ii

DISTRIBurtION_

Infantry and. RA.

All aims,less--infUtry and R.A.

Infantry and R.A. O.C.T.Us. ... .' ...

All O.eT.Us .• less Infa.D.~ and RA. •

All infantry and RA. training establishments' and ~bools.:. , 'All training esta~lishments and schools, less infantry and R.A.

\

.....

..1

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CONTENTS

SEC.

1.-2 em. (·7,9 in.) A.A/A.Tk. gun (2 em. Flak. 30)

II.-2 em. (·79 In.) A.AIA.Tk. gun (2 em. F1ak 38)

IIl.-2 ail. (.79.in.) four-barrelled A.AjA.Tk gun (2 em. Flakvierling 38")

I:V.-;-2·8 e~.{l-10in.) A.Tk., gun model 41 (Pz. B.41) •

V.-3·7 cip. (1-45 in.) A.Tk. gun {S;7 em. Pak) .. ~

VI.-'4·7' em: (1·85 in .. ) sel~ropelled A.Tk. gun (4·7 em. Pak (t) 'SU)

VII.-5 em. (1:97 ln.) A.Tk. gun (5 em, Pak 38) . '"

Appendix A.~rouiad range table jor 2 em. Ra.k 30

. Appendix B.-High angle trajectory chart for 2 em, Flak 30 _

" .' ~

.,.

"._." r

"

Scale B . ,Scale A .

Scale II - •.•. Scale I

Scale B 'Scale A

PACE
... I
". 24
- .. 33
~
... 41
... ... 53
... ~ as
"
.. ~ .. .. .. " ... 71

... 86
r ... "tt4 87" 84

The following are notes on the emergency drill to be employed by British, troops :i. To Operi the breech (by band)

Recock the firing 'mechanism by turning the safety lever to SAFE (8iCher) and brii:J.ging i.t bad

again. _ '

Tum L.B.M. clockwise.; the bJeech will then be held in the open' position by theextracto1's.. ii, To load

Load sma.rtly as with any fixed ammunition. The round will release the extractors and the breech will close automatically.

ill; To fire

Press the push button i..a the middle of the elevating handwheel. If thi8 faila, pull the ~ lever forward or li,ft the plunger.

iv. Seml~automatic action ,

Press in the plunger in the centro of the front end of spring case and turn it ISO that the "'OfG " EIN" shows upwards,

The gun is always recooked automatically during recoil. When the plunger is HI; in the _bow pomtion the breech is opened au~tically during run 'out. The breech, is ready to cre.

automaticall~ when a round is slammed 1:0. '

v. To open the trails

Push to the right the cradle clamp which fixes thegnn in the fWly elevatedptaition.

. The trails being fully open, the weight of the gun is' taken off the road springs and Ii catch on

, eacb. side locks the ttailsin the open ,position. '. '

vi SllJ,hts

Range is indicated by two rows of graduations in hundreds of metres on an aluminium drum • .. P.Z." for A.P. shell (painted black)----graduation black up to 2400 m.

" Spr." for H,E. shell (painted green}-graduation red up to 1400 m.

85

U the telescoPe is~. an "emergency opell sight, held by a lanyard on the right of· the sight

bracket, can be fitted. " "

. Minimum def:acbm~t requUed ;-

1 deta.cl:lment commander.

1 layer.

1 loader.

1 ammunitioIi nll~ber.

The Germans use one more 8l:DIJ).unition number. PntticaI· rate of fire :-10-15 r;p.m. lot short periods.

:".- _._" ""~""

,.JIIlIIIIIa.... .. __

--- . --~ ... -~ ~-

- --_._ ----- ~ .~~-

,~-

APIJ:eNPIX. ,A. _. .

'"

GROUND RANGE TABLE FOR 2 CIn. FLAK 30 ~uUNG - A..P. SHELL Muzzle velocity' -= 2,625 ft,/sec.

Jump =3/18° in elevation,

1/16° in bearing (to left) .

Angle of .. Range'~ - He;,gli"t of" - Tiiitebf .. -Remtuning
Range Q.E. descent -Vertex Vertex flight velocity i
(yards) (degrees) (degkes) (yards) ! (feet) (secs.) (ft. fse<:, )
I ; _ ..
110 -2/16 1/16 $5 I 0·07 I 0·12 2,470
220 i -2/16 2/16 112 ' ,26 0·26 ~,315
330 , -1/16 3/16 168 '00 0·40 2,160
440, I- 0 4/16 229 1,21 0·55 z.oto
550 1/16 5/16 - 288 2·OQ 0·71 t,8S0
680 2/16 7j16 352 3'05 0·89 1,745
770 3/16 8/16 416- 4'46 1-08 1,625
880 4/16 11/16 480 I 6·27 1,28 1,520
'990 6/16 13/16 545 S·5() 1-49 1,415
1100 7/16 1 612 I' 11·58 1-72 1,320
I
.
.~- .- APPENDIX B.

-
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t/ ....,- -
f "'_ .... .I, '-,,£, X, ~ ....- I I \
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Printed uuder the AU~ HIS MAJESTY'S stATIONERY OFFICE

by KelIhet, . &; Keam" Ltd., LoDdDD, 5.8.1.

(177~). G.966 35,000 1%/42 K,H;K. a .... /'

ENEMY WEAPONS

PART, ID.-GERMAN LIGHT ANTI.AIRCRAFT AND ANTI·TANK GUNS 1.-2 CM. (,79 in.) A.A.jA.TK. GUN (2 CM. FLAK 30). (Se, FiQ8. 1-5)

1. General

The 2 em, Flak 30 was introduced into the Gennan Navy in 1930 and into the German Air Force in 1935. It has been the main armament of light A.A. units throughout the war, and has also been used against A.F.Vs .. M.T., M.G. posts, etc.

The gun is fed by a fiat box-magazine and is recoil-operated. It has a detachable barrel and is provided ,with automatic and single shot mechanism. The trigger mechanism is pedal-actuated.

Sights used are either the Flakvisier 35 or the Litlealvisier 21. , ,

The gun may be mounted on road or railway vehicles. Itis normally transported on & singleaxle trailer whiCh can be M,T., horse- or man-drawn. The gun and its mounting may also be split into loads for transport over rough country. The weapon is normally fued with its mounting on the ground and with the trailer removed. It can, however, be fired from the trailer at both ground and aerial targets in an emergency, rough traverse being obtained by moving the trailer. ' '

A range table for use against ground targets is at Appendix: A. and a high angle trajectory chart

is at Appendix B. •

2. Data

i.Gen.,era!

Muzzle velocity (H.E.) : 2,950 f.s. , (A.P.) : 2.625 Ls,

(A.PAO) : 3;270 f.s. .

Maximum horizontal range: 5,230 yards,

· ......... -~ .. _ ~ _-~.~-.

2

Maximum vertical range: 12,100 It, Cyclic rate of fire: 280 r-p.m. Practical rate of fire : 120 r.p.m, Weight in action: 9. cwt.

Weigot in draught: 15 cwt,

Weight of barrel: 40 lb.

Weight of piece; 141 lb.

Length of barrel: 51·2 ins. (65 cals.). Length of rifting: 45·6 ins. (57·97 cals.], Recoil 01 barrel: 1·38-1·77 ins. Elevation: -12 degrees to +90 degrees.

Traverse: 360 degrees (approx. 40 degrees on wheels]. Cooling.: Frequent barrel change.

ii. Operational llniitatlons with FlRk.visier 35 Target speed : 16 m.p.h. to 270 m.p.h.

Range (A .A. fire) : 980 ft. to 6,560 ft.

Range (land and.sea targets) : 0 to 2,950 yards. Maximum target angle of dive: 60 degrees.

Ma .. dmurn angle of climb : 20 degrees,

Elevation : -12 degrees to +90 degrees. Lateral spotting corrections: 4t degrees. Vertical spotting corrections : ± U degrees.

iii. Limltatfons with LiDealvisier 21 Target speed: 24 m.p.h, to 335 m.p.h. Range (A.A. fire) : 330 ft. to 5,40U ft.

Range (land and sea targets) : 110 yards to 1,750 yards. Target angle of dive or climb: ,No limits.

..' .

3

iv, Ammunition

Weight of Length of Weight of .
Type oomplete eomplete Fuze pro. Idontiiic .. tioll
round rcuud jeotile
H.E.Tmc .... 10'7 oz. 7·98 in. A.Z. 1'i04ll ...·loz, Annul\18 blaok •. Projectile yellow.
(Self destroying) aluutinium D.A. May have white be.rid.
H.E. Tra.oer (Ielf 10·6 oz. '·92 in. I " 4,·11 011<. Annulus ble.ok. P1'Oj eotile yellow.
I A.Z -, I'iO""
deatro' ) , .;"luminium :p.A.
Stre""'YJi;!' eO.
H.E. Inoendiary Trncer 10'!4, o~ .. 7·05 in. .'\.Z. 50411 ,.jQll.. -"nn rllus black, Pi-ojeotlle yellow
(1!9lf delltr"ying) ~lumhlium.D.A. with. ~IBOk bend.
Streamlined. ' 11·3 oz.
A.p. Tra.cer Shell I Sin. None 1'i·2 oz. Arinrllu8 bleak, projeotil& blMk W'ith
(SulphUl' tilli';lg) , I yellow band, • 0" I tenoille d ill
I white sbcvs yellow band.'
A.P. lnoendie.:ry Trllcer 1l·3or., I, 8 in. ·None 5·2 oz. Annulus snd .projecl.ile blaGk, yellow
, Shell i band above driving band, '.' Ph"
(Phosphorue ,filling) . stenoilled in white above yellow
I band. ..
A.P.'.rraoef Shell 1!·30z. ·8in. None 5,2 "z. Annulus Bnd projectile bIa.ok witl!
(Sulphur :8lling) for yellow band. Pointohhell sp1'Byed
ra.nging On moving with red enamel for 10 mm;
target •• (TiI'&CB ehangee
,. 'from sr-u to lid) , 7'~ in. None ~·6 QU. Unpainted aluminium' body and
A;P.4,(I 9·8 lIZ.
Tracerdlot ariinted noa,,; . red band .above
vilIg b&n4;' varniahed hlMk
" below,
A..P. (Oil) n-a oz. Bill. None 5,2 oz. ContaJns ~vity filled with ::oily
.- TI,I.oer abell . matw,ial.. - NO'l'll.-Tropicalloading on tbe IIboveroundB is indioa.t"d by 8. 2 mUl.'ze~ band above the driviJlg hand,

v. Penetration of bomo~eneoua armour (II) Firing A.P. shell

Rllngt

(yllrds)

100

200

300.

400

(b) Firing A.PAO shot RIMI8' (yMds)

100 200 300 400

Tllic/ttUSS of llmaour in ,"m.

300

31 (1·22 ins.) 29 (1-14 ins.) '1:l (I 0()6 ins.) 25 ( ·98 ins.)

NOf'1HtU 48 (1·89 ins.) 44 (1·73 ins.) 41 (1061 ins.) 38 (1·50 ins.)

Thick'lllSs of MmOU,. ":"mm.

30"

49 (1'93 ins.] 45 (1'77 ins.) 41 (1'61 ins.) 37 (H6 ins.)

3. Tbe lion

Nomud 57 (2·24 ins.) 52 (2'05 ins.) 48 (1'89 ins.) 43 (1·69 ina.)

I, Movlnli parts

Ca) TIJ& 00",1 slides in the body with the barrel extension. It is assembled to-the extension by an interrupted thread and is secured radially by a catch housed in the barrel extension. A combined muzue brake and flash eliminator ill screwed to the muzzle and retained by & catch.

(b) Th, bantu "tension is slotted on the right and left sides for ejection and feed respectively.

At the rear it is open at the top for the passage of the a.ccelerator lug on the breech block, and at the bottom to accommodate the locking piece and its catch. A lug is provided on the .top to actuate theacceJerator; a recess beneath receives the barrel returnspring sleeve stud. A spring ejector is hcused on the left side.

i - I

!

5

"FIG. 1.-2 ClI. ('79 IN.) A.A./A.rK. GUN (2CM. FLAK 30) (READY FOR TRANSPORT)

I

I' I

i i

, '

II

_ ,

i

I'

............. -~ ..

a

(c) Th4 lweec" blOf;k bas a lug on the top for accelerator contact aud cocking action. It hoUlM!!S the breech face, firing pin and lever, and extractor. The front is recessed for the cartridge base, and the rear end has a projection underneath, which forms II. locking shoulder at the rear and a. bent for the sear at the front,

ii. Stationary parts

(ti) T/16 body is fonned to receive the barrel extension, and has a. pair of trunnion holes towards the front. A magazine housing is provided on the left, and the right side is ~lotted for ejection. The locking cam and hammer lug shoulder is situated in a recess below the breech block way,

The batrel return spring, buffer spring. buffer, rod and sleeve are housed in a casing secured to the body at the rear, . The accelerator is pivoted on top and the rear is closed by the hinged body extension. The magazine catch, breech catch, and breech catch lever are housed at the back of the magaziue opening.

(b) T/16 body covel' is hinged to the body at the front and secured by a catch at the rear. It houses the return spring, sleeve and guide. The COCking handle slides in a groove on the right side.

(c) T/16 body u~ is hinged neat the rear end of the body and is secured by a rotatable transverse ,pin. Traversing handles on each side form II. pivot, for II. rotary trigger, which carries the sear and safety mechanism, providing automatic and single shot 'fire. The safety catch and breech block buffer are situated at the rear, and the unlocking cam at the front.

(d) T/I6_ maga.ri?UI is of the Bat·box type and holds twenty rounds in two staggered rows.

4. Action of the meebantam

i, Preparation for firinll

PuU the cOcking handle amartly to 'the rear and return the bandle to the forward position. The breech block'will DOWbe retained in the rear position by the breech catch.

Fit & full maguine. Tbis disengages the breech catch and allows the breech block to travel fonva,r4 slightly until it is retained by the sear.

7

ii. Automatic fire

_ (a) Forward travel of tJ" bruch block.-On operating the left trigger, the trigger stud withdraws the Seat from its bent on the breech block. The breech block return spring then reacts and drives the breech block forward, the latter forcing a round Qut of the magazine into the chamber and also

returning the accelerator to its forward position. .

