Metrology in Industry

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Metrology in Industry
The Key for Quality

French College of Metrology
Series Editor Dominique Placko

First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2006 by ISTE Ltd Translated into English by Jean Barbier Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: ISTE Ltd 6 Fitzroy Square London W1T 5DX UK ISTE USA 4308 Patrice Road Newport Beach, CA 92663 USA

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© ISTE Ltd, 2006 The rights of the French College of Metrology to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

____________________________________________________________________ Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Metrology in industry : the key for quality / edited by French College of Metrology. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-905209-51-4 1. Quality control. 2. Metrology. I. Collège français de métrologie. TS156.M485 2006 620'.0045--dc22 2006003530
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 10: 1-905209-51-7 ISBN 13: 978-1-905209-51-4 Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4. . . . . . . Accounting for the selection of the method . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 1. 1. . . Foreword. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .4. . . . . . .4. . . . . .3. . . . . . . .4. . . . Comportment towards influence quantities.1. .3. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . Assessment and acquisition of material . . 1. . . . . Choice of the method of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . Defining the method and the principle to implement . . Ergonomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1. . . Quality of the supplier’s service . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .4. 1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .1. . . 1. . 1. .1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . Technical criteria . . . .2.3. . . .4. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean-Yves ARRIAT and Klaus-Dieter SCHITTHELM 1. . . . . . . . Introduction. . . . Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality . . . 15 17 19 19 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 .4. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 1. 1. . . . . Basic characteristics . .6. . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . .4. . . .10. . . . Definition of the objectives . . . . . . . . . 1. Possibility of traceability . . Introduction . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . Analysis of what is already available . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 1.2. . . . .3. .9.Table of Contents Preface . . .4. . . . . . 1. . . . . . Durability of the instruments used . . .4.4. . . .4. . . 1. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computerization and the speed of taking measurements . . Homogeneity of the supply of instruments . . . . . . .4. . . . . . Capability of measuring instruments. . .4. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adaptation of the instrument . . Choice of the means of measurement . . . .4. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . Results of the international activities . . .3. . .5. . Scientific and technical metrology . . . . . .3.4. . 2. . . . . . Stage 1: primary technical requirements (unavoidably necessary) . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Legal metrology in Switzerland . . . .6 Metrology in Industry 1. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal metrology in Italy . . . . .3. . . . . . . . Regional organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration requirements . . . . . .6. The Italian national calibration system (SNT) . . Other regional bodies .3. . .3. . . 1. . . . . Organization of Metrology: Industrial. 30 31 31 31 33 33 34 36 36 38 39 42 43 Chapter 2. . . . . . . . . .4. Legal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2.4. . . . . . . Stage 2: secondary technical requirements (desirable) . 2. Scientific. . . . . .4. . . . 2. . . . Patrick REPOSEUR and Jean-Michel VIRIEUX 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . Accreditation procedure . . . . .4. . . . 1. . . . Technical assistance for users of measuring instruments. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .3. . 1. 2.1. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) . . . . . . . . . .5. . 1. .6. . . .3. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal metrology . . . . . 2. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2.4. . . . . Roberto PERISSI.4.1. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .6. . Legal metrology in France . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . The European level . . 1. . . . European Cooperation for Accreditaton (EA) . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4. . . . . . . . . .3. .1. . .4.4. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . Metrology: how?. . 2. . .3. . .3. . .1. 2. . .1. . . . . . . . . The selection of standards . . . . . 1.1. . Jean-François MAGANA. . . . .5. . . . . .3. . . 1. . . . . 1. 2. . A metrological organization: why? . . . . . 1. . .3. . . . . The BIPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .3.4. . . . . . .4. . . European Union harmonization . . .3. . . . . The Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) .3. 2. . . .3. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .4. . . . . . .2. . . . . Grid of the analysis of the choice . . . . WELMEC .4. . . . The Swiss national calibration system . .4.2. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . At national level. . . . . . . .2. . . . . The necessity of traceability of the measurements . . . . . .3. . . . 43 45 47 48 50 51 51 54 58 59 59 63 65 67 67 68 71 71 71 73 73 73 74 76 . 2. . . .4. VDI/VDE-GMA (Germany) . . . . .2.3. . . . . . . . .7. Scope of legal metrology . . . . . . .3. . . . . EUROMET . Luc ERARD. .4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The EXERA (France) .3. .1. . . . . . . . . Organization at the national level . . The traceability of the measurements . . 2.4. 2. . . Economic criteria . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . Mastering Measurement Processes Approach to the Setting up of a Metrology Function . . . . . Assessment of the measuring equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receiving the measuring equipment and putting it into service. . .3. . . . . . 3.3. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 3. . . . . .5.6. . . Management of the measuring equipment (metrological confirmation) . .5.4. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3. Maximum permissible errors . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. .4. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . Traceability of the measuring instrument(s) to the firm’s reference standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .3. . . . . . . Fitness for use of measuring equipment. .4. . . . . . . . 3. 3. . . . . . .4. . . . . Marc PRIEL and Patrick REPOSEUR 3. . .2. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. repeatability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 3. 3. . .2. . . . . . . 3. . . . .3. . Compliance with the order . . . Supervision of the measuring equipment . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .4.3. . Technical requirements . . . 3. . . . . . .1.3.4. . . . . . Analysis of the requirement and selection of the measuring equipments . . . 3. . .1. . . . . . . . 3. Analysis of the metrological requirements and setting up standards . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . .1. 3. . Transcription of the characteristics of the product in “measurand” form or “characteristics to be measured” form . . . 3. . . 3. . . . The measurement processes . . . . Calibration and verification operations . . . . . 3.4. . . . . . .2. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .5. Setting up a metrological structure within the firm . . .4. .1. . . . . .4. Exploitation of a valid process . . . 3.2. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . 3. Inventory (description).1. . . . . . .3. . . . . Identification of the measuring equipment . . . . . . . . . Basic definitions . . . . .2. .4. . . The development of a measurement process can be managed as a project . . . . . . Economic and commercial conditions. . . . Analysis of the requirements . . . . . . . . . . . Freedom from bias. .2. . . . 79 79 80 86 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 91 91 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 97 99 99 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 104 104 . . . 3. . . . . 3. . . .2. . .4. . . . . Calibration or verification program . . . 3.2. .2. . . . . . . . What to do at the beginning? . . . . . . . . . . Demands for an assurance of the quality . . . . . . stability . . . .5. 3. . . . . . .4. . . .4. . . Calibration or verification intervals . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . Technical documentation . . .1. . .1. 3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . Conception and development of a new measurement process. . . . . . . .Table of Contents 7 Chapter 3. .3.4. . . . Goals and role of the measurement management system – metrological function. .1. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . Technical dossier of the equipment . . Continuous improvement of measurement processes . . Traceability of the firm’s reference standards to the SI. . . 3. .4. . . . 3. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .3. . . .3. .1. 3. . . .4.4. . . . . . . . . 3. . .4. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 3. . . .

. . . . . Receipt . . . . . . . . . . . Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments . Follow-up of the results . . . . . . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storing and environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1.3. . . . . . . Metrological policy of the firm . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . .1. .3. . . . . . . Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traceability chains 5. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . Physical handling of the measuring instruments .3. . . . . . . . Work instructions . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . Definitions . . . .6. .1. . . . . . . . . . . Precautions. . . . . . .4. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2.4. . Campaign of recall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 4. . . . . . . . . . Traceability . . . . . . Selection of the material to be followed periodically . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .5. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . Luc ERARD and Patrick REPOSEUR 5. . . .8 Metrology in Industry 3. . . . . . . . training and vocabulary . . . . . Other documents . . . . . . . 4. . . .3. . 4. . . . . Jean-Yves ARRIAT 4. . . . . .3. . . . . . . Drafting of the documents . . . . . . .4. . . . .4. . . . . . . . 5. .3. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 5. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .4. . 4. . . . . . . Verification . . 5. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . Awareness. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . Acquaintance with the bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . Software for the handling of the means of measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traceability to National Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . Periodicity of the follow-up . . . . . Bibliography . . . .2. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .3. . 105 106 109 110 110 110 113 113 113 113 114 115 115 116 117 118 119 119 120 120 120 121 121 122 123 123 124 125 125 127 127 127 127 128 129 129 131 Chapter 5. Plan of actions to launch. . . . 4. . Introduction. . 4. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . Calibration . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . Codification of the documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 4. . . 4. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .4. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Traceability .4. . . .2. . . . Chapter 4. . . . . . . . Objective and commitment of the firm’s management . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . 4. . . . . Result-recording documents . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested approach for setting up a metrology function . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Follow-up of the measuring instruments over time . . . . .4. . . . . . .4. . . . . . Inventory .2. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification . . . 4. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . Traceability . . . . . . .1. . . . .1.

. . .7. . . . . . 5. . . . . . .4. . Comparative method . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration Intervals and Methods for Monitoring the Measurement Processes . 5. .2. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .2. . . . . . 5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . Particular cases. . . 5. . . Bibliography . . . . . . Patrizia TAVELLA and Marc PRIEL 6. 5. . . . . . . . . . . .9. .1. 5. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. .5. . . . . . . Use of the monitoring methods. . . . . . . . . “Documentary” traceability . 5. . . . . . . . . . Verification in a non-accredited laboratory or out of the accreditation scope. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 6.6.Table of Contents 9 5. . . . . . . . Third method: “monitoring standards” and statistical supervision of the measurement processes .9. . . Use of the results of a calibration . . .2. 5. . .4. . . . .8. . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.1. . . . . .9. . .2. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . .2. . . . . . . . 6. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . 6. . 5. . . . .5. . . . Absolute methods. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . Normative requirements . . .1. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control charts . . . . .3. . Calibration in a non-accredited laboratory . . . . . .2. . . . 6. . . . . Statistical control of the measurement processes . . . . . . . Metrology in chemistry and physical methods of chemical analysis . .8. . . . . .2. 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . Verification . . . . Verification in an accredited laboratory and in its accreditation scope . . . .7. .2. . . Traceabilty in metrology in chemistry. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence of the principle of the method . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assessment of traceability . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control of the reference materials . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Use of calibration and verification results . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . Calibration in an accredited laboratory .2. . . . . . . 5.2. . . . . Second method: checking the coherence of the results .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . “Self-calibrating” or “self-gauging” measuring instruments. . . Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . Use of the results of a verification . . . . . .7. . . . . .1. . Relative method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First method: metrological redundancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The determination of the calibration intervals . 5. . . . .2. . . . 136 136 137 139 139 140 140 141 143 145 145 146 Chapter 6. . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . Complex instruments in which components/equipments and software are narrowly combined and large measurement ranges are covered for complex quantities. . . . . .1. . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 5.6. . . . . . . . . . 5. . .11. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . . . . . Methods for monitoring the instruments in use – general criteria . . 149 149 150 150 151 152 152 154 157 158 161 . . 132 132 132 133 133 133 133 134 134 135 135 . . . .9. .9. . .

.2.7. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . Intra. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .2. Modeling of the measurement process . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . 7.1. .2) . . . . . . .5. . . . Using the list published in the GUM (section 3.6. . . . . . . . .3. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . Assessment of the repeatability and the reproducibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . Assessment of the covariances by considering the terms common to two input quantities . . . . . 7. .1. . . . . . . . . . .4. . 7. . . . . Data processing for intra. . . . 7. . . . . . . . .4. . . . 7. Evaluation of the linearity . Assessment of the freedom of bias (trueness) . . . . . 2 i i i 163 163 164 166 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 172 173 174 175 176 179 180 180 180 181 181 181 181 181 183 184 185 186 187 187 188 189 189 . . .2.4. . . . . . Marc PRIEL 7. . . 7. .2. . . .1. . . . . 7. . . .7. .2. . . . . . Assessment of the covariances by assessing a coefficient of correlation r(xi. . .2. . . . 7. . . . 7.1. . . . . . . . . . .7. . Situation when the model is a product .6. . . . . . .3. 7. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . Cutting down systematic errors by applying corrections . . . . . .1. Use of the performances of the method (repeatability and freedom of bias) to assess the uncertainty of the measurement result . . . . . . . . 7.7. 7. . . 7. . An essential stage for the assessment of uncertainty: modeling the measurement . . . . Intra-laboratory approach . . . . . . . . .and interlaboratory approaches . . . The cause and effect diagram method . .4. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .3. Comparing the Type A and Type B methods .2. . . . . . . .3. . .3. . Calculating the combined uncertainty on the result . .2.7. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Errors . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.1. . . . . . . The terms ∑ c u (x ) . . . . . . Situation when the input quantities are independent and the model is a sum. . . . .2.10 Metrology in Industry Chapter 7. . . . . . .4. . . . . . .1. Measurements and Uncertainties .5. . . . . . . . . 7. . . 7. . . .3. . . . . . . .7. . .6. .4. . . Situation when all the input quantities are independent . . . . . . Measurement procedure and model of the measurement process . . . .3. Analysis of the measurement process . . . . . .or interlaboratory approaches . . Assessment of the covariances by calculating the terms of covariance . . . . . . . . . . . . Type A methods. . . . .6. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . Introduction. . .4.6. . . . Assessment of the uncertainty of the input quantities . . .3. . . . Measurement of physical quantity . .7. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . Situation when the input quantities are dependent . . .3. . . . 7. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .3. . .2. Interlaboratory approach. . Cutting down the errors . 7. Cutting down random errors by repeating measurements .1. . . . 7. . . . . x j ) . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .7. .1. 7. . .4. Type B methods. . . . . 7. 7. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2.

. . . . . . . . About Measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management of the documents .1. . . . . . 9. . . .2. . . . .1. 8. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . Physical quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . Relative humidity . . . . The qualification of the personnel . . .4. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . Radioelectric disturbances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . 8. . . . . . . .9. . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. . . . Power network . . . . . . . . . .3.1. . . . Ambient temperature . . . . . . . Claude KOCH 9. . . 9. . Handling of the air conditioning systems . . . . . . . .1. . . . . Four types of uses of measuring instruments. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . Records regarding quality . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indirect measurement . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 8. .1. . . . . . . . . The connection of metrology function . . . Field of measurement . . . . . . . . 8. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .5. . . . . . .2. 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . .2. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . Direct measurement . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influencing quantities . . . .5. . . . . . . .1. The documentation . . . .1. . . . .1. . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example . . . . 9. . Chapter 8. . . The premises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Differential measurement . . .1. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .2. . . . . .2. .3. . .1. . . . . . . . . . Jean-Yves ARRIAT and Marc PRIEL 8. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements on-site . . .2.1. . .3. . . . Appendix . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choice of a measuring principle. . . . .Table of Contents 11 7. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . Preliminary information . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 189 190 193 195 196 197 198 199 199 199 200 200 200 201 202 202 202 202 203 204 205 206 209 209 209 210 210 211 212 213 214 214 214 Chapter 9. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Staff involved in the metrology function . . .1. . 8. . . . The object to be measured. .2. Documents dealing with the quality system 8. . . Reporting of the measurement result .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1. . . . . . . . . . . 9.1. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . Filing of the documents . . . . . . . . . . .The Environment of Measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .

