Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5

2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica

2010 Haiti earthquake
On Tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 21:53:10 UTC a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti at a depth of 8.1 miles. The epicenter was located 15 miles WSW of Port-AuPrince. Since then there have been 59 aftershocks so far. A number of these were rather strong aftershocks. The aftershocks have ranged from 4.2 to 5.9 magnitude in strength. The 2010 Haiti earthquake (Haitian Creole: Tranblemanntè 2010 nan pe Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicentre near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km (16 miles) west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital. The earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time (21:53 UTC) on Tuesday, 12 January 2010. By 24 January, at least 52 aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater had been recorded. An estimated three million people were affected by the quake; the Haitian Government reported that an estimated 230,000 people had died, 300,000 had been injured and 1,000,000 made homeless.They also estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged. The earthquake caused major damage to Port-au-Prince, Jacmel and other settlements in the region. Many notable landmark buildings were significantly damaged or destroyed, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly building, the Port-au-Prince Cathedral, and the main jail. Among those killed were Archbishop of Port-au-Prince Joseph Serge Miot, and opposition leader Micha Gaillard.The headquarters of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), located in the capital, collapsed, killing many, including the Mission's Chief, Hédi Annabi. Many countries responded to appeals for humanitarian aid, pledging funds and dispatching rescue and medical teams, engineers and support personnel. Communication systems, air, land, and sea transport facilities, hospitals, and electrical networks had been damaged by the earthquake, which hampered rescue and aid efforts; confusion over who was in charge, air traffic congestion, and problems with prioritisation of flights further complicated early relief work. Port-au-Prince's morgues were quickly overwhelmed with many tens of thousands of bodies having to be buried in mass graves. As rescues tailed off, supplies, medical care and sanitation became priorities. Delays in aid distribution led to angry appeals from aid workers and survivors, and some looting and sporadic violence being observed. On 22 January the United Nations noted that the emergency phase of the relief operation was drawing to a close, and on the following day the Haitian government officially called off the search for survivors.

Background
The island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic, is seismically active and has a history of destructive earthquakes. During Haiti's time as a French colony, earthquakes were recorded by French historian Moreau de Saint-Méry (1750–

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and the Sans-Souci Palace were destroyed during an earthquake on 7 May 1842. he also wrote that the "whole city collapsed" in the 1770 Port-au-Prince earthquake.790 people and injured many others.0 earthquake struck the Dominican Republic and shook Haiti on 4 August 1946. The Australian government's travel advisory site had previously expressed concerns that Haitian emergency services would be unable to cope in the event of a major disaster. and is ranked 149th of 182 countries on the Human Development Index. and the country is considered "economically vulnerable" by the Food and Agriculture Organization.It is no stranger to natural disasters. writing that "only one masonry building had not collapsed" in Port-au-Prince. it has been struck frequently by cyclones. in addition to earthquakes. other towns in the north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. He described damage done by an earthquake in 1751. A magnitude 8. causing nearly 800 deaths. Cap-Haïtien. Hanna and Ike. which have caused flooding and widespread damage. producing a tsunami that killed 1. Geology USGS intensity map Map showing regional tectonic setting of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone 2 . all in the summer of 2008.Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica 1819). The most recent cyclones to hit the island prior to the earthquake were Tropical Storm Fay and Hurricanes Gustav. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.

Strong shaking associated with intensity IX on the Modified Mercalli scale (MM) was recorded in Portau-Prince and its suburbs. Venezuela (MM II in Caracas). similar in size to the 1692 Jamaica earthquake. which had been locked for 250 years.Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica Tiny dots of white against the plant-covered landscape (red in this image) are possible landslides. It was also felt in several surrounding countries and regions. a common occurrence in mountainous terrain after large earthquakes. A 2007 earthquake hazard study by C.0 Mw earthquake occurred inland. a range that can cause moderate to very heavy damage even to earthquakeresistant structures.79 in) per year in relation to the North American plate. The Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone runs along the two linear valleys at the top of the image The magnitude 7. Jamaica (MM II in Kingston).9 ft). gathering stress.1 mi) on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system. approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) WSW from Port-au-Prince at a depth of 13 kilometres (8. Preliminary analysis of the slip distribution found amplitudes of up to about 4 metres (13 ft) using ground motion records from all over the world. The quake occurred in the vicinity of the northern boundary where the Caribbean tectonic plate shifts eastwards by about 20 millimetres (0. DeMets and M. approximately 3. including Cuba (MM III in Guantánamo). on 12 January 2010 at 16:53 UTC-5. The rupture was roughly 65 kilometres (40 mi) long with mean slip of 1. Puerto Rico (MM II–III in San Juan). and the bordering Dominican Republic (MM III in Santo Domingo).5 million people lived in the area that experienced shaking intensity of MM VII to X. According to estimates from the USGS.8 metres (5.2 Mw earthquake. the Septentrional-Oriente fault in the north and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault in the south. Paul Mann and a group including the 2006 study team 3 . The strike-slip fault system in the region has two branches in Haiti. Wiggins-Grandison noted that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone could be at the end of its seismic cycle and concluded that a worst-case forecast would involve a 7. both its location and focal mechanism suggest that the January 2010 quake was caused by a rupture of the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault.

