to collect these data. 3. This The concrete observation then helps to know the differences between theory and practice. depending on the purpose of the research. They give general information about the economy. 1997). their motivations and the characteristics of their frequentation. the demography. etc.3. 42 . at least in theory. Some surveys are also specialized in the tourism sector and give information about tourism resources and about the customers. These data allow to set up the background of the territory of Haute-Corrèze. context helps to know how tourism should be organised and developed. The definition of the territory and its limits shows that this territory is particularly involved in an endogenous local development process.The types of sources used are: data available from organisations data available from the Internet data available from guidebooks data available from academic books and journals 3. The two main approaches are the quantitative and the qualitative ones. to define its limits. to justify its organisation.4.2. Secondary data about Haute-Corrèze: Many studies and surveys were collected as a base for the case study. Primary data: Primary data are data for which “the researcher is the primary user” (Veal.
3. Of course. quantitative research does not give enough space to develop opinions and the way the surveys could influence the answer of the respondent. Qualitative data collection: In-depth interviews: This research is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of tourism service suppliers’ representatives and local tourism and development agents. Data are less easy to compare and to analyse than with quantitative research. Qualitative research presents some disadvantages and difficulties. available on the topic and on the territory. Another reason for having conducted a qualitative research is that quantitative data are already. It has been decided to interview tourism service suppliers’ representatives because it would be 43 . like Veal (1997) explains.4. However.4. 3. particularly in the analysis stage. to know if they have entered in a development process. This limitation is taken into account in the research and the combination of different sources allows to give more reliable results. Moreover. these data are not always reliable since it concerns some territories sometimes bigger or smaller that the area studied. If quantitative research is rejected for this study.1. data are collected from a smaller number of person and can not be used for statistical analysis. the basis for further research and maybe for quantitative ones. it could be used to complete this research in further investigations. Quantitative versus qualitative data collection Qualitative research is appropriate for getting in-depth information from a small number of people. to a certain extent. In the context of this research. what is the place given to tourism on the territory and finally to draw the means that could be used to improve the current situation. the quantitative research is.2. the goal is to understand if the territory of Haute-Corrèze can use tourism as a tool for development. That is why it is important to interview some of the main tourism agents of the territory to understand their opinion about the real situation of the territory. Indeed.
2. due to the length of the interviews. o what could be improved in term of tourism infrastructures. The interviews can last between one and a half and two hours.4. why or why not. why or why not. o the place of tourism on the territory. o what they are expecting from the tourism policy of the territory.impossible. o if they organise on the territory some partnerships in order to develop coherent policies. Aims of the research The objectives of these interviews are different according to the category of people interviewed: - Interviews with local tourism and development agents aim at knowing: o if tourism is part of the future projects. The interviewees give their opinion on the current situation of the tourism sector in Haute-Corrèze. The purpose of using this kind of method is to let the interviewee talk 44 .1. that is to say that the questions broach the different themes of interest and lead to broad and open discussions during the interview. what are the results of this strategy.4.structured way. Interview design The interviews are conducted in the semi. - Interviews with representatives of shopkeepers and tourism services providers aim at knowing: o the image they have of their territory. to interview all the suppliers and these representatives can give a general opinion of what think the suppliers. 3. o if they feel involved in the tourism development process launched by tourism agents.2.2. o if they work in partnership with their colleagues 3. organisation.
3. - Interviews directed to representatives of tourism service suppliers are designed in the following way: o Questions about their feeling about tourism development and organisation in Haute-Corrèze. according to their different missions. Appointments have been taken with some of them.4. 45 . the agents advised to go and see other people because they thought they could bring other relevant information and a different approach of the topic. Two different models of interviews are designed according to the people targeted.and not to close him in a scheme of question/answer. Interviews directed to local tourism and development agents are designed in the following way: o Questions about the territory: the questions and the discussion are argued by the data obtained about the territory o Questions about the tourism activity: the questions and the discussion are argued by the data obtained about tourism in Haute-Corrèze o Questions about organisation and planning of tourism in HauteCorrèze. o Questions about their degree of implication in this development and of cooperation with other tourism agents. Selection of the sample The sample has been selected after the evaluation of the different tourism agents of Haute-Corrèze. This structure can vary according to the profession of the people interviewed. During the interviews. The interview starts with an explanation of the context of the research and with some general questions to create a suitable atmosphere.3.2.
Saint Dézery o Ms Fay. hotel manager. For the tourism service suppliers and the shopkeepers’ representatives. president of the Union of Correzian Hotels and Restaurants => Hotel ** “ Les Voyageurs”. in charge of the promotion. director of the NRP è No interview because the interviewee had no time for it. è No interview because the interviewee had no time for it. the selection would have been oriented. president. the research is more reliable.The list of tourism agents interviewed is the following: Chamber of Commerce and Industry => Mr. polyvalent agent. in charge of Local Development. they were selected according to the sector they represented. Federation for the Pays Haute-Corrèze => Ms Savary. Tourist Office of Ussel and Union of the Tourist Offices of Haute-Corrèze => Mr. Deschamps. Chassagne. Natural Regional Park => Ms Dubosclard. Bach. president of the departmental chain “Logis de France” => Hotel ** Logis de France “Les Gravades”. 46 . Tourism Departmental Committee (TDC) => Mr Constanti. Meymac o Mr. It could have been possible to ask the advice of the agents of local organism but then. Conseil Général of Corrèze => Ms Bordes. hotel manager. in charge of the creation and organisation of the Pays. hotel manager => Hotel ** “Le Meymacois”. With a randomly selected sample. in charge of tourism development. Tourist Office of Meymac => Ms Bonelly. Committee for the Working Area of Ussel => Ms Lacouture. permanent employee. The list of representatives of tourism service suppliers interviewed is the following: Hotel and restaurant business representatives: o Mr. Tarnac. in charge of the animation of the structure. Fraysse.
The first stage is the realisation of a territorial diagnosis that allows to understand the problems and strengths of the territory. This analysis will be divided into two parts. - Camping sites representative: o Departmental Association of the Correzian Camping sites è on holiday during the summer.- Gîtes owners representative: o Mr. Discussion of the results: The purpose of this research is to establish a diagnosis of the tourism sector in HauteCorrèze in order to know if tourism can be used as a tool for development or. of the supply and the demand sides to see if they match and of the organisation of tourism on the territory.5. impossible to have an interview. 3. in charge of the departmental association of the brand “Gîtes de France”. It is also important to take into account external data such as the trends and possible opportunities and threats that could affect tourism on the area. the first one being the analysis of the HauteCorrèze tourism potential in terms of tourism facilities and the second being the analysis of the tourism organisation and relationships between the stakeholders in Haute-Corrèze.1. if not.5. 3. The analysis of the research will consist in a comparison between the different data obtained about the territory in order to establish a tourism diagnosis and a SWOT (Strengths / Weaknesses / Opportunities / Threats) analysis of the touristic situation of the territory. how this situation could change.Analysis of the tourism potential of the territory The tourism potential of a territory is not so easy to evaluate. - Shopkeepers representative: o No shopkeepers’ association in any town of Haute-Corrèze. It consists of an evaluation of the territory resources. Secondary data about the territory are analysed 47 . The second stage if a tourism diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze. Bordes.
A methodology is proposed by LEADER II proposes a scheme that shows all what has to be studied to make a diagnosis of territory. This scheme shows the way to approach the diagnosis and the following scheme shows how will be studied the different aspects of this diagnosis: 48 . Evaluating a territory’s touristic potential. Figure 3: Evaluation of the local touristic potential Analysis of demand Analysis of competition Analysis of supply The situation in the tourism sector Analysis of strengths / weaknesses Analysis of opportunities / risks Analysis of trends Source: adapted from LEADER II.in order to make a SWOT analysis about the tourism potential of the territory in terms of resources and demand.
Interviews realized in July 2004. Documentary research and analysis On the basis of existing studies and reports from: .The Pays Charter .Figure 4: Methodology for the case study ANALYSIS OF THE SUPPLY AND COMPETITION ANALYSIS OF THE DEMAND TWO METHODS : Documentary research and analysis On the basis of existing studies and reports from: .The Federation of Gîtes de France .The tourism ministry . Interviews realized in July 2004.The TDC (tourism departmental committee) . 49 .The TDC (Tourism Departmental Committee) . ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM ORGANISATION Interviews with tourism agents and professionals Face to face in-depth interviews with 12 tourism agents.The tourist offices Interviews with tourism agents and professionals Face to face in-depth interviews with 12 tourism agents.Touristic brochures . TOURISM DIAGNOSIS OF HAUTE-CORREZE Source: author’s own.Etc.The Federation of Gîtes de France .The TRC (Tourism Regional Committee) .The departmental union of tourist offices .The NRP Charter .
a reflection will be engaged on the means to employ in order to change this situation. that is to say with the hypotheses to see if tourism is currently a tool for local development.5. First the original question is considered (Veal. The methodology used is a combination of secondary data collection in books.2. Specific analysis of the organisation of tourism on the territory A list of hypotheses is elaborated at the beginning of this chapter on the basis of the literature review. tourist guides and primary data collection with interviews. an observation of the territory is done trough the analysis of interviews in order to evaluate the organisation of the supply side and of the organisational part of the tourism sector in the area. This last part will be done in the last chapter of the research work. as it is suggested by the literature review. The last chapter presents the conclusions of this study. technical reports. The information collected is classified according to the different topics broached. 3. If the answer to those questions does not correspond to a favourable situation. Interviews were given by different kinds of actors in order to have different approaches on the question of tourism as a tool for development. This classification simplifies the analysis.6 Conclusion The goal of this study is to establish if. when the questions are similar. It allows to establish a territorial and a tourism diagnosis that are presented in the following chapter. However. The data is analysed. 1997) and then the sub-questions. Primary data will not be exactly compared since the questions were not necessarily the same for the different interviewees. in a critical way and compared with the theoretical criteria of local development.3. tourism can be a tool for development. the answers will be compared. The research is focused on the area of HauteCorrèze. 50 . on the basis of the notes taken. Thanks to these hypotheses.
according to the Loi d’Urbanisme et d’Habitat of 2003. tourism is a cross-disciplinary sector and it influences and is influenced by all the other aspects of the territory. The Pays is.1 Introduction Rural areas are diverse and a specific study is necessary to understand each rural area. in relation with tourism. That is why this chapter is dedicated to the study of the general characteristics of Haute-Corrèze. .In the following paragraphs the notion of Pays is explained before a general presentation of the territory. demographical. of its geographic. It is a Pays. equipment and socio-economic characteristics. It will allow to understand the specificities of the territory. in the Eastern part of the Corrèze département. “a territory 51 . tourism is not the only activity of the territory and it is important to have a global vision of Haute-Corrèze in order to realise a good tourism diagnosis. Haute-Corrèze is a specific area located in the Limousin French region. This chapter aims at giving the context for tourism development in Haute-Corrèze.Chapitre 4 HAUTE-CORREZE TERRITORIAL DIAGNOSIS 4. geographic or cultural issues. Moreover. It will finally allow to elaborate a SWOT analysis of the territory. It takes place in the context of the general decentralisation policy started up in the early eighties by the French government. either socio-economic. 4.2 What is a ‘Pays’? The Pays is a French initiative developed to encourage local development initiatives in disadvantaged rural areas. Indeed.
economic or social cohesion at the scale of a labour market area or a living area”. There is no limit of size. The Spring and Autumn are often wet and the summer mild. on the basis of a territorial diagnosis. The next paragraph presents the perimeter of the Pays and its geographic specificities. with low temperature and snow. 36. The key element is that a Pays is the expression of an identity. It is based on intermunicipal links that are a specificity of France due to the high number of municipalities (36 000).28 km². the departmental. It is a region of low mountains and plateaus where the climate is hard during the winter. The charter is validated by the municipalities. The average size of the Pays already created is 80 to 100 municipalities. The development council represents the different stakeholders of the Pays and constitutes the working structure of the Pays. It is the framework for the elaboration of a common project of sustainable development. through the constitution of the development council and the elaboration of the development charter of the Pays. regional and national authorities.3 Geographic presentation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze is located in the western part of the Massif Central. The Pays covers 2 141. 4. A Pays is often created to answer to a need for local development. It cannot be invented. The Pays is not a new administrative grade . The most important key factor for the success of the Pays is the mobilisation of the different stakeholders . 52 . The development charter expresses the orientations that the stakeholders want to give to the Pays and the actions they want to lead.that presents a geographical. The Pays is created by the municipalities. cultural.6 % of the Corrèze département.
This situation poses a problem for the implementation of the charter. cultural. with 4 087 inhabitants.4. 53 . This situation presents some risks for the Pays. economic or social cohesion at the scale of a labour market area or a living area” like the law explains. Moreover. The unity of an area is often not sufficient to allow a decision of that importance. Besides. then a competition between the two structures and also.6 % of the Corrèze population. it shows that it is not so easy to define an area that presents “a geographical. It is composed of 83 municipalities and of 43 130 inhabitants. Bort. 18. resulting from this competition. Egletons. Two areas are studied for the constitution of the Pays since another Pays might be created in the western part of Haute-Corrèze. First of all. a lack of cooperation ending up in a redundancy of the actions proposed.3. a lack of visibility for new inhabitants.1 Perimeter of the territory The Haute-Corrèze Pays is situated in the Eastern part of the Corrèze département and of the Limousin region. Mrs Savary.les-Orgues with 3 534 inhabitants and Meymac with 2 627 inhabitants. Political opinions and rivalries have to be taken into account and often slow down the process. from the Fédération du Pays Haute-Corrèze already deplores the lack of communication between the two structures. The main cities are Ussel with 10 753 inhabitants. the Pays is partly situated on the territory of the Millevaches Natural Regional Park (NPR).
CDT Corrèze. 54 .Figure 5: Localisation of Haute-Corrèze THE CORREZE DEPARTEMENT FRANCE HAUTE CORREZE Sources: CPIE Corrèze.