. . . .4. . Measurements . . . . . . . . . Histograms . 9. . . . .3. . . . .2. . Personnel and subcontracting . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation of the calibration results . . . . . . . 215 216 216 216 217 218 218 220 220 221 222 222 222 222 223 Chapter 10. . . . Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .3. . . .3.4. . . . . Be open to doubt . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .5. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .3. . . . 9. . . . .2. . . . .2. . 10. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .5. . . . . Be honest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .5. . . Be tidy and methodical . . . . Organization of the metrology sector . . . . . . . . . . José MONTES 10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The time factor . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . Presentation of the company .5. . . . . Verdict of the metrological confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 9. Precautions before measuring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composition of the bank of measuring equipment. . . .4.1. . . . . Creation . . . . Expression of the results . 10. Practicing in metrology . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .5. . 9. . . . 9. . Be observant . .3. .4. . . . . . .3. Implementing the instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Metrology in Industry 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . .1. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geographic localization of the activities . . Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . What qualities does a metrologist require? 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. .1. . . . . . . . Connection of the standards . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . .3. . 10. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Missions . . 9. . . . . . . . . . Graphs .2. Be inquisitive . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 9. 10. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .3. 10. . . .4. . . . . . . . .3. Periodicity of the calibrations . 9. . . . . . Variations and their sign. . . . . . . . . . 225 225 226 226 226 226 227 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 231 231 232 . . . 10. .4. . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .7. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3.3. . . . . . . 10. . . .5. . . . . . . . .1. . Indication of the state of the calibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .3.

. . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial training. . . Metrological engineer . . .1. . . .3. . . . . . .2. .2. . 12. . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents 13 Chapter 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . 233 233 234 234 235 236 238 245 247 247 248 249 249 250 250 250 251 251 251 253 265 265 266 267 269 Chapter 12. . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metrological technician . . .6. . . . . . Schools for engineers . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . Metrological operator. . . . . . . . . . . The teaching of metrology in secondary schools . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard . . 11. . . . . . 11. .5. . . . . . Philippe LANNEAU and Patrick REPOSEUR 11. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Courses for higher level technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . 12.2.4. . . . Introduction . . . .2. . . . . . . . . The metrology function in a firm’s strategy . .2. . 11. 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . The ISO 9001 (2000) standard step-by-step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuing education . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement control process . . . . Vocational high schools . . . . . . . 12. . . . .2. . . . . 12. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. Long-lasting training courses . .1. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 12. 12. 11. . . The Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. The concept of continuous improvement 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . Training for the Metrology Professions in France . . . .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .7. . . . . . . . Metrology profession . . . . . . .1. The process approach. Bernard LARQUIER 12. . . Prospects for the development of long-lasting training courses 12. . . Introduction to the evolution of the standard 11. .

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It gives a clear outline of the basic ideas of metrology.Preface Metrology is an essential part of the infrastructure of today’s world. Director of BIPM . Metrology is not an activity that is only carried out in specialized institutes or calibration laboratories.J. The economic success of most manufacturing industries is critically dependent on how well its products are made. National and international trade increasingly require demonstrated conformity to written standards and specifications and mutual recognition of measurements and tests. In order to meet the needs of society for accurate and reliable measurements in all its many applications. Navigation and telecommunications require the most accurate time and frequency standards. The protection of the environment from the short-term and long-term destructive effects of industrial activity can only be assured on the basis of accurate and reliable measurements. in an enterprise it can be practiced. Human health and safety depend on reliable measurements in diagnosis and therapy and in the production and trade in food and food products. a strong spirit of metrology must also exist in companies and enterprises that make the instruments and that use them to make measurements. T. I wish it every success. some direct and some indirect. Quinn. It enters into our lives in a multitude of ways. why we need it and how. Global climate studies depend on reliable and consistent data from many disciplines often over long periods of time and this can be assured only on the basis of measurements traceable to measurement standards that are themselves linked to fundamental and atomic constants. a requirement in which measurement plays a key role. For this reason I welcome this book.

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analyses and tests is a real asset for a firm which wishes to make efficacious decisions. Metrologists from various callings (national metrology laboratories. The purpose of this association is obviously much wider: – to identify which firms and organisms’ needs are to be met from the angle of metrology. statutorily speaking. have led a working party of the French College of Metrology to write a second edition of the book Metrology in the Firm.Foreword Technically. You cannot achieve such an end if you do not have firm control over the processes of measurement. – to contribute to make the collective national and regional actions coherent in this sphere. analysis and testing. economically. having relevant and reliable results of measurements. together with the willingness to impart all the knowledge acquired so far. sometimes. It is on this fundamental principle that the Metrology College was created in 1986. which became the French College of Metrology in 2002. accrediting organisms. the normative and statutory requirements. – to be a form of exchange between people involved in metrology. the measuring techniques. however. – to perform any action likely to contribute to the development and promotion of metrology. . commercially and. the methods of measurement uncertainty assessment or those to secure the traceability of measurements are all complex and it is more necessary than ever to integrate them into a network of competent bodies so as to exchange experience and information. Nowadays. The permanent evolution of metrology. scientific and economic fabric. – to spread metrological culture and knowledge through the industrial.

President of the French College of Metrology . whether they be principals. As a result. More than ever. whether it is the concept of firm certification developed in the 2000 version of standard ISO 9001. P. analysis or testing. etc. I am confident you will find here some clues which will help you progress and improve your processes. small or medium firms. LEBLOIS. or the approach concerning the competence of activities of measurement. most of the authors belong to different national or international standardization committees. the latest normative evolutions are to be found in this book. This broad range of authors gives the book a pragmatic characteristic and enables it to answer the questions and concerns of organizations. The growing interest you have shown in this book has encouraged us in our intention of producing this English version. Whether you are involved in your firm’s metrology function.18 Metrology in Industry industrial concerns and consulting firms) and from different nationalities make up this working party. metrology contributes to the free circulation of goods between countries. The contribution from foreign authors gives the book an unquestionable international aspect which accurately reflects the current reality. laboratories. you can get as much out of it as our French colleagues do. or are simply interested in a concrete matter of measurement. Moreover. testing or analysis as expounded in standard ISO 17025. thanks to the international organization of metrology and thanks to the international agreements between national metrology laboratories and between accrediting organisms. May you enjoy reading it. as a matter of fact. It is my sincere wish that whatever your need and country may be.

fortunately. 1.Chapter 1 Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality Anybody with a mind to implement (or improve) a metrology function might feel a bit panicky at the thought of all the work to be done if they read this book unwarned. and more particularly this chapter. or many costs. And then. Introduction Before we start any concrete action. .1. to be carried out literally. Let the reader’s mind be put at ease first. There are two kinds: – The organizational needs for the management of metrology. All the content is not. Many industrial difficulties. is it not normal to start wondering what one really needs? Experience has taught us. that this is not a natural process. Are those needs great enough to require the introduction of full-scale metrology? Are premises or qualified personnel needed permanently? What possibilities are there in the region? Chapter written by Jean-Yves ARRIAT – Ascent Consulting – and Klaus-Dieter SCHITTHELM – Expert in Metrology. too often alas. Germany. it is primordial to analyze the metrological needs carefully. grow out of the inadequacy “means of measurement/real need”. All we want to do is to offer as broad as possible a survey of the subject by pointing out practically all the items that require consideration.

In order to define the firm’s needs. these means are found after analysis of the objectives and the possibilities of the instruments and the connection. The preliminary analysis of the needs will produce a first set of specifications. What are my industrial needs? – What do I have to measure and what accuracy shall I expect? 2. How can I meet my needs? – What are the possible measuring methods? – Which method and principle will be used? 3. or to handle it to a subcontractor? – The material needs for the realization of the measurements. There is a good chance that these analysis are going to be a bit theoretical and take little heed of the notions of profitability. it is necessary to answer the following questions: 1. You have to accept the principle which says that the specifications will evolve and obtain agreement from the major actors taking part in the drafting of the specifications. it is necessary to have appropriate means. For a new measuring instrument.). – administrative management of the equipment (measuring instruments. – traceability of the means of measurement to international standards. Which measuring instruments can be used? – Which instrument shall I use? – Can the selected instrument ensure the required accuracy? 4. etc. all the stages from conception to utilization must be taken into account by the specifications. This is fundamentally the concern . standards.20 Metrology in Industry Does someone want to manage metrology on his or her own. In order to realize measurements correctly. with the help of a someone else. How is to be used the selected instrument? – What assembly is to be set up and what procedure is to be followed? – What technical competence do you have to have to use it? Then a question of a very different magnitude arises: how am I going to guarantee the quality of my measurements? Setting up a metrological function The three key components of a metrological function have to be under control (see Chapter 4): – adequacy of means to needs.

This process makes it possible to identify and quantify the means (personnel and material) to be implemented to take the intended measurements. of user-friendliness. etc. cause/effect diagrams. Pareto.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 21 of the manufacturers. Definition of the objectives The metrological function must be approached as soon as you start thinking about problems of measurement. – the analysis of the achievement of the measurement results (and of the level of accuracy reached). and take into consideration the problems of maintainability (for instance. – the analysis of the risks related to the selected means. So as to guarantee the quality of its measurements (i. 1. which make analysis and collective participation easier.e. For this purpose. . – the analysis of the non-conformities which could be encountered. a process of management by quality). we strongly recommend to use “brainstorming”.2. It examines the need in a logical process based on: – the functional analysis of the measurement (drafting of specifications). the maintenance of air conditioning). one must always begin by analyzing one’s real meterological need. etc. but potential users may sometimes take part in the elaboration of the specifications. This involves examining a large number of actions in order to start up and maintain the supply of measuring instruments necessary to meet the firm’s needs. but its chief role is to act as a consultant.. Its role may depend on each particular firm (see Chapter 3). the firm sets up a real management of the means of measurement. of access to the personnel. However big or small the problem is. The specifications for a new measuring laboratory must ignore all of the environmental characteristics of the measurement (see Chapter 8). It is during these phases that the “tools of quality” will be used. In order to clearly define the objective. Let us point out that the analysis of the value (fundamental at the outset) is among the most useful tools. the metrological function conducts the management of these means according to needs that are clearly defined and regularly updated.

22 Metrology in Industry The first thing to do regarding the analysis of the supply of material is to work out: – the list of physical quantities (e.5 mm range will be different from the one which is expected between 100 mm and 1. – the traceability of the measurements (which material do they come from?). – the traceability of the material of measurement (in the case where materials of measurement are assigned). etc. electric resistance. officially certified tests. length. temperature. Choice of the method of measurement 1. etc. – the calibration or the verification of the means and the decisions they entail. in accordance with the relevant program and by a very precise process. etc.g. – the permissible uncertainty for each quantity and each range (the uncertainty in the 0. Accounting for the selection of the method You have to justify the choice of the selected method. – the needs for the realization of the measurements. Besides. Then.). The fact is that within the scope of some contracts (notably related to safety.000 mm). health. This choice must take possible restraints of qualification into consideration. the reception and the implementation of these means.g. It is to be understood by this that the criteria have to possess as little subjectivity as possible.1 mm to 0.3. the ISO/QS 9000 or TS 16 949 certification process also involves a description of the selected method. etc.1 mm to 1. This means it must be subjected to an authenticated description. authorization.1.3.000 mm).. – the operations related to the moving of these means (protection. – the updating of the inventory of these means. . for each separate case. public security.). – the acquisition. length from 0. – the ranges which need to be covered for each physical quantity (e. The outcome of this is that the intended objectives must not be mixed up to satisfy: – the needs for the management of metrology with.) you may have to qualify the method of measurement. – the exploitation of the calibration results. it will be necessary to consider and define: – the analysis of the needs and the choice of the means of measurement. 1.

Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 23 Fortunately. See Chapter 9 for more details.1. Let us consider the example of Table 1. There must be a clear distinction between chosing a method and chosing a measuring instrument. Defining the method and the principle to implement When there are several methods of measurement. those of the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesanstalt). to make the methodology of the measurement explicit. They are: – differential measurement. there are in metrology three great principles of measurement. 1.2. Our advice is to keep only the two (maybe three) most important criteria in mind and to draw a table. for example.3. As a rule. after the metrological objectives have been set. it is often difficult to determine which one will best fit your need if you are not able to classify them. – the characteristics measured (two families of them here). it is important. It makes it possible to analyze the different methods of measurement that lead to the assessment of the characteristics of industrial robots. everything related to the carrying out of these measurements. the three of them have advantages and drawbacks. – direct measurement. these are the laboratories of the LNE (Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais). the operations that make it possible to get the measurement. or calibration laboratories accredited by the DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst). Two criteria have been selected: – the principle of measurement (two groups of them here). and in Germany. You must not forget that the great metrology laboratories can be a great help in this area. This process is simple and allows people to think further about the choice of the method. it is often possible to hang on to the methods which are known and officially accepted. must be written in a document and will be taken into account particularly when choosing the operators. Whether the method is qualified or not. – indirect measurement. One of the very first principles of quality assurance is to write down what is being done. the conditions of the material and the environment. For example.e. i. you may want to measure a dimension on a rubber part: you happen to be close to a three-dimensional measuring machine and your instant reaction may be to go to this machine without thinking whether there may be a more suitable method than this one. The different stages. . In France.