(b) Forwewd movemem of 1M ba1'rel and lwll(;h lo&king.-The sear bent on the breech block releases the locking piece catch, and the extractor engages the rim of the cartridge in the chamber. Tbe barrel return spring then reacts and the breech block, barrel extension and ba.rreJ. travel forward

together. ._

:outing this peri.odthe locking piece rides up the locking cam, and -engages the locking face on

the breech block, 80 lockfug the breech. .

(c) ComPlItion of fOl'WfJI'd mOl!~ment and firitlg.,-During the closing stages of the forward movement, the firing pin lever is released and the hammer is rotated by contact .with a stop in the body, so driving the tiring pin forward and striking the cap. At this moment the forwa.rd movement is terminated by the barrel extension abutting on its stop in the body.

(d) Reaf'WM'd t1'avel of ,~ bawd, ba,.,el .utmsSmt aM brU&hblodl.-On reooil taking place, the above are driven to the rear compressing the breech block return spring. After travelling approximately 1 in., the rear end of the locking piece rides up a cam on the body extension, so rotating the locking piece and unlocking the breech.

The accelerator, actuated by the barrel extension, drives the breech block to the rear, the firing pin is withdrawn by its lever, the hammer has dropped into its rec~s in the 1ocking.piece and the locking piece is retained in the unlocked position by the locking piece catch. Rearward travel of the batreJ. and barrel extension is then terminated by barrel. buffer action; they are then retained by engagement of the locking piece with its catch..

(&I) Es .. ~tUm and 6jut'on.-The breech block continues to travel to the rear. extracting and ejecting the expended case. Rearward travel nf the breech block is then terminated by full com-

...... ..:....:._.:.J.A .••• b._' ..... ,_~·_~ __ M' ...... +"""", ...... __ ' ... @H_''#?_.et'''', ... _..,-

FIG. 2.-2 ell.

1. Sub Mounting.

2. Carriage Body. S. Cradle.

12. Elevation Arm.

('79 IN.) A.A./A.Tx. GUN (2 CU. !<l.AK: 30) MOUNTING

4. Elevation Hand Wheel. 8. Firing Pedal (Single) •.

5. 'traversing Hand Wheel. 10. Layer's Seat,

6. '~lipper. 11. Flakvisier.

15. Travelling Clamp.

,. ;

13

r. Sub Mounting:

2. Carriage Body.

3. Cradle.

4. Elevation Hand Wheel.

5. Traversing Hand Wheel.

FIG. 3.-2 ex,

6. Slipper. 12. Elevation Arm.

7. Compensator. 13. Sight Bracket Arm.

9. FirlDg Pedal (Automatic). 14. Transmission (Carriage to Sight).

10. Layer'sSeat. IS, Travelling Clamp.

II. Flakvisier. 16. Compensator Lock.

('79 IN.) A.A/A.TK. GUN (2 eM. FLAK 30) M~tlNT1NG

JO

preasiol1 of its return spring and abutment on the butler.in the bOdy extension. This' completes the cycle of action and if tho trigger is still held, the gun will continue to fire until tho maguine is, empty.

(/) Empty fflGj'a.ntll.-Wb.entho magazine is empty, a stud on tho magazine platf~ d!lPresses tho magazine catch and releases the magazine. The breech catch then travels across the path of the breech block and retains the latter in the rear position.

(g) Cuu, fin b'fot" m"lafl'" is empty.-On releasing the trigger, the sear rises and retai.nsthe breech block in the rear position. Firing then ceases with the breech open.

ill. Slnllle abot fire

On operation of the right trigger, the trigger stud rotatea the sear, withdra.wing the sear from the

- breech block bent and releasing tho breech block. ,

On further movement of the trigger, cam action withdraws the stud from the sear which risesaga.in under the in1luence of its spring, ready to retain the b:reecb.block on its return to the rear position. On releasing the trigger, the latter returns ldlder spring action, and the trigger stud ~ the sear, ready for sear release when the trigger is again rotated.

IS. Strtppbll1 and a .. embUna tor cIeanblll and inspection i, To 8trfp the tun

Ensuro that the breech is closed.

To ~ t1u barrm.-Ra.ise the barrel catch clear of tho retaining .groove, TUrn the barrel to the left until the stop face contacts the barrel catch. Withdraw the barrel from the body.

To "1fMH the lweu4 bJoek.--Remove the front securing pin of the barrel return spring uDit on the bottom of the gun. and lever out of position with a screwdriver; the unit will now disengage from the barrel extension. Depress the body cover catch stop, push forward the body cover catch, a.nd raise the body cover until it rests on the body.

Grasp the accelerator and pu11tho breech block to the rear until the locking ~ is depressed

If

and retained by its catch. Turn the body extension loclQng .lever down to the unlocked position, swing the body extension downwards 90 degrees, and remove the breech block from the body.

To remOlle the firing pin from ,th8 breech block.-Remcive the firing pin lever axiS pin and Dring

pin lever. ' Withdraw the firing pin. ' .

To remove ihe bYeech faa ft'()m the f>r88C]~ blo.:k.-P1ace a screwdriver under the claw of the extractor, and lever the extractor out of the breech block. Rotate the breech face and lift out.

To remove the bcwrel M'tsnsiQII.-Lift out the accelerator. Hold the breech-catch fully out, an4 withdraw the barrel extension from the body.

To remove the Much block return. spring, guirk a'nd sleeve.-Supporl' the breech block return spring guide. depress the breech block return spring guide catch, and ease out the guide, spring, and sleeve.

ii, Aseernble in reverse order noting that :-

(a) When replacing the barrel e .. xtension, it is necessary to hold the breechcatch out, to see that the safety arm is flush with the side of the extension and tllat the locking piece is correctly -

positioned. . . .

(b) When replacing the. barrel return spring unit, it is necessary to slamit into engagement,

owing to the initial compression of the springs.. -

Further stripping is unnecessary for cleaning, and in any case should only be undertaken by a. qualified person.

Note:-To avoid risk of personal injqry, special care should be taken to prevent the body cover from , falling from the raised ,position.

6. Prepara.tion for firln~

See that the gun is normally lubricated and the bore of the barrel dry. i, Noter The gun fires when the breech closes

,&-t the safety catch lever to " F" (FIRE). Pull tile cOcking handle 'smartly to 'the rear until

12 '

the breech block is retained by the breech catch; return the cocking handle to the forward position, Insert a filled magazine into its recess in the left side of the body, where it will be retained by the magazine catch, The breech catcb is now released and the' breech block is retained by the sear,

" Set the safety catch lever to " S" (SAFE),

Single rounds can be fired by rotating the right trigger. For automatic :fire rotate the left trigger. During continuous fire, the barrel must be changed after 6 magasines (120 rounds). If possible, it should be changed afterSO-lOO rounds.

ii. To unload

Set the safety catch Tever to ... s. " ,

Push the magazine catch lever to the right and remove the magazine.

, Ensure that the, chamber is empty. ' ,

iii. Notes

(a) AlwaYs set the gun to SAFE when not act~ally firing. (The safety catch level" is at the

rear of the body extension.} ,

, '(b) If, when cocking; the barrel extension is not pulled far enough back for the unlocking ramp

to throw the locking piece into engagement with its catch, reaction of the barrel return spring will cause the locking piece to jam the breech block. This jam can be cleared by two men pulling the barrel slightly to the rear 8,Qd then 'allowing it to go forward.

It is ,imperative to keep cleat' of the lJu~z81e. ,

(c) If the breech is closed when the magazine is not assembled, pull the breech catch out of

engagement by hand., before releasing the sear. '

Special 71~te-no not on any.account push the breech block forward until tbechamber is clear.

" It i, eMier to reloue the breech netch, if another man Pulls the brech blook .lightly to the I1IEW' by m6&JlJl of the'

eoolcing handle~ and then retui'!l!l t,he eoe king handle to the fOl'ww:d posi tiOll, "

13

7. The carrlal&e

The carriap. which is of the trailer type; is highly mobile and can be oasily attached to any vehicle by a Bingle abaekle fixing. It consists of two sofJJ'ate uaits :-

i. The chassla

This is known as the Sonderanhlnger 51 (Trailer 5t) and bu. two rubber tyred wheels. A three-point anchorage takes tI:io monnting. It consists of tw3 aQcb~rs 'on the front of tbe chassis and _a, shackle pin attachment -at the rea.r. The tr lVeUinIJ st \y is folded at the back of the. main chas:siI structure. A Diagazine box holding one twenty-round magazine is fitted to tho right hand

wing. and a tool-box to the left. .

ii. The mountIDl&

This is a complete unit and is detached from the chassis as explained in para. 9, ii.

(al' Thl swb~unli"8' rests on three adjnstable feet, by whiCh the mounting CaD. be levelled.

A spirit level and an adjustable layer's seat-arol fitted. The tra.versln~ bandwbeel. is directly in front of thlllea.t. Traverse is 29 degrees 21 minutes per turn of the hand"heel.

(b) Tu crtIdU is mounted on two jouiuals forming the axia. The cradle is elevated and depressed by operating the handwheel on the right side of the cradle. - Elevation is 4 degrees 7 minutes per turn of the b.andwheol.

The compensators are spring.loaded and coilnected to the left and right of the cradle. Buffer houling, springs, slide, &Qd gun anchorages are fitted in the centre of the cradle. , Recoil is absorbod by buffer springs inside the cradle.

(a) M,Uw4 of firing.-The gun is fired by f60t~pedals. This leaves both the layer's hands free.

8. The alg,hts

The sights need with the 2 em. Flak: SO are the Flakvlsier 35 and Linealviaier 21. The successful use of both sights depends on the accurate provision of range., Each German detachment includes a

·,· .... ..:~dJhllj .... , •• ,;11

14,

range-taker equipped with a portable 1 metre base stereoscopic ra.nge·finder. Although it may be expedient to 'lise a forward area sight with captured equipments, short notes on the very effective

German sights are gi~ below. .... , _

(M)

(L)

I

[

·1

!

I

I'

L. Of' I:)IVE

(M)

FIG. 4.-F'LA1tvJstER. 35

15

,Flakvisler 315, (See Fia. ")

This sight is' of the re.B.ecting-mirror type with a data calculating mechanism. The refiector sight is illuminated by a battery in front of the layer's seat. A switch (combined dimmer) for lighting

, the sight is on the main briLcket to the leit of the layer .. The base of the computor (A) consists of a. 'rectangular block on which are two an-ow indlcators. This, block carries the bottom horizontal' dial (B) gi'aduated from Q to 6400 mils (0 degrees to 860, 'liegrees). One of the siae plates on the blat;k is sprung and when pressed releases a spring catch. By ~ this catch and turning the rectangular block the horizontal dial (B) is also turned. This action seta the sjght on the course of the target.

Near the arrow points are two knurled knobs (M) which, when pressed and turned, rotate the black arrows on the vertical dials te) situated above the base of the CQI.U'Ie indicator. These dials

correspond to the angle of dive or climb. . ' ,

Above the course dial is a dial (D) corresponding to range to ~rget. This is operated by turning

the handwheel (F) immediately below the ball and stirrup joint. "

Immediately above the range dial is another dial (G) with vari01l8 coloured marking.. These markings correspond to those shown in the correction box (H), and show the corrections to be made to T,E. at high angles of sight. The top dial la.rotated by twI? knurled knobs (K) and is Set to

target speed. , . " '.

Next to the correction box are two small rotatable scaleS used for corrections £rom cbservatioa

of tracer. during firing: They are also Used for ground shooting.' ' .

I mWtu:tiou for w_ .'

The layer should be put roughly on target a.t the start., If this is not done, COtrectiOllls will.

be altered when the gunis elevated.

Set all dials to zero. SetCOU1'$e of target. Set ,range.

Set target speed.

Set angle of dfve. , .

Note position of pointerin correction box. .

Set range to target to the mark corresponding to that shown in correction box,

~

16

ii. LtneaIvlaJer 21. (S18 Pi,. 5)

Thia is. a direct A.A. sight embodying course, speed. aDd range adjustment.

It consists of a. horizontal bar which is graduated 'from 100 to 1,600 metres. Range is set by turning a cylindrical hand nut (9) on the nmner of the cartwheel type foresight, thus in.cIeaaing the

lead as the tange is increased., .

The ring foresight (8)ia rotatable, enabling course of the tal'get to be set. A bar (12) showing speed from 11 to 150 !l1e1ns per second (15) is movably mounted on the foresight. This speed .bar can also be adjusted to the angle of dive or climb. 1he backsight (6) consi&ta of an aperture interspersed between two layers of non,:&pJintering gJassset at 4,5 de~ to the horizontal bar.

" The redector sight of the Fla.kvisier 35 must be removed before the Linealviaier can be assembled

3 FIa. 5.-J..mut.VJSlBJt 21

17

9. Detaduneat

The German detachment consis101l of;Detaclmlent commanqe.r.

No. I-Layer.

No.2-.Range-aetter.

No. ~urse-setter.

No. '-Loader.

No. s--aange-taker.

Two further men. if availa.ble, act as ammunition numbers.

The following are notes on the drill to be emplo~ by British troops !-

i. Detachment

Tho detachment will consist of .. detachment commander and sUe: men. The service at the

SUb-sectioD· is divided between them .. follows :- .

D.C. The detachment commander is in command of the sub-aection, and is responsible for the tactical control of the sub-section. and the selectioD ~d ideotiJicatiOD of targeta.

FtakvIaler 35,

1. Layer.

2. R.a.nge:-setter. .

3. Course-setter.

4. Loader.

S. Ammunition supply. 6. Ammunition IUPply.

ti.. To com. into action Detachment commander disIllouuta and places himsel1 where he ,.ansee when the gun is in the required position.

LInealvi8ier 21 Layer.

. R&nge-setter.

Coune setter. Loader. Ammunition supply. Ammunitionlupply.

18

Detachment commander :~

" HALT - ACTION."

