Chapter 3
Stage and Continuous Gas
Liquid Separation Processes
Introduction to Separations
The goal of a separations process is to purify solutions.
To do this we must cause differential transport of species or conversion of species
so that the purer mixtures can be collected. Most separations processes involve
differential transport.
_{m}_{i}_{x}_{e}_{d}
separated
Examples:
Separation of blood Purification of drugs Purification of Au Refining of crude oil DNA testing Purification of organics Purification of water
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Introduction to Separations
1.
Mixtures
Mixtures: 2 or more components
Mixture classification:
Homogeneous  single phase, gas or liquid
Air  N _{2} , Ar, O _{2}
Dry syngas: CO/H _{2} /CH _{4} /CO _{2}
Heterogeneous  multiple, immiscible phases
Liquid + liquid, e.g. oil + water
solid + liquid
solid + gas
liquid + gas
Mixing  spontaneous, irreversible
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Introduction to Separations
2. Separation Types:
Separation:
Mixture Products that differ in composition
Classification:
Force field (mechanical)
Gravity, pressure, electrical field, centrifugal force
Heterogeneous mixtures
Physical  exploit differences in physical properties
vapor pressure, solubility, molecular geometry, surface activity, freezing
point
Chemical  based on differences in reactivity
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Possible two phases: Gas – Liquid, Gas – Solid, Liquid – Liquid, Liquid  Solid
Separation by phase contact is normally achieved in three steps:
1. Intimate contact of the two phases
2. Redistribution of the components between the two phases
3. Physical separation of the two phases
Although the extent of a separation is determined by thermodynamics, the rate of separations is limited by the differential rate at which the different species are moved. That is:
The Rate of Separation is limited by Mass Transport.
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Processing Methods
Singlestage process
Mixing the two phases, eg. gas and liquid, together in a vessel and then separated
Multiplestage process
P
F
2
The phases are mixed in one stage, separated, and then brought into contact again
The two methods can be carried out batchwise or continuous.
• Cascades is another terminology for multiple stage process. • Sequences of separators can be used to achieve higher purities or to recover
more solute from a product stream.
• Cascades can be configured in various ways.
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Cascades
Three single section cascade configurations are:
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Experimental GasLiquid Equilibrium Data
Example: SO _{2} – air – water system
1. An amount of SO _{2} , air _{,} and water are put in a closed container and shaken repeatedly at a given temperature until equilibrium is reached.
2. Samples of the gas and liquid are analyzed to determine the partial pressure p _{A} of SO _{2} (A) in the gas phase and the mole fraction x _{A} in the liquid phase.
p A
x A
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GasLiquid Equilibrium: Henry’s Law
Applied for pressure low enough that vapor phase may be assumed as ideal gas.
For a species present as a very dilute solute in the liquid phase.
The equilibrium relationship between p _{A} in the gas phase and x _{A} can be expressed by a straightline Henry’s law equation:
Henry’s
Hx
p A
p
A
A
'
H x
P
x
A
y
A
A
where,
p _{A}
H = Henry’s law constant (atm/mol fraction).
H' = Henry’s law constant (mol frac.gas/mol frac.liquid). = H/P.
X _{A} = mole fraction of component A in liquid. ( dimension less ) Y _{A} = mole fraction of component A in gas = p _{A} /P. ( dimensionless )
P = total pressure (atm).
= partial pressure of component A (atm).
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Example 10.21: Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water
What will to be the concentration of oxygen dissolved in water at 298 K when the solution is in equilibrium with air at 1 atm total pressure ? The Henry’s law constant is 4.38 x 10 ^{4} atm/mol fraction.
The partial pressure p _{A} of oxygen (A) in air is 0.21 atm.
Solution:
p
A
Hx
A
0.21=H x _{A} = 4.38 x10 ^{4} x _{A}
Solving , x _{A} = 4.80 x10 ^{}^{6} mol fraction.
This means that 4.80 x10 ^{}^{6} mol O _{2} is dissolved in 1 mole water plus oxygen.
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SingleStage Equilibrium Contact
This is defined as one in which two different phases are brought into intimate contact with each other and then separated when equilibrium is achieved
During contact, intimate mixing occurs and various components diffuse and redistribute themselves between the two phases
Consider the two entering phases, L _{0} and V _{2} , of known amounts and compositions.
After
mixing
and
equilibrium,
the
two
streams V _{1} and L _{1} can be separated
V 1
V 2
L
1
L
0
Total mass balance:
L
0
V
2
L
1
V M
1
(1)
If three component, A, B, and C, present in the streams:
L
0
x
A0
L
0
x
C0
V y V y
2
2
A2
C2
L x L x
1
1
A1
C1
V y V y
1
1
A1
C1
Mx
= Mx
AM
CM
(2)
(3)
An equation for B is not needed since x _{A} + x _{B} + x _{C} = 1.0
Unknowns: L _{1} , V _{1} , x _{A}_{1} , x _{C}_{1} , y _{A}_{1} , y _{C}_{1} Other three equations are needed??
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For Gasliquid system
Solute A is in the gas phase V (or light phase) with inert air B
Also it is in the liquid phase L (or heavy phase) with inert water C
Assuming air is insoluble in the water phase and water does not vaporize to the gas ^{p}^{h}^{a}^{s}^{e}
Gas phase is a binary of AB and liquid phase is a binary of AC.
V _{1} (AB)
V _{2} (A –B)
L _{0} (AC)
L _{1} (AC) Richer in A
L =L 1x A V =V 1y A 