1.1. Germany LNE: National Testing Laboratory NEL: National Engineering Laboratory. . General Motors. – the possibilities of calibration. “Classification of the methods of measurement” (Reproduced with the kind permission of Techniques de l'ingénieur – France) 1.) Devices with three sensors and wire (Peugeot) Sweep of two laser beams (University of Surrey. FRG) Stroboscoped photogrammetry (University of Dresden. NEL and SETP-LNE) IPA: Institute for Production techniques and Automation. – the economic conditions (last. Choice of the means of measurement 1. for the technical specifications have to be seen first). England) Selspine system Robotest (Polytech. NEL and SETP-LNE) Local methods Big base methods Table 1. England SETP: Photogrammetric Studies and Works Society Method of the two theodolites (Renault) Theodolites with automatic data (LNE) Selspine system Photogrammetry (University of Dresden. etc. – the assessments already made.4.24 Metrology in Industry Positioning characteristics Trajectory characteristics Measurement terminal with cubes (Peugeot SA and LNE) Measurement terminal with Measurement terminal on materialized trajectories measuring machine (IPA) (rule and circle) (LNE) Different realizations based on the Measurement terminal with trajectory same principles have been (broken line) (Peugeot SA) developed (IBM. To make this choice. Introduction The choice of the material and/or the equipment must be based on specifications. you must take into consideration: – the technical needs.4.

strong and proven instrument). These instruments (said to be “reference instruments”) have to be acquired after you have seriously studied the criteria of choice. Four types of utilization can be distinguished: – for a study (you must look for an instrument that can evolve). The latter point is all the more important when there is a risk of technological obsolescence (using a state-of-the-art instrument to its maximum capacity justifies its acquisition and it makes it easier to get new ones). you make its amortization easier). Moreover. you use instruments which are well-known and well-regarded. a special material has to be used.4. It is known that: – the ideal instrument does not exist. see Chapter 9. which come with documents and certificates. On the contrary. so as to be sure of their traceability and. This requires: – good communication between the various parties concerned with the measurements. and – a good knowledge of the material available. . – each buyer limits the claims of technical applicants. therefore. For further information. Analysis of what is already available The first thing to do will be to see if there is not already in the firm some available material which can meet your needs.2.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 25 Practicing metrology is not simply doing plain measurements. which means that you do not simply use any dimensional comparator lying about on a shelf. the choice of an instrument depends on its type of use. 1. or when the material is very expensive (when you increase the duration of its productive use. – for a laboratory (your preference will go to a very reliable. – the instrument closest to what is ideal is too expensive. – in manufacturing (the “cost” factor will probably prevail). – for a site (robustness ought to be favored). to better guarantee the quality of the measurements. you do not borrow a frequency meter from a colleague and you do not hire a “lowborn” multimeter. To begin with.

Of course. Tests of assessment preliminary to purchase would be greatly recommended. before launching into testing. The companies which take the trouble to check all the electric and electronic material they buy admit that a far from negligible proportion of the instruments delivered is partly defective or does not comply with tolerances on delivery. you have to choose between doing them yourself or subcontracting them to a better-equipped organization whose results cannot be questioned. However.26 Metrology in Industry 1. the role of the buyer is not simple. and if tests seem necessary. He must estimate whether the supplier is capable of keeping to the agreed times in general: time of delivery. This is partly explained by the fact that the stated characteristics are obtained by the manufacturers. So. As for the assessments which are otherwise made. the economic requirements are obviously taken into account. Besides. any person who is interested in purchasing an instrument is entitled to ask the salesman the following questions: – Have any tests been done? If the answer is yes. Assessment and acquisition of material Speaking of compromise about the choice was actually slightly simplistic.4. A few years ago a survey showed that the percentage of rejected instruments could reach 50%. However. the instruments that can perform the same function are many in number. it . He must indeed be on a permanent technological watch. A distinction must be made between learning about a instrument which is presented by a salesman and having its characteristics verified by a specialized laboratory. the tests are long and expensive.3. Furthermore. few are the cases when the material is selected without the price being considered (either before or after the purchase!). in order not to have to repeat work endlessly. in a laboratory and in ideal conditions of use. the parameters of each of them are numerous and. evidence arises of the importance of good relationships (partnership even) with the manufacturers of the instrument and of their obligation to pass on information in a transparent and unrestricted way. when? Where? By whom? In which domain? Is a report of the tests available? – How long has the instrument been manufactured? How many copies of it have been produced? – Has stopping its production been considered? – Who has bought it? Is it possible to consult users? Once you have got this information. they quite simply depend on the competence and professionalism of the person in charge of the metrological function. Once again. time of assistance after the sale. he must make an inventory of what is in store (material and tested material). in frequent cases. and this situation is very remote from the user’s reality. consequently.

The following are those that seem to be the most important. As a rule. economic conditions and assessments generally being what they are. 1. no mechanical and electrical perturbations. etc.4.4. Basic characteristics For a measuring instrument (whether used as a standard or not) this most often means that its necessary accuracy is in one certain domain of the studied quantity in ideal conditions. etc. said to be reference conditions: a temperature of 20°C or 23°C. .1.2. all instruments (even the very accurate ones.4.4. working period. even if the instrument no longer meets your need. 230V/50Hz power from the mains. Technical criteria 1. It must not be mistaken for the longevity. the expensive ones. which make all the difference (and those which mostly “hinder” the smooth progress of their work). which defines the lifespan. or by purely economic criteria. as well as the users. Contrary to a widespread opinion.) are liable to drift in time. the user and the maintenance team know the little details.3. Comportment towards influence quantities This concerns the way the basic characteristics change with time according to external constraints: variation of the temperature or the electric power. which makes the overall analysis more objective. 1. of the instrument. The way instruments react over a period of time is often undetermined. So. uninterrupted. In essence there are three reasons for this: – Because of their experience. on-off cycles are more harmful than a long.4. electromagnetic perturbations.4.4. Durability of the instruments used The durability is the interval of time during which the instrument remains capable of meeting your normal need of it. 1. vibrations. They have to be recalibrated or reset regularly. should be involved in choosing the instruments they need for their activities. – They are not so easily influenced by attractive advertising. etc.4. we find ourselves left with technical criteria. – They get used more easily to equipment they have helped to choose (working and utilizing conditions are improved: that is what is called communicating without demagogy!).Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 27 seems to be of paramount importance that the team responsible for maintaining the instruments. generally speaking.

but there is actually nothing that can replace communication with the manufacturer.4. and how long. maintenance. all metrologists who work in the timefrequencies scope have “major oscillators”. there will be a possibility of interchangeability in case of a breakdown.4. In addition. You must analyze the technical assistance the supplier can provide. you will know your material better.4. the supplies of spare parts will be cheaper. maintenance will be less costly. for clear explanatory documents (utilization. save time. which are excellent sources of 5 or 10MHz. higher investments having sometimes to be considered. sometimes. Placing an order with a instrument dealer may. as such. you should prefer the makes with good durability. Homogeneity of the supply of instruments You must avoid having too many different types of equipment and material: if you have equipment of similar types.4.).28 Metrology in Industry A material is durable if it is both reliable (few breakdowns) and maintainable (easy to repair).4. in the language of the country where it will be used. there are few dealers who have a good knowledge of the instrument they sell. will he make you wait? The more sophisticated the instrument is. 1. As a matter of fact. Quality of the supplier’s service Your relationship with the supplier of instrument must not stop with the purchase. etc. you have to be able to use them for a sufficient length of time.4. Adaptation of the instrument It is advisable to get instruments which have been conceived with a “metrological” outlook. The most accurate metrological instruments are expensive and. So. The information provided by the maintenance teams allows us to have good facts upon which to make a decision. 1. or at least a . For example. i.6. is this instrument “open” to future evolution? Is there any assurance that it will be compatible with the next generation of equipment? 1. Have provisions been made for the setting up of the instrument.4. or who attend to the training of the users. on average. or at least in English? How is the supplier able to help if problems occur. the more these questions matter. You have to estimate how much longer the instrument will be manufactured or maintained. etc. periodic calibrations or verifications can be automated. It is therefore eminently desirable that any synthesizer or frequency meter should be able to work either on its internal oscillator or on an external signal. instruments adapted in their principle and realization to the needs of metrologists. It is very often difficult to go beyond the stage of purely commercial advertising. The best-equipped “frequency” laboratories possess a caesium clock. intervention.5.e.

writing the results out by hand. and its answer.4. Capability of measuring instruments This is a very important parameter that people in charge of metrology and people who use measuring instruments must keep in mind. Possibility of traceability When you buy a measuring instrument.8. some will turn out to be less “handy” to implement.5 below.4. A digital display offers ease of reading and can.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 29 rubidium clock. – to incorporate the measuring instrument into a computerized “Statistic Process Control” (SPC). 1.4. Ergonomics Several types of instruments can be selected for a specific measurement. Of course. 1.4.10. reduce by a factor of five the time it takes to take measurements. in the case of the vernier calliper for example. integration into the work surface. – to increase the Quality Assurance by reducing the risk of making mistakes while. The ergonomic aspect of the utilization must not be forgotten: ease of handling.9. However. Is it or is not possible to relate your measurements validly to the accepted standards at the national or international level? The question of traceability is developed in 1.4. These remarks refer.4. to those instruments which are used on sites or in production. The “capability” of the . in particular. for instance digital display instruments which have an outlet to connect to an RS 232 plug. and also in metrology laboratories. etc. bulk and weight. Computerization makes it possible: – to increase the speed at which measurements are obtained by decreasing the input time. In addition. 1. it may be important to computerize the measurement. 1.4. utilization by a left-handed person. you have to raise the question of traceability to national or international standards before you eventually make up your mind to proceed with the purchase. from which a 10MHz signal is drawn and distributed in the firm in order to synchronize frequency meters and synthesizers.7. computerization is possible on adaptable instruments. is as much about how quickly the instrument can provide the necessary information as about the transcription of the measurement in a simple form.4. for example. Computerization and the speed of taking measurements There is a technical parameter which has a direct consequence on the cost of quality to the firm: how fast it will be to take a measurement? The question.

Economic criteria For reasons that are the very bases of the metrological function.mean)/3 s] In metrology. Choosing too effective a means would result in a superquality which would lead to too high a price. It is possible to reckon . The French standard NF E02204 (which concerns mechanical engineering. a lack of effectiveness would bring about an unacceptable percentage of defective parts being manufactured. The measuring system includes the measuring instruments (the material). it is necessary to practice metrology with well-known measuring equipment. it is about whether the prescribed interval of tolerance properly fits with the overall uncertainty of measurement. In production. the choice of the instrument depends on the tolerance to be verified. On the other hand. and to what extent.01 volt for example) when the dispersion of a series of measurements is already equal to one tenth of this unit? You need to take into consideration the limits (and the cost) of the measuring instruments to be used to check the technical specifications (intervals of tolerance) when you choose the instruments. the capability index of the means of measurement (Cmm) is often: Cmm = IT/6 Ig with IT = interval of tolerance (from specifications) Ig = overall uncertainty of the measurement 1.4.5. To put it another way. Consequently. but which can serve as a basis for other purposes) provides very useful supplementary information and definitively repeals the widespread “10%” rule. You have to clearly delimit the uncertainties of measurement that will appear when you use the material. Who amongst us has not had to struggle with too strict intervals of tolerance.lower tolerance]/6 s with s = standard deviation of the series produced Cpk = MIN [ (upper tolerance . the capability index (whole or by centering) is given by the following formula: Cp = [upper tolerance . and also in measurement? What is the good of striving to get a result to the hundredth of a unit (0. which are hard to comply with in manufacture. applied measurement processes (the methods) and the personnel who do the measuring. the measuring system fits with the tolerance that is being checked.30 Metrology in Industry measuring instrument is an indication which is the extent to which the instrument makes it possible to assess whether. that is to say the users (the person).mean)/3 and (lower tolerance .

6.2.2). High reliability also increases the purchase price. Stage 1: primary technical requirements (unavoidably necessary) The point is to determine the quantities. 1. – the cost of lack of availability: will a replacement material be needed while it is being maintained? Will there be any financial consequence? These different parameters are interdependent. the buyer and the personnel responsible for the maintenance. and preventive and corrective maintenance). and taking commercial and economic conditions into account. It is true that experience is not easy to weigh. – the cost of maintenance (including calibration. the user. We suggest that you make a list of the criteria to consider when choosing an instrument. – the costs of operation (expenses for operating the material.6. The outcome of this stage will be a list of the instruments available on the market which meeting the technical requirements.4.4. then to attribute to each criterion a coefficient depending on how important each criterion appears to be. but the object of this method is just to provide a starting point to work out a decision (Table 1.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 31 how much a measurement costs. Here is a tool to help thinking with the decision-making: a good mind of “Management of Quality” will always try to use practical tools. accessories. usually the lowest cost).1. recording paper. . The important thing is to make a careful list of questions and provide an answer to each one. but it reduces the operating cost. Stage 2: secondary technical requirements (desirable) It will be possible at this stage to make a decision based on the results of outside evaluations. but this does not mean anything unless all the parameters of the cost are taken into account: – the purchase price of the material and its resale price after it has been used a certain number of years. and then a mark. but it cuts down the cost of maintenance. automation increases the purchase price.6. Grid of the analysis of the choice There are two stages when you select a measuring instrument. Each person’s opinion will thus be taken into account. 1.4. the ranges of measurement and the uncertainties which should be found in the instrument so that you can get the expected quality of instrument. The items on this grid should come from the analysis of the criteria undertaken by the manager of the metrological activities (the person in charge of the metrological function in the firm). 1. electric power.

The evaluation of the measuring instrument is obtained by the division: Σc*n -----Σc ∑c = ________ ∑c*n = ________ Identification = Type = Manufacturer = Technical – homogeneity of the supply of instruments needs – risk of rapid obsolescence – documents from the supplier – technical assistance – adaptation of the instrument to technological requirements – etc. The role of these weightings is to give more weight to one or several items of the grid which. Coef.) – experience gained on similar material of the same make – press-cuttings from the specialized press – etc. then the products c*n (Σc*n) are added. Grid of the evaluation of a measuring instrument . The weightings c (Σc) are added. have a certain importance. etc.2. Outside – evaluation from a centre accredited by the evaluations COFRAC or the DKD – evaluation by users (EXERA. The final mark for each item is obtained by multiplying the mark of the item by the associated weighting (n*c). c Note n c*n Table 1. Economic – cost/price of the competitor’s range and – possibilities of purchase or loan commercial – required time for delivery conditions – time allowed for repair – etc.32 Metrology in Industry The various people who are concerned with the instrument should meet to determine the values of the weightings. according to the group.

Belgium. . There are technical commissions about automation. through its members by organizing the technical evaluation of materials. regulation and automation. the USA. to choose. which deals with the analysis of metrological requirements. 1. Canada. the EXERA signed an agreement of international cooperation with two other organizations of users: – the SIREP (Britain). etc. Japan. Finland. The EXERA is first and foremost a club. where specialists (over 500) can freely exchange what information about what experience has taught them.7. In 1982. Switzerland. in essence. instruments. Sweden. would be left unfinished if no mention was made of the EXERA. in 1970. The EXERA is a non-profit-making association. Since its foundation. for example. one of the few associations which work to support industrial metrology. etc. as well as information about instruments and systems.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 33 1. does its best to develop a constructive dialogue with manufacturers. and – the WIB (the Netherlands). an amalgamation of companies and organizations that are major users of instruments and systems of measurement. analyzers. Two examples of such organizations are given below.7. measurements and systems for the tests.1. to install and to operate materials and systems.4. In a spirit of partnership. These two other associations have members in other industrialized countries. This club acts.4. It also initiates the writing of guides about the choice of material in the different technical areas and. groups of users are constituted so that they can take responsibility for their needs and they can better express and defend them in front of manufacturers. The EXERA (France) This chapter. This enables the users and the manufacturers to obtain more elements of explanation on investments and technological trends. its purpose has been to produce and circulate original information and to provide its members with assistance when they need to express their requirements. it is a privileged meeting place for users. at the same time. Technical assistance for users of measuring instruments In some countries organizations have established themselves to provide users of measuring instruments with technical assistance.