The detachment dismounts. ,

l and 3 go to the engine draught connector, and disconnect the gun from the tractor. 3 orders

or signals " Drive o-n ". and the tractor moves 011 about five yards. "

l ensures tha.t the supporting leg- of ~ engine draught connector is hinged upwards aud

secured by the spring clip. .

l U)d 3 bear down on the engine draught connector DD.til the mOUI!-ting is resting OD the.grouDd. 1 removes the locking pin securing the mODD.ting to the chassis.·

l and 3; using the handles provided, steldy the mounting upward, allowing the chassis to be

lowered to the 'ground. . ,

The hooks of· the carriage' will DOW be free from. the eyes in the chassis, and. 2 aDd 3 wheel the carriage clear of the gun.

1 unlocks the travelling stay by withdrawing the locking pin. and secures it by SWing!Dg it

upwards till it is beld by the clip provid~.. ' • •

lunlocks the travelling clamp.

ill. To level

2 on the rigbt, 3 on the ieft. take post OD the front two levelling screws, They raise the. handles of the levelling screws and, under the direction of 1, who orders " 2 raise, 3 lower "{or tliC6 VIWSIJ). operate their handles \Ultil that axis is levelled. 3 then goes to the rear levelling bubble and, nnder the direction of I, he levels the other axis.

i v. Positions in' action

Detaclmient commander in a position in which he can best see the working of his detachment,

and. can, observe the fire. .

. • in the seat.

19

2 with Flal...-visier 35 on the lett of the mounting, facing the rangt knob; with Linealvisiet .21 on right of gun, facing range knob.

3 with F1akvisier.35 in left rear of 1 behind the sight mechanism; with Linealvisier 21 on the right of the gun. in rear of 2.

4 on tho lett of tbe gun. facing the magazine opening. 5 and 6 with the ammunition.

v, To load

Detachment commander:"LOAD".

• 1 sets the safety catch to " F" (FIRE). .

1 pulls the cockiDg handle $J1U#1ly to the rear until the breech b1o& is retained by the breech

catch; he returns the cocking handle to the forward position. .

4 inserts a full magazine into the magazine opening, ensuring that it is retained by the magazine

catch. '

1 sets the safety catch to " S .. (SAFE) and reports "Safe".

Notes.-

(a) if when cocking. the cocnng handle is not pulled fully to the rear, the breech block may jam abciut half way. If this occurs, 2 and 4 force the barrel smartly to the rear and

then release. - "

(b) Reloading in act:iOn.-Tbe gun remains cocked when the magazine empties; 4 therefore 'removes the empty maguine and inserts a fresh one.

vi. To fire

1 Bets the sa.tetY catch' to uF" (FIRE).

Automatic· .fire : 1 operates the left pedal.

Single shot: 1 operates the right peUJ..

. .

20

vii. To uuload

Detachment commander;-

.. UNLOA]) ".

1 seta the safety lever to .. S" (SAFE) and Teporta" Sa.fe~'.

" pushes the magazine lever to the rear and removes the maga dne.

1 examines the chamber to eee that the SUD is clear. .

To close the breech, " depreeses the .breech catch by hand, 1 sets the safetJ' ca.tch to .". F U and firM with either pedal.

1 seta the safety catch to " S" and reporta .. Safe".

vili. To change barre18

Detachment cemmander r-«

•• UNLOAD _' CHANGE BARRELS ".

The gun having been unloaded, .5 raises the barrel catch clear of the retaining groovet and

releues it as soon as the barIeI is turned. - .

.5 and 6 tum the barrel anti·clockwise until the' stop face on the buret COIDes against the bcntl

ca~ " ,

They withdraw the barrel from the body. , - , .

WheIl inserting. a new barrel. 5 sees that the arrow ("EINBA U ") on the banel :Ia pointing - towards the barrel catch.

When fully home, they rotate the burel until the catch engages. The detacbmeIlt commander orders .. Loa4 ",

Noltn.-

(II) The barrel should be changed after six maguines (120 ronda) have been :fired.

(b) When removing the barrel, care must be takeD to prevent injury to penormel if the barrel

is very hot. Old gloves or raga should be used. ' '_

21

. ix. PrOcedure on an aircraft tar!!~ beJn!! indicated Det~h~t commander s-«

" PLANE," and indicates the target to 1.

He orders speed in ,kilometres per ho~ (1 kUometTe ... ·62 miles). _ (a) With Flakvisier 85.'

2 sets in speed. .He sets in range according to his estimation of the range of the target and thereafter will alter range according to his observation of line of sight rounds. In the absence of line, of sight rounds, he keeps the range up to date by estimation.

4 inserts a ma:ga.zi.ne;

r switches 00. the - gratieufe light and lays on the 'target and reports " On". 3 matOhes the course of the target.

2 reports "Steady" when a.t! data have been ~. _

, Detachment commander orders "Engage ," when he has identi.fied the target as hostile.

1 fires when he estimates the target range has 'fallen to 3,O(){) metres, He lays by keeplng the target on the cross-hairs in t~e centre of the sight. Detachinent coinlnander ordersvertical or lateral corrections as necessary.

. These are set by 3.

(b) With Linealvisier 21.

, The procedure is the same as above, except that speed is applied, not by 2, but by 1; usIng 'the speed mark on the sight bar ordered by the detachment commander. He keeps this speed mark ordered, the baclt-sight a.nd the target continuously aligned, Corrections to bring round on to the line of sight are made by 3 observing. the tracer and altering the alignment of the

sight bar with. the aircritft.' . . . , ,

22

Notes..-

I. The rules for alteration of .range on observation of line of sight rounds are :-

ObunJali071 '

Aus ~

Hit Decrease

Minus Leave

PIus ' Leave-

Hit Increase

Minus IIlC1'e&Se

Range decreasing

..

,.

increasing

"

'"'

2. WithFlakvisi.er 35 the range drum is graduated in hundreds oJ metres from 0 to 27. ,

3. The vertical and !lodzontal correction drums on ~ Flakvisier 85 are graduated in mils, every' ' tenth graduation being numbered. 1 degree equals 20 mils (a.pprpx.). 45, ~ equal '

8(M)mila (exactly). "_ ,

4. With Linealvisier 21, 3 sets the foresight patalIel to the course of tho target and matches tile

cios&-bar with the fuselage of the aircraft to give the directioti. of aim-oif, '

'5. With LinealVmer 21, 2 by setting range moveS the foresight towaros or ,~\Vay irom tho backsigbt. The range scale is graduated from 100 to 1,600 metres.

x. Procedure for eniaa!n1l1 ground targets

The gun has little penetration beyond 200 yai-ds. but sustained :lire may cause sufficient cIa.ma8e to disable the tank. The engagement of hea.vy tanks should not be attempted except in self-defellce, . or in ctJDlbination with otber fire, Ordinary motor transport isvulnera.bleup to 1,500 ~ .

, Detachment commander;-

.. TANK" and indicates tho Target to'. 1 ..

He orders range in metres (a suitable range is 400, correcting by 'hro hundreds).

(a) With Flakvisier 35.

:z sets the range ordered on the range drum. D.C. orders lead in degrees.

1 sets the lead ordered in mils ($U para. ix, Note 3).

1 switches on the graticule light and lays on the target and reports D.C. orders ., Engage" when he has identified the target as hostile.

1 fires, '

(b) With Linealvisier 21 •

. 1. Using the open sight, which is the more practical for use against land targets.

1: sets the index to "ERDE" and then, sets the ronge ordered by means of the range

knob., ,

D.C. orders lead in lengths of ta.nks, e.g., " Right one ~ .. . ,

. 1 layS on the target and reports " On ". and flres when he has received the order

.. Engage" from the D.C.

2. Using the ~t.

2 sets range as in 1.

3 sets, the foresight parallel to the course of the target, and matches the cross-bar with

the djrection of travel of the target. '

D.C. orders speed in metres per second. (See note OO1ow) ,

1 lays with the centre of the backsight, the speed-mark Qnfered on tht cross-bar, and

the target in line, and reports .. On ", '

I fires .when he has received the order " Engage ,i from the D.C.

Note.-Tlie first speed ruarkfrom the centre is marked 11 metres per second, which 'corresponds to 24 m.p.h.

" Oil".

·, .... ~.'~'1''#'_~''

o.!".!.. .

... ).~

"

< .. :~

-v .~ I ~ .. / .'"""' .. :;

o··j:

24

xi. To cease flrlnQ

Detachment commander orders;-

" UNLOAD - CEAiE FIRING".

, >.

The gun having been unloaded, 1 releases the travelling stay, depress. the gun and 1I!lC1lteI, •

the stay to the chassis by means of the locking pjn. He locks the travelli.Dg clamp. _

2 and 3 wheel the carriage into position, and raising the mounting by m_ of the handle&,

engage the hooks in the eyes of the cbassis. -

, 2 and 3 k down on the engine draught connector, and enable ito insert the pin securing the ..

~e to the cha.ssls. '

2 .and a hook the gun into the. tractor.

.-

. ,.~~>,~

II.-2 eM. ('79 In.) A.A.fA.TK. GUN '(2 CM. FLAX ae:) {59 PigS. 6-8)

1. General

, This gun was intrpduced fu 1940 to replace the 2 em. Flak 30 gun. n.-performllDCe doee not di1fer materially from that of the earlier weapon, apart ~ a high cyclic rate of fire of 420--480 r.p.m. The iDerti& block, which prevents ,rebound of the breech block, is of particular interest.

, ' The gun may be mounted on :railWay or road vehicies. It is t:ra.n8ported on Tra.ile:r 51.' Gun and mounting may also be split into six loads (9 'parts) , or ten loads (15 parts) for transport over

dii1icult country. , - . '

The weapon is normJily fired from its mounting with the ttailer remoVed; It can, however, be ft.red from the trailer-in an emergency, wh(,l1 a trav~ of 20 degrees each way is possible.

A net ma.y be fitted to catch cartridge cases ejectea. after firing. is,, Fla. 6.)

i .. General .

Muzzle velocity (H.E.): 2,950 ft./sec. (A.P.): 2,720 ft.~ec.

(A.P.40) (estimated) : 3,250ft./lec.

Maximum horizontal 'Iallp: 5,280 yards. Maximum vertical range: 12,400 It. Cyclic rate of:fire; 420-480 r.p.m .. Practical rate of fire: 180-220 r.p.m. Weight in action: 8 cwt.

Weight in draught: 141 cwt.

Weight of barrel: 40 lb.

Weight of piece: 123 lb.

'Lf;D.$th 01 barrel (With flash elin$lator)': 56·6 ins. Length of bore : 46'5 ins.

Elevation: - 20 degrees+90 degrees.

Traverse: 360 degrees. . .

Rate ofeIevatioD (two speed) ; 4 degrees or 12 degrees (per turn of lla.ndwheel). Rate of traveaJe (two .speed) : lQ degrees or 30 degrees (per turn of handwheel]. Coo1in&: Frequent barrel Change;

!

. I

j

25

2. Da.ta

U; Ammunition

The gun 12m the eame typeI of ammunition as the 2 em. F'JJI.k SO.

·1 ; 1:'1

i I : , :

. I

; '"I

r'; . :j": PI I, :!::

: i'

". :1.... ••••• o!...

_ .. ,----

26

3. The Iltin. (S08 Fills. 7-8)

i. SYltem of operadOll

The mechanism is operated by short barrel recoll and the residual pressure of gas in the barrel.

The recoil unlocks the breech and imparts rearward acCeleration to the breech block: carrier, T!U.s rearward acceleration is assisted by the ,residual pressure of, gas in the barrel after unlocking bas - been completed, 80 that the breech blbck travels back with sufficient force to perform the opers.tions . of extraction, ejection and comp~ of the return spring.

_ ii, Method of storina eneriY _ .

The energy required for closing the breech and cairying a fresh ro~~d to the chamber is provided

by the return spring, assisted at first by the buffer spring. " I _ ,'. ..,

i,ii. Method of supporting the base of the canpdae

Tile breech is locked at the moment of firing by a breech- block of the " Solothurn" type [i.e, of· the same general type as that in the M.G.34) having a breech-block carrier, on the front end of which is a rotating breech block hea.d.with rollers .and locking luga. The rollers. in conjunction with suitable cam surfaces, rotate the breech block head, causing the locking lugs to engage interrupted dangesin a sleeve on the rear eud of the barrel. A locking catch in the breech block carrier prevents rotation-

'. of the breech block head at the moment of firing. '

iv, Method of preventlna rebound of breech block carrier

An inertia block, which is arrangedto slide in the rear end of the breech block carrier, prevents. rebound of the breech block carrier, any tendency to rebound being counteracted by the impact of the inertia block a.t the end of the forward· movement. The inertia block also brings about the engagement of the locking catch (.see ... ii. below).

v, Cockina me$anism ,

The cocking mechanism is of .the chain and handgrip type. The gun can be cocked by pulling

the cocking handle' a.t an -angle to th:e bore when the gUD is at high elevations. .' -

To faa page 24

~·IG. 6.-2 CM. (·79 IN.) A.A.IA. TK. GUN (2 CM. FLAK 38)

I I:

27

vi, Feed arranjem8D.ts

The cartridges are fed from ,a 2O-round curved box magazine on the left of the gun. the masazine' is hinged in front and held at· the rear by a catch. This must be disengaged aad the

mapzine swung fOI"WaTd on removal. '

FIG. 8.-2 eM. ('79 IN.)' A.A./A. TK. GUN (2 eM. FLAK 38) (HORIzo~t.u.' SEcnOl~)

i'.

l ,I

28

vii. TriQter and firfDg mechanism

, ~ The tr'igP.r .. oe the right rear of the gun~ is in the form 01. & small hand:wheel. the handle of which is raised. to tire the gun. '

viii. Slnile shot fire

A chan,e lever on the left of the body is moved forward to .. E" for'single shot and to " D "

for automatiC fire.· .

ix. Applied safety

)' The safety lever, on the right of the gun, can only be set to SAFE when, the breech is, open.

~ forward to " F" for FIRE ,and back to." S " for SAFE. ' ' .'

i. ce.satiOn of fire.' (Sell,PIg. 8.)

On releasing the trigger, the gun stope firing with the breeeh open and empty. When the magazine is empty, it is ejected from the magazine feedway and the bteee<h block it retained in the open pvt.Jtiun. 'J.be b~ech can then becIosed. by pulling out the release lever on tho right of the

magazine catch. " '

. xi. Extraction and ejection

The gun ia provided. with a spring loaded extractor of the cl&w ~ The empty case is ejected to,the right during the backward movement of the breech block.

xii. Barrel and breech block: bulferbtt eyatem. ' '/"

The barrel han-esistance nugs, which brake the recoil a.nd forward movements of the, b&rreI.