L L / 1x V=V / 1y 
A A 


A 1 1 y 
A 1 where: 
y 
A 
1 ' H x 
A 
1 
y
If L ^{’} = mole of inert water C;
V ^{’} = moles inert air B:
' 
' 
' 
' 
' 
' 

L 
L L 
and V V V 

0 
1 
2 
1 
Since A is the only component that distributes between the two phases , moles balance on solute A can be written as
L x
'
1
A
0
x
A
0
y
V
'
A
2
1
y
A
2
x
L
'
A 1
1 x
A 1
V
'
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Example 10.31: Equilibrium Stage Contact for CO _{2} –AirWater.
A gas mixture at 1.0 atm pressure abs containing air and CO _{2} is contacted in a singlestage mixer continuously with pure water at 293 K. The two exit gas and liquid streams reach equilibrium. The inlet gas flow rate is 100 kg mol/h, with a mole fraction of CO _{2} of y _{A}_{2} = 0.20. The liquid flow rate entering is 300 kg mol water/h. calculate the amounts and compositions of the two outlet phases. Assume that water does nor vaporize to the gas phase.
Solution
V 1
^{y} A1
L _{0} = 300 kg mol/h x _{A}_{0} = 0
V _{2} = 100 kg mol/h y _{A}_{2} = 0.20
L 1
^{x} A1
1 atm
293 K
(1) The inert water flow is L’ = L _{0} = 300 kg mol/h.
(2) The inert air flow V’ is obtained from,
V'= V _{2} (1y _{A}_{2} )
= 100 (10.20)
= 80 kg mol/h .
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A balance on CO _{2} (A):
'
x
A
0
L
1
x
A
0
y
V
'
A
2
1
y
A
2
'
x
L
A 1
1
x
A 1
'
y
V
A 1
1 y
A 1
300
0
1 0
80
0.20
1 0.20
x 1 x
300
A 1
A 1
y 1 y
80
A 1
A 1
(1)
The Resulting equation has two unknowns (x _{A}_{1} and y _{A}_{1} )
It is possible to calculate the y _{A}_{1} by the use of Henry’s law because the gas and liquid are in equilibrium
y
A1
'
H x
A1
At 293 K, the Henry’s law constant H = 0.142 x 10 ^{4} atm/mol frac. (Appendix A.3)
H' = H/P = 0.142 x 10 ^{4} /1.0 = 0.142 x 10 ^{4} mol frac. gas/mol frac. Liquid.
y _{A}_{1} = 0.142 x 10 ^{4} x _{A}_{1}
(2)
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Solving equation (1) and (2) simultaneously, get x _{A}_{1} = 1.41 x 10 ^{}^{4} and y _{A}_{1} = 0.20.
To calculate the total flow rates leaving,
L
1
'
L
1 x
A 1
V
1
'
V
1 y
A
1
300
1
1.41
10
4
300
kgmol h
/
80
1
0.20
100
kgmol h
/
In this case, since the liquid solution is so dilute, L _{0} L _{1} .
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Graphical Representation
Cocurrent
V
1
V
2
L 1
L 2
Total material balance:
Component A balance:
L L x V V y L V L x V y
1
1
A1
1
1
2
A1
2
2
A 2
2
A 2
Again if there are inert components in both light and heavy phases such that flow rates of these inert components, i.e. L ^{’} and V ^{’} , remain constant, defining concentrations of solute free basis as:
X
x
^{} 1 x
&
Y
y
^{} 1 y
Operating line: an equation obtained from material balance which relates compositions of any two passing streams together . It defines operating conditions within the
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For transfer of solute from light to heavy:
Y
Operating line
above equilibrium curve
Eqm. curve
X
there are no inert
components in the phases, operating line representing the material balance can no longer be a straight line, but becomes a
When
curve
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Countercurrent
V 1
V 2
Total material balance:
Component A balance:
V L V L x V y L x V y
L
0
0
A0
2
2
1
A 2
1
1
A1
1
A1
L
0
L 1
If there are inert components in the phases which do not transfer:
'
L
(
'
X X V Y Y
0
1
1
2
)
(
_{)}
operating line equation:
'
L
'
V
For transfer of solute from heavy to light:
2
1
Y
X
Y
1
X
0
L
solute
V
X _{0} > X _{1} Y _{1} > Y _{2}
Operating line Below equilibrium curve
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For transfer of solute from light to heavy:
V
solute
L
Y
Eqm. curve
X _{0} < X _{1} Y _{1} < Y _{2}
Operating line above equilibrium curve
X
there are no inert
components in the phases, operating line representing the material balance can no longer be a straight line, but becomes a
curve
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Countercurrent MultipleContact Stages
To transfer more solute from the V _{1} stream, for example, the single stage can be repeated by contacting the V _{1} stream with fresh L _{0} .
V
1
V
2
More solute is removed
L 0
L
0
L
1
To conserve use of the L _{0} stream and to get more concentrated product, countercurrent
multiplestage contacting is generally used.
N = total number of ideal stages
Since the stages are ideal, any two streams leaving any stage are in equilibrium with
each other:
Example: V _{n} and L _{n} are in equilibrium
The twophase system can be gasliquid, vaporliquid, liquidliquid, etc.
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Total overall balance on all stages,
L
0
V
N
1
L
N
V
1
= M
V _{N}_{+}_{1} and L _{N} in mol/h M : total flow
Overall component balance on A, B or C,
L x
0
0
V y
1
N N
1
L x
N N
V y
1
1
_{=} _{M}_{x} _{M}
x and y are mole fractions
For the first n stages ,
This is why we write n instead of N
L L x V V y L
0
0
0
n
1
n
1
n
n
1
1
V L x V y
n n
1
1
Solving for y _{n}_{+}_{1} ,
L
n
V y
1
1
L x
0
0
slope
L
n
V
n
1
Highly important material balance equation
Called: Operating line
Relates y _{n}_{+}_{1} in V _{n}_{+}_{1} with x _{n} in L _{n}
V _{1} , y _{1} , L _{0} and x _{0} are constant and usually known or calculated using balance eqns above
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Countercurrent Contact with Immiscible Streams
Stream V contains A and B with no C
L and V are immiscible in each other but only A being transferred
Stream L contains A and C with no B
If L and V vary from stage to stage, the slope L _{n} /V _{n}_{+}_{1} varies
x
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Graphical procedure for counting number of stages
1. 
Draw operating line. 
2. 
Draw equilibrium line (Henry’s law) 
3. 
Start at stage 1 by locating y _{1} and x _{0} on the operating line 
4. 
The vapor y _{1} leaving is in equilibrium with the leaving x _{1} and both points should be on the equilibrium line, thus locate this point by lying a horizontal line from the operating line at y _{1} to the equilibrium line (one stage). 
5. 
Then y _{2} and x _{1} are on the operating line; locate this point by extending a vertical line from the equilibrium line at x _{1} to the operating line. 
6. 
Then y _{2} is in equilibrium with x _{2} , and so on 
7. 
The steps are counted on the graph until y _{N}_{+}_{1} is reached 
N.B. If A is dilute (< 10%) in both streams L and V, then the slope L _{n} /V _{n}_{+}_{1} is constant and the operating line is essentially a straight line