Electronic and Information Technologies VDE (Verband der Elektrotechnik. which ultimately concerns more than 100 large companies. etc. the German Calibration Service (DKD). GIAT.eotc. etc. there are about 90 members in the three associations.exera. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and several industry associations and societies.bc or www. EDF. – the organization of congresses. – the scientific preparation for standardization. among them are: CEA. At present. Elektronik und Informationstechnik). approximately 80 reports are distributed annually by the three associations. 1.und Automatisierungstechnik). – the harmonization of the work programs. to promote the flow of information concerning new processes and developments. recommendations. It combines expertise of institutions such as the German National Metrology Institute (PTB). RENAULT. TOTAL.com. the German Institute for Standardisation (DIN). guidelines. The GMA is a network of technical competence in metrology and other fields of activity. – the gradual adjustment of the formalities regulating the testing of materials. L'OREAL.34 Metrology in Industry The main features of the agreement. public authorities and scientific institutions. PECHINEY. . CGE. IFP. etc. which are all written in English.2. – the acceptance of common principles regulating the procedures of evaluation and the presentation of the documents. are: – the full-scale and well-balanced exchange of assessments of instruments and surveys. conferences. – the preparation of publications.7. In December 1991. see www. the WIB and the EXERA were officially recognized by the European Organisation for Conformity Assessment (EOTC) as “Agreement group”. For more information. VDI/VDE-GMA (Germany) In Germany an organization similar to EXERA is the Society for Measurement and Automatic Control GMA (Gesellschaft Mess. 40 of the members belong to the EXERA. This organization is a joint organization of the Association of German Engineers VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) and the Association for Electrical. Altogether. GMA activities include: – the promotion of the exchange of information between industry. to improve understanding. symposiums.4. the SIREP.

e. contains general considerations and determinations.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 35 – the national and international representation in the field of measurement and automation controls. “Inspection of measuring and test equipment – instructions to inspect measuring and test equipment for geometrical quantities”. The guidelines published by VDI/VDE-GMA describe standards. Each committee is focused on specific branches of metrology. Metrological level National Metrology Institute (PTB) DKD accredited calibration laboratory Optional: In-house calibration laboratory Measurement and testing equipment Product Guidelines. These documents are first presented as drafts. . – the publication and promotion of technical and scientific literature. Views and comments of potential users are evaluated and the documents are modified before they are definitively published. as well as information on the expression of uncertainty in measurement. honorary experts of industry. In separate documents there are procedures for calibration and surveillance of specific-measurement instruments. Metrology literature used in Germany In the VDI/VDE guidelines there are three series dealing with the treatment of measuring equipment: The series VDI/VDE/DGQ 2618. internal and depth dimensions”. documents and standards National DIN standards or DKD guidelines International EN or ISO standards EA documents VDI/VDE guidelines DKD guidelines EA documents Table 1. These metrology documents define procedures for users of measurement instruments (see the following table). in metrology. An example of such papers is the paper about the procedures for “Callipers for external. research and science cooperate in different fields of metrology. In common technical committees.3.g. – the support of education and post-graduate training. These committees produce newly-developed or updated technical documents.

5. More detailed information is available at the GMA secretariat in Düsseldorf. VDI/VDE 2617. Until about the 18th century (and even later). and then the means of measurement.70 cm – foot from Lorraine (East of France) 28.36 Metrology in Industry Another series. there are separate documents defining the calibration of specific. such as “is it a child’s foot. or a woman’s. the “foot” was used as a unit to measure distances. the VDI/VDE/DGQ/DKD 2622 guidelines. An example is the calibration procedure for electrical oscilloscopes.5.60 cm – foot from Vienna (Austria) 31. is entitled “Accuracy of coordinate measuring machines – parameters and their reverification”. This has to be taken into consideration from the beginning of the process that leads to the selection of the method of measurement.48 cm – Roman foot 29. The third series.1. Germany (e-mail: gma@vdi. it gave the following results: – foot of the King of France 32. 1. the acceptance and the surveillance of coordinate measuring equipment is defined in separate documents. deals with “Calibration of measuring equipment for electrical quantities”. along with a general introduction including information on the measurement uncertainty. The traceability of the measurements It has to be said repeatedly: the calibration requirements and the traceability define the quality of the measurements.50 cm . let us look at the measurement of the value of the “foot” in the past. This series is used as a base for the development of a new ISO standard on coordinate measuring machines. electrical measurement instruments. The necessity of traceability of the measurements Traceability is the very basis of metrology. A worthy sample of this quantity was available to avoid arguments. The calibration. or a man’s?” The problem was that when the value was translated into the metric system. 1. The metrological function is responsible for the management of the quality of the measurements.63 cm – foot from Bordeaux (South of France) 35. Again.de). What good is it to take measurements if the measurements do not mean the same thing to everybody? For example. Everyone used the same word.

do not forget to verify that at every stage the uncertainties of measurement are not too large. However. An audit of the provider’s system of management of the quality will probably be necessary. Germany. However. You must absolutely make sure that: – their standards are periodically calibrated in a competent laboratory (whose organization complies with the ISO 17025) accredited by a national organization (COFRAC. It is to be regretted that all the industrialized countries are not at the same level of progress in metrology. Just imagine the Airbus today manufactured from all parts of the world. In addition. in order to show that the chain of calibration has not been broken. and also the traceability of the firm’s instrument. it is further evidence of his seriousness and commitment to his job. France.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 37 These discrepancies resulted from the lack of a national reference (let us not even talk of a European one). There is every reason to think. the Deutscher Kalibrierdienst (DKD) in Germany) and there are programs of comparison that make it possible to ensure that the standards of different countries are related. etc. etc. such European countries as Britain. It has been said above that it is important to have reference standards in one’s firm and to have them calibrated in accredited calibration centers or laboratories. that a provider with an accredited laboratory knows better what the word “metrology” means than a competitor who does not have any accredited laboratory. Spain. It is therefore indispensable to have metrological references in one’s firm and to have them compared to national reference quantities by calibration. DKD. the relationship between the measurement and the instrument used. Italy. and of local comparisons to each reference. The provider with the . You have to be able to demonstrate full traceability of the measurement that has been made. UKAS. Bringing in a provider of services who has their own accredited laboratory is not a must. you need to be careful. As some providers of calibration services propose to calibrate the measuring instruments with standards of their own. Comparisons between accredited laboratories are made by national accreditation bodies (the COFRAC in France. – the provider of the service can guarantee the quality of the measurements provided. However.). if the provider has one. a choice must be made between having the metrology integrated in the firm and having it subcontracted. are the leaders.

do not consider only the price and have a yearly competition.38 Metrology in Industry accredited laboratory can grasp the primary technical needs of the client: quantities. some manufacturers of materials provide tips.). which means doing just what is necessary. First of all. Has anyone even considered measuring rods for a micrometer? What is to be done with dynamometric spanners. but what you actually need is a verification. Stability is a key word in metrology. etc. It is not necessary for the provider to have their own laboratory since the whole intervention is carried out onsite. for example. hardness. it is not only a means to avoid auditor’s critical views. control. compression. Fortunately. Nevertheless. In the case of equipment such as heavy machinery (traction. scope of measurement and uncertainties. Calibration must be done intelligently. However. let us point out that what has been said so far applies to movable measurement. scales. balances. When you look deeper into the matter. etc.2. the verification can only be done on-site. air conditioning chambers. the provider must use working standards which are related to the calibration chains. perhaps even a metrological confirmation (see ISO 10012 standard). you will think about using gauge blocks. It is important not to change your provider too regularly when you decide to subcontract the calibrations. the investment required for launching an accredited laboratory excludes the “transitory” type of company that starts up in “commercial niches” and then vanishes as quickly as it has appeared. Furthermore. etc.5.? If you go into physical chemistry. etc. 1. test or analysis instruments. you realize that quite often you talk about calibration. Therefore. it might be necessary to proceed to an internal checking between two interventions. how can a particular measuring instrument be calibrated? If it is a calliper. it gets even more complex! Some methods of measurement demand equivalent methods of calibration. Calibration requirements Several problems come to mind when thinking of calibration. which is just a simplified examination of good working order. which work in mechanical engineering and have their sets of gauge blocks calibrated in an accredited calibration laboratory simply open their calibration certificate? . How many firms..

with experience. it is not cheap regardeless of whether you do it yourself or subcontract it. 1. the small.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 39 Never must it be forgotten that the major purpose of calibration is to verify the measuring instrument and calculate the uncertainties that go with the results of the measurements taken with that instrument. What is presented here is a practically complete line of thought which can reveal useful for the firms with a metrology service. As a matter of fact. particularly in the field of physical chemistry. it is a part of the “Management of Quality”. 1993): . The question of the interval of the calibrations inevitably arises quickly. if so. you define the necessary intervals more accurately. However. On the question of follow-up interval. it makes it possible to maintain the user’s awareness of the importance of the measuring instruments. It is always possible to ascertain whether there are any local providers of services in metrology and. a firm cannot excel in everything and it must avoid spreading its resources too thinly. let us first recall the definition of the word “standard” in the “International Vocabulary of basic and general terms in Metrology” (ISO document. Some methods of measurement meet a few demands. of the notion of connected uncertainty. If you retain part of it in the firm.or medium-sized firms that do not use many standards (merely a set of gauges or masses for example) need not worry. measuring instruments should be calibrated reasonably frequently. However. In fact. etc. you always start quite randomly and then. In any event.5. as well as to the handbook of documentation published by AFNOR on the subject of the surveillance intervals. even though the metrology is not the firm’s chief activity. their charges. The reader should wary of any person who claims that they can tell which intervals are the right ones. The selection of standards The content of this technical paragraph does not concern all firms. which should make everybody happy. but not too often because of the overall cost involved. so as to detect and prevent any possible drift. There is the question of subcontracting the calibration.3. It is our opinion that a compromise can be considered. The answer. the reader’s attention is drawn to Chapter 6. is that it depends.

choice.” Examples: 1 kg mass standard 100 ohm standard resistor standard ammeter gauge block For a given metrological quantity. The management of the standards will have to take into account: – the metrological level of the standard. . as well as to calibrate or verify the standard itself. because it concerns the references of the measurements made by the firm. calibration or verification. that is. The standards may. The metrological aspects are about the following: – the methods that can be used to compare the measuring instrument submitted to calibration to the standard. When you select a standard. will have to be clearly defined. the accuracy. etc. All this information must be described in simple and accessible documents. work standard. conserve or reproduce a unit or several known values of a quantity to transmit them by comparison to other measuring instruments. the stability and the metrological reliability. you have to take metrological. The standards of the lowest orders often have the same shape as the standards of usual instruments. identification and conservation of the references. They are selected according to their type and their individual characteristics. – the importance of the standard for the firm. measuring instrument or measuring system intended to define. Thus. – the assessment of the results of the measurements made with the standard. or may not. differ from the usual measuring instruments. – the technical level and the complexity of the standard. – the basic metrological characteristics of the standard. realize. – the abilities of the users.40 Metrology in Industry Standard: “material measure. – the assignment of the standard (reference. the standard will be the “reference” of the firm. An error made on a standard can have more serious consequences than one made on a measuring instrument. they will have to be differentiated from the other usual measuring instruments because they will not have the same assignment. technical and economic aspects into account. Consequently. – special cases of utilization.). the mode of management concerning them.

Note 2: you realize a standard is stable and metrologically reliable: – by studying the working principle. . standards of other quantities. – ease of transport. total or partial. or – by assessing its errors using methods and means of measurement (for example. of installation. etc. – protection against deterioration. either when the standard is being used or when it is just being preserved. other metrological characteristics can be important in certain cases. etc. The technical aspects are about: – ease of use. calibration devices.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 41 Note 1: the accuracy of a standard is established either: – by comparing it to a reference standard of a superior order and of the same quantity. – special accessories necessary for the utilization or the preservation of the standard (installation. the conception and the structure of the standard and coming to an opinion about them. etc. – linearity or maximum permissible error of reversibility (hysteresis). in the case of a material measure. of taking to pieces and putting together again. etc. – sensitivity. etc. for example: – measuring range or nominal value. electric power. – reference conditions. simplicity and reliability of the standard. of connection and of setting up in the calibration or verification device.). – by scrutinizing the materials that make up its structure. Besides these basic characteristics. Note 3: the metrological reliability is the ability of a standard to fulfill its expected function while maintaining the required freedom from bias and repeatability during a predetermined period of time and in set conditions. recording. the method of manufacture and assembly. pollution. reading. – by studying the registers (monitoring cards. interferences. – reading security. – dynamic metrological characteristics.) that make it possible to preserve the compatibility of the standard with the national standards.) containing the detailed information about the standard.