In the Northern part is the “Pays de Millevaches” that means Pays of 1000 sources and in the southern part. 2004). Water is 55 . Haute-Corrèze has always been marked by water.list of municipalities Source: Pays Haute-Corrèze pratique.2 Importance of water in the culture of the pays Historically.Figure 6: Federation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze . 2003/2005 4. is the river Dordogne and its barrages (Fédération of the Pays.3.
at the beginning of the Massif Central.3. 4. the Millevaches plateau.one of the elements that expresses better the identity of the Pays. These entities are two fragile rural areas separated by the A89 highway as shows the map of the previo us page. Here can be found the pick of the département: the Bessou Mount (986 meters). Two strong geographical identities can be distinguished: In the north. In the south. 56 .4 Demographic characteristics The demographic characteristics of the Pays are worrying for two reasons: the depopulation and the age of the population. The table of evolution of the population by ‘canton’ shows the importance of this problem.3 Two geographical entities in the Pays Protected and listed natural areas mark the landscapes. marked by three valleys: The Dordogne Valley in the south. The Vézère Valley in the north. the landscape is marked by the valleys and gorges of the Dordogne river. The Corrèze Valley in the north. 4.
It decreased by 6.28 % Evolution Source: adapted from the Pays’ Charter The demographic evo lution is negative.64 % -9.72 % -6.8 % -9. This drop is caused by a deficit of birth not sufficiently compensated by the arrivals of new inhabitants.41 % -0.Figure 7: Evolution of the population in Haute-Corrèze between 1990 and 1999 Cantons Bort-les-Orgues Bugeat Elgetons Eygurande Lapleau Meymac Neuvic Sornac Ussel Total Years of census 1990 5 838 2 542 7 365 3 125 1 883 4 772 3 829 2 767 13 900 46 021 1999 5 149 2 295 6 876 2 829 1 825 4 657 3 804 2 456 13 239 43 130 -11.47 % -3.65 % .11. The average population density varies from 3 to 235 inhabitants per km².08 % -2.24 % -4.76 % -6.28 % between 1990 and 199913 . 13 INSEE 57 . Most of the rural and urban municipalities have lost population.
The Millevaches Plateau is suffering important problems of desertification14 . 58 .Figure 8: Population pyramid Source: Pays’ Charter According to the data of the CDCE (Departmental Committee of the Economic Chambers) and the study of the population pyramid shows that 40 % of the population is composed of people over 60 years of age. People of less than 15 are a minority: only 20 % of the population and they are localised in the two urban centres of Ussel and Egletons. 14 See Appendix 1: Distribution and densities of population in Haute-Corrèze. Depopulation is stronger in the municipalities where infrastructures and socioeconomic activities are the less numerous.
2 Equipment INSEE has calculated on the basis of a list of 36 equipments 16 . It also makes the Pays closer to 3 airports (Clermont-Ferrand.5. The municipalities are linked by a good communication network. Égletons and Bortles-Orgues. The problem for the tourism activity is that it can prevent people from stopping in Haute-Corrèze. Neuvic. 15 16 See Appendix 2: Map of the rail network in Corrèze See Appendix 3: List of elements used by the INSEE to establish the landlocking level of the territory 59 . the Conseil Général of the département and the TDC have opened a modern and attractive touristic information centre in the rest area of the motorway. Meymac. Limoges and Brive).5. Eygurande and Bugeat. Other important centres are the county towns: Sornac. The territory looks really dependent on the regional metropolis. Another important trunk road is the motorway A89 that crosses the territory from west to east linking Bordeaux to Lyon. To remedy to this threat. Concerning the rail and bus networks. Lapleau.4. the Pays is really landlocked 15 .5 Equipment and infrastructures 4.1 Accessibility The territory is structured around three main urban centres: Ussel. 4. the level of landlocking of the municipalities of the Pays. It is considered as a way to open up the Pays by the development charter.
10 % of the number of houses of the Pays. This issue is crucial for achieving the main goal of the Pays: welcoming new inhabitants. The low quality and comfort of the houses is also a problem since they do not correspond to the requirements of the demanders. 4.3 Housing One of the major problems of the Pays. 60 . The ability of the territory to house new inhabitants is important but the process is slowed down by the reluctance of the owners to rent their houses.Figure 9: Level of equipment of the Pays Source: Charter of the Pays. it is easy to notice that the north-west of the Pays is less equipped than the rest of the territory. Equipments are concentrated in the most important cities of the Pays. eve n if the south and the east are also lacking of equipment. converted in attraction and activity poles.5. this number reaches 2 638 houses. linked to the depopulation is the high number of empty houses. According to the Pays’ charter. On the map.
it can reach 70 % of the territory. Forestry is also an important activity. the unemployment rate was of 6 % of the population.1 Agriculture Agriculture represents one of the major activities of the Pays. It is based on cattle breeding and milk production. In some municipalities. This leads to the closure of the landscapes.2. It can be explained by the bigger size of the farms and also by the fact that 30 % of the farmers are more than 50 years old and do not have anyone to take over from them. The average rate of working population is 41. If agriculture is a major activity for the territory.6.1 Social characteristics The number of seniors is in constantly rising.4. Diversification in agri-tourism keeps being marginal.2 Types of economic activities 46 % of the firms of the Pays are located in the municipalities of Ussel and Égletons .6. Forests occupy a great proportion of the territory. 4. It is due to the specific climate of the area and to the decrease of agriculture that lets the forest invade the former fields. it suffers some problems such as the decrease in the number of farms . 4.6. Another problem is the lack of diversification of agriculture .8 %). In 2001. 61 .6 Socio-economic characteristics 4.55 % of the Pays of which 44 % are women and 56 % are men. This figure is lower than the national average (8.
Neuvic and Meymac. For the other activities. Desertification of these areas and ageing of population lead to the closure of many shops and services.6.86 % in the number of businesses since 1995. above all in the most rural areas. there is a decrease of 7.2 Commerce.7. 62 . The branch more represented of commercial and industrial firms is hotel business with nearly 20 % of the businesses. It is dynamic sector in Haute-Corrèze that ha s to be preserved. craft industry. Moreover. Local shops are suffering a difficult evolution. the development of supermarkets means less frequentation for local shops. Dynamic craft industry.2. The service sector is marked by a high number of social services: hospital.1 Strengths of the territory that can have an influence on tourism - Quality of the living environment.4. Quality of the natural and built rural heritage that can be developed for a bigger attraction.7 SWOT analysis 4. old people’s home. working centres for handicapped people. Egletons. 1720 people are working in this sector. Low unemployment rate. The companies are mostly located in the municipalities of Ussel. - Good road network that makes good links between the different areas of the territory. services The number of craftsmen has decreased slightly during the 10 last years. etc. 4. industry. - Many villages and urban centres with a good quality of infrastructures.
- No specific product in the territory = it is important to have some to develop rural tourism. Lack of cooperation between the Pays and the Natural Regional Park of Millevaches. 4. - Worrying depopulation and ageing population = lack of dynamism. inability to diversify the activity. Lack of local shops in the more rural areas = difficulty to develop tourism in such conditions.2 Weaknesses of the territory that can have an influence on tourism - Climate sometimes not attractive and that gives a bad image of the territory. less inhabitants and less dynamism.7. from regional urban centres = lack of attractiveness. - Reduction of the number of farms = closure of the landscape. - Lack of employment and of ability of the firms to develop themselves = lack of dynamism.7. 63 . - Low population density = difficulty to attract people. - Lack of diversification of agriculture toward agri. Important isolation of the territory from railway networks. - Lack of a strong urban centre that could help the Pays to develop = lack of dynamism. - Lack of services for businesses = less firms.3 Opportunities that can have an influence on tourism - The motorway will contribute to reduce the isolation of the territory. loss of the rural environment.4. - Important capacity to welcome new inhabitants in terms of housing if the owners open their mind to it and if a renovation policy is settled.tourism. by linking it with big metropolis and allowing installations of new businesses.
- A threat for the quality of the landscapes is the increase proportion of forest on the territory. - Intermunicipal cooperation have an influence on the financial and human resources available for tourism development.4 Threats that can have an influence on tourism - The motorway can prevent potential tourists to cross the territory. 4. natural and cultural specificity of the territory. It could lead to a total closure of the landscapes and to a decrease of the attractiveness of the Pays. If the situation of depopulation goes on.7. Indeed. territorial diagnosis has been realised. tourism is a transversal sector that influences and is influenced by all the other socio-economic.8 Conclusion The general characteristics of the Pays have an influence on the tourism activity.- Creation of the Natural Regional Park of Millevaches: opportunities of cooperation and partnerships for tourism actions. Now a 64 . the tourism sector will be analysed. it will prevent any tourism development. 4.
That is why the analysis of tourism in Haute-Corrèze is essential to know if tourism can be a tool for development.. 5. France. The territory resources The following map shows the distribution of natural and cultural heritage on the territory. Indeed. Limoges. 17 Chocat. National regional and local authorities are using this opportunity to turn tourism into a tool for development in rural areas. Limousin. 65 . is the less touristic of the French regions with only 1 % of the tourist nights 17 . The last part of this diagnosis is the evaluation of the tourism and territorial organisation of the territory. the touristic aspects will now be analysed in order to know what are the resources and markets of the territory and how they are exploited. Introduction In France rural areas are considered as touristic places since they answer to several requirements of tourists for their holidays (see Chapter II).Chapitre 5. The goal of this diagnosis is to know what the current situation is in Haute-Corrèze. Comité Régional du Tourisme. C. After the general analysis of the territory in the previous chapter. HAUTE-CORREZE TOURISM DIAGNOSIS 5. (2004) Chiffres clés 2003 du tourisme en Limousin.2.1. This is a very important issue to understand the ability of Haute-Corrèze to use tourism as a tool for development. that is the administrative region where HauteCorrèze is located.
1. There is also a will to develop it as a tourism attraction through bike rides. As shows the map above. Natural heritage has to be preserved and that is the goal of this listing. hiking or pony treks.Figure 10: Distribution of heritage in the Corrèze département HAUTECORREZE Source: CDCE 5.2. this heritage is diffuse on the territory. Natural resources 18 Nature is the major asset of Haute-Corrèze. Several hiking trails cross the territory: 18 See Appendix 4: List of natural heritage in Haute-Corrèze 66 . The great majority of the territory consists in natural landscapes with beautiful sceneries and specific flora and fauna. Its quality has been recognized by its listing as a natural area with fauna and flora of special interest.
- The GR 440 that crosses the Limousin Mountains. However. The paths have to be well kept in order to give a good image of the territory and it is generally the case. it represents an important potential since water is responsible for the majority of the frequentation of Haute-Corrèze 19 .- The GR 46 that links Vassivière to Rocamadour and crosses the Millevaches Plateau. a former steam train linking Tulle to Ussel. The creation of the Natural Regional Park of Millevaches Limousin is an opportunity to develop the attractiveness of nature in the region thanks to the products the Park can develop and to the fame of Natural Regional Parks. However. In addition to hiking. It is developed a little through nautical activities around the lakes and through hiking and fishing around the area of the rivers. There is no touristic product on the water theme. However. 19 See Appendix 5: List of the most frequented sites of Haute-Corrèze 67 . cyclo-tourism has an important potential for development in Haute-Corrèze with its terrain changing from valleys to mountains. - Tourist offices and local associations propose other paths for shorter hiking. the forests can be a problem since they are not always well-kept and may give a bad image of the territory. There is an important presence of water on the territory that is one of the main components of its identity and of its touristic resources. - The GRP (Pays Hiking Trails) between the Dordogne River and Ventadour. The Transcorrezian that follows the itinerary of the Tacot. The owners are not always aware of the importance of these aspects since they only have small parcels and do not want to invest in it. this development keeps being limited and lacks of promotion and organisation.
5. like many local agents stress. mills characteristic of life in Haute-Corrèze. Animations and festivals The Pays is equipped with good cultural structures. crosses.2. town councils are not aware of the importance of tourism and do not want to give money for it. Moreover. but it can also be a weakness since there is nowhere on the territory where the tourists can really find a big tourism spot with a concentration of heritage. This heritage is well spread on the whole territory. Cultural resources Cultural resources are numerous in Haute-Corrèze 20 but there is no real important monument that could attract tourists. with 5 cinemas.2. It can be an asset since all the territory can potentially benefit from tourism.2.2.2. This comes from the fact that. It makes the heritage interest of the territory less remarkable for tourists. a theatre company. often compound of churches.5.2. Here is an example of such an initiative: theatre courses and performances held in the historic site of the Car’s ruims during the summer time. 20 21 See map above and Appendix 6: List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze See Appendix 6: List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze 68 .2. "Ussel Culture” an association organising cultural animations and 9 museums 21 . The built heritage The built heritage is mainly vernacular. 5. Cultural resources are not developed enough from a tourism point of view even if efforts are done in some areas of the territory (in Meymac for example). this cultural heritage suffers from problems of accessibility and clarity.1. These structures and the animation departments of the municipalities are proposing animations and exhibitions targeting at the same time local people and tourists.
2002). and above all local manifestations 22 can also be found in HauteCorrèze. A special attention is also paid to the development of Marchés de Pays. Developing this aspect of the local culture could be a good way to let the local population discover its history at the same time as the tourists. especially in France where good food is integrated in everyday life. In Haute-Corrèze’s hotels.markets takes place during the summer in different areas of Haute-Corrèze and they sell food products from local producers.3. for every budget can be found. These food.2. Gastronomy Gastronomy is a major component in rural tourism. The festivals mainly use heritage resources of the territory as scenery.There is also a specific aspect of the Haute-Corrèze culture that could be exploited for tourism but is not developed yet: the troubadours and the medieval period of the Ventadour. It is an important aspect for the tourists who spend 41.2 % of their holiday budget in food and beverage either in restaurants or in food shops (calculated on the basis of data from the Satellite accounts of tourism. Many of them came from Haute-Corrèze. with particularly regional food. Troubadours are poets and are the symbols of the lifestyle and refinement of this period. Some festivals. 22 23 See Appendix 7: List of summer manifestations in Haute-Corrèze See Appendix 8: List of restaurants in Haute-Corrèze 69 . Other types of restaurants. it is possible to notice the effort of the managers to develop this kind of products. That is why it is necessary to offer a complete range of food possibilities. The territory must have all types of restaurants. mainly during the summer. 5.2. This initiative is organised by the “Bienvenue à la Ferme” department of the Chamber of Agriculture. from international to French cuisine and they are well distributed on the territory23 .