A buffer and buJier apring an.-t the I:Je.cl!;ward movement of the brnec.h block.

of. Action of the :mechanism

i. Preparation for ftriDll . Set the chango lever to E for single shot or D for 'automatic. ReD;lOve the mapri"e feed. .... y

I

[

29

Cover, ~ releasing the catch on the feOdway (~e· ejection opelliDg cover will open· automatically on cocking). Pull back the cocking handle until the breech block is retained, ~ the cocking handle to go forward.

u, Fo~rd movement

OperatiOn of the trigger allows the breech block to go forward under the aetion of the return eprinl{. During this movement, the breech block transfen a round to the chainber and closes and partly locks the breech. Alter ' the breech block carrier has been brought to rest,the inertia block, continuing to move forward, Dot only prevents rebound of the breech block carrier, but also completetl the lockiDg action by forcing the locking catch to engage the breech block head. At the same time the finng pin is driven through the lace of the breech block head, and fires the cartridge cap.

iii. Backward mowmea.t

Tb., initial s!nzlr: of discha.r~e causes the 'bilrrel a.nd breech block, to ~coU together. At the commecoement of recoil. the locking catch ia freed; Towards the end of barrel recoil, the breech block head is rotated, nnlocll:ing the breech, accelerating the breech block carrier'. movement to the rear and witbdrawi11! the fi,ring pln. At this' stage the reslstance ringsarre.t the barrel, "bich is reb.tmed by its spring''- The breech block head and carrier now continue to the tear performing extraction and ejection. The rearward travel of the breech block. is finally arrested by fnll compression of the return spring and impact of the inertia. block against the buffer. The return spring and buffer spring then react and drive the breech block forward agaiD. U set for singlo shot. the breech block will be engaged by the sear, and if set to automa.tic, the gun will continne firing until the trigger is released·ot the magazine is empty.

5. Strlpplnll and uaembly

i. To ch8nge barrel "

The barrel should be changed after Bring about 120 ronnds (8 magazines) automatic or ill rapid bursts, It can be changed whether the gun fa cocked or uncocked. If cocked, the aafety lever ahould be set to .. SAFE." In either case, any rounds left in the magaziDfl feedwayahould be xemowd.

------------------------------------~--~~~~~~==~~- .. -~'

.. ~+,~.-, • ........__ ...

30

. . Press in the barrel catch. rotate the barrel 60 degrees clockwise (as viewed from the breech end} and then draw it forward out of the barrel bearing. To insert a new barrel, reverse the procedure for removal. When inserting the barrel into the barrel bearing, the arrow marked" EINBAU" on the barrel should be in line with the corresponding arrow on the body.

ii. To (:b.ange the breech block .

. To remove the breech block, the body cover must be raised. Press in thumb-piece on rear of body cover catch. push body cover catch forward and then lift up body cover until retained by the catch at its front end, The breech block can now be slid .to the rear and lifted out of the body. Before iIlBerting the new breech block, make sure that the rollers on the breech block head are in line

with the guide ribs on the breech block carrier. .

ill. To remove the body rear end piece .

After raising the bodycever as described in 5, Ii, the rear end piece of the body, whichhouse8 the firing mechanism, can be lowered, To remove, press in the retaining bolt on the right side of the body behind the safety catch. The rear end piece can now be hinged down, or, after pulling out its binge pin, removed from the body.

·6. The carrlag,e

L The chassis is the same as that used with the 2 em. Flak 30 gull. ii. The mounting consists principally of ;-

(a). Tire base mounted on three adjustable feet, by means of which the mounting can be levelled.

A spirit level is attached to the base. An adjustable layer's seat is fitted. The layer operates the traversing gear with his left hand. and the elevating gear with his right .

. (b) Tire cradle is mounted on two [ournals forrniDg the axis, The compensators are 8pri.ng~ loaded and connected to the left andrigbt of the cradle. Buffer, housing, springs, slide and gun anchorages are fitted in the centre. Recoil is taken by buffer springs inside the cradle.

1\

31

" ,

(c::) T1'avd1'sifig gear.-The traversing handwb,eel is directly in front of the layer's seat. Right traverse is obtained by turning the traversing handwheel to the right, and viu versa. Traverse is 1'0 degrees perturn of handwheel in fine gear, and SO degrees per tum in coarse gear.

(Il) Elevating EIM.-The elevating handwheel on the right is turned to the left for depression and to the right for elevation. Rate of elevation or depression is 4- degrees per tuI'll of the handwheel in fine" gear, and 12 degrees per tum in coarse gear, '

, (8) Hring m"tihani.wn.-The gun is :6.~ by a fooi:.pedal on the right. Change-over from single shot to automatic fire is seton the gun itself. With automatic fire the gun continues firing aa long

as the pedal is depressed, or until the magazine is empty, ,

(f) LigMitig equipm8'Jlt.-This is provided to illuminate 'the cross-wires on the Sight.

7.Sil1hts

i. Flakvisier 38

nlis sight can be used both against aerial targets' and against moving and fixed land and sea

targets. '

Information about the Flakvisier 38 is at present very incomplete, but what is known shows that it presents a departure from the course and speed principle on which the F1akvisier 85 functions.

The Flakvisier 38 is an automatic electric sight. The layer keeps a cross on his object glass and the target COincident, so obtaining angle of sight and bearing .. The cross-wires are automatically controlled in terms of T.E. and deflections. The elevating and traversing gears are coupled to elevating and traversing ta.chometer-dynamos in such a way that the VOltages, generated by them vary with the speeds of laying. Range, either estimated or called out by the range-taker, is set

by the ra.nge-setter, but course and speed are not set. '

The gun's traversing gear is coupled to a tachometer-dynamo; which produces electric voltage varying with the rate of traverse, i.e, the greater the rate of traverse, the higher the voltage. A variable resistance, on which range is set, is in~uced, so that the current is regulated both by the tachometer-dynamo and by the strength of the range resistance. With short ranges the corresponding .resistance is low and the deflection large. With 'long ranges the deflection is small and

...... __ 1 ,.'bLl"2

."

8. Detachment The German deta.chment consists of;-

32

the resistance high. The resultant lateral deflection is transmitted to the layer's Vertical ~wire.

, Vertical de:fl.ection is obtained by multiplying rate of change of angle of sight by, time of flight

of the shell. nate of change is Ult'ssured by the ra.te (Sf elevation or depression of the gun, wlilie time of fti.ght is taken as a measure of the range set. T.E. in wms of range is a«:41ed to the vertical detlection to give the approptiate Q.E. The resultant value il.automatically applied to the layer's horizontal croa .. wire.

ii. Lblealvluer l'l

This is described in Section I.

Ui. Tele8eoplc aillht .

A telescopic sight (magnification X 8) may also be employed for the engagement of A.F.YI. and ground tafgets.

Detachment commander. No. I.-Layer. ·No.2,-Range-setter. No. 3.-Loader.

i. nrW aQaiDat aerial tarJi,eta (FJakvisier 88)

Detachment commander indicates target. ,

No. 5 takes range and continues to call it in even loo's ,of metres.

No, 2 sets in range. and continues to set in range as called by No.5. He reports " In range ..

as soon as it falls to 2,000 metres. •

Nci, 3 puts on-the magazi'ne.

No.1 laY' on the target and reports " On target." No.2 reports" Steady" when all data baa been set.

Detachment commander orders .. Fire" (either "'Short burs:," 01' "Rapid "),

No, 4.-Ammunition number. No. S.-Range-taker •.

No, 6.-Lorry driver.

S3

No.1 opens fire and I&ys the gun continuously by keeping the target on the erose-wires in the

centre of the sight. ..' ,

Detachment commander qbserves fire and orders corrections as n.ecessary. These are set by

No.1. . , .

No.3 changes the magazin'e.

Nos. 3 and " load maga.zines during pauses'ili action.

ii. Drill alialast - aerial and !1round tar!1ets (Lineal. visier 21 ) AJJ described in Section [ for the 2 em, Flak 30 gun.

iil;Drlll a~atnst Ilround tariets (FlakVisier 38)

Detachment commander Indicates target" and orders type 01 ammunition to be used. No.,5 takes range and then acts as an addielonal ammunition number.,

No. 3 puts on the qmgazine.·, _.,'

No.1 lays on the target and reporta.t'On target ",

No . .2 setarange. .

Detachment commander orders .. Fire" (either" Single shot" or "Short bursts ") and-orders corrections from observation of fire.

No • .2 sets correctionS ordered.

111.-2 OM. (·79 in.) FOUR"BARRELLED A..A;/A.Tk. GUN (2 CM, FIakvierUng 38)

(S~, Fills .. 9,-:10') ,

'1. General

The F1akv:ierling!XlnSists of fQur 2 COl.' Flak 38 guns (described. in Section n)an a quadruple

mounting. It may be employed both against ground and aerial (:argets. -

It is normally transported on Trailer 52 (Sd. Ah.52) ($11 Fig. 10), but may be mounted on railed or semi-tracked vehicles. There is also a. static version."I:he gun is normally fired with its mounting on the groundand the tl'Bi.!er removed'. It can, howeVer, be .fired from the trailer in an emergency, when it bas a traverse of 10 degrees at extreme elevation.

_"_. - ~,- -',,-

FI~. 9.-2 CK. (·79 IN.) FOOR-BARRELLltD A.A./A. Tlt. GUN (2 ca. FLa.x:vmR.LlNG 38)

t.

Flo. 10.-2 eM. ('79 IN.) FOUR-BARRELLED A.A.jA. TX. GUN (2 elf. FLAxVlmtUNG3S)

, (READY FOK TRANSPORT) ,

3U

2. Data

i. General

, Munle :velocity (H.E.) :2,950 ft:./sec. (A.P.) : 2,720 ft./sec.

(A~P.40) (estimated) : 3,250 ft,/sec.

Maximum hotiz~tal range: 5:2..10 yards. Maximum vertical range: 12.400 ft.

Cyclio rate of fire: 1,680-1.980 r.p.m, Practical rate of fire: 700-800 r.p.m. Weight in action (tnobile versiOn): Ii tons. Weight in draught: 2, tons. '

Weight of Trailer 52: 16i. em.

Weight In action (static version) :' 'If tmls. Elevation: -10 degrees to' +100 degrees. Tra verae : 360 degrees ..

. Rate of elevation (two speed) : 4 degrees or 12 degrees.

Rate oftraverse (two speed): 7,. degrees or 22* degrees, Cooling J Frequent barrel change;

u, Ammunition

The gUn fues:the same types of ammunition as the .2 om. Flak 30.

3. The Mounting

I. The base

. The base is mou~ted' on three adjustable feet by meam of whleh the mounting can be levelled

,correctly. A spirit 1~ve1 'is attached.' ,

37

ii. The cerrla.e body

Thi8 PSts upon a rotating ring 6xed to the base. The ring hJs a traverse acale of 6,400 ~ (300 degrees). ,An adjustable liloyer's seat is provided. with the elevating and traversing haDd~

wheels a.Dd sight bracket in ltont. ' '

lit TraversJnll .ear

, The layer operatos, the traversinghandwheel with his left hand. 'The gun 18 traversed to. the 'right by turning the handwheel to tile rigbt, and lJiu VIJ?'SII." Two gears are provided. ~ressing in the quick·release catch, the gull may be traversed 22l degrees for each tum 6f the, wheel ; in normal gear traverse is 71 degrees per tum of the ban,Jwheel.

i v. Elevatinll aear

Tho ta.yer oPerates the elevating handwheel with his risht hand. The gun is elevated by tw"Ding the handwbeel back. Two gears are provided as with the traversiDg gear. In normal gear elevation (or depression) is 4 de~ per turn of the handwheel; when the quick-release catch baa .been

preaaed ln~ it ia. 12 degrees.. .

v. FfrtDQ

Two' foot-pedala operate the trigger ritecba.nism. Eacbpedal actua.tes the trlggel'll of two diametrically ~te guns. which continue lirin8 till the peda.Lis teleased or the magazines (bolding 20 rounds) are empty; The right foot operates the right-hand top and Ieft.ta&nd bottom guns, while the left foot operates the left-hand top and righ~hand bottom guns. This arrangement permit! uninterrupted continuous fire. While two guns are firing, the magazines of the other two guna can be changed. When both pedals are operated ali four gllllS fire together": U there is a. stoppage of one or more guns the remaining guns can continue firing. but if the safety ca~ is at SAFE or OD<l gun, tne dlillll..:trto.:ally ~JPp lStd' gun cannot be fired. Chall3'e from lingle shut to auto.na~c fire and lrom SAFE to FIRE are set all the guns thelliSelves, as deilcribed for the. 2 em. Flak. S8Ul

SectioD h, pam. ;j, vtii. ..

I.

38

vi. Sl~hts

The sight fitted is Flakvisier 40, which is similar to the Flakvisier38 described in Section It Alterna.tively Linealvisier 21 ,which is described in Section I, or a telescopic sight (fot: the engage-

ment of ground targets only) may be used, ,

vii. RecollmechanlalD. .

Two slippers right and left on the covers of the cra.dle carry the guns and recoil gears.· The tubes supporting the recoil gears are secured to the covers, while the gun lugs, which recoil 011 firing. cause the buffer cylinders to recoil with them.-

viii. Compensator

A compensator to counteract muzzle preponderance is bolted to the carriage body.

ix, Deflector box

A de£lector box, underneath the compensa.tor housing, catches the empty cartridge cases, ejected

from the gun. It holds about 500 cases. '

x, Pl8.tform _'

The platform is bolted to the left and light of the carriage body. It 'acts as a. foot-board for the deta.chmentcommander, range-setter and-loading numbers (who are also provided with seats), and

enables these numbers to carry on while the gun is being traversed. '

xi. Magazine racks

At both sides in accessible places are racks holding 16 magazines in aU.-

, 4. Preparation for action

1. To remove the' ann from the trailer

Drop the trail eye end of the trailer till the base plate rests on the ground. By using the chain winches, bring the' base to bear on the chassis of the trailer. By pressing on the two handles, disengage the trailer from the mounting and lower it to the ground on the winch chains. Disengage

i

il

,39

the suspension eyes of the chains and hang them on the hookso~ the mudguards of the tra.iler Preas down the locking lever of the trailer and withdraw it.

ii. To prepare the gun for action ,

Unlock carriage, pull out locking lever' and swing over. Elevate slightly and move locking lever to front till it rests against its stop. Pull up the locking lever and release the platform. Raise

loader's seat. ' ,

Level gun with levelling screws, usfugspirit level.