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Example 10.32: Absorption of Acetone in a Countercurrent Stage Tower
It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0 mol% acetone in air in a
countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0 kgmol/h, and the total inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb the acetone is 90 kgmol H _{2} O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300 K and a total pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone (A) in the gasliquid is y _{A} = 2.53x _{A} . Determine the number of theoretical stages required for this separation.
Solution:
Identification of the data given :
y _{A}_{N}_{+}_{1} = 0.01
x _{A}_{0} = 0 V _{N}_{+}_{1} = 30.0 kg mol/h, L _{0} = 90.0 kg mol/h.
(1 mole % of acetone in air entering)
(Pure water ) (total inlet gas flow to the tower ) (total inlet pure water )
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Making an acetone material balance:
(1) amount of entering acetone = y _{A}_{N}_{+}_{1} V _{N}_{+}_{1} = 0.01(30.0) = 0.3 kg mol/h.
(2) entering air = (1 y _{A}_{N}_{+}_{1} )V _{N}_{+}_{1} = (10.01)(30.0) = 29.7 kg mol air/h
(3) acetone leaving in V _{1} = 0.10(0.30) = 0.030 kg mol/h.
(4) acetone leaving in L _{N} = 0.90(0.30) = 0.27 kg mol/h.
from the four steps above, V _{1} , y _{A}_{1} , L _{N} ,and x _{A}_{N} can be calculated
V _{1}
y _{A}_{1} = (0.030/29.73) = 0.00101
L _{N}
x _{A}_{N} = (0.27/90.27)
= 29.7 + 0.03
= 29.73 kg mol air + acetone/h.
= 90.0 + 0.27
= 90.27 kg mol water + acetone /h.
= 0.0030.
Since the flow of liquid varies only slightly from L _{0} = 90.0 at the inlet to L _{N} = 90.27 at the the outlet and V from 30.0 to 29.73, the slope L _{n} /V _{n}_{+}_{1} of the operating line is essentially constant.
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This line is plotted, and the equilibrium relation of Henry y _{A} = 2.53x _{A} is also plotted.
Starting at point y _{A}_{1} ,x _{A}_{0} the stages are drawn. About 5.2 theoretical stages are required.
Mole fraction acetone in water, x _{A}
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Analytical Equations for Countercurrent Stage Contact
Assumptions:
1. Constant flow rates: L _{n} = L _{N} = constant = L and V _{n}_{+}_{1} = V _{N}_{+}_{1} = constant = V → Operating line is straight
2. Equilibrium line is a straight line over the concentration range
Overall component balance on A :
Lx Vy
0
1
Lx Vy
N
Lx V y
n
1
Lx Vy
N
N
1
1
1
N
For the first n stages stages,
Lx
0
Vy
n
1
Combining (1) and (2):
Lx Vy
n
n
1
Or
_{O}_{r}
Or
Lx Vy Lx Vy
Lx Vy Lx Vy
0
1
N
N
1
0
1
n
n
1
L x
(
x
N
)
(
V y
n
y
n
1
N
1
)
(1)
(2)
Now, y _{n}_{+}_{1} and x _{n}_{+}_{1} are in equilibrium and the equilibrium is straight line:
y
L x
(
n
1
n
mx
n
1
x
N
)
and also
(
V mx
n
1
y
y
N
1
N
1
)
mx
N
1
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Divide by mV:
A = absorption factor;
y
m
Ax
N 1
Ax
x n 1
n
N
where A = L/mV
S = 1/A = stripping factor
This equation can be used to count number of stages in stripping and absorption
Kremser Equations
For stripping section: transfer of solute A from phase L to phase V:
N
ln 
x 
0 
( 
y N 
1 
/ 
m ) 
(1 