The reality is that doing metrology. etc. is a full-time job which requires you to be independent. . the selection of the materials and the authentication of their metrological capability. the drafting of the procedures and the periodical calibration of the reference standards. Doing that requires data that no one else possesses. 1. for example: – the order of standardization of the equipment. However. more than ever. The periodical follow-up and the administrative management are somebody else’s affair. that is. the firm focuses its attention on its particular activity. – the absence of national or international instructions for some models of standards. technical. a quick economic survey will. but also economic) and are liable to considerably restrain the choice. Conclusion Today. there are even other restraining factors.42 Metrology in Industry The economic aspects are about: – the price of the standard and its accessories. trying to give meaning to the results of a measuring instrument. – the cost and the interval of the calibrations (including the costs resulting from non-availability) during the calibrations. its maintenance and its preservation. – the qualification of the personnel needed. If you consider the restrictions imposed by the prescribed metrological characteristics. – the cost of its utilization. Yet. the training. show that having these activities carried out externally is less expensive – just add up the investments (initial and periodical). – the possibilities of repairing. – the influence of traditions.6. in practice. selecting a standard can be regarded as the pursuit of an optimum solution. and the lifespan. – the trend towards the automation of measurements and calculations. most of the time. one must not forget the necessity to compare the specifications (tolerances) on the measured parameters to the uncertainties of measurements of these parameters. it must focus its energy on its primary responsibility: the analysis of the requirement. Most of these factors have overall effects (metrological. In relation to its metrological function.

or at the very core of each firm. People’s needs for measurements of all kinds and the necessity to be sure of their reliability and their universality have given rise to metrology. Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). metrology is. A metrological organization: why? The authors have purposefully devoted the first chapter to the analysis of metrological needs. Legal 2. and it must remain. Jean-Michel VIRIEUX – METAS/Switzerland. the science of measurement. Therefore. this task falls to the metrologists who intervene at the scientific. The reason for this choice is simple. national and international coherence of measurements is achieved. of course. It is only through satisfying the needs of industry that metrology finds its raison d’être. hence its elaboration may seem Chapter written by Luc ERARD – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). Jean-François MAGANA – Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML). and in the modern day to anticipate these needs. . It is easily understood that a universal language involves a certain amount of dialogue between people from different ethnicity. In short. whether at the international or national levels. technical and industrial levels. an intra-firm. a universal language. Thus. the metrological organization could only comply with the rules that make it possible to meet these needs.Chapter 2 Organization of Metrology: Industrial. Scientific. Roberto PERISSI – ENIQ/Italy.1.

it is because metrology is not reserved for isolated. often unknowingly.” Although the essential notions of coherence and simplicity influenced the creation of the metric system. industrial or commercial activity.. it was not adopted in France. The metric system medal. as the only and compulsory system..” Expressing the real needs. in addition. which increased needs tenfold. until 1st January 1840. For a long time. the need to collaborate regardless of political differences and. accelerated the process of establishing a metrological organization. the industrial developments of the 19th century. to establish and use a coherent and universal system.44 Metrology in Industry laborious. economic and political interests. it is constantly resorted to. his habits are not. more coherent in all its parts come out of man’s hand. commemorating the law of 4th July 1837. political and social realities: localization of the exchanges. scientific. From very early days. has on one side “To all times – To all peoples”. It needed powerful triggers to change these customs. trade required measuring instruments and thus standards. Its role is constantly increasing and it concerns such vital sectors as energy. . and “Unity of the Measurements” on the other. stamped in 1840. for tasks that are regarded as commonplace. Each day. and fighting poor practices. It is interesting to quote Lavoisier. The need for universal and unified measurements made it necessary to establish an independent organization which would guarantee the fairness of exchanges that were affected by deep-rooted economic. It emerged from concepts which will be studied later on in the chapter. they are mere accidents that can be defeated and dominated after more or less time. The scientific developments of the 17th and 18th centuries prepared the ground for the French Revolution to create the metric system. simpler. who said that: “never has anything greater. talking of quantities or units sounded more like a babel of languages than a modern means of communication. If the word “need” is a dominant recurring theme. In spite of political vicissitudes. not to mention the various national habits and customs which are the hereditary enemies of metrology. initiated people in their ivory towers. This states the need that was felt very early in the world of industrial measurement. A statement made at that time by the Minister for Commerce is still relevant today: “if man’s needs are something permanent that cannot be modified by a law. Measuring is closely related to any human. is one of the missions of a metrology organization. more or fewer efforts .

regionalization of the world has been witnessed. environment. Legal 45 health. the security of goods and people. evolve. It can. creates. providing a link between the needs of industry and the National Metrology Institute. Metrology: how? The organization of metrology cannot.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. In order that measuring should have some meaning. food. Europe set an example by creating EUROMET in which the European National Metrology Institutes collaborate. It is the role of metrology to forge the different links of the chain and to make sure it does a good job. on which legal metrology in particular depends. the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). be arbitrary.2. It has also created European cooperation for Accreditation (EA) which brings together the accredited calibration laboratories. National coherence mirrors international coherence. etc. this system was installed in 1969 by the Bureau National de Métrologie which consisted of five primary metrology laboratories and was in charge of the system of traceability chains and of the accreditation of the calibration . there is a need for a periodic follow-up in the field: it is the accreditation of the calibration laboratories that assumes the checking function. It ever tends towards being more universal. As any system drifts. maintains and upholds its standards. International coherence means an SI resting on sound scientific bases and comparisons of the national standards of the different countries. public works. which explains the success of the metric system that has become the International System of units (SI). the measuring instruments and the results of the measurements themselves. has to be ensured at the international and national levels. transport. and its aim is to harmonize the operation of the national calibration chains. and this allows a keener harmonization which makes the user’s task easier. It is essentially the sphere of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) and its laboratory. and must not. armament. A national organization studies. In France. each measurement must be related to a standard by an unbroken chain. Coherence. and it must. communications. It sets up a system that connects the industrials’ standards. 2. For about 30 years. although each country has its own national standards. Regional organizations that bring together national organizations have been created. and its results should be unquestionable and might be compared to those obtained at other times and in other places. Scientific.

. the monitoring of French metrology was transferred to the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). It provides a chain for the dissemination of the standards and guarantees the traceability of all measurement results to the International System of units (SI). In Switzerland. which are called SIT centers. which establishes a national system of calibration (SNT) which in turn integrates all the structures (primary laboratories and accrediting institutes) (see Figure 2. METAS. The list of the accredited calibration laboratories. in particular. the SAS. The confederation has created a federal office of metrology and the cantons have set up verification offices to carry out the tasks. after the Convention of the Meter was signed in 1875. The Swiss accreditation service (SAS) sets the examinations and delivers the accreditations in all the fields covered by the European or international standards in relation with accreditation and. These chains originate from the METAS’s primary laboratories which materialize the units in accordance with their definition and transmit them to the METAS’s calibration laboratories through material standards. and of some chemical quantities such as gas mixtures. these are the only laboratories that guarantee traceability to the standards. which would be called regulated metrology today. All the official activities of metrology are to be found gathered in one institution and one place. The Italian system has been acknowledged since 1991 by a law. is the business of the cantons. These calibration laboratories calibrate the standards of the clients. The latter activity was taken up by the COFRAC in 1994. the federal office of metrology and accreditation. In Italy. 273. and on the Italian calibration service (SIT) which has been accrediting the calibration laboratories in Italy since 1979. which also manages the Swiss Accreditation Service. Swiss metrology has set up traceability chains that guarantee the traceability of physical quantities. IENGF and INMRI-ENEA) which have established and supervised the national standards since 1950.4). the federal government is responsible for the legislation related to metrology and for the diffusion of units. This centralized organization was adopted at the beginning of the confederation’s activities related to metrology. Gazzetta Ufficiale. in all the domains of metrology (Swiss Calibration Service – SCS).46 Metrology in Industry laboratories. Legal metrology. the metrology system is based on three primary institutes (IMGC-CNR. is published in the Official Journal of the Italian Republic. In 2005. no. In order that correct values of units be disseminated with the required accuracy.

The international level In addition. and the Convention of the Metre (20th May 1875) advocated a commitment to found and maintain. with its organization at the national and international levels. Scientific and technical metrology Organization at the international level (the BIPM) With the volume of commercial transactions expanding and with science and techniques developing in the 18th century.3. all that was needed was a venue. Legal 47 The concept of legal metrology arose as soon as man expressed a need to guarantee the integrity of commercial exchanges. is not redundant. on a common foundation. Scientific. The pavilion was situated at the heart of the Saint Cloud park. Legal metrology. the necessity of making sure of the unity of measurements was powerfully felt by the middle of the 19th century. it relies on scientific and technical metrology to develop its specific mission. Only the essential elements of the general nature and the history of metrology have been retained as they make it possible to better understand the current structures. see section 2. – and to ensure the coherence of national standards. the BIPM was intended to improve the processes of comparison and transfer between standards. it is closely tied to the evolution of science and techniques. while undertaking the realization and the upkeep of the (international) materialized standards of the meter and the kilogram. Once the aims of the BIPM were established. 2.Organization of Metrology: Industrial.4. and was a 4 hectare international enclave in French territory. . an establishment whose initial aims would be: – to make sure that the metric system was used worldwide. and to the evolution of mankind. far away from any sources of vibration. Difficulties were caused by the use of many of standards in commercial and cultural exchanges (such problems were especially conspicuous at the World Fairs). the French government set the former Breteuil pavilion at the disposal of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures. The Convention adopted French as its official language. It is this fundamental aspect of metrology that appears in the industrially-developing countries where “weights and measures” are still such as they have been traditionally known. On 22nd April 1876. but the history of metrology is fascinating.

48 Metrology in Industry CIPM 18 members 10 consultative committees BIPM Laboratories USA NIST UK NPL Germany PTB France LNE CH METAS Italy SNT Figure 2. the BIPM is certainly the oldest establishment that “standardizes”. the BIPM continues to attend to the standardization of physical measurements in the world.1. The BIPM and the national laboratories of metrology CGPM CIPM BIPM NIST PTB NPL LNE METAS SNT Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (France) Comité International des Poids et Mesures (France) Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (France) National Institute for Sciences and Technology (USA) Physicalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany) National Physical Laboratory (UK) Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (France) Office Fédéral de Métrologie (Switzerland) Sistema Nazionale de Taratura (Italy) 2. The BIPM Today.1. . at the beginning of the 21st century. Its scientific activity aside. it is indeed possible to consider the SI as the oldest published document of international harmonization.3.

such as the distance traveled by light in 3. – chemistry. – to bring into existence the determinations relative to the basic physical constants and coordinate them. which is the key to the uniformity of measurements internationally and one of the unquestionable bases of the industrialized world. which have signed the Treaty of the Metre Convention.Organization of Metrology: Industrial.34 nanoseconds (the physical constant is the speed of light in vacuum): – to compare the national standards to the international standards. – ionizing radiations. and keep the international prototypes. together with the national metrology institutes. The scientific activity of the laboratories of the BIPM is divided in relation to the units of the SI into: – length. Scientific. In order to fulfill this mission of standardization. are responsible for the SI. The CGPM meets every four years and its mission is. the BIPM has to establish the basic standards. only the unit of mass is kept under the form of a “materialized measure”. – to ensure the coordination of the corresponding techniques of measurement. – to organize international comparisons at the level of national standards. – mass. To this day. – electricity. as well as the scales of the physical quantities. . The other basic quantities of the SI are defined today from physical constants. The CGPM is composed of delegates (51 in 2004) from all the states. in particular: – to debate and prompt the necessary steps to bring about the propagation and the improvement of the SI. The CIPM supervises and guides the BIPM’s work and it is itself under the authority of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM). – to approve the results of the new basic metrological determinations and adopt the various scientific resolutions of international significance. – time. Legal 49 The BIPM.

It is then possible to determine the exactitude of the comparison. in the second part. it is possible to compare measurements made in Europe. secondly. first. half of which are reelected every four years. This agreement is in two parts: in the first part. one of the goals of metrology is to make sure that a measurement made at Ulan-Bator (Mongolia) is comparable to the same measurement made later at La Paz (Bolivia). the signatories recognize the validity of the calibration and measurement certificates delivered by the participating laboratories.50 Metrology in Industry At the conference 18 members of the CIPM are elected. or in a nation which has joined the Metre Convention. the agreement is based on. have been applied. the actual participation of each NMI in suitable additional comparisons. within the scope of the American law (see the Fastener Quality Act (FQA) 1990). and thus to reach the same conclusions.3. in South Asia. The result of these scientific works and agreements of equivalence is that it is now possible for European exporters to prove that they meet the requirements of many American contracts which still stipulate that the supplier has to be “traceable to NIST”. Hence metrology has lowered a technical obstacle to the export of our products to the North American continent. In order that the criteria of mutual recognition be unbiased. the directors of the national metrology institutes (NMI) of the states belonging to the Metre Convention signed an arrangement (MRA) to mutually recognize the national measurement standards and the calibration and measurement certificates issued by their laboratories. In October 1999. Results of the international activities As a consequence of these scientific activities. after possible corrections due to the environment among other conditions. More generally. 2.2. it has been possible to sign such international recognition agreements as the BNM/NBS agreement of 1989 (which has become the NIST). the signatories recognize the degree of equivalence of the national measurement standards of the participating national laboratories. this point turned out to be very important for the approval of the French manufacturers of fastening systems. Thanks to the work of the CIPM and to the coordination by the BIPM. The agreement concluded there was not any significant gap between the American and French standards. the results of a set of key comparisons carried out according to specified methods that lead to a quantitative assessment of the degree of equivalence of the national measurement standards. in North America. and thirdly. . the setting up by each NMI of appropriate means so as ensure the quality of the measurements.

within the current decentralized metrological structure. of the NMI of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and of the Commission of the European Communities. 2. 2. Legal 51 regardless of the geographical location. It was set up to develop cooperation between the national laboratories of metrology of Western Europe and provide an efficacious utilization of the means which are available. technical and commercial relationships between peoples.3.1. – to optimize the use of the resources and services the members have at their disposal and emphasize the trend of members to satisfy detected metrological needs.3. – to improve the existing metrological services and make them accessible to all members. in September 1987. contributes to the harmonization of scientific.3. . including new members. Turkey. by taking into account the human factor. the major objective of the world organization of metrology is to determine the causes of the deviations and to define the uncertainty of the measurements (reproducibility. – to make sure that the new calibration benches created within EUROMET are accessible to all members.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. following the signing of a “Memorandum of Understanding” (it was amended in August 1990 and July 1998). Metrology. and it is made up of the NMI of the countries from the European Union. It is now also open to all the European countries. The quality of the measurements that ensues will be synonymous with quality in essential spheres at the world level.g.3. Therefore. metrology is unquestionably useful in bringing people closer to one another by avoiding contentions and malfunctions directly related to measurements. e.3. Objectives and structures EUROMET’s aims are: – to develop a closer collaboration between the members. Regional organizations 2.1. the networks of communication and navigation as well as a multitude of theoretical or applied technical and scientific activities. Bulgaria and Romania. These spheres include multinational industries which involve the development of subcontracting. the international trade of products.3. and excepting the measurement uncertainties of the two laboratories. EUROMET EUROMET is an organization which was officially founded in Madrid. in the work on the standards. Scientific. More precisely. as a universal language.1. repeatability).

metrology of neutrons). The expenses for cooperation and research are borne by the participating laboratories. ultrasonics and vibrations (accelerometry included). – the facilitation of collaboration between members interested in a particular project. – the supply of information on resources and services. all the delegates constitute the General Assembly of EUROMET which meets at least once a year to debate its aims and objectives.3. – acoustics. – the cooperation with the European accreditation bodies.3. – the cooperation with the European legal metrology services. external financing is not excluded: the European Community in particular financially participates in the research programs.1. high frequencies). EUROMET does not have any funds of its own. However. EUROMET’s president is elected for two years and he provides a secretariat staff. . Structure Each member (the national metrology organizations) appoints a delegate. Total autonomy is retained by the members. – time and frequency. low frequency. – flowmetry (properties of fluids included). 2. – electricity and magnetism (direct current and quantum metrology.2. – photometry and radiometry (fibronics included). – thermometry (thermal properties and humidity included). – ionizing radiations (dosimetry. it operates on the basis of a voluntary participation. Technical activities There are 11 spheres of activities: – mass (force and pressure included). radioactivity.52 Metrology in Industry EUROMET’s specific aims are: – the coordination of studies about standards. – length (dimensional measurements included). – the transfer of competence between members in the domains of primary or national standards. – the coordination of the major investments in metrological means.

acoustics and flowmetry give rise to the fewest. they also make possible the gathering of information about traceability in Europe for the use of accreditation organizations. 256 projects were in progress. or are developing. Likewise. time/frequency. It can easily be imagined that an important role in the European metrology is played by the countries with a larger GNP or possessing a larger size of metrology institute. organic and inorganic. His main task is to coordinate the projects which are presented by the “contact person”. There is often a collaboration outside EUROMET for those whose number of projects may seem low. which shows that metrologists are determined to pool their work. they play the largest part in the projects. – traceability.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. mass and length. The realization of common surveys is the type of collaboration that has the greatest attraction. Scientific. the number of projects are not the same within the categories of cooperation. Four to five participants on average have collaborated in each project. Interlaboratory comparisons come second because they are used to demonstrate the equivalence of standard realizations. On 1st May 2004. – consultation on facilities. 368 have been previously carried through and have been concluded with a report. The number of projects is a proof of the success of EUROMET in terms of European cooperation. electrochemistry). The spheres that give rise to the greatest number of projects are electricity. and some countries have taken advantage of their participation in EUROMET to develop their own metrological infrastructure. Each collaborative project in a given activity is classified in one of the following categories: – cooperation in research. which is renewable once. A “technical chairman” is elected by the committee in each subject field for a two-year mandate. . – intercomparison of measurement standards. The spheres which have the highest number of projects are those that arouse a high interest. – interdisciplinary metrology. a specialist in the sphere of activities in question who has been appointed by the national organizations of metrology. Legal 53 – chemical metrology (gas.