Half open de1iector box and insert bent rod in hole on near side. Cock firing me¢hanism and

set to safe. '

Place 16 full magazines in the two magazine racks. Take two magazines from ,each rack, and load.

Set each gun to " FIRE". and to automatic (D) or single shot (E).

5. Stripping, and assembly

i. Settlnll up the mounting .

Set down carria.ge body as evenly as possible on the base. Secure rotating ring with bolts and clamping plates.

ii, Assembling tbe guns

Carry out mounting of guns with the, mounting clamped.

Nou.-:-Before assembling guns on right side. open the ejection opening covers.

Insert projecting ends of the body rear end axis pin into the recesses in the rear slipper bearing.

Position front end of barrel and pull front end clamping lever to the rear. ;

.. Make sure the guns have not too much side play in the front and are not secured loosely in the

rear. .-

iii. Stripping the breech blocks

Set the gun for automatic fire and open the 'body covers. In the case of the left hand guns,

j

40

the body covermuat be propped Open. With the right hand guns, lower the bodyeover until it reaches the Btop. Withdraw the breech block from the left band guns upwards ~ to"~ rear; from the right hand guDS downwards and to the rear. When replacins (aa tlie riBbt band guns are

invert¢), insert the breech bJoclr. .in the same way. " . ...

6. Detachment

The German detachment cOll8i1rts. of:-

Detachment commarlder

""No. I-Layer .

No.2-Range-gtter'Nos. 3 d: '_l.-oading aumbers No.6-Ra.ilge-taker

Nos. 6 4 7-Ammwtition numbers.

i. Drill aaam-t 8erlaJ. tar~eta(F1akvisier 40) Detachment commander indicates the tUget.

No.5 takes range and continues to call it in even 100'1 of metr'e!!.

No.2 sets in I'!Ul8'e, and continues to set- in range as called by No.5. He. reports '.' In range"

as soon as it falls to 2,000 metres."

NOI.3 and 4, fit magazines. .

No. I lays on the target and reports" On target." - - "" ."

No.2 reports .. Steady" when range has been ;set. . _ -

Detachment commander orden .. Fire" (either .. short burst" or" continuous :fire").

NO'. I opens fu:e-and lays the'gun continuously by keeping the target on the a:oa-wires of the

sight. _ ....

" Detachment eommander observes fire and orden corrections as nec·'ry. These are let by

No.2. .

Nos. 3 and" change magazines. .

Nos. 6 and 7 hand up fresh Dla~es. and load magazines during pAuses in ·action.

41

ii. Drill allainst aerlaland around taraeh (Linealvisier 21) , '

All described in Section I for the 2 em. Flak 30 gun, lffiOwtilg for the faCt that there aie two loaders instead of one .

.l.

iii. Drill allalnat gl'OUDd lariets (Flakvisier 40)

Detachment commander indicates target, and orders type of ammunition to be uaed. No.5 takes range and then acts as an additioDal ammunition number,

Nos. 3 and 4 fit magazines.· '

No. 1 lays on the target and reports " On target." No.2 sets range.

Detachment commander orders " FIre" (either .. Single shot " or .. Short bursts ") and ordmJ

cOrrections from observation of fire. ..

No.2 sets corrections ordered.

1V.-2·SCM. (1·10 in.) ANTI-TANK GUN MODEL 41 (pZ.B.41) (8" Fil&a. 11-12)

1. General

This is' a light Q.F~ anti-tank gun mounted on a two-wheeled carriage. The Pz.-B. 41 wu introduced in 1941 and may be de5C1ibed as the first" secret" Weapon brought into lIervice duriIIg the war; it is of exceptio~ interest, as it has an extremely high muzzle wlocity attained by the .. Gerlich" principle of a tapered bore. The gun fires a special type of A.P. projectile with a tungsten carbide core, but thete ill also an H.E. round. The weapon has a good A.P. performaace at ranges up to 400 yards.' , ., ' ,

The gun ill normally towed portEie on a trailer equipped with ramps, but , may also be mounted on a lony, split into a five-~ load for transport, canied by air, dropped in parts. by parachute, 01' .

fitted in thfl four-wheeled armoured car~.lCb. 221. '

'; ... _-_.,

"

42

l'

I

I,

"

;

I

FIG, 11.-2,8 CM.(HO IN.) A. TK. GUN MODEL 41 (Pz. B. 4J)

43

FlG. 12.___;_2·8 ca. (1·10 IN.) A. TE. GUN MODEL 41 (Pz. B. 41) BuECH MECHANISM

44

2. Data

i. The gun

Length of barrel .

Length of barreland breech (with muzzle brake)

Length of rifting . .

Number of grooves

ii. The carriage.

(a) Weights

Barrel and muzzle bwe Cradle and trigger housing Frame a.nd mounting

Axle and wheels

Front shield

Rear shield .•.

....

61,38 ins. 67·62 iris • . 5138 ins. 12RH.

. .. ~

80 lb. 97 lb. 1261b. lS71b. 46 lb.

15 lb.

501 lb.

Total weight ...

(b) Maximum_elevation ... 45 degrees .

Maximum depression 5 degrees'

Tra.verse (horizontal) ... .90 degrees

Traverse (at full depression) 90 degrees

Traverse (at full elevation) . ... SO degrees

iii. Penetration of bomogenecus armour with A.P. projectile .

Rtmg, .. ' . Thickness of fM'1nOUf ftJ mm.

(yar4s) 30 degrees . Norm~

100 ... 69 (2:72 ins.) 84 (S'Sl ills.)

200 63 (2·48 ins.] 77 (S·OSins.)

300 ... 57 (2·24 ins.) 70 (2·76 ms.)

400 ,.-. 58 (2'09ins:) '65 (2'56 ins.)

45

iv, Muzzleveloclty

A Gerinan note-book gave M.V. as 6,250 !t./sec., but during trials, a meanM.V. of only about 4,580 ft./sec.was recorded. As trials were carried out with a partly worn weapon, the velocity with ,a new barrel might be higher than the, recorded figure.

3. The gun

i, The barrelis of mono bloc construction, with interrupted Banges at the breech end to receive -the breech ring, which is.Iocked in position by a spring catch, The muzzle end is fitted with Q flange and screw threaded to receive a muzzle brake. Wear is heavy, and the barrel is believed to become unserviceable after 400 rounds. "

ii. The bore tapers from 28 rom;' (I·fins.) at the breech end to 20 mm. (0'79 in.) at the muzzle.

The taper is slow for the first 24 ins. of rifling '(about '002/1 m.) : then 'from 24 ins. to 36 ins. is much more rapid (about '022/1 in.}, and finally from 39 ins. to the muzzle decreases, the bore becoming

almost parallel at the muzzle. ,-

iii. The rifling has 12 grooves; the lands decrease in width towards the muzzle, while the groove width remains constant. The rifting increases progressively till one tum has been completed, after which it is constant for one-eighth of a tum. The final portion is constant.

iv. The breech mechsnrsm is of the eemi-automatlc horizontal sliding block type. the block slidirig to the left to open. Cocking is effected during recoil .

i. Preparation for firing Pull the recooking lever (on left side of breecp block body) to the rear till the click of engage.

ment is heard. The breech can now be opened., ' '

ii. Openfne the breech "

Pull the L.B.M. (on the top of the breech ring) to the rear. The breech is now open.

.. ; Action ()f the mechanism

46

During this movement the extractor stops on the breech block engage the stops On the extractors, ' forcing the extractors to rotate backwards. At the same time the claws on the extractors engage the breech block, thus holding it open.

ill. Loading the gun

ROtate the safety catch (near the top left side of the breech ring) forward till the "F '" (FIRE) is visible, Insert the round into the chamber fora short distance, then flick the ca.rtridge home with a. sharp movement; The rim of the cartridge forces the extractors forward till the extractor claws are disengaged from the breech block, which will then close automatically under the influence of the breech block return spring,

iv, FJrlna the l1un

The trigger should be pressed gradually. During recoil the base of the recocldng' lever contacts the ramp situated on the trigger housing, automatically cocking the :firing pin. l>urini this action the racuperator spring .is compressed, subsequently reacting and forcing the recoiling portions into the forward position.

v. Re-loadina the gun

The same procedure as for loading, except that the cocking lever is already in the rear position.

The empty case is ejected when the breech is opened.

vi. Trigger m.echanism

Press the trigger grip." This draws the trigger bar to the rear, compresses the trigger bar spring and rotates the trigger link backwards. At the same time, thecam trip contacts the ramp on the bottom of the trigger platform, forcing the trigger platform to rotate upwards a.n.d compressing the trigger platform spring. When the cam trip has reached the end of the ramp on the trigger platform, the latter returns to its normal position under the influence of its spring.

When pressure is released from the trigger grip, the. trigger bar is forced forwaTds under tIle influence of its spring. The cam trip makes contact with .the vertical face of the trigger platform

! ~

47

ramp' the hinged cam trip is forced into the hOriwntal position, compressiDg the cam trip spring. When'the cam trip is clear of the ramp its compressed spring will react. forcing it back to the vertical position.

vii To close breech after firing I.aet round

Pull the L.B.M. to the rear and hold it back whii.e turning the head of the extractor axis pin

anti-clockwise. Release tbeL.B.M. and then the extractor L"CiS pin. ,

i, MechaD1cal safety

(4) The cap cannOt be struck by the firing pin before the breech is J?roperly cloSed.

As the firing pin is driven forwards, the recocldng lever (1Illde.r the inBuence of ita compressed apr ilJ,g) -is also driven forward. The breech block locking catch, being engaged with. the cocking lever spindle, is 10iced down into engagement with the slot in the base of the breech ring. The

cap can only then be struck. ,

(b) The breech cannot be opened till the projectile has left the barrel.

The firing pin must be cocked before the breech can be opened. This takes place when the gun has recoiled about 4-in.; the cocking lever _ epiodle Jift8 the bnIech block locking catch out of ~ent with the slot in the base of the breech ring. 'By this time the projectile has left th~ barrel.

ii, Applied aalety

Rota.te the safety catch backwards till it is in a1ignmeD.t with the barrel, and" S" is visible.

When the breech is closed, a fiange on the safety catch prevents the sear from, being rotated, and .a projection on the sa.fety catch engages a slot in the breech ring, thus preventing openiag of· the breech. When the breech is open, the projoction on 'the safety catch prevents the breech fwm. ' closing fully. ,

Ii

,

i~ i ~ j I

Ii,

i!

"

'j

i 'I

48

6, The cairlaae

The carnage is, deaign~ to strip eaailyinto man-handling loads. Both-front and Teal' shields lift off: quick releaeetrunnions allow the cradle and piece to be lifted off; and the wheels, spring; and spring pad can be detached from-the saddle and trail lege. ThII barrel c:an ,be ~ by releasing the band holding down the barrel at the front of the slipper, depresslng the spring cattb at the breech ring. and unscrewing the barrel. Before taking this equipment into action the various quick-release 'catches should be examined.

i.Cndle

The cradle is of box section. Guide ribs are' formed on the top surlace for the slipper, and inside to support the front of the, buBer cylinder. An extension at the back carries the sight.' a tool·box

and the firing gear. . ,

ii. Slipper

The breech ~ing is attached to the rear of th~ slipper by four set &ereWII. The gun lug on the breech ring projects downwards through the slip;pe;. The front of theb&rr, e1 is supported by a band at the trnnt of the slipper. The topbalf of tbia band is b.inged and held cloaed by & catch. The slipper ill fitted with bearing strips underneath and is grooved to fit over the guide n"bs on the cradle.

, . . ' . .

iii carriaQe body

, This is mounted on a blill race on the laddIe, giving 45 degrees traverse right and left. Four clips on the saddle take the firing stresses. Quick release trunnions enable the cradle and .piece to be removed easily. A lug on the_base of the body engages a bolt on the platform to form .. travelling lock.

iv. Saddle and trail

:! The saddU; ~ the lower ball 'raCe and ~ps to hold the carriage body .. " A' ~t on the aaddle

locks the carriage body and ctadle for travellint. An ammumtion locker holding six rounds is at

t9

the rear of th~ saddle. The trail legs are secured to the rear of the saddle by inclined pins and are provided with a hinged s1;rut to.lock thtm in the open posltion. A catch on the rear end locks them

together for travelling.. . . .'

v. Sprln~g and wheel~ ...

A transverse spring and tWo radius anne support" knee ~on " stub axles carrying the whee!'!'.

A spring bolt in the spring pad l~ks.the saddle to this aS~embly. .

vi. Siabtln~

Open sights or a telescopic sight may be used. The open sights are :fitted on the trigger housing.

The backsight is uU" type and the foresight barley-com type. There are no graduations on the sight, and no allowance fqr tan~t elevation .or de1iection can be made; as the si¥ht line is always parallel to the bore. It is, in fact, a 1;lattle sight, suited to the weapon's flat traJectory .. Gennan practice when engaging a.crossing target is to lay the side of the foresight blade on tbe front edge 9f the target. The telescopic sight is fitted on the same bracket after :first rem~g tbeopen sight.

vii. SbJelds

Protection is Provided by two d6o~le .shields of 4 .mm, (0:157 in.) armour pIate spaced at Ii in. for the main shield and at tt in. for tlle. . layer's shi~d. These are proof llgaiDst S.A.A.. ..

. The frontshie1d hooks on to pin~' on the body and is secured by spring-loaded bolts. The

layer's .shie1d ~ detachable and is clipped over the front ~~d .c1.urlng transport. .' .

viii. Elevating gear ...

. Elevation is controlled .by the hand-grips. A compensator is fitted between the. cradle and

carnage body.. . .'. .. .

7. Recoll system

A hydraulic buffer and spring recuperator axe housed inside the cradle, with the spring

· -.' .. ..._-::-::"'~--.

.'.~~ .. -.