The only thing that is missing is the development of local products in shops. Craftsmen could promote more typical products from the area, especially during the summer.
5.3.1. Agri-tourism and gastronomy: the “Bienvenue à la ferme” network
Agri-tourism is organised at the departmental level by the Chamber of Agriculture. It is developed through a national network called “Bienvenue à la ferme ” (welcome to the farm) in charge of: The development of the "Bienvenue à la Ferme" brand, The animation of the "Bienvenue à la Ferme" network, The development of partnerships with other rural tourism agents.
This network proposes different kinds of tourism products: Direct sale of farm products Educational farms Discovery farms Equestrian/hiking farms Inn farms Farm snacks Farm accommodations Farm hunting Local products markets
When looking at the map of distribution of all these activities, it is easy to notice that these activities are not as developed in Haute-Corrèze as they are in Corrèze in general. Farmers may do not have time for developing these activities since the size of the farms is increasing. Moreover, agri-tourism may not be profitable in This can also be
comparison with the time and money investments required.
explained by the lower awareness that farmers have of the interest of tourism in Haute-Corrèze, as it has been testified during the interviews.
Figure 11: Distribution of the products "Bienvenue à la ferme" in the Corrèze département
Source : brochure « Bienvenue à la ferme »
At the regional level, the Limousin represents, in terms of touristic accommodation, 2 % of the national supply with, and 3/4 of non- market accommodations 24 . The Corrèze département is the most important of the region with 54.5 % 25 of the regional supply. The share of Haute-Corrèze corresponds to 30 % of the departmental supply and 16 % of the regional market beds. The regional trend tends to be confirmed in
Chocat, C., (2004) Chiffres clés 2003 du tourisme en Limousin. Comité Régional du Tourisme, Limoges, France. 25 Appendix 9: List of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze
Haute-Corrèze since the proportion of non- market accommodations reaches 70 % of the total number of touristic beds in the Pays.
The Pays counts 41 hotels with a total of 526 rooms which represents only 11 % of the departmental supply26 . They are only sma ll hotels with an average of 13 rooms per hotel. This low figure does not allow groups and busses to use the facilities provied. 7 hotels are affiliated to the voluntary chain ‘Logis de France’. This affiliation means that they meet some quality requirements. Only 17 % of the hotels are in a quality process. 59 % of these rooms are in two-star hotels which does not exactly correspond to what the tourists are looking for. A particular
attention has to be paid to the improvement of quality, all the more so as there is no three-star hotel in Haute-Corrèze what excludes a great segment of customers.
Concerning the occupancy rates, the average departmental rate reaches 43 % of occupancy in 2003 which represents a decrease of 2 % in comparison with 200227 . This decrease is constant since 2001.Only the three-star hotel showed a slight increase.
The low number of hotel suggests that it would be necessary to open new structures and to improve quality. However, when looking at the occupancy rates of the hotels, it seems to be impossible to open other establishments. There would not be enough customers to fill them. It is a kind of vicious circle since if there are not enough customers, it is impossible to open new hotels, and without new hotels, it is impossible to attract more tourists. An effort has really to be done to improve quality in the existing establishments.
Tourism Departmental Committee Tourism Departmental Committee
hotels are not in the pole position.3. This percentage is relatively low. Another reason can be the fact that. there are less houses than in the rest of the département. Gîtes and Bed and Breakfasts represent the first type of accommodations asked by the demand28 . This success can be explained by the fame of the ‘Gîtes de France’ brand to which most of the gîtes and all the Bed and Breakfasts are affiliated.3 % 75. 73 . It seems that this type of accommodation does not correspond to what people want when they go to the countryside.2. 185 gîtes and 46 Bed and Breakfasts affiliated to Gîtes de France can be counted in Haute-Corrèze .4 % Source: Adapted from ‘Comptes satellites du tourisme. The low density and the age of the population can explain it.4 % 6. Moreover. 2001’. When observing the type of accommodations chosen for rural tourism.3 % 9. heritage is less developed in Haute-Corrèze in comparison with Basse Corrèze.Figure 12: Nights spent in rural areas by French people in 2001 per type of accommodation . in spite of the 2 600 empty houses in Haute-Corrèze.in thousands of nights Type of accommodation Hotels Gîtes Camping sites Non-market accommodations Number of nights 7 233 20 662 13 889 164 787 Percentage 3. It represents respectively 25 % and 19 % of the departmental supply. The fact that people are more turned toward agriculture than 28 See table above. 5.2. Gîtes and Bed and Breakfasts An interview with the person in charge of the ‘Gîtes de France’ departmental association allowed an analysis of the characteristics of this type of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze.
Gîte and B&B creations are really profitable for local development. Many owners of empty houses would like to invest in its restoration to convert it in a gîte. only a few do it since the financial help is limited. Occupancy rates are not maximized since they only reach 12 weeks for the Gîtes and 100 nights for the B&B. It mobilises local energy since it is a tourism implemented by and for the local population (craftsmen. shopkeepers. Occupancy rates are the highest in the area close to the motorway where people stop for one night or two on the way to their holiday destination.toward tourism can also be an explanation according to Philippe Bordes. etc. These figures can be explained by different reasons: A supply not adapted to the demand of the low season. their first motivation being the preservation of local heritage. it is not profitable. It participates to the rehabilitation of built heritage. It contributes to a diffuse tourism that spreads on the whole territory. Closure of many activity suppliers out of the peak season. However. The hard climate of Haute-Corrèze that makes difficult to attract tourists during the winter. It reaches a maximum of 18 % of the total investment 29 . even if with the current occupancy rates. Owners only propose to rent weekly and not for weekends. hiking. The reason for this is that the charges of opening the gîte during the weekend are more important that the profit generated through the renting. The lack of renown of Haute-Corrèze .) 29 See Appendix 10: Interview with Philippe Bordes 74 . the manager of the Gîtes de France departmental association. 2 000 houses have been preserved by this way in Corrèze during the 20 last years. etc. The lack of communication and products on activities that can be practiced out of the peak season: fishing. This shows that regional governments do not want to invest in the preservation of built heritage. mushrooms picking. gîte owners.
In addition to the gîtes and B&B. the proportion is even better since 73. Quality of gites and B&Bs in Haute Correze is above average compared to the rest of the departement. 14 million of revenue per year. data from Gîtes de France departmental association. the Haute-Corrèze Pays proposes: 16 farm gîtes (27 % of the departmental supply) 15 farm B&B 2 farm camping sites 3 lodges 2 inn farms 1 holiday farm 75 . the average of 3-ear gîtes is only 52. For the B&Bs. Figure 13: Distribution of the gîtes and B&Bs per category in Haute-Corrèze Distribution of the gîtes per category 3 ears 2 ears Distribution of the bed and breakfast per category in Haute-Corrèze 1 ear 5% 1 ear 2ears 11% 3 ears 2ears 2 ears 41% 3 ears 54% 3 ears 89% Source: Author’s own elaboration.- It contributes to the development of local economy. On the whole département.9 %. The gîtes activity represents € 1.7 % are 3 ears and the rest is 2 ears.
7 % + 58.8 % Nb of beds Source: Adapted from data from the Tourism Departmental Committee. 76 .1 % + 81. the evolution in the number of gîtes (of any type) and of B&B is really strong Figure 14: Evolution of the number of gîtes and B&B in Haute-Corrèze between 1999 and 2003 Type of accommodation Gîtes B&B 1998 Nb of structures 280 12 Nb of beds 1596 66 2003 Nb of structures 324 19 Nb of beds 1878 120 Evolution Nb of structures + 15. 2004. The number of beds increases more than the number of structures what shows a trend to increase the size of the house to answer to the demand of small groups.- 73 gîtes that do not belong to the brand ‘gîtes de France’ and do not have their notoriety and quality (60 % of two-star gîtes) This supply is diversified and generally of good quality even if it stays for some products under the potential of the territory.3 % + 23. However.
This comes from the trends of the customers to choose 3 or 4-star camping sites. However. their capacity keeps being reduced. Moreover.5. They are mostly managed by local collectivities and their quality has to be improved.3. since even some three-star camping sites do not correspond to their classification. 30 See Appendix 9: List of accommodations of Haute-Corrèze 77 . There is a visible erosion of the frequentation in occupancy rates. It represents nearly 50 % of the accommodation capacity of the département 30 . Camping sites Figure 15: Distribution of Haute-Corrèze camping sites per category Distribution of the camping sites per category 2 stars 40% 3 stars 23% 0 or 1 star 31% 4 stars 6% 0 or 1 star Source: Author’s own 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars There are 35 camping sites in Haute-Corrèze.2.3. only a few camping sites have good quality: 29 % are 3 or 4-star camping sites.
5 % July 28.the Pays 78 . May 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 4% 4% 5% 4% 7% June 5. Its role is to federate and help the camping sites.5 % 33 % 39.5 % 34 % 39 % 42 % 37.4 % 17. The association of Correzian Camping Sites exists since 1989 and gathers 87 camping sites on the whole département.5 % 7.5 % 8% 9.5 % 30.5 % 6.Figure 16: Evolution of the occupancy rates in the camping sites of the Corrèze département. Chassagne. It represents 24 % of the total number of houses in the Pays. N.4 % 18.4 % Source: adapted from « Bilan du Schéma Départemental de Développement Touristique de la Corrèze et mise en adéquation des préconisation avec les Pays.5 % 5% 4. 31 Charter of . ».3 % 19.3. Second homes There are 6840 second-homes in Haute-Corrèze 31 .5 % August 37. 5.4.8 % 16. This important figure can be explained by the desertification of the Pays and the fact that people keep in Haute-Corrèze a family house for their holidays.5 % September Average 3.5 % 4% 5.5 % 31.2.5 % 15.
negative impacts can not be neglected.Figure 17: distribution of second homes in Haute-Corrèze Source: Charter of the Pays. This map shows that second homes are mainly located in the less populated areas. ‘tourists’ occupy these houses during the summer whereas they could be rented and occupied by inhabitants all along the year. 79 . they are a tool for local development since their restoration gives work to local craftsmen. Moreover. However. Moreover. Second homes are not open during the major part of the year and it contributes to the lack of dynamism of the villages. 2004. Second homes have positive impacts since they are not abandoned. they are restored and it contributes to the preservation of local heritage. It poses problems since second homes and empty houses can reach 50 % of the number of houses in some villages. There is an important demand for independent houses but there is not enough supply.
2001. only to give a good image of the territory. 32 33 See Appendix 10: examples of interviews BVA. According to tourism professionals 32 and to the tourists 33 . etc. Activity suppliers The majority of tourism activities are based on the natural and cultural resources of the territory. Nearly every rural tourism activity can be found in Haute-Corrèze: Hiking Nautical sports. “les séjours touristiques dans le Limousin: Enquêtes de fréquentation multi-sites». 34 CRT. canoe.3. 35 See Appendix 6 : List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze 80 . Villofray. 2004.5. 1/4 of the departmental tourist spots are located in Haute-Corrèze 35 . villages. museums. the main problem is the closure of most of the activities out of the peak season.3. children animations. ‘gabares’ horse riding Visits to cultural place (churches. According to a regional study34 . On the one hand that is a problem not to develop tourism out of the summer since people complain they have nothing to do during the low season. On the other hand it seems to be impossible to ask activity and accommodation suppliers to open at this period of the year whereas they will not earn money. castles) Steam train Hunting golf village fêtes Local animations such as flea markets. Limoges. “Eléments de réflexion pour le plan marketing 2005-2008 pour le tourisme limousin».
81 . Reunion with family.4. etc. de l’écoute des clients à l’action marketing. the firm Sociovision Cofremca realised a very detailed study37 on the new trends of customers. AFIT. The following paragraphs are based on the results of this study. 33 % of the French tourists choose the countryside as their holiday destination. Going back to the roots. they know that they 36 37 Permanent conference on rural tourism.1. with urban life rhythm and stress. 2000. tourism ministry. Tourism service suppliers will have to compose with these new trends and to adapt their supply to these new requirements. couple or friends to enjoy this time out of the constraints of daily life. The demand As confirm many studies and documents from the ministry of Tourism36 . As it can be notice through the expansion of low cost airlines and last minute sales. General trends of the rural tourists In 2000. at the national level. Carnet de route de la montagne. New purchasing behaviours è Customers have more requirements Customers expect for their holidays a good value for money. 5.4. 5. Paris : AFIT.1.4.1. Holidays represent the moment when people want to develop and to take care of themselves.1. New expectations of the customers The Cofremca study gives information about the expectations of French people during their holidays.4. 5.2.5. The results of this study show three main trends: Break with daily life. the countryside is the first touristic destination.
can play on competition to obtain the best prices. Customers are not shy anymore. They know their rights and their power. è New way of choosing the destination:
Tourists have now a great experience of going on holiday. That is why they will not buy very early their tourism product. They prefer gathering information on
different destinations and finally, they buy the product that answers better to their requirements. They do not choose a destination but a product. It means that it is not because the communication campaign is very good that customers will choose a destination. Products and quality have to meet their requirements. è News types of customers
Two types of customers can be dis tinguished: Traditional customers that are organized, loyal to a destination and anticipate their purchase. Modern customers that are looking for a good deal and are merely loyal.
