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Table of Commonly Used IV Solutions

Name of Type of Ingredients in Uses Complications


Solution Solution 1-Liter
0.45% Sodium Hypotonic 77 mEq Sodium hypotonic hydration; replace if too much is mixed with
Chloride pH 5.6 77 mEq Chloride sodium and chloride; blood cells during
hyperosmolar diabetes transfusions, the cells will pull
Shorthand Notation: water into them and rupture
½NS
0.9% Sodium Isotonic 154 mEq Sodium isotonic hydration; replace None known
Chloride pH 5.7 154 mEq Chloride sodium and chloride;
alkalosis; blood transfusions
Shorthand Notation: (will not hemolyze blood cells)
NS

3% Sodium Chloride Hypertonic 513 mEq Sodium


pH 5.0 513 mEq Chloride symptomatic hyponatremia
rapid or continuous infusion
due to excessive sweating,
can result in hypernatremia or
5% Sodium Chloride Hypertonic 855 mEq Sodium vomiting, renal impairment,
hyperchloremia
pH 5.8 855 mEq Chloride and excessive water intake

5% Dextrose in Isotonic 5 grams dextrose isotonic hydration; provides


Water pH 5.0 (170 calories/liter) some calories

Shorthand Notation:
D5W
water intoxication and dilution
of body's electrolytes with
10% Dextrose in Hypertonic 10 grams dextrose may be infused peripherally;
long, continuous infusions
Water pH 4.3 (340 calories/liter) hypertonic hydration;
provides some calories
Shorthand Notation:
D10W

5% Dextrose in 1/4 Hypertonic 5 grams Dextrose fluid replacement; vein irritation because of
Strength (or 0.25%) pH 4.4 34 mEq Sodium replacement of sodium, acidic pH, causes
Saline 34 mEq Chloride chloride and some calories agglomeration (clustering) if
used with blood transfusions;
Shorthand Notation: hyperglycemia with rapid
D5¼NS
5% Dextrose in 0.45 Hypertonic 5 grams Dextrose hypertonic fluid replacement;
Sodium Chloride pH 4.4 77 mEq Sodium replace sodium, chloride, and
77 mEq Chloride some calories
Shorthand Notation:
D5½NS
infusion leading to osmotic
5% Dextrose in Hypertonic 5 grams Dextrose hypertonic fluid replacement; diuresis
Normal Saline pH 4.4 154 mEq Sodium replace sodium, chloride and
154 mEq Chloride some calories
Shorthand Notation:
D5NS

Ringer’s Injection, Isotonic 147 mEq Sodium electrolyte replacement; rapid administration leads to
U.S.P. pH 5.8 4 mEq Potassium hydration; often used to excessive introduction of
4 mEq Calcium replace extracellular fluid electrolytes and leads to fluid
155 mEq Chloride losses overload and congestive
conditions; provides no
calories and is not an
adequate maintenance
solution if abnormal fluid
losses are present

Lactated Ringer’s Isotonic 130 mEq Sodium isotonic hydration; replace


pH 6.6 4 mEq Potassium electrolytes and extra-
Shorthand Notation: 3 mEq Calcium cellular fluid losses; mild to
LR 109 mEq Chloride moderate acidosis (the lactate
28 mEq Sodium is metabolized into
Lactate bicarbonate which counteracts not enough electrolytes for
(provides 9 the acidosis) maintenance; patients with
calories/liter) hepatic disease have trouble
5% Dextrose in Hypertonic 5 grams Dextrose hypertonic hydration; metabolizing the lactate; do
Lactated Ringer’s pH 4.9 (170 calories/liter) provides some calories; not use if lactic acidosis is
Injection 130 mEq Sodium replace electrolytes and extra- present
4 mEq Potassium cellular fluid losses; mild to
Shorthand Notation: 3 mEq Calcium moderate acidosis (the lactate
D5LR 109 mEq Chloride is metabolized into
28 mEq Sodium bicarbonate which counteracts
Lactate (provides 9 the acidosis), the dextrose
calories/liter) minimizes glycogen depletion