A 
) 

A 


x 
( 
/ 
m ) 

N 
y N 1 

ln(1/ A 
) 
When A = 1,
For absorption section: transfer of solute A from phase V to phase L:
When A = 1,
N
y 1
mx
0
y N 1
y
1
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If the equilibrium line is not straight but curved somewhat, the slop will vary and, Hence, m and A = L/mV will vary.
Procedure (for varying A):
1. Calculate A _{1} at L _{0} & V _{1} :
A _{1}
=L _{o} /m _{1} V _{1}
2. Calculate A _{N} at L _{N} &V _{N}_{+}_{1} : A _{N} =L _{N} /m _{N} V _{N}_{+}_{1}
3. Calculate the geometric A _{a}_{v}_{e}_{.} =
4. Calculate N.
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Example 10.33: Number of Stages by Analytical Equation.
Repeat Example 10.32 but use the Kremser analytical equation for countercurrent stage processes.
Solution,
V _{1} = 29.73 kg mol/h, y _{A}_{1} = 0.001001, L _{0} = 90.0, and x _{A}_{0} = 0.
Also, the equilibrium relation is y _{A} = 2.53x _{A} where m = 2.53.
Then,
A
1
L L
0
mV
mV
1
90.0
2.53
29.73
1.20
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^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{1}
V _{N}_{+}_{1} =30.0, y _{A}_{N}_{+}_{1} = 0.01, L _{N} = 90.27, and x _{A}_{N} = 0.0030.
ln(A)
1.195
This compares closely with 5.2 stages using graphical method
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{2}
Mass Transfer Between Phases
This concerns transfer of solute from one fluid phase by convection and then through a second fluid phase by convection
Example: diffusion of ammonia (solute) through air (gas phase) and then diffuse through and be absorbed in an adjacent and immiscible liquid phase, such as water.
The two phases should be in direct contact with each other, such as in a packed, tray, or spray type tower
Concentration gradient exist in each phase, causing mass transfer to occur.
Usually equilibrium exists at the interface between the two fluid phases.
At equilibrium, the chemical potential is equal in the two phases and not
concentration
The departure from equilibrium represents the driving force for diffusion
Equilibrium relations are important to determine concentration profiles for predicting rates of mass transfer.
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{3}
Concentration Profiles in Interface Mass Transfer
Usually the two phases which present together with interface between them are essentially immiscible in each other
Consider the situation shown in the drawing when solute A diffuses from the bulk of gas phase G to the liquid phase L.
G phase
L phase
Intefcae
N A
• Solute A must pass through the interface
• Concentration gradient must exist to cause mass transfer through the resistances in each phase.
y _{A}_{G} = average bulk concentration of A in the gas phase = p _{A} /P
x _{A}_{L} = average bulk concentration of A in the liquid phase
y _{A}_{G} to y _{A}_{i} at the interface
Liquid A starts at x _{A}_{i} at the interface and falls to x _{A}_{L} .
y Ai
f x
(
Ai
)
y _{A}_{i} and x _{A}_{i} are in equilibrium and are related by the equilibrium relation:
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{4}
Mass Transfer Using Film MassTransfer Coefficients and Interface Concentrations
1. Equimolar Counterdiffusion
For A diffusing from the gas to liquid and B in counter diffusion from liquid to gas,
N A
k
'
y
(
y y
AG
Ai
)
k x x
'
x
(
Ai
AL
)
y _{A}_{G} – y _{A}_{i} = driving force in the gas phase
4. intersection of line PM with eqm line would determine the interface compositions.
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{5}
2. Diffusion of A Through Stagnant or Nondiffusing B
For A diffusing through a stagnant gas phase and then through a stagnant liquid phase
N
A
k y
(
y AG
y
Ai
)
k x x
x
(
Ai
AL
)
Now:
k
y
k
'
y
(1
y
)
A iM
,
k
x
k
'
x
(1
x
)
A iM
where:
(1
(1
y
)
A iM
x
)
A iM
(1 

y Ai 
) 
(1 
y AG ) 

ln[(1 

y 
Ai 
)/(1 
y AG )] 

(1 

x 
AL 
) 
(1 
x Ai 
) 

ln[(1 

x AL 
)/(1 
x Ai 
)] 
,
Substituting and rearranging:
k 
' x 
/(1 
x ) A iM 
' 