Whatever type of customers it is, they do not want anymore to be considered as a mass. They need to be seen as individuals with individual needs. However, tourists can not be considered one by one. That is why new small segments have been distinguished: Seniors = active retired people with high purchasing power Tribes = groups of customers that can be mono-parental families, groups of families, etc. Juniors = young people travelling together, in individual or organised forms.
People can also be segmented according to their area of origin. That is why the idea of the average customer must be forgotten and a differentiated marketing has to be developed.
22.214.171.124. New socio-cultural trends
Socio-cultural trends express the main expectations of the customers to which professionals are confronted. The Cofremca study, beyond the three major
motivations cited above has noticed several socio-cultural trends answering to strong expectations of the tourists. è Convenience
Tourists want to make a real break with their daily life and holidays have to be 100 % pleasure and 0 % trouble. That is why the information has to be accessible, booking has to be simple, quality has to be certified by labels for instance. During the holidays, everything must be easy. Tourists consider all- inclusive pack as too strict. They prefer ‘A la carte’ ready to consume holidays.
Tourists do not want to be stressed by over- frequentation. They are attracted by nature, rest, simplicity and authenticity. completely adapted to these expectations. è Non-market tourism Rural and low mountains tourism is
In a society where everything has to be paid, tourists are happy to have during their holidays simple relationships with people and with nature, based on money. Tourists do not want to be considered as consumers but as persons. Free services and spontaneous relationships with local people are really appreciated, like the free contact with nature or monuments. They also appreciate to have free access to animations or specific services. Proposing a product in which everything is included can be a solution. è Importance of recreational activities People want to entertain during their holidays, to relax and share good moments with their relatives. It does not mean that people want to be entertained like in a
Club-Med village but that they want to be together with their family during a relaxing moment. è Soft vitality
For many people, holidays are a period to relax, to rest in order to recharge the batteries. Those people do not want to practice many activities and to make efforts. They do not want to do nothing either. They want to practice soft activities that bring satisfaction, harmony and shared pleasure. Tourism professionals have to take this into account if they want to seduce this type of customers. è Need for well-being
During the holidays, people to take care of themselves. That is why thalassotherapy and balneotherapy are so successful. Tourists are also attracted by the beneficial effects of countryside or mountain air. These elements count in the choice of the destination. Quality of accommodations are also taken in account since the
environment has to contribute to feel good and healthy. During the holidays is noticed a negative sensitiveness to everything annoying: stress, noise, pollution. For all these reasons, tourist are tired of being closed in small flats like during the seventies. They wanted a higher quality than at home. è Quality and aestheticism of life
This point is a bit similar to the one about well-being since it is linked to quality of life. This need is expressed by the attention paid to details that create emotion. People are not centred anymore on primary but more cultural secondary needs. è Contact with nature
People want contact with nature. They need it. However, they do not want to be confronted alone to wild nature. They need some intermediaries to give them
2. Families with young children Young seniors People that do not have a high purc hasing power People coming from Paris. the North of France and Bretagne Foreigners coming from England. People coming by car since there is no real other means to get there. Paris . 24. (2004) Bilan des trois années d’activités. Characteristics of the tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze According to what the tourism agents said during their interview and to the statistics found. 67. A lot of passing through people who stay one night or two. less than one 38 Conférence Permanente du Tourisme Rural.4. 5. Concerning the exclusivity of frequentation of the countryside. May. mountainous and urban areas: “In 1997. Proceedings from the Session Plénière. 2004 85 . The study realised in 2001 on touristic frequentation in Limousin confirms the statements of local agents by exposing the following profile of the tourists visiting Corrèze: 89 % of French people vs.6 % of them are 30 to 39 years old.7 % of foreigners.1 % of the tourists). People coming mainly from Paris (21.3 % of senior executives. 43.7 % of the people coming in Corrèze are coming during the peak season. Germany and Belgium.7 % of couples or families with young children. France. 10. a study38 explains that most of the tourists frequenting rural areas for their holidays are also frequenting coastal. 64. That is why people are interested in practicing hiking with a guide able to “translate” the nature. the main characteristic of the tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze are the followings.access to nature .
Comité Départemental du Tourisme. Mountainous areas are most of the time chosen in substitution to the countryside and vice versa.3. C.. France. Comité Régional du Tourisme.6 % of the market nights and then by the holiday and gîte villages 40 . 5.4. 40 Observatoire Départemental du Tourisme.” Concerning the loyalty to rural areas.3. this theory is falsified by another regional study realised by the TRC stating that tourism in Limousin is characterized by 73 % of the nights spent in non. Indeed. people staying in non. Activities practised: nature. (2004) Bilan année touristique 2003. This is very different from the national trends but it can be explained by the fact that the survey took place in touristic sites.3 %).4.1. 5. Tulle.2. Moreover.market accommodations may frequent less the tourist sites than people staying in market accommodations since they may already know the region or prefer to give prior to relations with their friends and family. (2004) Chiffres clés 2003 du tourisme en Limousin. culture and idleness 39 Chocat. Limoges.market accommodations 39 . this study reveals that one third of the people having frequented rural areas for summer holidays are loyal to the countryside . 86 .4.French person out of four that has spent holidays in a rural area had just frequented the countryside. A majority of stays spent in non-market accommodations The study on touristic frequentation in Limousion says that there is a majority of stays spent in market accommodations (64. Characteristics of the stays in Haute-Corrèze 5. A departmental study shows that non. France.3.market accommodations are followed in percentage of the nights by the camping sites that attracts 27.
market accommodations.4.5. France 42 Secrétariat d’Etat au Tourisme.4. 5. (2001) La demande touristique en espace rural. France 43 Direction du Tourisme. 41 BVA. not every tourist is like this.3 %). Secrétariat d’Etat au Tourisme . It can be explained by the high percentage of non. However those data are national and it was impossible to obtain more precise information about the behaviour of tourists visiting Haute-Corrèze. The fact that 39 % of the people interviewed answered that they rest or do not do anything has to be taken into account. markets and flea markets are activities practised by 49. It shows that it is necessary to give them the opportunity to participate to animations or activities even if at the end they do not do anything.3. Limoges.The first activity practised 41 by people visiting the Corrèze département is ‘walking’ (72.3. This average is really higher than the national average saying that 61. The average number of activities practiced during a stay is 5. However. It is followed by visiting monuments. However.3.3 days. Visiting fairs.6 % of the people staying in Corrèze. Paris.4. 1/3 of the stays lasts less than 5 days and another third lasts more than 10 days. It can be explained by the fact that people coming in Limousin are coming in their family or have a special attachment to the region. (2001) Les séjours touristiques dans le Limousin: Enquêtes de fréquentation multi-sites. 2001 87 . Observatoire Régional du Tourisme. It means that people like doing nothing. Low expenses National studies say that rural tourism is not really remunerative since it represents only 21 % 42 of the touristic expenses whereas it represents 33 % of the stays. An average length of stay higher than the national trends The average length of stay in Limousin is quite long with 10. 5. museums' and 'natural sites' ' (69.5 % 43 of the stays last less than 4 nights and that people staying longer in rural areas are foreigners.1 and 65.9 %). they can complain because there is nothing to do. that is why they stay longer.
mostly in accommodations located around the motorway A89. 88 .On top of this. there is also in Haute-Corrèze a lot of passing through.
Going to a destination adapted to children even if the sea keeps being the favourite destination for children For authenticity For being with relatives For the feeling of freedom According to the regional study lead in 2001 45 . (2004) Bilan des trois années d’activités. the quality of the environment and their attachment to the region.5. Having healthy holidays. 2004 45 BVA. Limoges. even if the mountains keeps being the healthiest areas for the tourists.4.5.4. the quality of reception (83 %). That is why there is no local data about this theme. as it appeared above. like the calm. France. This survey reveals that the general rate of satisfaction reaches 83%. France 46 Ibid. the general motivations for people to spend holidays in rural areas are: Having quiet holidays. 89 . May. the principal motivation for people to come in Corrèze are the nature. 5. People are particularly satisfied by the quality of natural environment (86 %). Satisfaction of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze Data about the satisfaction of tourists are difficult to obtain since tourists just say it when there is something really wrong. (2001) Les séjours touristiques dans le Limousin: Enquêtes de fréquentation multi-sites. However. the cleanliness of the places visited (82 %) and the quality of 44 Conférence Permanente du Tourisme Rural.4. That is why a regional survey46 will again be used in this paragraph to have an overview of the tourist’s satisfaction in Haute-Corrèze. the regional trends correspond more or less with the local ones. Paris . Observatoire Régional du Tourisme. Cultural heritage and water (lakes and rives) are the other aspects that attracted people in Corrèze. Motivations of tourists coming in Haute-Corrèze According to the PCRT 44 (2004). Proceedings from the Session Plénière.
they are proposing contact with the nature. Competitors According to the tourism agents of Haute-Corrèze.cultural heritage (82 %). the city benefits from an image related to the south-west culture and to Périgord. They propose an important cultural and gastronomic heritage that can also be found in Haute-Corrèze but is less developed and less famous. soft vitality but they can offer more specified landscapes: mountains and volcanoes. Dordogne and Lot: those territories are considered as competitors since they propose the same kind of products than Haute-Corrèze but their resources are more important and more known. Moreover. they increase their notoriety and improve their image.5. - Brive-la-Gaillarde : it is the main city of the Corrèze département. They are more specialised than Haute-Corrèze and have been developing tourism for more time than Haute-Corrèze. above all for people coming during the low season (72 %). the main competitors are: The départements of Puy-de-Dome. 90 . The territories considered as competitors by Haute-Corrèze tourism agents are territories that can be identified clearly according to the products they propose. Moreover. However. with the creation of the attraction park Vulcania. Cantal. they are really famous even abroad. For the departments of Auvergne (Puy de Dome and Cantal). It is considered as a competitor because the tourism agents of the city managed to develop tourism and quality. Concerning the departments of Dordogne and Lot. 5. the lowest levels of satisfaction concern the animations (69 %) and the activities and leisure.
Promotion and communication 5.3 2. 51 www.tourisme -lot.perigord. A solution could be to look how they work and how they promote themselves in order to do the same in Corrèze.tm. That is what is missing in Corrèze. Image According to the tourism agents interviewed.6.Figure 18: Figures about the frequentation of Corrèze competitors DEPARTEMENT Dordogne 47 Lot 48 Cantal49 Puy de Dome 50 Corrèze 51 Source: author’s own NUMBER OF NIGHTS (in millions of nights) 26 10. political agents seemto be more aware of the importance of tourism and are ready to fund it. the image of Corrèze and above all of Haute-Corrèze corresponds to the image of the region.com 49 www. Limousin. in the 47 48 www. Concerning Brive. This exp lains the success of tourism in this area.info 50 Ibid.auvergne-tourisme. They have a real positioning.13 6.14 ˜2 This table shows that competitors are really more frequented than Corrèze . and even their organisation seem to work better than in Corrèze.1. Their websites and products.cg19.fr 91 . The budget of the tourist office is higher than the one of the TDC.fr/cdt www. It also seems that they give more importance to tourism than Corrèze does. That is why. 5.6.
If the south of the Corrèze département is seen as the ‘South’ with sun and often assimilated to the Périgord.following analysis. the image of Limousin is linked to the countryside and the nature but image often not clear and despised. Limoges. tourism agents answered the aspects enumerated in the table below. When asked about the image of Haute-Corrèze. “Eléments de réflexion pour le plan marketing 2005-2008 pour le tourisme limousin”. sources depreciated image of the territory Good level of comfort Nature Not expensive HAUTECORRÈZE Green and wild territory Quietness Beautiful landscapes Plateau de Millevaches famous Specific fauna and flora Troubadours Natural Regional Park Source: elaboration author’s own and data collected during the interviews Not dynamic territory No strong tourist attraction Hard climate Tough inhabitants Quiet place but sometimes too much According to a regional study52 . departmental and local data will be mixed in order to define the image of Haute-Corrèze. 92 . 2004. regional. the 52 CRT. Figure 19: Focus on the image given by the tourism agents interviewed Territory General image Strengths Weaknesses Inhabitants that have a Water.
93 . They are not proud of their region and are not the ambassadors of their territory. tourist spots. 2003. austere and tough as well for the territory as for the population Ici & Là Magazine : Le Limousin grandeur nature.image of Haute-Corrèze corresponds better to the image of the region. For nature lovers Wild. 2003 . climate. crepes. etc. le Limousin Even if the three guidebooks are national editions. Concerning the identification of the touristic region. The last one only focuses on Corrèze: Petit Futé Corrèze. the inhabitants do not carry this image. financial and human means. Ici&là. 1995 . It means that the region does not have a clear identity. Auvergne-Limousin. it appears that the image given of the Pays is more or less similar in every guidebook and refers to the same aspects than those given by the tourism agents and by the regional study. moor and heather Gastronomy: mushrooms. it is seen as a ‘green’ reserve but there is not much to do there. By this is meant the fact that it is not really known. They often feel inferior to other areas in terms of wealth. when consulting these books to know what they say about Haute-Corrèze. they do not have the same vision of the touristic area around Haute-Corrèze. Another one mixes Limousin and Auvergne (Massif Central regions): Guide du Routard Auvergne-Limousin. berries. It also allows to check the tourism attractiveness of the region through the focus of the guidebooks. It is also interesting to consult tourism guidebooks to know what image they give of Haute-Corrèze. even if it is more precise: 53 Wild nature: forest and conifers. the checking shows that the identity of the region is not clear: One guidebook focuses on the Limousin region: grandeur nature. Petit Futé. Guide du routard. Three guidebooks 53 have been studied. However. Corrèze. Moreover.