The most significant works to be carried out within EUROMET in the coming years will be the interlaboratory comparisons and the accreditation of the national laboratories of metrology which are the two major components of the planned elaboration of the mutual recognition agreements.2. in order to bring the capacities of calibration in Europe to the same level and to give the clients of the service the required guarantees. the WECC was a working section of the WEMC (Western European Metrologic Club) and it was called the Working Group on Calibration Services. traceability or measurements. Among them. must be mentioned. Another goal of the WECC was to secure and maintain the free movement of the know-how between the different organizations. the OIML and COOMET are regularly invited to the plenary meetings of EUROMET’s committee to contribute towards its work and extend the cooperation between the different organizations. so must WELMEC. EUROMET also collaborates with such organizations as EURACHEM. called the “amount of substance”. EUROMET has links with international and similar regional organizations. the SADCMET (Southern African Development Community Cooperation in Measurement Traceability) for Southern Africa and the SIM (Sistema interamericano de metrologia) for the Americas. so as to obtain the signing of recognition agreements and thus eliminate the technical obstacles to free trade resulting from calibrations. As a regional organization. Originally in 1975. This cooperation is now extending to such regional organizations as the APMP (Asia Pacific Metrology Program) for South-East Asia and the West Pacific. EA (European Cooperation for Accreditation). European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA) The Western European Calibration Cooperation (WECC)’s object was to testify to the collaboration of the official services of calibration-laboratory accreditation that operated in Western Europe.54 Metrology in Industry EUROMET remains closely linked to many European and international organizations. The objective of the WECC was to establish and maintain a mutual and reciprocal confidence between the different accreditation services of Western Europe. they have developed a common technical domain or sphere of activity. and it is related to physicochemical analyses and measurements. 2. whose technical support is EUROMET. . The BIPM.3. now called chemical metrology.3. EUROMET’s twin for legal metrology.

This declaration of equivalence concerns all the calibration certificates stamped by one of the mentioned organizations (see Chapter 5). Together with EA. such as APLAC (AsiaPacific laboratory Accreditation Cooperation) for the Asia-Pacific zone. individually. which in 1997 became the EA when it merged with EAC (European Cooperation for Certification). Legal 55 In June 1994. as well as observing evaluations made in several countries that have signed the regional agreement. each organization has at its disposal a document that reports the deviations from the EA criteria. the WECC merged with its counterpart that dealt with testing and analysis laboratories. not even as projects. . In no way do these agreements alter the operation of the organizations which. a counterpart which carried on the coordination between the organizations of accreditation and certification organizations.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. their mode of functioning and their characteristics. This process makes it possible to limit the number of crossed evaluations and especially the time spent on these evaluations. the Western European Laboratory Accreditation (WELAC) to form a new structure. Scientific. retain their independence. There are other regional or international organizations. The EA Recognition Agreements These agreements have emerged from a long and rigorous process which begun at a time when the standards of the EN 45000 series did not exist.3.3. 2. IAAC (Inter America Accreditation Cooperation) for all the countries of the two Americas.1. The organizations which have been invited to sign the multilateral recognition agreement declare that: There is no significant difference which might induce a user not to grant the same confidence to the calibration certificates issued by someone accredited: they are equivalent and can then be considered as such by those the certificates are addressed to. That recognition is validated through the agreements concerning the equivalence of the calibration certificates. at the same time as it makes sure that the arrangements that appear in the EA’s report are still being applied in the assessed organization.2. these organizations work in the ILAC (International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation) for a recognition of the calibration results. After an evaluation by a group of experts from the member countries of the EA. The international agreements depend on the same principle: ILAC’s assessors make sure the regional agreement works well with regard to the requirements of the guide ISO/CEI 58 (EN 45003) by evaluating the work of the committee responsible for handling the agreement. EAL (European Cooperation for Accreditation of Laboratories).

The accreditation bodies take into consideration the competence and the experience of the personnel. ionizing radiations.2.3. global approach. while ensuring there is a dialogue between laboratories and industrialists. in accordance with the standards or rules the product is subjected to. by means of tests carried out in their own laboratories. Definition of accreditation Accrediting a calibration laboratory is to recognize that the laboratory is apt to perform calibrations in a specified sphere. forces. mass.). The firms are then in a position to show that their products meet all of requirements.2.3. the calibration methods used and the connection to the national standards. in an identified measurement range and with associated uncertainties. etc. 2. Guarantees provided by accreditation Accreditation is the recognition of a certain competence and the assurance of the durability of this competence by an organization which is accepted as an authority on the subject. The main objective of the national traceability chains is to make possible the connection of industrial measurements to national standards and to understand the needs of industry in the field of metrology. They enable calibration certificates to circulate freely. while integrating the characteristics of the equipment which is to be connected to the standards. the equipment. Those elements are ensuring the coherence of the technical activity of the accredited laboratories and their calibration capabilities and associated uncertainties.).3. The EA makes bilateral recognitions easier between the different economic regions of the world through technical and organizational audits.3. for clearly defined methods. Each physical quantity is the object of a similar analysis. (EN 45020) . etc.56 Metrology in Industry The purpose of these agreements between national organizations of accreditation of calibration laboratories is to facilitate the recognition of the soundness of the measurements recorded in the calibration documents. Traceability to the national standards is a priori ensured only by the calibration certificates which bear the logotype of the national accreditation organization and are delivered by accredited laboratories. this leads to the drawing up of an accreditation certificate which defines the calibration which can be accredited for a given domain (dimensional metrology. modular approach. electricity. in the spirit of the directives of the Commission of the European Union (new approach.3.2. 2. temperature-hygrometry.

Legal 57 That is why.4. and reference materials. This is important in the case of the connection of scales. flowmetry. These publications concern different physical quantities: dimensional metrology. either because the movement would ruin the calibration operation. ionizing radiations. in order to eventually guarantee a traceability to the national standards or to the SI. Scientific. hygrometry. radio-photometry. – the equipment and reference standards which suit the domain of measurement and the uncertainties stated by the laboratory. mass. force. hygrometry. it is necessary to make sure the provider of the service is accredited for the domain in question. power machines and other equipment that cannot be moved. – the means of traceability to national standards (reference standards. – the internal calibration procedures (follow-up and checking of reference standards. In order to inform industrialists. vibrations). temperature.2. recalibration program and periodicity). The annexes also specify whether the provider of the service is accredited to operate on site. – the calibration methods. Having obtained this guarantee.3.3.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. time-frequency. pressure. The latter can.13) and that it is valid at the relevant time. – the technical annexes to the convention do cover all the needs of the firm. Criteria of accreditation The following items are examined before a calibration laboratory is accredited for a field in which the measured physical quantities and the calibration uncertainties are defined by: – the qualification of the personnel and the presence of a technical supervisor. acoustics. if necessary. – the exhaustive assessment of the causes of uncertainty for each domain. periodicity and program for traceability of working standards). electricity. . – the environment of the laboratory (temperature. you have to verify that: – the accreditation has been attributed to the firm or the agency that is likely to carry out the calibration (VIM section 6. 2. call on several accredited laboratories to cover all the physical quantities and fields of measurement to which it wants its equipment connected. accelerometry. answerable for the validity of the calibration documents and responsible for the accredited laboratory. accreditation organizations regularly publish facsimiles which reproduce in full the technical annexes of the accredited laboratories as soon as the annexes appear. or because it is not reasonable to move the equipment.

that there may be a certain repetition. Accreditation procedure The object of accreditation is to ensure that: – the minimum requirements which are indispensable to guarantee the traceability of the references to the national standards are set up. . – periodical re-examination of the accreditations. two smooth rings. the laboratory has two systems at its disposal which make it possible to compare two sets of standard gauge blocks.58 Metrology in Industry The experience of the laboratory is also examined. It is important. whatever their nationality. For example. to ensure the calibrations are coherent and the clients.3. – quality audit of the general requirements. the laboratory can use a high-stability generator to verify a high-resolution measuring instrument. so that the metrology service may. In addition. be able to detect any fault or abnormal drift. – the potential calibration of the implemented measuring instruments and the measurement and uncertainty ranges claimed are coherent. within the EA. One should be careful to differentiate between calibration and handling a bank of measuring equipment (see Chapter 11). can be compared on a measuring machine.3. in some traceability chains it can be confirmed by means of proficiency testing. or two standard gauges. connected to an approved center. by itself. 2. receive equivalent services. – the demands for quality assurance of standard ISO/CEI 17025 and of the EA’s specific documents are met. the accreditors have established a number of procedures that are meant to ensure the quality of the calibrations performed in accredited laboratories is permanent: – technical audit of the laboratories. between the different accredited laboratories. – numerous comparisons are organized. – yearly survey of the connections achieved.3. however. etc.

M (Sèvres) Laboratories SIM EUROMET USA NIST UK NPL BDR PTB France CH METAS Italy SNT LNE National Laboratories National Standards Reference standards of the accredited laboratory Reference standards of the firms LNE LNE-INM LNE-LNHB LNE-SYRTE METAS IENGF IMGC ENEA Accredited laboratories Cofrac-calibration Accredited laboratories SCS Accredited laboratories SIT National and European firms Control of the process of measurement Figure 2.3.4.4. The Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) 2.Organization of Metrology: Industrial.4. Legal 59 B.1.2. Organization at the national level 2.1. Scientific. its mission was to animate and coordinate the actions initiated by the different ministry departments in the sphere of metrology.P. Example of traceability scheme in Europe 2. . Role and missions Metrology became organized in 1969 in France.1.I. when the Bureau National de Métrologie (BNM) was created.3.3. A structural reform was undertaken in 1994 to consolidate its action and diversify its activity.

some of them based on fundamental phenomena. together with three other national metrology laboratories and six designated laboratories. with the best uncertainties. To meet these needs. transport. The group was renewed by notice on 22nd May 2001 for a term of four years. They carry out: – research in physics and chemistry. and in trading as well. communications. its position as an intermediary that did not have a high visibility at the international level. aircraft. as most countries have only one national metrology institute (NMI) linked to designated bodies. chemistry and analysis. its temporary nature whereas metrology is a perennial task. the development of subcontracting. if necessary. The qualitative and quantitative checks. the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Research decided to dissolve the BNM and transfer the central task of metrology to the LNE which was renamed the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais. with a structure slightly different from that established in 1994. space and nuclear industries. In January 2005. and secondly. which leads to new definitions and realization of units. the organization as a public interest group (GIP) had two principal disadvantages: first. health and security. – linking the references of firms and technical organizations to national standards. scientific research. public works. environment. One of the objectives of metrology is to ensure the national and international coherence of the measurements made in the firms. . The metrological needs that the LNE is charged to satisfy arise from very various spheres of activity: car manufacture. and the technological evolution strengthen the role of metrology in industrial processes. armament. the BNM became a public interest group whose mission was to prepare and implement the national policy for metrology. – work to improve and maintain current national references. the LNE. form a coherent and coordinated body of four national metrology laboratories and six designated laboratories associated to the LNE (they have signed a contract with the LNE). etc. However.60 Metrology in Industry By a ministerial order on 22nd December 1994.

dosimetry of X-rays. The laboratory LNE-INM (National Institute of Metrology). – Observatory of Besançon: time (time interval. The laboratories of the LNE: metrology in chemistry. develop high-level means of transfer and calibration. dose equivalent. . mass. The laboratory LNE-LNHB (National Laboratory Henri Becquerel). anemometry. development of references in the ranges. radiometry-photometry and acoustic pressure in cavity. and guided optics. high frequency and electromagnetic radiations. at the CNAM (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers): wavelength and refractometry. mass and related quantities (accelerometry. temperature as a complement of the standards of the LNE-INM and thermophysical properties of materials. The laboratory LNE-SYRTE (Time-space Reference Systems).1. Organization of French metrology (monitored by the LNE) General organization The scientific and technical activities related to metrology are divided between the different partners as follows.2. Scientific. spectral density of phase). with the basic unit (second) and the derived unit (hertz). flux. references of frequencies (from the radioelectric domain to the optical domain) and chains of measurement of frequencies (from the radioelectric domain to the optical domain)). measuring instrument or reference material to national standards set up in the calibration services of the national metrology laboratories and designated laboratories. – CETIAT: hygrometry. unit and scales of time (dissemination. – ENSAM-PARIS: dynamic pressure. stability of time and frequency). exposure. radiometry and photometry as a complement of the standards of the LNE-INM.4. scale). Traceability of the industry’s standards and references The LNE. These means are used to make possible the traceability of any working standard. at the CEA (Commissariat à l’énergie atomique): ionizing radiations (activity. – IRSN: neutron dosimetry. electricity (quantum metrology). force. together with the national metrology laboratories and designated laboratories. The associated laboratories are: – LADG: gas flow. Legal 61 2. absorbed dose. – FEMTO-ST: frequencies (oscillators. kerma in the air. dimensional metrology (material standards). temperature (unit. couple. liquid flow. at the Paris Observatory: time and frequency. direct current and low frequency. viscosity). mass.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. pressure. legal time.3.