suggest that there has been a sequence of quakes progressing westwards along the fault. measuring magnitude 5. and on January 24 USGS reported that there had been 52 aftershocks measuring 4. with magnitudes between 4. data from USGS The United States Geological Survey (USGS) recorded eight aftershocks in the two hours after the main earthquake. An article published in Haiti's Le Matin newspaper in September 2008 cited comments by geologist Patrick Charles to the effect that there was a high risk of major seismic activity in Port-au-Prince. Tsunami The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning immediately after the initial quake. struck Haiti.0. the team recommended "high priority" historical geologic rupture studies. USGS reported its epicentre was about 56 kilometres (35 miles) WSW of Port-au-Prince. although not precise. Nearly two weeks later it was reported that the 4 .There are concerns that the 12 January earthquake could be the beginning of a new long-term sequence: "the whole region is fearful". Within the first nine hours 32 aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 or greater since the January 12 quake. which would place it almost exactly under the coastal town of Petit-Goâve.Workers from the charity Save the Children reported hearing "already weakened structures collapsing" in Port-au-Prince.Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica presented a hazard assessment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system to the 18th Caribbean Geologic Conference in March 2008. 12 of which measured magnitude 5.9 Mw.According to staff of the International Committee of the Red Cross. who had reached Petit-Goâve for the first time the day before the aftershock. but quickly cancelled it. as the fault was fully locked and had recorded few earthquakes in the preceding 40 years. Further casualties are thought to have been minimal since people had been sleeping in the open. and was suffering the same shortages of supplies and medical care as the capital. Aftershocks History of the main shock and aftershocks with magnitudes larger than 4. starting with an earthquake in the Dominican Republic in 1751.2 or greater were recorded. On 20 January at 06:03 local time (11:03 UTC) the strongest aftershock since the earthquake. the town was estimated to have lost 15% of its buildings.0 or greater. historical accounts.3 and 5.9. A UN representative reported that the aftershock collapsed seven buildings in the town. but most sources reported no further significant damage to infrastructure in the city. noting the large strain.

At least three people were swept out to sea by the wave and were reported dead. This included all hospitals in the capital. probably as a result of an underwater slide. air. and land transport facilities. remained operational. in the northern part of Haiti. crashing ashore and sweeping boats and debris into the ocean. causing one to collapse completely. and communication systems. The quake affected the three Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) medical facilities around Port-au-Prince. and this was later confirmed by researchers. Damaged buildings in Jacmel The quake seriously damaged the control tower at Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport and the Port-au-Prince seaport. Michel District Hospital in the southern town of Jacmel which was the largest referral hospital in south-east Haiti. also collapsed. a wealthy suburb of Port-au-Prince. The Gonaïves seaport. Damage to infrastructure Damaged buildings in Port-au-Prince Essential services Amongst the widespread devastation and damage throughout Port-au-Prince and elsewhere. vital infrastructure necessary to respond to the disaster was severely damaged or destroyed. Witnesses told reporters that the sea first retreated and a "very big wave" followed rapidly. sea. 5 . as did the St. A hospital in Pétionville. which rendered the harbour unusable for immediate rescue operations.Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica beach of the small fishing town of Petit Paradis was hit by a localised tsunami wave shortly after the earthquake.

000 inmates to escape. I can only think that their priority must be somewhere else. hampering delivery of aid to Jacmel. the Supreme Court and Port-au-Prince Cathedral. According to Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF)..The National Palace was severely damaged. allowing around 4.000 residences and 30. though President René Préval and his wife Elisabeth Delatour Préval escaped injury. Many government and public buildings were damaged or destroyed including the Palace of Justice.They promise rapid response.Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica Roads were blocked with road debris or the surfaces broken. I don't know why it hasn't been done. The Prison Civile de Port-au-Prince was also destroyed. General infrastructure Large portions of the National Palace collapsed In February 2010 Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive estimated that 250. Fibre-optic connectivity was also disrupted. close to the earthquake epicentre 6 . Léogâne. Digicel and Comcel Haiti both reported that their services had been affected by the earthquake. When asked why the road had not been opened..000 commercial buildings were severely damaged and needed to be demolished. most of the radio stations went off the air and only 20 of the 50 stations in Portau-Prince were back on air a week after the earthquake. head of the south-east division of the UN World Food Programme said that "We ask the same questions to the people in charge." There was considerable damage to communications infrastructure. the National Assembly. The public telephone system was not available and two of Haiti's largest cellular telephone providers. To be honest. The main road linking Portau-Prince with Jacmel remained blocked ten days after the earthquake. The deputy mayor of Léogâne reported that 90% of the town's buildings had been destroyed. Hazem el-Zein.