Communication and promotion Different types of organisms work for the promotion of Haute-Corrèze.6. are all playing an important role in terms of promotion of the territory at different levels. The following paragraphs present the different kinds of promotion actions that are developed by these different structures. This image positions the territory as an area that can attract niches of customers since it is a really special territory that is not accessible to everyone. 94 . TRC representing the region. Edition of brochures Nearly every tourism structure edits at least one brochure to promote its activity. rivers. TDC. 5. This image does not correspond to the public that frequents the territory: families. of a region with character and legends . Tourist offices (TO) representing the municipalities.1.2. this image can be negative and frighten some potential visitors with the evocation of the ‘long winter’.- Warm welcome Water: sources. the mentalities. However.2.6. 5. In this paragraph only the brochures edited by TOs and TDC will be presented. dams Hard climate with long winter Character Legends Unknown region Some aspects of this image are really positive since it gives the image of a territory were nature is preserved. the fact that it is unknown and that there are not many inhabitants. representing the département. lakes. The territory would be more attractive if the image corresponded to the markets targeted.
This structure only works on promotion. Moreover. This brochure does not have the objective of selling anything. There is a general brochure. each tourist office edits some general They also developed a special structure for the promotion of all the Haute-Corrèze area: The Haute-Corrèze ENOTSI (union of tourist offices). A question can be raised about the interest of promoting the territory for tourism all along the year whereas it is obvious that tourists can not be welcome during the winter because most of the activities and accommodations are closed and the climate is very hard. They edit one general brochure to present the activities that can be practiced in Haute-Corrèze all along the year. It gives an image of wellbeing. These brochures can be general or divided by theme. Camping sites. documents. calm and convenience.è Tourist offices: The role of TOs is to transmit information to the tourists and to promote their territory. in the brochure there is no contact with any reservation centre where the tourists could book their holidays. according to their financial means. Hiking - Nautical leisure Fishing Summer animations 95 . only to inform the potential customer and to give him a positive image of the territory. Sometimes they give directly the brochure of each service supplier. In Haute-Corrèze. It also insists on local gastronomy and atmospheres. but. they may propose their own brochure presenting the territory and gathering all the information. a touristic map and thematic brochures: - Hotels and restaurants. It presents a map of the territory and the Tos contact list. è Tourism Departmental Committee The TDC edits 12 brochures that present all the assets of the département.
manifestations and animations (15 %).net 96 .2. They are composed of 320 bills in the 54 Comité Départemental du Tourisme. accommodations (9 %).3. France. The TDC also participates to many other departmental or regional publications that contained information about: natural and built heritage (33 %). The frequentation of the tourist office of Ussel is increasing every year: from 4 802 visitors in 2001 to 29 260 visitors in 2003 55 . industrial tourism (9 %).vacances-en-correze. Concerning the TDC. Tulle.6.2. 55 Office de tourisme d’Ussel. (2004) Compte-rendu d’activités 2003.There are also territorial brochures: Vallée de la Dordogne Pays de Brive Pays de Tulle Vézère-Auvézère Haute-Corrèze. gastronomy (9 %). Office de Tourisme. 5. (2003) Compte-rendu d’activités 2002. handicrafts. 56 www.6. Comité Départemental du Tourisme de la Corrèze. statistics (3 %) 54 . Creation of websites Only Ussel and Bort-les-Orgues’ TOs have a website and the one of Bort is really more attractive and modern than the one of Ussel. a website 56 has been created this year and presents all the activities that can be practiced and all the resources of the département. general documents (10 %). National communication campaigns To improve the notoriety of the département that was really unknown. 5. outdoor leisure (12 %). Ussel. It is a descriptive and general website where it is possible to order the brochures but not to book. art. The positive aspect of Ussel’s website is that it presents all the Haute-Corrèze territory. France. the TDC has realised national campaigns since 1999.2.
The TRC represents all the local professionals in international fairs. The list of the fairs can be found in appendix 11.metro in Paris.. Thanks to this structure. The frequentation of 57 Chassagne N.2. There are 3 areas in Corrèze : - Rest area of the N89 in Merlines – Haute-Corrèze : this structure exists since 1986 and information agents are present in July and August. 5. the majority of the visitors are coming from regions where tourism agents participate in tourism fairs. 2003.2.6. The participation to tourism fairs allows to make the territory known and to attract visitors.6. - A20 rest area ‘Portes de Corrèze’ in the north of the territory: 53 000 touristic brochures were distributet there in 2002. that is why they created the ENOTSI.4. it is really successful since it generated in 2002 3 322 demands for information and more than 10 000 in 4 years. Indeed. Indeed. 97 .. the TDC represents Haute-Corrèze in fairs where tourist offices can not go. Information agents are present in July and August and during the week-ends. advertisement in the newspapers Figaro and TV magazine in January and march. 5. When has opened the A89 motorway in 2000 the frequentation decreased by 27 % from 4 600 visitors in 1999 to 3 400 in 2000 57 . Participation to tourism fairs The TOs do not have enough money to participate in tourism fairs.5. they gather human and financial means to participate to some fairs either directly or through the participation of the TDC. Bilan du schéma départemental de développement touristique de la Corrèze. Rest areas of the roads and motorways The TDC created tourism information places located at the entrance of the Corrèze département.
This paragraph aims at clarifying the role of each structure and at showing the interrelations that contribute to tourism organisation. etc. 5. That is why there is no statistics yet. 58 59 Ibid. general products.correze-vacances. Independent organisms like Gîtes de France also have their own booking centre.6 % are in HauteCorrèze . The supply is sold at the departmental or regional scale. 105 products are on sale and 27. environment.6. There are different brochures: juniors. The SRLA is the organism in charge of “selling” the département. That is why a multitude of private and public agents intervene in tourism development. The TDC with the SRLA edits some brochures presenting the tourism products that can be bought.3. The focus will be done on the activity of the SRLA (booking departmental service) since they sell the majority of the products. - A89 rest area ‘Corrèze’ in the east of the territory only opened in 2003. In these three brochures. groups. Tourism organisation on the territory Tourism is a complex sector linked to other sectors such as agriculture.com. 44 % of Haute-Corrèze products are dedicated to juniors. This multiplicity sometimes make difficult the identification of the role of the different structures and of the links between them. It is possible to book by phone or on the website 59 . 5.the tourism structure is increasing every year reaching 5 000 visitors in 200258 . politics. craft industry.7. either for holiday camps or for school trips. Marketing There is no booking centre in Haute-Corrèze . www. 98 .
7. Indeed. This scheme defines the tourism development strategy of the département. the post in charge of supporting tourism professionals is not filled and this mission of the TDC is not achieved. Its role in terms of tourism is important since it is in charge of the realisation of the TDDS (Tourism Development Departmental Scheme). This situation slows the actions and the involvement of the TDC in its missions .5.1. At the départemental level. Departmental structures è Tourism Departmental Committee The TDC is in charge of i plementing the tourism development strategy in the m département. the tourist office of Brive. For several months this structure does not have any director.1. The former TDDS was not really known by the 99 . it seems that agents are aware of the important role that can play tourism for local development.7. However. Moreover. Another point that has to be highlighted is the fact that the TDC does not have the financial means in respect of the tourism potential of the territory. its role is to define the orientation of the département in terms of tourism development. Concerning the TDDS. Public structures 5. The service in charge of tourism is the ‘local development’ department. èConseil Général The Conseil Général is the administrative organism that runs the département. the TDC of the Corrèze département is suffering some organisation problems .1.la-Gaillarde benefits from a budget superior to the one of the TDC. It is in charge of the promotion of the territory and of the support of tourism professionals in the realisation of their projects.
The Chamber of Commerce and Industry is supporting hotel managers and the Chamber of Agriculture is supporting farmers. Local structures è Tourist offices and ENOTSI TOs are in charge of the promotion and animation of the territory. It was an important step. After having finished its elaboration. For the elaboration of the new TDDS the Conseil Général tried to consult the main tourism and political agents of the département to collect their point of view and their needs in terms of tourism. They are classified from 0 to 4 stars according to their ability to the general organisation of the tourist office and to the services provided to tourists and professionals. The TOs that have three stars are the more frequented ones. They can elaborate in collaboration with the municipalities a local development plan for tourism.7.1. 5. It had been realised in 1998 and it was the first time that had appeared the awareness of the necessity of a tourism development plan in Corrèze. the Conseil Général wants to organise a meeting with local agents to present the TDDS and to involve them in its implementation. In Haute-Corrèze. 4 offices have 1 star and 4 offices do not have star. It is also a way to include them in the planning process even if they are not really involved. 100 . The quality of the work of the TOs depends on the number of stars since it means that they have or not permanent employees and financial means. Only three of them are 3-star offices. there are 11 TOs. èEconomic Chambers The economic chambers are the Chamber of Agriculture and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry.2.local tourism agents and professionals. Their role in tourism development is to support local professionals.
57% -34.68% 2.11% 7.46% 61. There is no development plan and there are only agents in charge of the reception of tourists.02% 10. Figure 20: Evolution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze and Haute-Corrèze/Corrèze ratio Cities Bort.58% -3.84% Frequentation 2003 22423 3824 2390 10089 7431 1524 701 1147 522 13894 10548 74493 385195 19.46% 7.49% Number of stars ** * 0 * * 0 0 * 0 ** ** 101 .30% 29.The main problems of Haute-Corrèze TOs is that they have no financial.04% 290.74% 12. human and material means to improve the quality of their work.34% Evolution 3.les-Orgues Bugeat Lapleau Meymac Neuvic Eygurande Peyrelevade Sornac Soursac Egletons Ussel Total Haute-Corrèze Total Corrèze Ratio Haute-Corrèze / Corrèze Source: adapted from UDOTSI Frequentation 2002 21665 3413 612 10015 6601 1067 886 324 12929 9856 67368 399929 16.52% 0.50% 12.
Only the tourist office of Neuvic is intermunicipal. the majority of them have no tourism education. No product are created and no information is 102 . There are only presidents that are often retired people.Figure 21: Distribution of the frequentation of tourist offices in Haute-Corrèze in 2003 USSEL 14% BORT 29% BORT BUGEAT LAPLEAU MEYMAC EGLETONS 19% NEUVIC EYGURANDE PEYRELEVADE SOURSAC 1% SORNAC 2% PEYRELEVADE 1% EYGURANDE 2% NEUVIC 10% BUGEAT 5% LAPLEAU 3% MEYMAC 14% SORNAC SOURSAC EGLETONS USSEL Source: adapted from UDOTSI There are also problems of education since there is no director in any office. they do not give more funds to develop tourism. Concerning the employees. The tourist offices are gathered in a structure called ENOTSI that has mainly been created to gather promotion means. In spite of the figures showing that frequentation is increasing. This situation shows that the local councillors are not aware of the tourism potential of their territory and of the importance of tourism development for the local economy. They nevertheless have the opportunity to participate to training courses organised by the departmental association of tourist offices (UDOTSI). The tourist offices are mostly funded by the municipalities. The fact that they are not able to provide very professional services is due to the lack of financial means coming from the municipalities.
These structures have been created by the law ‘Administration territoriale de la République’ of 1992. However. all the CC60 have the tourism competence. è Intermunicipal structures The territory of the Haute-Corrèze Pays is composed of 6 intermunicipal structures called ‘Communauté de Communes’ (CC). Its role is to work with other local structures and to develop partnerships. They take some of the competences of the municipalities.exchanged. associations and local population. The ENOTSI is a first step in the federation of the tourist offices since a few years ago. They have been created to reduce the effects of the important number of municipalities in France. Their aim is to increase solidarity for economic. public agents. èFederation of the Haute-Corrèze Pays The Federation of the Pays is the structure that corresponds exactly to the objective of coordination of the territory. They have been created recently and have not developed concrete actions yet. In Haute-Corrèze. territorial and environmental development. 103 . Other competences are optional. those structures are very young. they were not even speaking together. Most of them only instituted a partnership with the tourist offices. It has also been created to facilitate the federation of the different types of agents such as private professionals. there is still a lot of work to do before the ENOTSI reaches its goal of tourism coordination structure in Haute-Corrèze. The role of the Pays is to give a boost to the territory and to stimulate projects. Some of those are obligatorily exercised by the intermunicipality: territorial development and economic development that concerns all the community. 60 See Appendix 12: List of CC. Others have also decided to develop tourism projects or sites. However.
they face problems of lack of cooperation and coordination. such as Gîtes de France. It seems that they have not been involved by the organizers since their representatives where invited. The person working for the implementation of the Charter is employed by the Conseil Général and has also other tasks. The problem is to know if they have not been invited to participate or if they do not want to participate. etc. Moreover.size businesses scattered on the territory. Private structures and associations The Haute-Corrèze Pays counts numerous tourist service suppliers. The list of people that have participated to the reflection and redaction of the charter 61 confirms the results of the interviews: tourism professionals have not been included in the creation of the Pays. Many associations are existing to federate them. It seems that there is no leader in Haute-Corrèze that could stimulate all the professionals around a common development project. There is no common project to develop the territory. many of them do not have any tourism education. 104 . Maybe that is one explanation of the fact that they do not feel involved in the local development process. it is difficult to analyse the results of the Pays policy since it has been created very recently and everything is not organised yet. These associations are often organised by sector like camping sites.7.2. 5. However. without partnerships. 61 See Appendix 13: List of people that participated to the tourism commission for the redaction of the Pays’ Charter. This lack of funding shows that even if the creation of a Pays means that local people are aware of the necessity to engage a local development process. gîtes. Local in. Often small. etc. they often work alone. The federation does not have proper funds or employee. hotels.The problem are again the funds. it does not mean they are aware of the importance of giving means to this initiative. In spite of their will to participate to the touristic development of the territory. Some elements can nevertheless be examined. Logis de France.fighting still prevents people from working together.
there is no association of this kind in Haute-Corrèze.fights between the shopkeepers that are still in a mentality of working alone not to share the profit.Shopkeepers’ and professionals’ associations are important for developing animations and create a dynamic atmosphere. People are not used to work together and they are not ready to involve themselves in such associations. They do not understand the interest of working together or have difficulties to enter in the process. However. There are in. 105 .