. It is on all the consultative committees and chairs several working groups. and SCS in Switzerland (see Chapter 5). to ensure the coherence of the implementation of the SI. Standard Laboratories Accredited for calibration LNE NML NMI Transfer to users Laboratories Associated to LNE National Standards Laboratories Accredited for calibration Not Accredited Calibration laboratories Industrial measurements Figure 2.3. COFRAC in France. The principle structure of these chains is shown in Figure 2. for encouraging and coordinating the actions undertaken within the system of the calibration chains. it publishes a scientific and technical journal La revue française de métrologie. together with COFRAC. The LNE. SIT in Italy. This traceability is guaranteed by the logos of the organizations that have accredited the calibration laboratories. exploit and circulate the information and documents touching the developments of metrology”. the LNE is responsible. To that end. The LNE also publishes sector-based monographs. together with the national metrology laboratories (NML). and of the new Mutual Recognition of the CIPM. together with its counterparts. the aim of which is to inform scientific and industrial circles about the achievements. This presence enables it. programs and prospects of French metrology. Comité International des Poids et Mesures). defines the structure of the calibration chains and provides COFRAC with its scientific and technical competence. Traceability scheme in France International cooperation The LNE is France’s representative to international metrological organizations (Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures.3. In addition. Information and training Another mission of the LNE is to “gather.62 Metrology in Industry The calibration services of the national metrology laboratories and the laboratories accredited by COFRAC for calibration are responsible for performing calibrations that ensure traceability to the national standards.

time and frequencies. three institutes are responsible for the different units of the SI: – the IMGC-CNR. optics and acoustic quantities.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. 2. luminous flux). SNT. a single national institute covering all the metrological activities. scale of hardness. The IMGC also uses the units derived from the basic units: angles. The first level is the primary metrology institutes which establish the SI units and maintain them. hygrometry and accelerometry. – the INMRI-ENEA. The IEN-GF is also in Torino. Scientific. acoustic pressures and electric quantities (farad. the NML and the designated laboratories organize training courses in the various fields of metrology.2. they also ensure their dissemination at the highest level and guarantee the traceability of the measurement results. watt. it is comprised of the metrology institutes and the accredited laboratories. . volumic mass and flowmetry. The IEN-GF’s activity is not limited to metrology. magnetic flux. 273 which established the national calibration system. unit of ionizing radiations. the traceability of measurements is guaranteed by law when the Sistema Nazionale di Taratura (SNT) is used. in August 1991. pressure. luminous intensity. as part of continuing education. as provided in the law no. volt.3. and takes part in exhibitions about metrology. the LNE. photometry. The SNT has a three-level structure. – the IEN-GF. Legal 63 organizes theme days about specific metrological sectors. it also involved in the sector of materials and technological innovation. Every year. since 1968. The IMGC-CNR and the IEN-GF recently merged to create the INRIM. been carrying out research in the field of metrology. in an area which is known as the Italian metrological pole. The Italian national calibration system (SNT) In Italy. units of mechanics and science of heat. force. henry. The IMGC-CNR is situated in Torino where it has.4. The national standards established by this institute. as shown in Figure 2. not far from the IMGC. mass and temperature. joule.4. units of electric quantities. in compliance with the SI. cover the following basic quantities: length. For historical reasons. ohm. The national standards developed by this institute are: power intensity.

time and frequency. at the level of the International Committee of Weights and CIPM. the flux of neutrons and exposure.4. it is the national accreditation organization with full authority to deliver accreditation to calibration laboratories. The IMGC. . for the units of absorbed doses. enjoy an environment that is very conducive to innovation in the different fields of measurement sciences. In addition. SNT – NATIONALCALIBRATION SYSTEM NATIONAL CALIBRATION SYSTEM MINISTRY MINISTRY of INDUSTRY an INDUSTRYand COMMERCE MINISTRY MINISTRY of UNIVERSITY and UNIVERSITYan SCIENCE RESEARCH METRIC METRIC CENTRAL COMMITTEE COMMITTEE NATIONAL CALIBRATION SYSTEM PRIMARY METROLOGY INSTITUTES PRIMARYMETROLOGY INSTITUTES IMGC ENEA IMGC – IEN – ENE SIT SIT Accreditation Structure Accreditatio Structure SIT SIT Users EA Calibration Calibration services service in Europe SIT COMMITTEE SIT COMMITTEE Secretariat Secretaria TechnicalCommittee Technica Committees Working Groups WorkingGroup Research centers • Researc center • Test laboratorie Tes laboratories • Industrial sectors sector • Services Service SIT Calibration Centres SIT Calibration Centers Figure 2. These three institutes cooperate in the activities carried out as part of the Convention of the Metre. in the domain of ionizing radiations. which set up the metrological standards for Italy. photometry and radiometry. electricity and magnetism. it is responsible. the IEN-GF and the INMRI. they contribute to the activities of EUROMET. thermometric quantities. mass. as well as at the level of the consultative committees for the definition of the meter.64 Metrology in Industry The INMRI-ENEA is situated at Roma Casaccia. the activity of a radionuclide. Accreditation of the calibration laboratories in Italy (SIT) The SIT (Servizio Italiano di Taratura) is found at the second level.

scientific and legal metrology. – it performs the activities that third parties request it to do (and is paid for those activities) within the limits of its capabilities. METAS’s tasks METAS’s tasks are defined in Article 17 of the federal law on metrology. Teams of experts are formed for the particular objectives to be reached. METAS has adopted a matrix organization and a matrix distribution of the work and responsibilities to carry out these different tasks. their verification. This centralized organization was established as soon as the Swiss Confederation began to deal with metrology.3. The Swiss national calibration system The federal office of metrology and accreditation has gathered all the official activities of metrology into one institution and on one site. . if applicable. 2. Legal 65 The laboratories which are accredited by the SIT (SIT centers) perform calibrations and deliver calibration certificates which are technically as valid as those of the primary institutes. the office adopted Metrology and Accreditation Switzerland (METAS) as its name.4. Scientific. – it oversees the enforcement of the law in the cantons. draft directives for these offices and checks their measuring instruments. – it examines measuring instruments and metrological testing methods and makes decisions about their conformity. – it advises and trains the personnel of the cantonal offices of verification. At the beginning of 2001. in particular. It also manages the Swiss Accreditation Service (SAS). the agreement of the relevant department is needed for important activities. their acceptance or approval and. – it determines and circulates sufficiently precise standard values of the units used in metrology and does the necessary research and the scientific and technical work of development. – it elaborates the requirements needed for the determination. but with higher uncertainties.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. which ensures cooperation between all the specialists and a rational and efficient utilization of the experience and knowledge of each specialist. thus. – it gives consultations and performs evaluations. the following tasks: – it prepares the legislation related to metrology and ensures that it is enforced.3. as well as the SAS. came together under one name. this law sets out the scope of official metrology in Switzerland. the transmission and the accurate estimation of physical quantities. after the Convention of the Metre was signed in 1875. Article 17 states that the office has.

we would mention the quantified Hall and Josephson effects in electricity. In particular. In legal metrology. . In their turn. technical problems. Watt’s scales for the kilogram and. Swiss metrology has set up traceability chains which guarantee the traceability of physical quantities and of some chemical quantities such as gas mixtures. – one management staff member. logistic and administrative support services. It publishes a scientific and technical journal. accreditation and the recognition of certificates. This well-documented system contributes towards the international recognition of the certificates of conformity issued in Switzerland. – the SAS. the accredited laboratories calibrate the standards of industry. To ensure the availability and the transmission of the correct values of units with the required accuracy. conformity. the “METAS Info”. It regularly organizes seminars on topics of general interest. commerce and research. which informs all those that are interested in scientific realizations. In order to meet the needs of its clients as satisfactorily as possible. METAS takes an active part in the works of the following organizations and it collaborates with many of their subcommittees. such as uncertainties. – one research and development staff member. the object of which is to establish new definitions of basic units. in relation to length. METAS itself calibrates the standards of the verification organizations which are usually dependent on the cantonal authorities. most of them being accredited. These calibration laboratories calibrate the standards of the clients. These chains originate in METAS’s primary laboratories which materialize the units from their definitions and pass them to METAS’s calibration laboratories in the form of material standards. or to improve their implementation. METAS cooperates in research. international cooperation and the decisions of Swiss metrology. the new definition of the meter and the length metrology. – two technical. At the international level. and also some training courses for those who verify weights and measures.66 Metrology in Industry METAS’s general organization In METAS there are: – two scientific and technical divisions which oversee seven sections altogether. which enable them to obtain a federal certificate of capability. METAS collects and distributes as much information as it can about metrology.

This is the case in some countries. Sous-Directeur de la Métrologie. .1. In most countries. With the exception of research.. whereas in most countries the regulated area generally concerns measurements for trade. and this framework applies to the scope of legal metrology. many countries also regulate Health and Safety policy and evidential measurements. protection of human health or safety. legal 1 This section has been written with the help of Gérard Lagauterie. ISO International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Legal metrology1 2. OIML International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML).) legitimate objectives are inter alia: national security requirements. the prevention of deceptive practices. Legal metrology covers measurements and measuring instruments that the state considers to be to much a sensitive subject for society. and other more specialized organizations. EUROMET International Electronic Electrotechnical Commission. (. Scientific. any application of metrology may fall under the scope of legal metrology if regulations are applicable to all measuring methods and instruments. This definition means that the scope of legal metrology may vary considerably from one country to another..2 defines what is and is not be covered by legal metrology: Article 2. Scope of legal metrology The term “legal metrology” applies to any application of metrology that is subject to national laws or regulations. animal or plant life or health. However. or the environment. The Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (World Trade Organization) sets up a framework under which technical regulations may be developed. France.) technical regulations shall not be more trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfill a legitimate objective. 2.. Legal 67 In metrology CGPM General Conference of Weights and Measures (CGPM).Organization of Metrology: Industrial.4. and in particular if quality control is supervised by the state.. Article 2.4. The first aim of legal metrology is to define which units of measurement are acceptable in the relevant country and for what purposes.2 (. WELMEC European Cooperation for Legal Metrology (WELMEC).

lighting in the workplace. Depending on the country. The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) The OIML is an intergovernmental organization established by a treaty in 1955. customary units. It is however quite unusual for regulations to prescribe the maximum uncertainty of such regulated measurements as defined by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Regulations on measurement results. or may cover categories of instruments used for transactions between companies.4. The third part of legal metrology consists of submitting certain categories of measuring instruments to legal control.2.). and whose general objective is to organize mutual information and cooperation among its members in the field of legal metrology.). and that prosecution of offenses is based on reliable measurements (radar speed meters for vehicles. was set up 50 years ago to deal with this aspect of metrology. the OIML. petrol pumps.68 Metrology in Industry units are the SI units. in some countries. that transactions be based on these measurement results and it may require minimal performance levels for these measurements. Instruments used for healthcare.). – prescribing that measurements shall be performed with instruments of a given accuracy class subject to legal control. Most often the instruments used for levying taxes are the object of special attention from the regulatory authorities. etc. measurement of pollutant emissions. Although its organization differs from one country to another. etc. This is to give confidence to the public that regulatory controls are carried out with appropriate and reliable instruments (brake efficiency of vehicles. the instruments used for the implementation of technical regulations are submitted to legal control. etc. which generally consist of: – setting acceptable limits to the content of prepackages compared with their nominal value. legal metrology is present in nearly all countries – hence an international organization. sound level of equipment for industry or public works. to harmonize legal metrology . this regulatory scope may be limited to a few categories used in domestic trade (weighing scales. but the list may be diverse according to the countries. 2.). etc. plus special units for specific applications and. breath analyzers. exhaust gas analysis. In relation to measurements. for public safety or environmental protection and monitoring are more and more frequently submitted to legal metrology control (medical instruments. legal metrology regulations may require that certain measurements be carried out. Usually.

Due to this harmonizing role. which are model regulations proposed to its members when they intend to regulate a category of measuring instruments. the OIML has developed – and is continuously developing – systems to facilitate mutual recognition and mutual acceptance of legal metrology controls. The OIML has about 60 member states (who are signatories to the treaty. under stated conditions. . These international recommendations have three parts: requirements. The OIML then intends to establish systems for certifying the conformity of prepackages. this harmonization and cooperation will also present important benefits for all countries and for society. Cooperation within the OIML allows the level of protection of consumers. and edits and publishes OIML publications. Harmonization of regulations and elimination of technical barriers to trade form two important elements of the global system under development. committed to implementing common decisions). and about 50 corresponding members. In addition to recommendations. by networking and avoiding costly duplication of resources. One of the main activities of the OIML is to harmonize legal metrology regulations by developing international recommendations. The BIML coordinates and supports the work carried out by the OIML technical committees and subcommittees. test procedures and the test report format. which are of a more informative nature. The executive headquarters of the OIML are the Bureau International de Métrologie Légale (BIML). the OIML develops international documents. Scientific. for that will reduce the costs of selling instruments on the market and the costs of international trade. The OIML Certificate System for Measuring Instruments was established in 1990 and allows member states. the OIML is an international standard-setting body and has been accepted as an observer in the Technical Barriers to Trade Committee in the World Trade Organization. The OIML System is now completed by a Mutual Acceptance Arrangement which came into force in 2005 and which will result in Declarations of Mutual Confidence in the type testing results. To complement to its harmonizing activity. and allows states to develop an efficient legal metrology system at an acceptable cost. supports the work of all OIML structures. The purpose of these activities is to set up a global legal metrology system. to appoint the authority which issues certificates of conformity for types of measuring instruments that comply with the requirements of the OIML recommendations. However. Legal 69 regulations and to foster mutual confidence. and for certifying the conformity of individual instruments against the OIML requirements.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. located in Paris. trading partners and the public worldwide to be raised.