The building housing the offices of Citibank in Port-au-Prince collapsed. Centre d'Art.9 magnitude aftershock that did little damage."Port-au-Prince had no municipal petrol reserves and few city officials had working mobile phones before the earthquake. The water level is low as of mid-February. including the City Hall. and museums and art galleries were extensively damaged. which accounts for two-thirds of Haiti's exports. but the dam is likely to collapse during the rainy season which would flood Grand-Goâve. complicating communications and transportation. 61 reported dead and 180 people unaccounted for.000 have died as a result of this sad incident.000. • • • • • • • • • The USGS says this was the strongest earthquake to hit the area that is now known as Haiti since 1770.000 people are in need of emergency aid. Minister of Education Joel Jean-Pierre stated that the education system had "totally collapsed".5. sagging grotesquely to the left.Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica Most of Port-au-Prince's municipal buildings were destroyed or heavily damaged. reported structural damage at manufacturing facilities. The clothing industry. 7 . The Haitian art world suffered great losses.000 people have been left homeless.000. 2010 . January 20. 3. artworks were destroyed.) Porte-au-Prince's population is 2. mostly Haitian national staff according to UN numbers. (It is my opinion this number is way too low.000. The quake created a landslide dam on the Rivière de Grand Goâve. See below for a more recent update to the facts. College Saint Pierre and Holy Trinity Cathedral. About half the nation's schools and the three main universities in Port-auPrince were affected. which was described by the Washington Post as. The earthquake also destroyed a nursing school in the capital and severely damaged the country’s primary midwifery school. killing five employees. 1/21/10 2. among them Port-au-Prince's main art museum. a dozen kilometres downstream. The headquarters of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) at Christopher Hotel and offices of the World Bank were destroyed. $195 million dollars in aid has been received so far with another $112 million dollars pledged according to one report. Haiti Earthquake Facts These Haiti Earthquake Facts were compiled shortly after the earthquake. "a skeletal hulk of concrete and stucco.000 The Haitian government estimates 200. Another states that $575 million has been collected via agencies like the World Food Program and UNICEF.

The USAID's Office of Food for Peace contribution amounts to $68 million. Haiti's population is about 9 million people. UN allocated $40 million for cash for work programs to employ Haitians to help clear away all the rubble. USAID Dominican Republic health related assistance totals $1 million.S.400 tons of food and supplies and 1. Of Haiti's 14 airports only 4 have runways that are paved. 2 doctors and 2 nurses. government has so far given $171 million in humanitarian aid to the Haiti earthquake relief efforts as of 1/21/10. 38.000 people believed to have been effected by this quake. On January the 19th 165. 14.3 million to relief efforts. Haiti is the poorest Western Hemisphere country.000 liters of bulk water were distributed.000 peace keepers in Haiti with another 3.880 bottles of water have been distributed by the U. Meals Ready to Eat. Ireland: Digicel. 6 sniffer dogs. Port-au-Prince is the capital of Haiti. As of January 20th the US military has 2. 3 million meals have been delivered to 200. infrastructure damage experts and search and resue dogs aid. Of those 38 were US support flights.S. 8 . an Irish telecommunications company. So far there are 4 food and water distribution hubs. Haiti is about the same size as Maryland.000 people Mexico plans to send doctors.000 people.000. Spain has pledged $4. The US has flown 136 air missions bringing 2. Water tanks are being built in different parts of the city.000 troops on the ground assisting now with another 2. or 62. The Netherlands will provide $2.500 personal are afloat standing by nearby.900 passengers into Haiti.000 airborne personal on the way there. An additional 9.9 million.500 to be sent there soon.Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 • • • • • • • • 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The U. This is far short of the 3.5 tons of water. France Has committed 65 clearing specialists. is donating $5 million directly to relief agencies providing aid in Haiti.500 MRE's.000 bottles of water and 152. Coast Guard to date. Italy is in the process of sending a C-130 cargo plane that is equipped with a emergency medical personal and a mobile field hospital. they will also send specialists to assist in repairing damaged phone networks. The USAID's Office of U. 9.S.000 liters of water are scheduled to be air dropped via C-17 on January the 21st. These 4 hubs distribute the supplies to 190 distribution points that reach 96. China will help out with $1 million. and 15.000 gallons of drinkable water per day. The US Navy's Nimitz class USS Carl Vinson is producing 100. The Toussaint L’Ouverture International Airport is open 24/7 with 153 flights scheduled for January 21st. Foreign Disaster Assistance share is $82 million. Since the company is a prominent cell-phone company in the Caribbean.

Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 Earthquake pictures 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica Aerial satellite view of the damaged buildings in Haiti 9 .

Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica 10 .

Leric Alexandru Lucian An 5 2010 Haiti earthquake Arhitectura antiseismica 11 .

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