1.5. SWOT analysis of the supply 5. SWOT analysis 126.96.36.199. to attract families and to practice nautical sports => important potential Numerous and quality built heritage well spread in the whole territory Numerous animations during the summer - history and image of the troubadours not enough exploited 106 .8.1 Strengths and weaknesses for the supply Strengths Resources: quality and preserved natural environment: beautiful Resources: - Weaknesses presence of too many forests that enclose the territory cultural heritage too diffuse in the territory. interest of flora and fauna important presence of water: very positive for the summer. no strong element cultural heritage suffering from problems of accessibility and clarity => not well developed landscapes.
Strengths Tourism practices and products : Wide range of restaurants Good quality of the gîtes and B&B Second homes and gîtes give work to local craftsmen Good supply of products for juniors Numerous possibilities of activities related to nature: hiking. - Weaknesses Tourism practices and products: lack of local food shops lack of development of ‘Bienvenue à la ferme’ products in Haute-Corrèze in comparison with other areas of the département Limousin represents only 1 % of the national accommodation supply No big hotel to receive groups Lack of three and four-star hotels => low quality of the hotels Occupancy rates are not very high for hotels Quality of the camping sites has to be improved numerous second homes that contributes to the lack of dynamism of villages Lack of animations out of the peak season Not enough elaborated products ready to consume for the tourists lack of organisation and promotion for water activities 107 . etc. swimming. canoe. fishing. horse riding.
5. - Threats Non sustainable use of natural resources Accentuation of the dispersion of the activity suppliers Disappearance of the cultural heritage: living heritage and built heritage if it is not preserved No interest of the farmers for agri-tourism Low financial helps from the governments to renovate built heritage.8. especially for gîtes and B&Bs 108 .1.2 Opportunities and threats for the supply Opportunities Gîtes and B&B correspond to the kind of accommodations that customers want => opportunity for building other gîtes and B&B Natural Regional Park = will create specific products oriented toward nature Increasing motivation for rural tourism Trend toward a classification of the accommodations.
Increasing number of visitors in Haute-Corrèze Tourists are satisfied by their stays in the area - Weaknesses Attention has to be paid on the activities and animations proposed for children A majority of stays in non-market accommodations People coming in Haute-Corrèze do not have a high purchasing power.1 Strengths and weaknesses for the demand Strengths Haute-Corrèze characteristics correspond with the new expectations of the tourists. Tourist are staying longer in Limousin than in other rural areas.2. People do not spend much during rural holidays Limousin.2.8. Insufficient knowledge of the customers at the local level 109 .8.5. less attractive French region. SWOT analysis of the demand 5.
wild nature that can frighten some tourists in a few years. the customers will change and it will not be tourists originating from Haute-Corrèze anymore => efforts will have to be done to keep them 110 .2.2 Opportunities and threats for the demand Opportunities Important potential of development since Haute-Corrèze is not yet on the top of the rural tourism destinations Rural areas = 2nd touristic area in France and 1st destination in terms of stays Change in the expectations of the customers that correspond to the supply of Haute-Corrèze Opportunity to target the customers living in the neighbouring département for short stays out of the peak season.5.8. a lot of passing through tourists that could be captured - Threats Tourists on holiday in rural areas are practicing free activities not profitable for the area.
- Weaknesses Image and promotion: Green image sometimes too marked and image of a place where there is nothing to do Image not clear since there is no strong product Image of a non dynamic territory Negative image of the territory for its inhabitants and for other people of the département = lack of attractiveness and impossibility to consider the inhabitants as ambassadors of their territory Reduced activity of the ENOTSI Insufficient knowledge of the customers at the local level 111 . Strengths and weaknesses for the positioning Strengths Image and promotion: Image linked to the countryside: preserved nature Notoriety of the corrèze département thanks to the promotion campaign and to the fact the french president of the republic is originating from corrèze. SWOT analysis of the positioning of the territory 5.1.8. Notoriety of the millevaches plateau Creation of the enotsi to federate the promotion means Awareness of the tourism agents of the needs for promotion and initiatives are taken: national campaigne.5. enotsi.3.8.3. etc.
3. it is possible to look at what they are doing in order to improve the development in Haute-Corrèze Haute-Corrèze proposes products and types of tourism that could attract niches of customers that are not interested by what propose the competitors - Threats Pays do not always correspond to touristic entities. 112 . Opportunities and threats for the positioning supply not as specific as the competitors image less strong than the competitors Opportunities Creation of the NRP: tool for image and notoriety of the area like are the other parks Creation of the Pays: area to develop tourism coordination and organisation As there are many other Pays that are developing tourism.8.2. .Strengths Competition: Competition - Weaknesses the competitors of the département are stronger than Corrèze in terms of frequentation 5. It may not be the good area to organise tourism promotion and positioning. it will suffer from an important competition from the other Pays. If the Pays is considered as a good scale to develop tourism.
Awareness of local agents of the problems of haute-corrèze Territory entered in a local development process through the constitution of the Pays. 113 . SWOT analysis of the tourism organisation 5. Awareness of the necessity to preserve the heritage and will to do it => motivation for opening a gîtes: preserving the built heritage. - Weaknesses Problem of mentality of local people that are not used and maybe not ready to work together.4.3. Awareness of local agents of the importance of tourism for local development. Problem for local people of awareness of the tourism potential and of its effect on the development of the territory. It also makes the definition of the territory identity difficult. Problem of communication between the different organisms.8.1 Strengths and weaknesses for tourism organisation Strengths Improvement of the organisation and cooperation of tourism stakeholders in haute-corrèze and in the whole département. No coordination structure in haute-corrèze = imbroglio of structures that makes really difficult the organisation of projects.8. People working in the tourism sector do not have any tourism education Too many structures and administrative divisions of the territory = lack of clarity for new inhabitants and for people willing to develop new projects.5.
188.8.131.52 Opportunities and threats for tourism organisation Opportunities Creation of the Pays that as the role of a coordination structure Development agents are changing: A new generation of - Threats The federation of the Pays will not be a specific structure to coordinate tourism Low financial helps from the governments to renovate built heritage development agents is arriving in Corrèze and Haute-Corrèze and contributes to change the mentalities 114 .
It seems that tourism can be a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze since the territory has got the natural and cultural resources necessary to develop tourism.9. This analysis is a first step in the elaboration of solutions to improve the tourism sector in Haute-Corrèze. The final goal of this diagnosis is to reveal if and how tourism is a tool for development. 115 . Conclusion This tourism diagnosis allowed to understand the tourism potential of Haute-Corrèze and to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the territory. However. organisation of tourism strategies and products. In the next and last chapter are presented some recommendations for tourism agents and also for further investigations in order to change the current situation and make of tourism a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze.5. such as coordination and partnerships between the tourism agents. it seems that some aspects prevent this use of tourism as a tool for development.
The conclusion of this study being that tourism could be a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze. implication of local population. 116 . The study shows that the territory and the tourism sector have to be in a local development process in order to make of tourism a tool for development (hypothesis I). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6. In the case of Haute-Corrèze.1. low unemployment rate) and weaknesses (climate. Indeed. lack of cooperation between the structures. etc). The tourism diagnosis (chapter 5) pointed out that the tourism potential of the territory is important but has to be more and better exploited. The territorial diagnosis of Haute-Corrèze (chapter 4) led to an understanding of the assets (quality of the living environment. These aspects are still important brakes that affect the tourism organisation of the territory. The literature review has allowed to define some hypotheses (chapter 3) that may allow the success of tourism as a tool for development. isolation. it is a proof that the hypotheses were true. federation of the different stakeholders. the possibility to attract new inhabitants is also very important since it is the main objective of the creation of the Pays.Chapter 6. Conclusion As explained in the literature review (chapter 2). the final objective of rural tourism development is the increase of quality of life for local residents. good quality of infrastructures. lack of dynamism. but only under the condition of changing some aspects. tourism is not yet a tool for development in Haute-Corrèze since the stakeholders are not aware of the importance of some aspects such as co-ordination. depopulation.
2. it is obvious that tourism can not be used as a tool for development if there is no potential.2. Its mission would be to make local population and councillors aware of the importance of tourism for Haute-Corrèze and to convince them of the potential of the territory. The following paragraph is dedicated to recommendations that can be done to tourism and development agents in order to achieve this mission. Now. Recommendations for tourism agents 6. their mission is to give themselves the means to go in the good direction.1 The creation of a coordinating tourist board at the destination level The creation of a tourist board at the local level is something important for HauteCorrèze. Indeed.1. Concerning the second hypothesis. The study demonstrates that Haute-Corrèze has a great tourism potential. There are also some recommendations for further research since some aspects of this study could be deepened. the stakeholders do efforts and it seems that they are aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the territory. 6. Indeed. Even if some aspects are not sufficiently exploited. the study revealed the importance of giving human and above all financial means to develop tourism. This tourist board would have different missions in order to improve the role of tourism as a tool for local development. 117 . 6. there is no coordination structure yet and no organism able to give an impulse for tourism development.1 Coordination and partnerships between the local tourism stakeholders The first aim of this coordinating tourist board would be to allow partnerships and to make people work together.One key factor could be added to the sub-hypotheses.2.
This board has to allow local agents to exchange This board would go further that the ENOTSI that has only been created for promotion. the main problem for tourism development in Haute-Corrèze is that people work alone. even if promotion would be one of the missions of the board. This plan would be the basis for a sustainable.2 Finding a positioning for the territory Finding a positioning is one of the major aspects of tourism development. It is essential for tourism development. Indeed. Local professionals have to feel involved in the development and success of tourism in Haute-Corrèze and have to be informed of the trends of the sector. the SLA. This plan would be realised by the different agents in order to direct all the means to one direction.2. it gives a clear image of the territory and allows to develop products and to target markets that are related to this positioning. the TDC.Indeed. there is no pla nning and no reflection in Haute-Corrèze on the use of tourism as a tool for development. Partnerships have also to be created between this tourist board and other structures located in and outside the territory such as the Millevaches Limousin NRP. Indeed. Moreover. 118 . long-term and organised development of tourism.1. tourism would really be a tool for local development. 6. this plan could be linked to the objectives of the charter of the Pays in order to contribute to the fight against the territory’s problems such as depopulation.2. In this process. at least through occasional meetings and promotion or communication events. information. 6.2 Creation of a local tourism development plan The tourist board has to gather human and financial means to create a tourism development plan for the territory. All the tourism agents have to be involved in this structure. so this structure has to initiate partnerships.
it seems that time is needed before seeing the effects of promotion.3 Competition The solution for competing with the current competitors is to give a positioning to Haute-Corrèze.2. Organization and cooperation of tourism agents is a key factors for positioning the territory.2. This change in the mentalities would improve tourist experiences on the territory and increase quality of life for local population. it is necessary to open the eyes of the local population on its territory by showing people all the assets of the place they live in.2 Making local population ambassador of their territory One important problem for the image of Haute-Corrèze is that the local population has a depreciated image of its territory. It is necessary to define a specific positioning for Haute-Corrèze that could allow tourists to define easily the image of the territory and to know what to do there. To achieve this objective. nature has to be completed by activities.2. 6. Some agents also suggest to create a tourist attraction center in order to specialize the territory. However. 119 . HauteCorrèze is a territory accessible to everyone to spent family holidays but it is also a place where it is possible to experiment strong sensations. People have to become proud of their territory. Anyway. since it seems that it is what comes first when thinking to Haute-Corrèze. The image has to be turned toward a polyvalent territory where everything can be done.1 An image turned toward active na ture The image of the territory has to be turned toward the preserved nature. 6.2.2. but without any stress or pressure. The idea of Mrs Savary from the Haute-Corrèze Pays’ Federation of organising a photo competition and exhibition for the inhabitants seems to be a good way to start this re-appropriation of the territory by its own inhabitants.6. This mentality has to be changed since the contribution of local population is essential to transmit a good image of the territory outside.2.
It seems to be necessary to develop a public awareness campaign in Haute-Corrèze. to make sensitive the tourism agents to the necessity of making efforts to develop tourism. èDeveloping niches of customers Haute-Corrèze is a specific territory oriented toward nature.1 New target markets è Working on proximity customers Short stays are developing thanks to the decrease of working time. by the rivers and by the forest since it is really different from what they know. mushrooms picking).2.6. The NRP of 120 . However. whereas people from the East of the region will be more attracted by more southern aspects. gastronomy. People from the West. these customers could increase the occupancy rates of hotels and B&Bs if “à la carte” products were proposed in these types of accommodations with activities linked to the assets of the region (landscapes. the North and the South-West could be attracted by the mountainous aspect of the territory. Products have to be developed for niches of customers interested in those themes. It represents a good opportunity for Haute-Corrèze since the area could widen its touristic season.3.3 Improvement of the tourism products 6. They have to understand that tourism could be a significant part of local economy if some little things were changed. the needs of people to have breaks.2. An important promotion has to go with this action in order to ensure its success and to support the activity and accommodation providers. the easy communication. The problems are the lack of accommodations such as gîtes that are not rented for short breaks and the activities that are closed out of the summer.
These products have to contribute by their form (“à la carte”) to the satisfaction of the costumers’ needs and to the increase of tourism activity in Haute-Corrèze (developing tourism during the low season to allow tourism activities to open). Even if the whole Haute-Corrèze does not belong to the NRP.Millevache is an opportunity to communicate on Haute-Corrèze to this type of customers. That is why developing more products ready for consumption seems to be a good idea.2 Creation of new products The development of tourism products is essential in Haute-Corrèze where there is nearly nothing already developed. above all if animations are developed out of the peak season. tourists do not want to worry during their holidays. 121 .2. èReady for consumption products As explained in the new trends of the touristic demand. Everything has to be easy. They could develop thematic products based on the assets of the territory. Moreover. autumn landscapes and painting. These products could be developed during the low season in order to attract tourists for specific occasions such as mushrooms. chestnuts and cooking. they do not want to pay for everything. 6.3. hunting. This is the role of the TDC and of the tourist offices to develop these products with local professionals. èAnimations about the troubadours The troubadours are part of an interesting period of Haute-Corrèze’s History and it could be interesting to develop activities around this theme. etc. It would contribute to the animation of the territory. it is possible to attract them in other parts of the territory through specific products.