k 
y 
/(1 
y ) A iM 
y AG
y
Ai
x AL
x
Ai
Procedure for locating interface compositions is similar to the previous case; but involves trial and error as x _{A}_{i} and y _{A}_{i} are required to determine the slope for the PM line. For the first trial use (1x _{A} ) _{i}_{M} = (1y _{A} ) _{i}_{M} = 1 (i.e., dilute solution) and then iterate.
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{6}
Example 10.41: : Interface Compositions in Interface Mass Transfer
The solute A is being absorbed from a gas mixture of A and B in wettedwall tower with the liquid flowing as a film downward along the wall. At a certain point in the tower the bulk gas concentration y _{A}_{G} = 0.38 and the bulk liquid concentration is x _{A}_{L} = 0.10. The tower is operating at 298 K and 1.013×10 ^{5} Pa and the equilibrium data are as follows
The solute A diffuses through stagnant B in the gas phase and then through nondiffusing liquid.
Given that k ^{’} _{y} = 1.465×10 ^{}^{5} kgmol A/s.m ^{2} .mol frac and k ^{’} _{x} = 1.967×10 ^{}^{3} kgmol/s.m ^{2} . mol frac; calculate the interface concentration y _{A}_{i} and x _{A}_{i} and the flux N _{A} .
x A 
y A 
0 
0 
0.05 
0.022 
0.10 
0.052 
0.15 
0.087 
0.20 
0.131 
0.25 
0.187 
0.30 
0.265 
0.35 
0.385 
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{7}
Solution
First we plot the equilibrium data
Now we need to find the point P on the graph
Since the correlations are for dilute solutions, (1y _{A} ) _{i}_{M} and (1x _{A} ) _{i}_{M} are approximately 1.0 and the coefficients are the same as k’ _{y} and k’ _{x} .
Point P is plotted at y _{A}_{G} = 0.380 and x _{A}_{L} = 0.1.
For the first trial (1y _{A} ) _{i}_{M} and (1x _{A} ) _{i}_{M} are assumed as 1.0 and the slope of line PM is,
slope
' 

k 
x 
/(1 
x ) A iM 
' 

k 
y 
/(1 
y ) A iM 
1.967
10
3
/1.0
1.465
10
3
/1.0
1.342
A line through point P with a slope of –1.342 is plotted in the figure intersecting the equilibrium line at M _{1} , where
y _{A}_{i} = 0.183
and
x _{A}_{i} = 0.247.
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{8}
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{3}^{9}
For the second trial we use y _{A}_{i} and x _{A}_{i} from the first trial to calculate the new slope.
(1
(1

(1 

y 
Ai ) 
(1 y AG ) 

y ) A ln[(1 iM 

y Ai )/(1 
y AG 
)] 


(1 

x 
AL 
) (1 x Ai ) 

x ) A ln[(1 iM 

x AL )/(1 
x Ai 
)] 
0.715
0.825
slope
' 

k 
x 
/(1 
x ) A iM 
' 

k 
y 
/(1 
y ) A iM 
1.967 
10 
3 
/ 0.825 
1.465 
10 
3 
/ 0.715 
1.163
A line through point P with a slope of –1.163 is plotted and intersects the equilibrium line at M, where y _{A}_{i} = 0.197 and x _{A}_{i} = 0.257. Using these new values for the third trial, the following values are calculated:
(1
y
)
A iM
(1
x
)
A iM
(1
0.197)
(1
0.380)
ln[(1
(1
0.197) /(1
0.38)]
0.1)
(1
0.257)
ln[(1
0.1) /(1
0.257)]
0.709
0.820
JUST Department of Chemical Engineering
^{M}^{a}^{s}^{s} ^{T}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{e}^{r} ^{–} ^{C}^{h}^{E} ^{4}^{6}^{1}
^{C}^{h}^{a}^{p}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{3}^{}^{4}^{0}
slope 
k 
' x 
/(1 
x ) A iM 

1.967 
10 
3 
/ 0.820 
1.160 
k 
' 
1.465 
10 
3 
/ 0.709 

y 
/(1 
y ) A iM 
This slope of –1.160 is essentially the same as the slope of –1.163 for the second trial. Hence, the final values are y _{A}_{i} = 0.197 and x _{A}_{i} = 0.257 and are shown as point M.
To calculate the flux,
N
N
A
A
k
'
y
(1
y
k
A
'
x
)
iM
(1
x
A
)
iM
(y
(x
AG
y
Ai
Ai
x
AL
)
)
1.465 10
3
0.709
1.967
10
3
0.820
(0.380 

0.197) 

(0.257 

0.100) 

3.78 10
4
kgmol/s.m
2
3.78 10
4
kgmol/s.m
2
Note that the flux N _{A}
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