50

surrounding the buffer cylinder. The cylinder is attached to tbegun lug, and the buffer piston to the cradle front cap.

The ~ rod is hollow, and a tapered control rod screwed into the rear of the buffer cylinder projects mto it. A cylindrical spring loaded valve, through the centre of wlUch the control rod passes, is free to slide in the piston head. Ten ports are drilled axially through this valve, through which tbe oil flows on recoil. During run-out, pressure forces the valve to the front and masks these ports, so that the oil has to flow through the annular space between the valve and control rod.

1. Backward movement

, When recoil takes place, the recuperator is forced backwards compressing the recuperator spring, while the outer piston is held stationary by the piston shaft. As the recuporator movea back, the fluid is forced through the ports in the outer piston; at the same time the iDDer piston, which has a taper shaft, is being withdrawn from the taper cylinder inside the outer piston shaft.

ii. Forwal'd movement

When the forces of recoil are spent, the compressed recuperator spring 'reacts, fOrci.D.g the recuperator forward. The fluid now beirig forced against the sleeve valve (situated inside the outer piston) forces it forward. This closes about three-quarters of the ports in the outer piston,. causing the moving portions to return slowly under control and compressing the sleeve valve aprmg. During the forward movement, the inner piston and taper shaft displace ftuid from thetaper cylinder in the outer piston shaft. As the moving ~ons return to the forward position, the inner taper piston shaft forms a seating with the taper In the 'outer piston shaft. At this stage the compressed sleeve

valve spring reacts, forcing the sleeve valve forward. '

, A slide (graduated in milllmetres) and cursor record the amount of recoil. Normal' recoil is

240 mm. (9·45 in.) 'and metal-to-metal 280 mm. (11'02 ln.},

ill. Effect of the muzzle bran

Partial absorption by the muzzle brake of energy from the expanding gases assists in red,udng

recoil and in increasing stability. , '

51

iv. 'Compensator

Elevatlon and depression are steadied by an oil ahock: absorber.

, The rate of flow of, the oil,which is of tho same type aa that used in the recuperator (speciftc gravity '881), can be adjusted by a thumbscrew. MoBO oil diluted WIth paraffin provides a substitute. '!be compensator can be let to control the balance of the gun for elevation.

8. AmmunltlOJl

The gun ptincil'ally :fires A.P. The projectile is a special type. chiefly consisting of a magnesium alloy ballistic cap (which on impact produces a :flash to assist observation), two steel aldrts which

are compressed a.a the round traVela through the t&pered 'bore; and .. tungsten carbide core. '

The A.P. ~unitiOD is ~ in ~ steel cases holding twelve roURds,.marked " 2·8 em.

Pzgr. Patr. 41. Each ~d 18 packed in a cardboard cyliDder. '

9, Detac:bmeat

The weapon is served by a detachment of five, who, according to German instructionll, should

wear ear-plugs in action.' ,

Duties in action are :Gun commander. No. I-Layer.

No. ~Loade:r.

Noe. 3 and 4-Ainmuuition numbem.

Load diatribution :-

Gun commander Barrel. and. muzzle brake. Nos.,l and ~ge.

No. 3-Cradle and trigger housing. No.4-Front and rea:r Shields.

.~-- •• --...._ ..... r..",_ ...... ~ __ ~_._...._

52 _

The following are notes on the emergency drill to be employed by British troops:~ .:

This light A.Tk. gun is easily~zed by its length (60 ca1s.), by the square tool box above the doub1e.tiring grip, and by the staa.ll shield for the layer.

It .tires olf the wheels' and the gun crew must put cotton wool into their ea.ri, or wear ear

protectors. " ' ,

Six emergency rounds are ca.xried nnder the a.xJ.e.. '

An open slght fixed oy a Janyard is carried in a case to the1eft of the sight bracket. It unfolds.

and can then be slipped in position from the rear. ' ,

There is no range scale, the trajectory being almost flat, up to the limit of efliciency (400 yards).

t, To oPen the breech

Recock the firing mechanism by pushing the long .recocking lever (left side of breech block) over

to the r",a1". ' -

Pull the L.B.M. round to the rear. .

T4e breech is kept open by the extractors.

Ii, To load

Load as with any fixed ammunition. The rim of the cartridge case releases the extractor, and .the breech closes automatically.

ill. To lire

Set the small m,illed safety catch (top right of left face of breech block) at right angles to the

piece. ,.

Press either 01 the trigger grips. . .

During reeo.I the firing mechanism is recooked automatically. Tile breech is "reopened by hand and the cartridge case ejected.

There is no tracer, but the magnesium ballistic cap produces a distinct flash on impact.

iv, To close the breech without lo'adlna

~,tJ para, 4, vii.

53

v, MInImum detadune:at ~commander Layer .

Loader.

The layer Cam10t obeerve on account of the gun ftaah and the short time of :ftight.

vi. Simple method. of dJ.abUna the !IUD.

{al To remove firing pin spring. Press retaining cap of :firing pin spring (iIi rear face of breech block). rotate cap about 90 degrees to the left, release cap and remove spring.

(b) To remove extractor axis pin. press in catch just below it (on the upper left side of breech ring), and lift out extractor axis pin.

V.-307 CM. (l .. U iD.) ANTI-TANK GUN (3'7 eM. PAX). (St. Fi, •• 1~1") 1. Generai

The 3·' cm., formerly the chief German. anti-tank gun, bes been largely replaced. by the S em. (J·97 in.) anti-tank glln. The 8·7 em; is still_likely to be met, and has receiltly been provided . with the A.PAO type of ammunition, which bas a good penetration perfon:nance at ~Dges up to .fOO. yuda. A stick "bomb 5·7 in. in diameter and 11 In, long, with a rod, which fita into the bore, bas Iilso recently been introduced. Ita use is Uk'ely to be futricted tG ellort ningr'., '1 be bomb is

believed to be of holloW cbarge type. The gun is abo in servic;:e with the ltaliaD army. _

The gun_is nonnaIly towed on ita own wheels by. tractor but may aBo be auriedan a lorry.

Weighing only 8 eM:, it is alUitable weapon for use by au-borne troopa. , .

.. '., •. _'.-'10 .~'~~ ... , ... _~~_ ..

54

FIG. ]S.~·7 eM. (1·45 IN.) A.TK. GUN (9-7 eM. PAX)

55

2. Data

i, General

Muzzle velo~ty (A.P.) : 2,625 ft./sec.. Muzzle velOClty (A.P • .fO): 3,450 tt./sec. Etlective range; 600 yarde and under ~ Rate of fire: 8-10 r.p.m.

Length of gun: 65·52 in.

Elev&tion: 25 degrees.

Depreaion: 8 degrees.

Traverse: 80 degrees. 6 degrees (trails cIOS«l). - ii. AmmUDltioD.

AmmlUlition is c:.a.nied in 12 round metal oonta.i.ners.

Weight of
Type complete Wei~ht of -Fuze Marking
round pro ectile
-
~- 3 lb. 2 oz. lib. 8 os • Base Shell black. marked 3·7cm.
A.P. tracer shell ...
(Ed. Z. (5108) ) Pak. Pzgr.
• A.P.40 shot ... 2 lb. 12·5 oz . None Shell black, marked g·icm.
Pak. &gr. 40:.
H.E. tracer shell 2 lb. 10 oz. llb. 6 oz. D.A. (either A.Z. 39 She1l grey. marked 3·7 em,
Rhs. Zl4 or Rhs., 222) Spgr. ' • Pioleotile O1mIiata,of .. lI'Iild .teel body, lin allllnillillm alloy ballist.ic Ol\p. and .. ttmptell aarbide A.f. oore.

56

iii. Penetration of homoleneoua armour (a) Piri., A.P. sJuU

Ra1l8~

(Yanls) 200 400 500 600

(b) Firi,., A.P. 40 sllot (utimat"a"), Rang.

cyants)

100

200

300

400

TIIjckruss of Gfmowr iff """.

30 d6pdlS NonMl .

,.. 42 (1·65 m.) 56 !2'20 in.) ••. 8811'SO in.) . 51 2'00 in.)

•.•. 36 1-42 in.) 481·89 ln.)

... 34 1·34 in.) 46 1·81 in.)

Thiclmus of M'fItOVr iff -.

80 degr~ds NonnaJ .

6S (2·68 in.) 79 (3·11 In.] 61 (2·40 in.) 72 (2-83 m.)

55 (2·16.in.) 65 (2·56 in.)

49 (1~93 in.) 58 (2·28 in.)

3. The Ion

The piece consists of an "A" tube. jacket and breech ring combined. The breech b10ckis of the .. ' horl.zqntal sliding block type with a hand operated block stop. (Fig. H.)

4. Action of breech mecbaniem

i. To open the breech

. Press the hand. operated block stop plunger (Fig. 14). This operates by inertia. inac:t\tal firing.

Pull the L.B.M. to the right rear until the breech block is retained by the extractora. The firing mcv:banism is cocke;d durinS the opelling of the breech.

'Tt-ave"$;r1B Hanawhe.el

£/t,v~tlns Handwheel

FIG. 14.-3'7. eM. (1'45 IN.) ,A.TK. GUN (3'7 eM. PAx)-BRJt.ECH ANU FJJU.Nu .. UK.

... '~-'- ...... '-~

58

ii, To dose the breech

By loading a round the .breech is automatically closed. To close when tbe breech is empty. the;L.B.M. must be finnly held while the extractors are pressed forward and the breech block released. , When closed, the breech is locked by the hand operated block stop.

iii. To fire using left trigger '

Press the left trigger on the elevating handwheel (Fig. 14'). The trigger cable releases the seal' and the gun is fired. On recoil the gun is re-cooked.

iv, T~ lire using right trlaaer

The gun can also be fired by using the trigger on the right (Fig. 14).

v, To recock after a misfJte

Press ~e right trigger towards the barrel.' Turn the L.B,M. to the right rear until the first ~tance is felt. Care should be taken to ensure the hand-operated block stop is .not touched, as

thIS constitutes the fust resistance; - ,-

-vi, To open tbe breech after lhing

The breech block is automatically unlocked after firing as the block stop goes forward by inertia, Movement of tbe L,B.M. extracts the cartridge case,

5. Safety arranaements

i. The hand-operated block stop must be released by pressing the plunger before the breech can

be opened aite~ a misfire. ' ..

ii, The safety catch on the left of the breech when turned to SAFE (Sieber) prevents the sear

from releasing tbe firing pin, and also prevents opening the breech, ' ,

iii.· The gun cannot' be fired when the buffer cylinder is not correctly assembled, a spring loaded

plunger preventing actuation of the sear. '. ' -

59

6. StrlPPint and assembly i. To assemble breech mechen.1UD

Insert hand-operated block stop spring and retaining bush .. Place breech block in breech ring in the fully open position. Insert toe actuating shaft of the connecting arm into the breech ring, and connect L.B.M. Insert actuating spindle. Insert extractors by slightly closiIig breech to admit extractor axis pin. Close breech. Insert return spring and plunger, placiDg :Oats of plunger into a link of the breech mechanism actuating spindle. Insert axis pin as far 88 possible. Release handopezated block stop and open breech till held by extractor claws. Then press home axis pin. Insert striker and release sear. Replace main l!Ipring and cover plate. Give cover plate i tum and release.

ii, To dismantle breech mechanism

Press ha.nd-opera.ted block stop and fully open breech by pulling L.BJd. to right rear. Inaert artillery tool between shoulder of plunger and link of breech mecb.a.nism actua.ting abaft to take Weight of apriDg. Remove axis pin and spring Case by toming 40 degreea to right. Releese extractors, alightly closing block to remove axis pin. Remove extractors. Open bzeech fully and remove actuating spindle and L.B.M. Remove breecbblock.

i. Axle

7. The carrlaae

The axle incorporates independent suspension which is, however, locked when firing. the freeing

and locking being controlled by the opening and closing of the trail legs. .

ii, Lower carrlage

The lowerC8lTiage has a. pivot housing and bearing face for the top ca.triq:e. It also carries the traversing rack, the travelling clamp and the locking gear for the trail legs and houses tho axle.

iii. Traversfng gear. (Suo Fig. 14)

The layer is on the near side of weapon and operates the traverse with his right hand bya small

~:

!.l

.

i

; .

II

60

bandwheel (clockwise to the right. anti·clockwise to the left). The IU'C of traverse is ~de~ and

is completed ~Y SOl turns of the handwheel. .

iv. Elevattnt tear .: (Su Fit. 14)

The arc of 2] degrees elevation and IS degrees depression'is completed by 821 turDS of the handwheel, whicb the layer operates with his left hand.

v, CJ'adle

A locJdn8 deVice for use when travelling iB'mounted a.t the rear end "nd mates with the top carriage when fully elevated •. A leather buffer is:fitted to the rear end and forms a stop for the gun

OD ma-out, .

vi. Buffer and recuperator

A hydtaulic huBer and spring reeuperater are provided. British CS.1117 A oll can~ used. vii; Slahts

The Bights are mounted on an upri&ht bracket carried on the top~. Adjustment of sights is obtained by two pain of adjusting screws (one pair for vertical adjustments, the other for

horizontal). . ,

viii. Shield '

The shield is composed of the gun lJhield and leg shield.' The leg ~ foldI and. the lower carriage when travelling. and folds down to ground level when inactiop.. The gun Bhield has a rake of approximately 45 degrees when in action, the upper half is hinged and can be folded foeward as required.

8. Detachment

The Germans have a detachment of six, whose duties are :-

Gun commander. . No. a.-Ammunition number.

No. I.-Layer. No. 4.-Assiab No.3 and acts aa runner.

No.2_Loader who bus the gun. NQ .. 5.-Driver.

61

The following are notes on the emergency drill to be employed by British troops :i. To brlnll the Ilun Into action

(A) Release the axb! from the road spr1np. There are two levers just !nude each wheel. Lift each side until ,the bolt actuated by the forward ~ever drops into a reces8 of the 8.xle tree. This sets. the axle in the firing position.

(6) Open the trails. The traverse with ~ closed is only 6 degrees, with trails open GO<

degrT~' open the trails lift the locking lever at the tralend. Press down the locking levers of tJie. tnilhinges. Lock the trails in the open position by pushing up the binge locking levers,

(el Withdraw the locking bolt of the elevating' mechanism.