Additional studies such as financial studies would also be necessary to establish an action plan. Concerning the positioning of the territory.3 Improvement of quality Tourism agents are already organising labels and quality criteria to improve the quality of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze. at the level of a destination. 122 . At the level of Haute-Corrèze. it is not sufficient to look at these studies for defining the good tourism strategy. However. it would be necessary to deepen the research on the competitors and on the possibilities of positioning for Haute-Corrèze to have a reliable basis to establish a good positioning for Haute-Corrèze.184.108.40.206 Recommendations for further studies Although rural tourism has already been explored by a lot of academic and practical researches. They understood the necessity to work on quality to satisfy the customers. further studies could be lead since the research that has been done for this study is only based on qualitative data collection. It could be interesting to give them the opportunity to work together and to define what are the things that they all want to improve. nothing is done for the tourist offices. Quantitative research could be led on tourism demand since it has not been realised yet. 6.
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APPENDICES Appendix 1 Distribution and densities of population in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 2 Map of the rail network in Corrèze 132 133 Appendix 3 List of elements used by the INSEE to establish the landlocking level of the territory Appendix 4 List of natural heritage in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 5 List of the most frequented sites of Haute-Corrèze Appendix 6 List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 7 List of summer manifestations in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 8 List of restaurants in Haute-Corrèze Appendix 9 List of accommodations in Haute-Corrèze Appendix10 Examples of interviews Appendix 11 List of tourism fairs to which the TDC participates Appendix 12 List of communities of municipalities Appendix 13 List of people that participated to the tourism commission for the redaction of the Pays’ Charter 170 134 135 136 137 139 147 150 151 166 169 132 .
Appendix 1 Distribution and densities of population in Haute-Corrèze Source: Charter of the Pays 133 .
Appendix 2 Map of the rail network in Corrèze HAUTE-CORREZE Source: Charter of the Pays 134 .
Appendix 3 List of elements used by the INSEE to establish the landlocking level of the territory post office firemen centre tax office police bank solicitor veterinary surgeon supermarket grocery bakery butcher’s shop hair dresser clothes shop shoe shop ironmonger’s shop electrical goods shop furniture shop book shop tobacconist’s shop petrol station building contractor plaster works joiner’s workshop electricity workshop garage primary school high school hospital ambulance doctor pharmacy dentist physiotherapist analysis laboratory nursing staff cinema 135 .
firs. Viam.les-Orgues. A large range of conifers (larches.les-Orgues that offer a great view point on Massif Central and on the lake of Bort. It is a protected natural area The roads of panoramic view points on the gorges of the Dordogne where can be observed owls and falcons The basalt columns of Bort. Lapleau) and rivers where it is possible to swim. and a carnivore plant. spruces. Meymac. the drosera.) that constitutes the forests of the territory A great variety of lakes (Bort. Neuvic. Tarnac. Egletons. a thousand of sources The Bessou Mount that is the peak of the département The Chavanon Valley that presents special botanic interests 136 . Eygurandes. Ussel. according to the legend. dragonflies.Appendix 4 List of natural heritage in Haute-Corèeze Tourbière du Longeyroux èwhere can be found animals like otters. Soursac. pines. etc. to practice nautical sports or to go angling An important web of hiking paths The gorges of the Luzège The plateau of Millevaches with.
les-Orgues Medieval Centre Marius Vazeille Museum National Centre of Contemporaneous Art Henri Cueille Museum Ussel’s Pays Museum Val Castle Bazaneix Castle Bort.les-Orgues Saint Fréjoux Bort.les-Orgues Bort.les-Orgues Dam Launches of the lake of Bortles-Orgues Rochers Noirs Viaduct Steam touristic train Arboretum Park Auvergne-Limousin ‘Gabares’ Luzège Festival Millesources & Dordogne Festival Chélidoine Theatre Company Saint-Angel 38 days 5 054 2 869 Lapleau Haute-Corrèze 15 days 2 months 3 073 3 500 1 715 Egletons Meymac Meymac Neuvic Ussel Bort.Appendix 5 List of the most frequented sites of Haute-Corrèze Sites Municipalities Opening period 12 months 3 months 5 months 12 months Number of entrances 2001 Leather and Tanning Museum Bort.les-Orgues Lapleau Millevaches Plateau Saint Setiers Soursac 5 898 3 633 2 379 6 051 3 637 2 499 35 536 2003 6020 3 000 3 502 4 118 3649 2 569 29 868 500 3 325 29 168 10 000 2 691 455 6 728 20 649 15 000 2 898 726 9 489 5 months 2 months 8 months 3 months 10 weeks 5 months 12 months 2 months 6 months 2 months 137 .
viaduct of the Barricade. bridges. viaduc of the Chavanon.les-Orgues the medieval centre that recreates the medieval life in Egletons the transcorrézian road that allows to discover the heritage of this train the graphology house in Laroche-Près-Feyt the National Contemporary Art Centre in Meymac the house of fishing and water in Neuvic the resistance museum in Neuvic the heritage house in Saint-Merd-de-Lapleau the Ussel Pays museum in Ussel 138 . the dams on the Dordogne river: Bort.les-Orgues. monuments and vernacular heritage: the Val Castle on the banks of the lake of Bort the Bazaneix Castle the Mothe Castle the ruins of the Ventadour Castle the medieval city of Ussel the medieval city of Meymac the medieval city of Egletons the gallo-roman site of the Cars the Rochers Noirs viaduct the viaducts of the motorway A89: viaduct of the Bergères. l’Aigle the Razel mills in Pérols-sur-Vézère the wind mill of Valiergues numerous vernacular buildings such as fountains.Appendix 6 List of cultural heritage in Haute-Corrèze Sites. Marèges. mills. wells are scattered on the territory Museum and exhibition centres: museum of tanning and leather in Bort.
Religious heritage: Saint Martin medieval church in Ussel The penitent chapel in Ussel The Meymac Abbey The various gothic churches of Limousin The Manants Chapel in Confolent Port-Dieu The ruins of the Priory in Saint Pantaléon-de-Lapleau The churh pulpit in Lamazière-Basse Numerous other churches scattered on the territory 139 .
Appendix 7 List of summer manifestations in Haute-Corrèze 140 .
SucreSale. Restaurant Montbelet A La Truite D’auvergne. Relais Du Château De Val. RestaurantPizzeria Bova Marina. HôtelRestaurant Dordogne. Ristorante Bort-Les-Orgues 14 La Mamma. Restaurant Relais Du Lys. Crêperie La Pradelle. Crêperie -Restaurant Des Orgues. La Corne D’or. Bugeat 2 Hotel-Restaurant Les Touristes Chirac-Bellevue Combressol Couffy / Sarsonne Darnets 1 1 1 1 Hotel-Restaurant La Maillade Hotel-Restaurant Le Chatel Restaurant Mrozicky Auberge Du Presbytère Hotel-Restaurant Borie. Le Jardin De Ventadours.Appendix 8 List of restaurants in Haute-Corrèze Municipalities Aix Number of restaurants 1 Name of the restaurants La demi-lune Hôtel le Rider. HotelRestaurant Aux Armes De Ventadours. Hotel-Restaurant Ibis. Auberge Des Messagers. Restaurant De La Mairie. Outre Val. Hôtel Le Bon Accueil. HotelRestaurant Le Relais Gourmand. Le 148 . Restaurant Chez Yvette. Hotel-Restaurant Egletons 14 Le Relais D’Egletons. Central Hôtel. Snack Restaurant Chez Yvette Crêperie Le Millevaches.
Hôtel Tatet Hotel-Restaurant le Soursacois 149 . L’étape. le Franceix Auberge du Plateau Hôtel de France.Bosphore. bar grill Gérard Broutin Perols sur Vézère Peyrelevade Rosiers d’Egletons Saint Hilaire Luc Saint Julien Près Bort Saint Remy Saint setiers Sornac Soursac 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Auberge du Puy Chabrol Hotel-Restaurant la Cramaillotte. la Fontaine Les Landiers Auberge de la Marguerite Hotel des Gorges Les Charbonniers. Chez Suzanne Auberge Du Chêne Vert Hotel-Restaurant Chassac Auberge Du Moulin Inter hotel Europa Le Chavanon Hotel-Restaurant le Limousin. Snack le Bistrot Hotel-Restaurant du Lac. Restaurant Bellevue. Grill de Séchemailles. au Petit Creux. L’arobar Eygurande Lamaziere-Basse Liginiac Margerides Maussac Merlines 2 1 1 1 1 1 Thiolas Café De La Mairie. Hotel-Restaurant le Meymacois. Hôtel-Restaurant L’escargot. RestaurantCrêperie Liselotte. Meymac 8 Pizzeria la Gondole. les Voyageurs. Pinocchio. chez Françoise. Neuvic 8 Château-Hôtel du Mialaret. Les Remparts. le New-Vic.
Cafétéria Festodine. Le Lucky. Pizza Totor. chez Antoine. le Drop. L’arlequin Pizzeria. La Taverne. Auberge de L’étang. le Flamboyant. Le Tacot 150 . le Parc. Ussel 32 Pizzeria Bodrum. Le Paris. Café Restaurant Thierry Berthonneche. Istanbul Kebab. Cafétéria Golden Beef. la Bolée Creperie. L’orchidée. le Marmontel. La Chope. Auberge de L’empereur. le Palais de Ly Ly. Montcourrier. le teRminus . L’afrodite. Grill de Ponty. Jim Pizz’. la Grignotte. Le Troubadour. le Grand Hôtel de la Gare. Piaulet JeanMarc.Les Gravades.
228037383 0.175461741 0.252313687 0.361423221 0.Appendix 9 Distribution of market accommodations per type in Haute-Corrèze 1998 2003 Total beds Corrèze % of HauteCorrèze in the département non classified camping sites Bed & Breakfas ts Children Gîtes Stopping Gîtes Rural Gîtes village of gîtes Camping sites Hotels non classified gîtes 8 12 1 5 204 6 28 22 64 579 66 7 69 816 458 6600 914 256 214 1815 11794 8 19 1 9 184 8 28 25 122 3 8 415 579 120 7 129 736 518 5991 798 488 260 1977 11603 1602 624 61 430 2996 2053 19710 4548 2140 563 4592 39624 0.114754098 0.303957382 0.430531359 0.192307692 0.292827579 Type of accommodation Nber of structures Nber of beds Nber of structures Nber of beds polyvalent accommodation structures3 holiday villages TOTAL HAUTE-CORREZE Total number of beds Limousin 8 361 72716 151 .245660881 0.3 0.461811723 0.
However.Appendix10 Examples of interviews INTERVIEW CONSEIL GENERAL CORREZE Organism : Conseil Général Function : responsible for tourism department Name : Valérie Bordes First part: the territory: Presentation of the territory: strengths and weaknesses development perspectives for Haute-Corrèze : opportunities and threats the specific charateristics of Haute-Corrèze in comparison with the département è the answers to all that questions will be given in a separate document = secondary data Second part: tourism: the role of tourism as a tool for local development in Haute-Corrèze Local councillors consider tourism as a plus but not as a priority. sources 152 . the place of tourism in Haute-Corrèze. revenue. employment. since it is a cross-disciplinary activity: when houses are restored. tourism can be considered a tool for development. water. They prefer acting for their voters. in terms of economy. it is an asset at the same time for tourism and for the local population. frequentation don’t know the image of the territory. its history nature.
153 . how are the specificities of Haute-Corrèze taken into account in the departmental scheme there is no specific sub-division in the scheme for Haute-Corrèze. when there is a strong specificity that is not representative of all the département but only of one part of it. but that can be more cultural for example. 120 interviews where done with local councillors and tourism service providers to know their projects and points of view. activities. etc). The new orientation will go towards the development of projects that are not purely touristic. the supply: what can expect the tourism service providers from initiatives such as the constitution of the Pays or the tourism departmental scheme? The Pays is an interesting scale for the development of projects on a territory. However. In this scheme the thinking is done in terms of territorial planning and not of sectors (like accommodations. the balance of the former scheme Most of the actions forecasted for this scheme were realised.what can bring the new departmental tourism scheme? This new scheme is realised by the Conseil Général whereas the former one had been done by an external consultancy. Local tourism stakeholders can expect from this structure a help in the elaboration of their projects. From the scheme. A lot of actions will be carried on from the former scheme. they can expect an answer to their needs in the future touristic orientations of the département. this aspect is highlighted. It is also interesting from the point of view of the dialogue that the structure of the Pays can favour.
more often. no structure for the coordination of tourism.Do they take part in the elaboration of the scheme? Local councillors and some tourism service providers have been interviewed for the elaboration of the scheme. What are the tourism projects in Haute-Corrèze? The ENOTSI is an informal group gathering all the tourist offices of Haute-Corrèze. etc. can you bring out the first trends in terms of evolution of the supply? The national trends can be applied to Corrèze: shorter holidays. There is no big tourism project on the territory. Most of them. associations. Specific trends: no possibility to welcome groups. no leader. Apart from that. with shop and even restaurants that are close during the peak season or that close at 8 in the afternoon. no awareness of the interests of touris m. The goal of this action was to know their expectations and to inform them about the redaction of the scheme. they did not participate to the elaboration of the scheme are actions lead to make the different stakeholders of the territory sensitive to tourism (shopkeepers. is there someone that can be considered as a leader for tourism development in Haute-Corrèze? There is no real leader on the territory that could impulse the tourism development. They have projects such as a brochure or a project around fishing but they have no financial means. population)? The major problem of tourism in Haute-Corrèze is the bad quality of reception. They are not aware of those problems. In spite of the fact that the tourism departmental scheme is being actualised. before the interviews were not aware of the existence of a departmental tourism scheme.… 154 .
the Regional Committee of Tourism. lack of human and financial means to develop tourism. There is no local coordination structure for tourism in Haute-Corrèze. Partnership with all the departmental tourism associations: often for financing What are the assets and brakes to tourism development in Haute-Corrèze? No awareness of the importance of tourism. What could be done in the future? What could be envisaged is that an intermunicipal structure gives importance to tourism and that it have a good influence on the other municipalities.The demand: frequentation: kinds of tourists. 155 . the agriculture chamber. lack of professionalism. the regional natural park to organise tourism on the territory? Partnerships with the region for financial helps. only from the former scheme Motivations for coming in Haute-Corrèze See documents from the departmental tourism committe Third part: organisation: Are there partnerships with the Departmental Committee of Tourism. only from the former scheme Satisfaction in terms of welcome. of quality of the services in Haute-Corrèze No recent data available. from where? when? Kinds of accommodation used? Length of the stay? No recent data available.
Its place depends on the projects since there are important needs in terms of accommodations. There is a dominance of water and of specific fauna and flora. It ca be positive for restoration of 156 . employment. People are keeping there houses for when they are retired since according to a national study. frequentation importance of tourism on the territory No data The image of the Pays. Touristic strengths and weaknesses of the territory Problem of empty houses and second homes that are not really used. since tourism is also done for the local population Economic. There is a culture of troubadours that has to be developed. Corrèze is a nice place to live for old people. However. Do you consider that tourism could be a tool for local development Yes.INTERVIEW FEDERATION OF THE HAUTE-CORREZE PAYS Organism: Conseil general – direction of local development – Function: in charge of the creation of the Pays Haute-Corrèze Name: Nadège SAVARY First part: tourism: The main orientations for the development of the Pays is the attraction of new inhabitants: what is the place of tourism? Tourism is a tool for economic development and for the development of natural heritage. its roots Problem of mentalities: inhabitants have a bad image of their territory. Idea of organisation of an exhibition of photos of the territory taken by the inhabitants. tourism is not really a priority.
157 . The heritage: water. it can allow to maintain the farming activity Are local councillors aware of the stakes of tourism and are they ready to work for its development? Problem of awareness of local councillors that don’t see the opportunities offered by tourism. presence of many houses that give opportunities to develop quality accommodations. Moreover. a lot of houses are not restored since the owners don’t want to invest or to sell. Tourism weaknesses: lack of animation lack of professionals to organise animations lack of restaurants proposing local menus lack of activities lack of direct sales of farm products to tourists lack of quality in the welcoming of people Tourism and farmers? Tourism can give a job to the wife of the farmer. The bad aspect is that it make increase the price of land and of houses. Tourism assets are: quality of the landscapes characteristic of low mountains. The arrival of English people can have positive consequences since they buy and restore houses. proximity of Cantal.building heritage but negative for the image and dynamism of villages. Tourism is a tool for the diversification of their activity.
Who has participated to the reflection for the redaction of the Charter? See the list printed Are there actions to make tourism stakeholders aware of the importance of tourism? Not really through the exhibition “succeeding in Haute-Corrèze” that shows the success of some hotel and restaurant managers. 158 . gastronomy. Leader for tourism on the territory Not really Tourism projects? Thematic hiking based on the specificities of the territory: mushrooms. They expect financial helps and the creation of a strong tourism product and tourism communication. Project of welcoming scholar groups and seminars in former holiday camps. Project of creation of a panoramic tower and of an observatory on the Bessou Mount. etc. Development potential around the lakes Project of Bistrot de Pays that are Cafés that also offer a grocery service for villages where there is no shop. There is a clog factory on the territory (Saint-Exupéry) and it could be transformed for tourism.The supply: What can expect tourism service suppliers from the creation of the Pays? They are not expecting federation and structuring since they are not aware of this need. stag.
Satisfaction of the tourists in Haute-Corrèze No data Motivations of tourists for coming in Haute-Corrèze First motivation for coming in Limousin = hiking Second part: tourism organisation: partnerships no real partnership with the tourism departmental and regional committees or with the chamber of agriculture. assets and brakes to tourism development in Haute-Corrèze problem of awareness and implication of local shopkeepers and of tourism service providers. Problem of professionalism of tourism agents since there is no one able to work for tourism planning 159 . they are available for short breaks and they love local products. it is necessary to leave Haute-Corrèze è the federation of the Pays is trying to change this view through an exhibitions with the theme “succeeding in HauteCorrèze”. Problem of mentalities because people don’t like their territory and think that to have success. from where.the demand: frequentation: types of tourists. when? types of accommodation? Length of the stay? No data necessity to target camping-cars since they have a high purchasing power. There is a will of partnership with the natural regional park but difficulties of communication due to a logic of competition and to the problem of the superposition of the structures. There are many associations on the territory but a problem of coordination.
Another structure for coordination is the ENOTSI (union of all the tourist offices of Haute-Corrèze) but problem of financial and human means. There is also a problem of adaptation of the accommodations to the new requirements of the tourists: they only rent the gîtes weekly whereas there is a new demand for short beaks. other services that could have an influence on tourism? Restoration of built heritage. theatres. 4 beds and breakfasts. There are only 50 touristic beds in hotels. INTERVIEW TOURIST OFFICE OF MEYMAC Organism : Tourist office of Meymac Function : polyvalent agent and permanent Name: Sophie Bonnelie First part: tourism supply: Type and quality of the touristic supply: Accommodations: The supply is not sufficient. Actions lead for the heritage.coordination structure for tourism in Haute-Corrèze Need for animation of the territory => role of the Pôle Local d’Accueil since there is no animation structure. cultural development with cinemas. sports. The quality of the gîtes and of the camping sites is not good but it will improve with the building of chalets in the camping site and the creation of a label for the gîtes. That can be explained by the fact that tourism is not the ir 160 . Many associations in charge of culture and quality programme. The intermunicipal structure of Ussel-Meymac did a survey to know the needs of every municipality. the culture.
The only problem linked to the landscape is the over presence of forests with too many coniferous trees what give a monotone impression. For the shopkeepers. This will change with the creation of the label. that is easy. that is just a plus and some of the owners don’t want to invest more in quality. there is an important proportion of tourists that are coming in second home and that are originating from the region. shopkeepers think that nothing as to be done to attract them. Are there enough shops? There is a sufficient number of shops but they don’t adapt their activity to the requirements of tourism. even if they don’t necessarily buy. whereas it is now the third generation of tourists and they are less attached to the region. like the hiking paths. In terms of museums and exhibitions: contemporaneous art museum that has a national fame exhibition centre artists’ house that offers a good cultural programme festivals and animations: Luzège festival. Bessou mount) and vernacular heritage (ruins of the Cars) are well restored and protected. 161 . There is a holiday village on the territory but they live in autarchy. Owners are not easy to make aware of that problem because they think in terms of business.main activity. Millesources and Dordogne Festival. Moreover. è good cultural supply but nothing that really marks. It is an investment that has to be done. tourists are coming. they don’t need to make efforts to welcome them. The natural/cultural resources and tourist attractions Landscapes (Tourbière du Longeyroux. Musicales of the Millevaches Plateau. They did not understand the importance of the image of dynamism of the village when tourists are there. the town and the plateau are famous.
from Gironde (participation to the tourism fairs of Bordeaux) and south of France. Out of the peak season. In October. From where? French tourists are the majority. Germany and Holland. they are families but the type of tourist is broader. Second part: touristic demand: Who? They are young seniors. They are doing shorter stays but more often. satisfaction? No data except for the hiking product since there is a satisfaction sheet to fill in. Paris. nature.Farm products: there are no accommodations in farms since farmers don’t have the financial means and the time to invest in tourism. some tourists are coming for the mushrooms. In august. Foreigners are mainly coming from England. and this year. in some farms. it is possible to buy directly the food products. 162 . English people are starting to buy houses. they are families with babies and they spend less than in august. Why? Quietness. evolution of the demand tourists want to buy products ready for consumption. They are coming from Pays de la Loire. However. people are coming in may when there are long breaks. and young couples without children in June and September In July. When? Above all between June and September. Bretagne.
There are more and more caravans.
Third part: the competitors:
Who are the competitors? At the beginning, they thought it would be Vulcania in Auvergne, but in reality it is not since people are still stopping in Meymac. The competitors are: Brive since it is a part of the département that is more known than Haute-Corrèze and it is located at a cross-road between two motorways. Moreover, they have a 3-star tourist office that work very well. Auvergne since here are really the mountains and have a good image (volcanoes, food, etc)
Strategy? Cooperation with other tourist offices of Haute-Corrèze in order to propose more products.
Strengths and weaknesses of Haute-Corrèze in comparison with its competitors: Haute-Corrèze has got a diversified supply with many activities and heritage. However, Haute-Corrèze does not have any strong attraction.
Fourth part: the territory:
Do you consider that tourism could be a tool for local development in HauteCorrèze? yes, through for example the investment of English people in houses. It brings dynamism for the local economy and contributes to the preservation of the built heritage. However, tourism is not important enough to impulse dynamism on the territory. It contributes to this dynamism.
importance of tourism in Haute-Corrèze? No real data
Image and promotion Before, they didn’t know how to make tourism. è people had the image of the Plateau de Millevaches because they had learnt it at school: sources and cows. è they had a depreciated image of the territory Today, thanks to the communication campaign of the Tourism Departmental Committee in Paris, the image is improved. Moreover, the Natural Regional Park will bring a good image. In terms of promotion, the ENOTSI participates to tourism fares and edits brochures They don’t have any website but want to create one.
Fifth part: the tourism organisation on the territory:
Role of the tourist office: Promotion and animation of the territory. No enough persons to organise animations even if there is someone for the town council in charge of animation.
No coordination structure in Haute-Corrèze? What can be done for the future? The Natural Regional Park can give orientations, but it won’t have direct funds, only financial helps from the government, EU, the region. There is also the ENOTSI but it does not have any financial and human means. Moreover, the tourist offices are not ready for unity.
What is the level of quality for welcoming tourists in Haute-Corrèze? The tourist office is a one-star office with a permanent employees. Would like to move to a two-star office but need to hire someone else and don’t have the financial means. To improve the quality of welcoming, adaptation of the opening hours during the peak season.
Objectives and future of the ENOTSI The first objective was to make people meeting. It has also the objective of communication for the Pays with participation to fares and creation of a promotion document. The next steps would be to have a common website but it is not easy because everybody hasn’t yet enter in a federation project. People still to work for and by themselves. In the end, it can become a structure of coordination but without financial means.
partnerships with tourism departmental committee, the agricultural chamber, the tourism regional committee, the natural regional park, tourist offices, the fédération of the Pays for the organisation of tourism on the territory? With the other tourist offices, it was not easy but now, there is a communication between the employees of the different tourist offices even if there is no real cooperation except for the ENOTSI (tourism fares)
according to you, are the departmental and regional tourism agents taking into account the specificities of Haute-Corrèze in their tourism strategies? Département = OK But nothing is done by the region. They don’t open the eyes on Haute-Corrèze.
Are there partnerships with local tourism service suppliers? Yes, with one hotel and one B&B for the organisation of a hiking product. Nothing with the others.
what is expected from the creation of the Pays, the PNR, etc.? they are really recent structures, it is still difficult to say what they will bring since they have not been associated to the procedures yet.
associations. They see the tourist office as representative of the local administration the shopkeepers’ associaton doesn’t work very well. strengths and weaknesses of tourism organisation in Haute-Corrèze no director for any tourist office in Haute-Corrèze lack of political will lack of formation even if formation organised for the tourist offices too many structures: difficult to know who does what no leader on the territory. People from the pays don’t see the importance of tourism. Specific expectations in terms of tourism organisation and development: Financial means 166 . population) aware of the stakes of tourism? only the people that are not from the territory are doing things for tourism.Are there actions organised to make people (shopkeepers. è the tourist office works to make them aware of the stakes of tourism each animation since it only works if everybody wants to imply a bit. no strong association lack of an association for hiking problem to welcome buses since there is not enough accommodations in one establishment the formation organised by the UDOTSI (departmental union of tourist offices) for tourist office is very good.
Appendix 11 List of tourism fairs to which the TDC participates 167 .
Appendix 12 List of communities of municipalities Name of the intermunicipal structure CC Ventadour Doustre Luzège CC Pays d’Eygurandes Tourism competence Partnership with the tourist office Financial help to the tourist office Development of tourism sites. heritage CC Bugeat Sornac Millevaches au Coeur development scheme. No specific action yet. 170 . recruitment of one person to develop actions CC Gorges de la Haute Dordogne Creation of an intermunicipal tourist office CC Plateau Bortois Creatio n of a hiking trail and partnership with the shopkeepers to develop tourism Actions that participate to tourism CC Ussel Meymac development and promotion of the territory.
tourism service Representative of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ussel Vice-President of the Gorges de la Dordogne Association Henri Chassagne Félix Chaussade Jean-Luc Cheyssial Laurent Crémont François Desproges M. Eymard Gilbert Fournial President of the ENOTSI President of the UDOTSI CC Bugeat Sornac President of the tourist office of Neuvic President of the tourist office of Bugeat Tourist office of Bort-les-Orgues Representative of the Gorges de la Dordogne Association Pierre Gathier Jean Jacques Labesse Pierre Lainé Jean-Pierre Lauby Michel Lefai Anne-Marie Mossolin Georges Nadalon Alain Normandon Conseil Général and Ussel city hall councillor Watersports centre of Voilco Fisher guide Equestrian farm of Saint-Setiers Mayor Manager of the TDC President of the tourist office of Sornac Manager of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Gérard Nussac Jean-Marie Roche Patrice Seuniac Georges Sully Paul Teullet IMAREL of Liginiac Manager of the rural gîtes structure President of the tourist office of Eygurande President of the tourist office of Bort Headmaster of the Forest High School of Meymac Jean-Pierre Valade President of the departmental committee of hiking 171 . direction of local development.Appendix 13 List of people that participated to the tourism commission for the redaction of the Pays’ Charter NAME Valérie Bordes Isabelle Bistos Jacques Champy TITLE Conseil Général.
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