(d) Depress the gun to point blil.nk. .

(,) Release the traversing mechanism by running the locking lever, forward (right si£le of· ' carriage. With spring-loaded catch and rack).

(j) Slip the, sight into place. '

(g) Place the telescope into the telescope bract'lt (magniftcation I, field 11 degrees).

ii. To open the breech ,

Set the safety catch at " FEUER".

Press in the h8.nd.operated block stop plunger (top left rear face of breech ring) and tam L.B.M~

clockwise. The plunger is pressed back automatically by inertia when the gun is fired. '

iii. To load

. Load at with, any equipment using fixed ammunition. The breech closes automatica1ly.

tv. To fiN

This can be dOne either by pressing the push button in centre of traversing handwheel or by

pulling the lever on the right outwards. ' '

The firing mechanism is recocked automatically during recoil.

.~~ .. - .. ,.-

62

, v. Recocking after. a misfire

Push the right hand firing lever towards the piece and start opening the breech until a resistance

is felt. ,', '

The hand-operated block stop plunger must not be pressed in, as otherwisethe breech might open completely,

vi; To open the breech afterrirln~

The breech block is automatically unlocked after firing and-the block stop goes forward by inertia.

Movement of the L.B.M. extracts the. cartridge case.,

vii. To extract a januned round

Set the gun horizontal. - '- , ' . ,

, If the round has become separated, take out the cartridge case, press some rags into the chamber, close the breech.

Push in a cupped rod from the muzzle end, tie rope .round the rod, leaving two ends loose-two gun numbers standing on either side of the .tube pull in jerks-on the rope (being careful not to tie

the rope round their hands} until the projectile ~ loosened. . -

If the round is not separated, proceed as above, leaving the breech open;

viii. Leads and _ ranlles .

The gun sboots approximately like th,e British 37 ,nun. Bofors gun, having the sameM.V. and

same weight of sheil. .. . '.

Tangent elevation for 500 yards (maXimum 'efli.cient range) is 31 minutes=-permissible error

150 yards. '. , . .

In the absence of any sight, put on the lead, under orders of the detachment commander, by pointing the barrel so many lengths of tank ahead. 1).dd' or drop range by one-quarter tunis of the elevating bandwheel, . This corresponds to about 200 yards and is very near the, permissible error.

ix, ServIce of the buffer and recuperator

The recuperatoris of the double 'banked spring type.

63

The buffer' is hydraulic" filled from the centre of piaton shaft at rear, using a screw pump. The liquid is of the glycerine type, but, British buffer oil would be suitable .in an emergency. Contents

of the buffer when full ; 1·1 Iitres, equals 2 pints. ". , . ,

To disconnect gun from recoil system, turn by means of a small flat bar the connecting ring , anti-clockwise. about one-halfturn.1'hispresses back 'a safety plunger at the lower forward face

of the breech ring and locks the firing mechanism. " .

If during recoil, the recoil indicator o:;m the right, of the cradle reaches- graduation 595, further-

firing is unsafe. , " ' '

, Gepnan handbooks recommend that no one shall stand in direct rear of ·the gun v.ithin 35 feet

when it is being fired as the piece is liable to become separated from the cradle I

VI.:--f,·7 OM.' (1·85 in;), SELF-PROPELLED ANTi-TANK GUN-(4'7 C1.I. PAK (t) (Sfl.» (Sec Fill\s. 15-16)

1. General

ThisA.Tk; gun'of Czech' origin is mounted on.what the Germans describe as Armoured Chassis Lb.

The carriage is the obsolete light tank Pz. Kw. I with turret removed and an armoured shield built up on three Sides; leaving the back exposed. The fitting of the gun to the chassis is crude in many respects and is not up to theusual srandard of Geraian workmanship or design. The equipment is .

not in very 'general use. ' '

l.Data<

i. General

,Calibre; 4·7 em. (1'SS: in.)

Muzzle velocity (A,P.) : 2,540 ft,/sec. Muzzle velocity (H,E.): 1,300 ft./sec. 'Effective range,(H.E.) : 1,100·1,520 yards.

Overall length of gun; 187·'5 in . . Traverse; 30 degrees. Elevation: 12 degrees. Depression : 8 degrees.

· '

FIG. 15.-4,7 CI4. (H~5 IN.' SltLl"-I'RQPIU . ..L£U A.TIC. GUN (4·7 eM., PAX (t) (Sn))

65

ii Ammunltlon

FIG; 16.-4'7 cX. (1'85 IN.) A.TE. GUN (4'7 eM'. PAX)

. Len8th of Weight of
Type complete Fuze projectile ldentiiica.tion
, round
A.P. tracer shell ... '18·68 ins. Base 8'64 lb . Three black- bands OIl nose of shell,
.. case-stamped 4'7 em. Pak (t) Pzgr •
H.E. shell ••• ... 22·46 ins. Nose S·07.b. Dark grey shell, case stamped· 4·7 em.
Pale (t) Sprgr. .
A.P.4O shot ... lS'72' ins . ;None I·Sllb. Projectile black, case stamped 4 em.
V.". 36. .,~.~-.,

56

ill. Penetration of homoeen.~. armour with A.P. shell

Range (yal'ds) 300 500 700

1000

Thickn6$S of a,.",Our 'It fflm.

30 del"iBS Nornw.l

59 (2'32 ins:) 76 (2·99 iDs.)

55 (2'16 ins.) 72 (2'88 ina.)

52 (2'04 ins.) 68 (2'67 Ias.)

-17 (1'85~) '62 (2,,(4 ins.]

iv, The <:arrlage

(a) Dilnensirms'

Length: 14 ft. !Zins. Width: 6 it. 7 ins.

Height: 7 ft. ,

Height of gun-from ground: 5 ft. 3 ins.

(b) Peifrmnatlu

Speed on road: 18·8 m.p.h.

Speed cross-country: 9'4 m.p.h,

aadius of action (on road): 106 miles. Radius of action (cross oountry) : 81 miles. P~l. consumption, approx:.: 3 m.p.g. , Weight in action: '·5 tons.

3. The ,un

The gun is mounted on a steel frame in the front half of the vehicle, and is a IiDgleshot weapon with a. vertical, drop type of breech block. The gun consists principally of the barrel and. beeeeh

ring. , " , '

i. The barrel is acne-piece forgitlg. A large and heavy muzzle brake and fluheliminator is fitted. A recoil indicator, on the rig~t of the barrel. is graduated from 300 to ,750 DUn. (11-81 to

67

29·58 ins.), every 20 mm, ('79 m.) being numbered and further sub-divided into divi.sions of 5 mm.

(.20 t'ne 'breech drig is retained by interrupted threads in two portions and a spring-loaded catch.' ,

4. Breech mechaniam

The breechmechanisID. is of the vertical. $ding block type, A spring box, mounted on the right-band side of the breech ring. contains the breech block operating mecbani,m: The gun is . antomat:ica.llycocked when the breech is opened. A pinion is mounted on a shaft, on which the L.B.M, and lever operating breech block: are also carried. The latter engages a circular boss on the link of the firing mecbtmism and provides link action fur opening and closing the breech block.

i. To open the bl'f!eCh (by band)

The first: movement of the L.B.M. lifts a catch which allows a rack Sleeve to move forward.

Rotation of the L.B.M. to the rear rotates ita pivot shaft, which, by means of the lever operating breech block, opens the. breech, . The .l.'ini?n is also rotated and turns an idler .which causes the racJr: to move iorward. The rack carnes WIth It a plunger and compresses a spnng. The extractors hold the bl-eech block open against this spriDg pressure.

ii.To clOIe the breech (by hand) .

When th~ extractors are closed by loading a round, the spring reasserts it8elf, and drives ,the plunger iothe rear, carrying with it the rack. The rack rotates the pinion via the idler wheel. The

pinion rotates the lever operating breech block and closes the breech. .

ill. To fire

. The striker spring is held between the firing mechanism body and the hollow striker body. 'The two parts are held together with the spring by an " L .. shaped lever pivoted in tbefiring IQechanism body. The catch end of the lever is positioned over the sear when assembled in the breech block.

On the bottom of the striker body is a lug which engages With the cock:iog-piece. A short lever on the outside of the cocking-piece engages the ha.nd cocking lever, The cocking-piece is kept in

the tM position by a spring. '

68

. Rotation of the cocking-piece" forces the striker 'body' to the rear uuttl. the" L .. lever ~age8 the front of two slotS on the top face of the striker. The anvil-shaped rear end of the tiring pin 18

struck by the striker body. . .

A safety ,ca.tch is provided and the .meehanism cannot be liredprematurely, as the external firing lever does not engage with the sear shaft in the breech block until the breech block is (Wly home.

5. The mountlnl1

i. Body and cradle _

The body incorporates a centre pivot mounted on a' cross beam. The cradle is mounted In trunnion bearings. An iron guard is fixed to the right of the cradle, as protectioo for the loader.

ii. HouaJ.nit ,top ,

A housing stop in front of the centre pivot keeps the gun horizontal and the platform. mounting central wh~ travelling.

iii. Balanclng gear ~

A balancing gear (to counteract breech preponderance) is attached..to the cradle and body. It' CODI!Iists cf two telescopic spring-load¢ cases, qne on each side cf the body.

iv. Elevatb:llt gear

The elevating gear is on the left-hand side of the gun' and is controlled by an elevating wheel with a fciding bandle., An inscription cn the_ bandwheel reads :....:...

HOHE ELEVATE

1 UMDR-12 STR

1 TURN-40 MINS.

v. Travenlnll gear

The traversing gear is behind the elevB.ting handwheeL Traverse is limited bya spring loaded stop to 15 degrees left or right. The handwhee1 is inscribed :-

NACH RECHTS _ TO RIGlIT

1 UMDR-4S 5TH

1 TURN-21 DEGREES

69

'Yi. FlrlDll aear

The firing gear is mOUDted on a bIaCket on the left trunnion and consists of a firing lever with & .pring box return. The lever is released by a lanyard attached toa loop at the top of the Dring lever. A smallsble}d is attached to the gear.with a round hole at the front and marked" FEUER" and ,., SJCHER.·· This eD.II.blea the layer to see whether the firing lever • in· the FIRE or SAFE position.

vii. Si!1htll .

Open sights (rear sight adjustable for range and deflection) are fixed to the top of the recoil system. They cannot be uaed on this particular mountiDg owing to the position of the mantlet.

A teleecopic sight with adjustable graticulee is mounted on the left-hand tnmnion. Magnification

18 X 2·5 and field of view 20 degrees. .

viii. Shield.

The main Shield is secured to the cradle and moves wheu the guD is traversed. A small port

OD the Jeft aide give. a view to the front for the telescopic sight. . .

A larger port at the centre i& closed by a small vertical sliding shield which operatee in guides on the main shield wben thf gun is elevated or depreased. Below the vertical shield is a fiap shield with two aide winp. which functioD with the aid of two small aprinp. one on each side of the Wge

port at the bottom. . . .

6. Recoll .yatem·

This is housed in the cylindrical casiDg above the piece and COD.Bista of lP: spring recuperator (8 springs) and a liquid (water andJlycerine) buffer. The springs a.re mounted on the outside of the buffer cylinder and are support . by a .circular flange ih the rear of the case. OD recoil. the cylinder is drawn over the bufler piston, the buffer piston rod beins screwed to a cywl(irical cap. The breech ring is secured by a nut and an interrupted thread to the buffer cylinder. The nut,.·.which is fitted with a folding handle incorporating a locking device. is carried in a bored-out lug iDtegral with the breech ring. A.lrojectiOD on the nut engages one end of a roclting lever mounted in the breech mg. The other en of the lever engages the firing lev.. Safety is auured as the firins mecbani8JD

C8Dllot be operated when the gaD nut is in. the unlockecl positioD.· .

70 ,

i. 'Action' of recoil sy'$tem

On recoil, the recnpera.tor spring is compressed and the buffer cylinder, which has two shallowing grooves cut in the inner surface, is drawn over the buffer piston. At the same tl::!ne the control rod is drawn ont of the hollow bnffer ,piston rod. Liquid is forced over thebu:fle.r piston via the ahallowing grooves to the other side of the'cylinder. Recoil. ceases when the etul of the groove is r,ached. At the &ame time liquid in the hollow buffer piston rod passes through a port in the control rod, pushes the valve from left to right and comes ant of another, port, thereby fi1ling the right end of the buffer-

piaton rod. ,

, Oil run-out, li~uid passes' from left to 'right over the .buffer piston via the shallowing grooves which are now getting deeper as nm-out ~.

, The control rod valve is forced on to Ita closing port and liquid is forced through the emall hole

drilled in the valve and ant of the port, thereby providing the rnn-out control.

7. ''!be carrialle

t. The vehlcle

The chassis is the Pz. Kw. 1 Model B. The driver's sea.t is ori the floor to the left rear of the gear box, which has six gears, The engine .is housed in the rear centre, with, the fuel t&nks on the

right: the water ~ system and air intake system. are to.the left. ,. -.

ii., Ammunition boxes

Two boXes, ,each holding 12 rounds, act as seats for the 4eta.chm.ent. A box: below the cress beam holds 16 rounds and a larger box, holding 34 rounds, is on the 800r of the vehicle. Total

74 rounds. . -

8, The detachment

There is a detachmeDt-of, three, whose,q.llties are :~

Commanciet' and layer. .

No.2.-Loader. , , '

No. 3.-Driver and WIT opemtor.

71

VII.-5~. (1'97 In.) ANTI~TANK GUN (5 OM. PAK 38) (Su Figs. 17-21)

c1. General

This weapon was introduced in 1941 'to teplacethe 3~,7-cm. (1'45 in.) auti-tank gun, It is, one of the most effective German anti-tank guns at present in service.

>._

FIG, 17.-5 CM, (1'97 IN.) A,TK. GUN (5 91'1; PAK 38)

Itis mounted on a split trail carriage and is normally towed by a eemi-tracked tractor, There may also be a self-propelled version. Recently a 'similar gun, ,without a muzzle brake and electriCally

:fired instead of by percussion, has beenmounted in the latest type of Pz, Kw, III. '

. .' .

, I

.j"-

72

The gun fires A.P. shell, H.E. and A.P. 40 sbot. The latter, a light ahot with a ballietic cap and tungsten carbide core, has a good A.P. perfonnance at ranges under 500 yards. The la~ type of

, A.P. shell has a piercing cap. .

2. Data

I. General

Muzzle velocity (A.P.l : 2,700 ft./sec.

Muzzle velocity (A.P.40): 8,940 ft./aec.

Muzzle velocity (H.E.); 1,800 ft./IJf1C. Ma.x:im.~ nuige (H.E.).: 2,840 yards

Maximum range (A.P.l: 1,540 yards

Maxiuium range (A.P. 40)! 170 yards

Effective range (A.P.l; 880 yards and under Effective range (A.P. 40): 500 yards and tinder E1Iective range (H.E.): 2,000 yardI and under Practical rate of fire: 10-15 RP.M.

Overa:llength of gun (including breech ring and ~); 124·96 ina. Depresaion: 18 degrees.

Elevation': 27 degrees

Tra~e: 65~

Weight (gun and lJI4"(:hanism): 6 cwt. 28 lb. Weight of COIIlplete equipment: 18 crt

'.

73

ii, Ammunition

The following three types are fired !-

-Weight of Length of Weight of Identification
Type complete complete projectile Fuze
round round ,.
A,P, tracer shell , .. . .. 91b, 3 oz. 21·" ins. .flb.9'os. Base Projectile black.
, case marked
scm. Pak 88
Pzgr.
H.E. shell ... .. ... - ... 7 lb., 3 oz. 23'7 ins. 3 lb. 15 oz. Nose Projectile dark
(A.Z.S9) green. case
marked 5 em.
Pak sa Spgr.
'A.P.40 shot ... ... 6,lb. 11 oz. 19'5 ins. 2'025 lb. None Projectile black.
case marked
Scm. Pak sa
Pzgr.40. iii. Penetration of homogeneous armour

R_p Firing A ,Po wll

(yft.r)

500

700

1,000 1,200

, , ..

" ""tM&kn6$$ of 1If'ffWU" in ...

80 4,,"'.$ Nontial

-65, {2'56 inS'j 78 (3'07 ins.)

61'(2'40 iDs. 73 (2'87 ina.)

66 (2·20 ins. 67 (2'64 ins.)

52 (2'05 inL 6S (2'48 iDe.)

._'.

74

3. The a~ (ut Pills. 18-20)

I, The barrel is of monobloc, loose baITel construction and is fitted wit1l a mume brake,

ii. The breeCh rlna ~ rectangular and is secured to the banel by a loose aCrewed collar, A clinometer plane is provided. The recuper&.tor system is a.ttached underneath the ring by a detach· able lug. The extractors are fitted. to and kept in position-by an extraCtor releasing lever WhiC(l

passes thrOugh the breech ring (su Fig. 21). .

Breech

FlG. la.-SCN. (1·97 IN.) A.TK. Gt:'~ (5 ex. PA.K 38)

Breech mechanism lever.

releasing lever.

Firing plunger.

Safe and fire Iever.

B~eech

FIG. 19.-5 cu. (1·9 7m.) A.TK. GUN (5CM. PAR 38) BREECH M:~CHANIS.M

76

Breech mechanism lever.

'ng shaft. .g

Safe1q' p[Unger.~

FIG. 20.-5 CIt. (1'9'1 IN.) A.TK. Gw (5 CM. PAX 38) Bauca IbcBANlSll

Extractor releasinq lever.

ExlTactors .

..... - .....

" FIG, 21.-5 CIL (1-97 IN.) A.TIC. GUN (5 Cl(. PAK 38) ExTRACTORS ANDlOtTRACTOR' RFTEASING LEVER

78

iii. The L.BoM. spdnj case conalsts of the spring case, which is in two ,pari:! (the front with the piston retaining cap and the rear with tbe piston, piston catch and pawl), the rack spindle retaining catch, the rack spindle, the S.A. and hand plunger, and the -inner and outer springs. When Bet to band, the piston catch is rotated inwards and the carriage lever does not engage it. . The piston bead

then has the word " ErN" showing upwards. '

..

4. The breech mechanism (su Fi~ •• 19-20) FOr hand operation set S.A. plunger to .. AUS " .

i.The breech block (SH Fig. 19) is of the horizontal sliding block type·arranged for $,A. working.

, ii, The firlna shaft is in two parts, The front has a toe piece engaging the eafety plunger, which, when the breech is properly closed, is clear of the toe piece, aUowiIJg the plunger to drop into a recess in the breech ring. The rear has a projection which ,engages the firing plunger, When the breech is closed, tbe firing shaft holds the striker in the cocked position.

iii. The re-cocldng shaft has' a. safe· and fire Iever incorporated which can be operated in· dependently. A trip lever on the left engages the carriage on recoil, the right end of the shaft engages the striker and rotating during recoil, it forces the atriker to the rear. When the safe and nre lever is Mt: 'to SAFE the re.cocking shaft is moved ad, that a projection on it retains the striker in tht cocked position, preventing it from moving forwards. At FIRE, the projection is cleared, and allows the ~ont shoulder on the striker to engage the ~ shaft ready to me. .

iv. The a.cwatln,i shaft receives ,the L.B.M. at the top, and the craIik below. The rack pinioD

is mounted centrally on it, ' '

v. The crank is fitted with a sliding block whiCh engages a radial groove in the breech block, vi. The rack pinion engages the rack in the spring case when operated· by hand or semi·

automatically. '

79

vii. The striker bas a shoulder at the front and a lug at the rear to engage the firing and, actuating shafts, and is held in position by a spring.

viii. The fJrlni, plunlter. in the lug on the front lower end of the breech ring, engages the firing shaft when firing.

ix. The lIafety plWl\er in the breech block has a cut-away portion to ~gage the £iring shalt. ' Wben the breech is properly closed, the plunger can enter its reeesa in the bottom of the breech ring.

5. Action of the mechanll1M

For hand operation set the S,A, plunger to ,,'AUS " .

. To open the breech (by hand)

The striker has been re-cockod during recoil. On the L.B.M. being pulled to the right rear, the craak is actuated, forcing ,the sliding block to the left and open; breech position. The extractors eject the cartridge case and retain the breech block iIi the fully open position.

ii. To clo.e breech (by hand)

Release the extractors by loading a cartridge or actuating the- extractor releasing lever. The

breech should close automatically.- If it does not, push L.B.M. to the right a.nd forward. "

:iii. To open the breech (B.A.) ,

Set the spring-plunger to S.A. The word .. EIN •• will then show upwards. On-recoil a stop fitted 10 the cradle over-rides the piston 'catch. On run-out, the stop and front face of the piston catch engage, forcing th~ piston to the rear and compresaing the inner and outer springs. till the piston catch is forced inwards and the outer spring reasserts itself. The piston with the rack spindle then moves forward under the action of the outer spring, the rack engages the L.B.M. piniop., revolves it and, rotates the L:B.M. to the right rear. eo opening the breech.

tv, To close the bl'e8Ch (S.A.)

Release the extractors· by loading a cartridge. The inner spring then asserts itself, allowing the

~ :rack spindle to move forward and rotate the pinion.and L.B.M. to the closed position. '

so.

v. To fire

The firing plunger is forced upwards by iii- lever on the carriage, which engages the firing lever and rotates it. The striker is held cocked by the firing shaft, and is released when the cut-away portion on it is opposite the front shoulder on. the' striker, thus firing the round. The recooking . process follows all recoil.

6. Safety Arran~ements (Mechanical)

i. Unless the breech block is properly closed, the safety plunger will not enter its recess in the

lower face of the breech ring, and the gun cannot be fired. . .

it If the safety plunger is not in-Its recess, the firing shaft cannot be rotated,

'. iii. The breech cannot be opened if the striker is not cocked, as the firing shaft is engaged with

the safety plunger, which is in its recess. '.

,7. StrippJng and Assembly 1. To dismantle the mechanism

Remove the securing pin from the. L.B.M. spring case, swing' the case to the.left and front and

..:emove the castellated nut and case complete. , .

Remove the extractor releasing • lever, pulling it upwards. Rotate the L.B.M. to the right and rear, 80 moving the breech block a,nd extractors. Remove the extractors from the left. Close the breech and set the safe and fire lever to FIRE. Press the striker cap in and remove with the spring and striker, which mnst be uncocked. Open the breech slightly until the key on the actuating shaft is in. line with the keyway on the breech block. Remove the L.B.M. dust cap, pillion and

- actuating shaft.

Wi'thdraw the breech block and crank. Remove the retaining pin from the firing and recooking shafts. Remove firing and recooking shafts with the safety plunger.

ii. To assemble .the mechatiJsm

Assemble the breech mechanism spring c~e to, the breech -ring. InSert the safety plunger in •

81

the breech' blod. Insert the firing and recocking shafts, securing them by the reta.i.nin'g pin. Fit

the crank to breech block and place in the breech ring., '

. Assemble the pinion on the actuating shaft with the dust cap a.nd L.B.M .. Fit them to the breech block, with the pinion engaging the assembling line on the rack, and the 'key on the actuating shaft in line with the keyway on the breech block. Place striker, spring and-cap in the breech block.

Aasemble the extractors to the breech block and push the block to the closed position until the extractor releasing lever can be inserted.

8. The Carriage

The carriage is of the. split tra~ type carried on two disc wheels, with a third detachable wheel to increase speed of bringing the gun into action. The carriage consists mainly of the' following :-

i. Tbe trail has Bplit tubuiar legs. The right'leg has a cradle clamp near the frOllt and a travetaing stop. The left leg is fitted with a stop for the cra4le clamp and a trail eye and locking bolt, so j:hat the legs can be locked together for travelling. Each leg bas a spade, lifting handle, and travm1ng handle.

ii. The axle houses a pintle to which a traversing rack is fixed. The ends are cranked forwatd

totake the wheels. '

iii. The .addle supporlsthe cradle and gun and. is pivoted to the aXle. The sighting gear and layer's guard are mounted on the left trunnion and 'a hydro-pneumatic ,compensating cylinder is fitted to the right. The function of the cylinder. filled with air under pressure and a small qU8Jltity of, liquid, is to balance the cradle and piece. which are muule heavy. .

tv, The cradle houseS the buffer and recuperator, The. semi-automatic cam anns which engage the buffer stop on the L.B.M. are bolted to the left side.

v, The elevatin, sear gives 27 degrees elevation and 18 degrees depression. It is operated by a hanclwbeelon the left side of the ca.rria.ge.

vi. The traversina gear ia operated froui the left side of the carriage and anov. .. ' about S21

degrees traverse left and right (total 65 degrees}. .. .

82

vii. The eJghUng gear is operated from the left side and is fitted to the Ielt saddle trunnion.

The sight bracket carries an open or telescopic sight, andjs provided with a lateral defiection gear, a range drum, and means of adjustment for line and elevation. Mapffication of 1:be telescopi.c sight

is x 3. A battery for lighting the sight for night shooting is fitted. '

The range drum is graduated in black for A.P. (pz) and in red for H.E. (Spr). The figures 5-8-10-12-14 on the A.P. ·scale COITespond to ranges of 500, 800; 1,000, 1.200 and 1.400 metRa. Ranges of 300, 700 and 1,100 metres are aet oninterm.ediate graduations which, however, have no

ligures against them. '

The scale for H.E. is marked 4-6-8-10, etc., up to 24. TheBe figures correspond to ranges of 400, 600,800. 1,000 metres, etc. Rangee in between are set: on the intermediate gradl,l&tions.

A small lever with a wonn screw operates the lateral defiection gear. With a direct approa.cllet the lever should be pointed towards the layer. Ii the tank is moving I.CIOIIB the line of eight the lever should be tumed, two' notches in the direction of travel (~.g. lever should be tumed to the left for engaging a. tank moving from right to left). The lever should be moved only one notch for an oblique target. Lateral deflections may be set in this way for t:a.rgets travelling at less than 12 m.p.h.

For targets travelling at more than 12 m.p.h. the graticules on the sight should be used. The central mark should be employed for direct approachers, and the left and right laying-off mark's

~ targets moving to the right and left respectiVely.. ' ,

The Germans use the following table B.S a guide to avoid altering the eight frequently in action :-

Ra.ng~ RtEtlg6 dt't4m Pari 0/ 'kmAi 'laid 011'

(YMcU) S6ttitlg

1,100-880 8 Pz.

880-550 8 Pz.

Less than 550 8 Pz.

, Between top and centre of tank Between centre and bottom of tank Centre of tank

For instance, to engage a tank 770. yards away travelling obliquely to the left at 18 m.p.h., the layer sets the range drum to 8 Pz., moves the lever one notch to the left, and laY' the rlghtIaying.

off mark below the centre of the target. "

83.

viii The cradle flrln* tear is operated from ·the elevating haudwhee1. A push knob, to which i'J attached a Bowden cable. actuates the firing mechanism.

ix. The shield consists of two -4 rum. sheets of armour plate spaced about I in. apart. The kft side of the shield has a sight port,

9. Buffer and recuperator

I, The butter cyUnder is mounted in the cradle. Tho piston rod, which is connected to the gun lug, is hollow and fitted with a bronze piston head. Ports are drllled in the conical part of the piston; a tapered rod i8 screwed into the front plug of the cylinder and projectS into the hollow piston rod.

Run.out control is effected. by a brass control plunger screwed to theeDd of the tapered rod.

Towards the end of the run-out, this plunger enters a bore of smaller diameter in the piston rod.

Tapered grooves cut in the plunger graduate the control. ,

The piston rod 8tuffing box, is packed with soft packings. ' Nonnal recoil is 700 mm. (m·se ins.) ; metal to metal 730 mm. (28'74 ins.). The buffer should, according to Gemlan iDstructiODll, be filled till the ~'gauge on the nea:r edge protrudes 44 mm. (If ins.).

n. The rec:uperator is hydro-pneumatic. The hydro-pneumatic and recuperator cylinders are situated one above the other in the cradle. The recuperator piston rod is fix.ed. to the gun lug.

10. Detachmei:lt

The Gennans have a detachment of six, whose duties are;Gun commander.

No. I.-Layer.

No. 2.-Loader whcl fires the gun. Nos. 3 and '.-Ammunition numbers. No. !i.-Driver.

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