ISO. The BIML publishes a specialized bulletin four times a year. the Systema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM). The OIML has close liaisons with a number of international organizations. and European Cooperation in Legal Metrology (WELMEC)) and regional metrology organizations (the Euro Asian Cooperation of National Metrology Institutes (COOMET).France Tél. etc.: +33(0) 1 48 78 12 82 . – The technical committees and subcommittees are the bodies in charge of developing the OIML recommendations and documents. The CIML Presidential Council advises the CIML president and vice-president on strategic issues. Regional legal metrology organizations (the Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum (APLMF). Bureau International de Métrologie Légale 11. plus seven CIML members appointed by the CIML president. The OIML languages are French (official language) and English (working language). in principle the persons responsible for legal metrology in their respective countries.Fax +33(0) 1 42 82 17 27 . and approves the OIML recommendations and other publications. the World Trade Organization (WTO).70 Metrology in Industry The structure of the OIML is as follows: – The International Conference of Legal Metrology. the Euro Mediterranean Legal Metrology Forum (EMLMF). These committees are composed of experts appointed by the CIML members and observers from corresponding members and organizations in liaison. – The Permanent Working Group for Developing Countries is an advisory group in charge of studying any action necessary to support developing countries in the OIML and of carrying out these initiatives. the formal adoption of OIML recommendations and any decision for common action by member states. The CIML follows the technical work of the technical committees and subcommittees. In addition to this structure. the European Collaboration in Measurement Standards (EUROMET). rue Turgot 75009 PARIS . the Southern African Development Community Cooperation in Legal Metrology (SADCMEL). The Conference meets every four years and is composed of delegations from all member states. It takes all fundamental decisions concerning the OIML. composed of the CIML president and vicepresident. etc. engages discussion and undertakes studies for further decisions at the Conference. and in particular its budget. two advisory groups must be noted: – The CIML Presidential Council. the International Accreditation Forum (IAF). the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).) are also key liaisons for the OIML. The CIML elects a president and two vice-presidents. which is the highest level. and in particular with the Metre Convention. its policy. – The International Committee of Legal Metrology (CIML) is composed of one delegate from each member state.

European Union harmonization The European Commission (DG Enterprise) has among its missions to harmonize the national regulations that could create technical barriers to trade. Today WELMEC has 28 members and two associated members. There is also a restricted access members-only area.Organization of Metrology: Industrial.4. where circulars.4. work and publications. etc. its members. – Directive 71/316/EEC (“Old Approach” Directive) and the Directives adopted in its application. These Directives are applicable through their adoption into the national legislative and regulatory texts. tachographs) installed on trucks and collective transport vehicles to measure and record speed. In addition. drafts of recommendations and news of interest to members are regularly posted. The European level 2. completed by European Regulation 3821/85 EEC on 20th December 1985. driving time. Scientific. A new generation of tachographs has been defined and regulated by adapting the European Regulation to technical progress (European Regulation 2135/98 on 24th September 1998). The national legal metrology regulations have been harmonized by four series of European Directives: – Directive 80/181/EEC on 20th December 1979 (modified) on legal units. usually called the “Measuring Instruments Directive” or MID). WELMEC WELMEC was created in 1989: it is an organization which coordinates the national authorities of legal metrology of the Western European countries within the European Union and common European economic frameworks. structures.2. related to NonAutomatic Weighing Instruments. – Directive 2004/22/EC on 31st March 2004 (“New Approach” Directive. requirements were set up for legal control of the instruments (that is. Legal 71 The BIML maintains a website (www.3. as most of these original associated members have since joined the European Union.oiml. WELMEC grew after its creation by accepting as associated members the countries of Central Europe which were committed to entry into the European Union. .org) which presents information on the OIML. 2.1. – Directive 90/384/EC modified (“New Approach” Directive).3. the European Regulation 3820/85 EEC on 20th December 1985 (directly applicable without being adopted into national legislation). under DG Transport. 2. which covers 10 categories of measuring instruments.4.3.

– methods for the examination of the software of prescribed instruments. it states that when. The objective of WELMEC’s first works was to harmonize the enforcement of the European Directive 90/384 about non-automatic weighing instruments. which has organized itself (new working groups have been created) and launched many initiatives intended to ensure a harmonized implementation of this Directive. – surveillance of the market for the enforcement of European directives. in particular: – checking prepacking. – various technical fields: weighing instruments. measuring sets for liquids other than water. different works were undertaken to harmonize the approach of the member states on different subjects of legal metrology. and assisting in the tasks of the working party of the European Council related to the Directive. Afterwards. and to promote mutual recognitions. WELMEC has also acted as a group of experts supporting the European Community in the finalization of the future European Directive on measuring instruments. WELMEC has published a repertory of the organization of legal metrology in the member states and corresponding members. Since the Directive was published (30th April 2004). WELMEC’s organization is comprised of: – the Committee of WELMEC.72 Metrology in Industry The purpose of WELMEC is to facilitate the exchange of information and favor the mutual acquaintance of the member countries. in a member country. reason. household meters (used by public utility services). barring any pressing. – requirements applying to notified organizations. –the “Chairman’s group” of WELMEC. an instrument is simultaneously granted an OIML certificate of conformity and a national model approval. In addition. this instrument is automatically granted a model approval in the other signatory countries. . – the working parties of WELMEC. and justified. which meets every eight months. the European Commission has reasserted its interest in the work of WELMEC. to harmonize the regulations and checking methods. WELMEC published enforcement guides about this new-approach Directive so that the notified organizations might enforce it in as homogeneous a way as possible. WELMEC has concluded a multilateral agreement to recognize model approvals.

but typically aim to: – develop mutual knowledge at regional level.4. – SADCMEL. These regional bodies. WELMEC’s member for France is also a member of the Chairman’s Group. – SIM.3. In the Ministry. – COOMET. The activities differ from one region to the other.4.4.4.3. Scientific. At national level 2. the metric central office is responsible for the following activities: – drafting regulations. The Ministry takes on the main responsibilities of legal metrology. – South Pacific Legal Metrology Forum (SPLMF). – looking into the activity concerning prepacked products. – develop mutual confidence. – looking into the activity concerning the market surveillance. – organizing the metric services and the analysis of precious metals. – protecting consumers. Legal 73 The federations of manufacturers of prescribed instruments are associated with the activities of the working parties of WELMEC. 2. – APLMF. 2.4. are in line with the OIML and their actions complements that of the OIML. – develop exchange of experience on legal metrology.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. The following are examples of regional bodies: – WELMEC (see above). – EMLMF. like WELMEC. – study and address the needs for training and drawing up training programs. the legal metrology is included in the “Harmonization and Market Surveillance” Department of the Ministry of Industry. . Other regional bodies Most regions in the world have set up bodies for cooperation in legal metrology. Legal metrology in Italy In Italy.1.

4. They require a budget and acceptance of the cost of the services by the public authority.2. the federal government is responsible for the legislation in relation to metrology. The measurements related to the above activities are performed in governmental laboratories for calibration and testing. the federal office of metrology and accreditation. In this context. Legal metrology in Switzerland In Switzerland. all the official activities of metrology are brought together in one institution and on one site.3. The confederation has created a federal office of metrology where the cantons discharge their tasks and the cantons have set up verification offices.4. Representatives of the primary metrology institutes are members of the bureau of the metric central office. These four groups are as follows. Since 1st January 1999. which are located in the different Italian regions and controlled by the local the chamber of commerce. METAS has defined four groups that characterize the provided services. This centralized organization was established as soon as the confederation became involved in metrology after the signing of the Convention of the Metre in 1875. It is also in charge of the SAS. METAS is managed according to the principles of the new public administration.74 Metrology in Industry All the inspections and controls have been recently delegated to the local offices of the provincial Chamber of Commerce. – the initial verification. if they have been made in accordance with the official procedures and in the presence of official inspectors from the legal metrology offices.4. 2. or . each in its own sphere. The enforcement of legal metrology – it is called regulated metrology – is the concern of the cantons. where the equipment used for trade is inspected every other year). are responsible for the first link of the traceability chains. they link legal metrology and scientific metrology and ensure the traceability to the SI units. – the periodic verification and inspection assessment (control at the user’s place. Measurements made at the producer’s laboratory are accepted. The metric central office of the Ministry keeps close contact with the primary metrology institutes which are described in section 2.2. and for the diffusion of the units. National basis of measurement This group deals with the services provided by the primary laboratories which. In METAS. These activities are related to: – the approval of the model.

– the remuneration paid for metrological work. the training of the operators. The units are established with as high an accuracy as possible. Seven sections make up METAS. Legal metrology The group deals with the preparation of requirements. The technical directions regulations concerning the different types of measuring instruments are in the domain competence of the federal councilor (minister) in charge of METAS. The federal government made provision of delegations of competence and then passed a series of ordinances to deal with the following areas: – the selling of goods in bulk or prepacked. six of them are concerned with a specific domain of physics or chemistry. . the supervision of their execution. some of the measuring instruments used in legal metrology. performs the evaluations and delivers the accreditations in all the domains coming under the European or international standards related to accreditation. Model pattern approvals. have to be added to the above four groups. the parliament has brought into effect a federal law on metrology which stands as the framework for all metrology in Switzerland. Scientific. and the strict surveillance of the market. which will become certificates of conformity. The Swiss constitution states that the legislation on metrology is the domain of the confederation. Legal 75 for the whole traceability chain. according their definition. From this constitutional foundation. – the principles relating to approvals and verifications. but which do not provide services to third parties. and the seventh is responsible for legal metrology. are dealt with by this group. – the tasks and the competence of the verification offices and verification laboratories.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. Accreditation The SAS does the tests. public health and security and also with the official measurements of data related to physical quantities. The support activities needed to run the METAS office. Industrial metrology In this group are all the calibration services which provide interested parties with sufficiently accurate values of the units. Legal metrology deals with the domains of trading.

Once the delegation process is over. according to circumstances. about the control of measuring instruments. to entrust third parties. 2001-387). some categories of measuring instruments are subjected to regulations and controlled by the state. Taking this possibility into account. Legal metrology in France Legal metrology in France is dependent on the ministry of industry. – at the level of the daily use of the instrument (periodic verification and control of the instruments in service). Concerning the assessment of the design of instruments and the approval of the quality systems of manufacturers. with some checking operations. repairers and fitters. or EC-type test for the “new approach” directives). – at the manufacturing level (initial verification. manometers.). petrol pumps.76 Metrology in Industry 2. in official controls when safety is involved (cinemometers (“radars”). It nevertheless specifies that the operations are to be performed by state agents. research and environment (DRIRE). in certain conditions.4. the new Decree of 3rd May 2001 (no. if there are no suitable organizations. It is well on its way for primitive verification and almost over for in-service checking. clearly states that the processes of metrological control would be delegated to some organizations.4. That role will include: . it includes all the statutory measures as well as the administrative and technical procedures that have been introduced by the authorities to guarantee the quality of the measuring instruments used in trading (scales used for retail sales. since it is possible. etc. or corresponding European procedures when the instruments come under a “new approach” directive). or of the minister in charge of metrology.3. thanks to the techniques of quality assurance. with the assent of the regional préfet. more precisely the metrology department part of the DARPMI (Direction de l’action régionale et de la petite et moyenne industrie). chronotachygraphs (“black boxes”). etc. and at the territorial level legal metrology is dependent on the regional departments of industry. such as approved repairers or the manufacturers of the measuring instruments. This control is exercised at several levels: – at the conception (approval of model. the delegation process has been completed. The control is presently in full (r)evolution. Legal metrology is the modern form of the very old control of weights and measures.). the role of the state will chiefly consist of approving or appointing the verifying organizations and ensuring that the system as a whole is soundly implemented. Consequently.

repairers. or approved. However. The topics of collaboration are: activity of model approval. that they have been duly verified. Legal 77 – supervision of the organizations and other operators (manufacturers. This is true of Poland. even if they have not been formally officialized by bilateral agreements of recognition. the agreements concluded with the PTB in Germany and the NMI in Netherlands are examples. – the coordination of metrological controls. exchange of experts and technical information. – supervision of the stock. . This Directive comes into force on 30th October 2006 and. The appointed. fitters). Scientific. Morocco and Tunisia. Some cooperative relations give rise to agreements of bilateral recognition of approval testing. which means ensuring that the instruments in service conform with the regulations and are used correctly and. – the approval of models. The new policy is to require accreditation for most of these organizations. The new European Measuring Instruments Directive (MID) encompasses most of the regulated measuring instruments (that is. in particular. which means ensuring that the new instruments that are marketed and put into service meet the requirements. etc. Romania.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. the state will continue to deal with: – the development of the regulations. Informal bilateral agreements of recognition with all the countries of the European Economic Area. – supervision of the market. the number of instruments. The metrology department has bilateral cooperative relations with a number of national legal metrology authorities. organizations must prove their competence. Such proof usually comes from the systems of reference applicable to laboratories (standards of the EN 45000 series). The French organization is already compatible with the European Directive. once it has been adopted into national law. will take over from the national regulation on new instruments. the testing techniques and procedures. The assessment of these organizations is done in line with the accreditation methods. in particular. – the harmonization of texts at the European and international levels. if not the number of categories of instruments). quality and absence of impartiality. – the involvement of the French legal metrology in international works. even when accreditation is not required by specific regulations. More formalized cooperation with some other countries is being developed. The relations which are built up in the OIML enable the exchange of information with numerous countries about the statutory requirements.

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Chapter written by Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). uncertainty of calibration. reference standard. What to do at the beginning? Metrology is neither a fashion nor a fad of auditors. Metrology is necessary to make pertinent decisions. etc. for example: – to control the manufacturing processes. – to verify and certify the products are true to the specifications. uncertainty of measurement. calibration. metrology in a firm.1. such as traceability. Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). Firms that are setting up a metrological function find the following difficult: – obtaining a good understanding of the aims of. – obtaining a good understanding of the basic concepts of metrology.Chapter 3 Mastering Measurement Processes Approach to the Setting up of a Metrology Function 3. – to protect the environment. – understanding the metrological requirements of the ISO 900: 2000 and 9004: 2000 standards and adapting them to the specific needs of the firm. and reasons for. . – to guarantee the safety of goods and people.

– accepting too much guidance. Goals and role of the measurement management system – metrological function The EN ISO 10012 standard introduces the concept of a “measurement management system” and defines it as a set of interrelated or interacting elements necessary to achieve a metrological confirmation and a continual control of measurement processes.2. 3.80 Metrology in Industry There are many pitfalls which have to be avoided when setting up a metrology function: – overdoing the function. Therefore: – the metrological confirmation of the measuring equipment must be seen. and to define the measurement uncertainties with regard to the requirements of a standard of products. You have to adapt yourself to today’s needs. to define the real needs of the firm. this is the most difficult step. – confining oneself to formal aspects without technically exploiting the results of a well-controlled metrology. – make it your business. but remain aware of what tomorrow will be. What should be done then? We are inclined to answer: – try to get a good understanding of the basic concepts of metrology. as well as the characteristics of the products that the firm is to measure. – become informed about the EN ISO 10012 standard: measurement management systems requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment. – a control of the measurement processes must be organized. There is a real need to define the physical or chemical quantities. for example from sometimes not very competent representatives or from an auditor. instead of bringing in one’s own views. . Thinking ahead is certainly not reprehensible. first and foremost. but the most momentous because it will give the company a choice of solutions and consequently lead to a budget. to set the measuring ranges. of the method of testing or of any other criteria which have to be complied with.

comparison with the metrological requirement for the intended use of the equipment. subsequent recalibration. Note 3: the requirements for intended use include such considerations as range. any necessary adjustment or repair. The continuous control of the measurement processes has been added to this typical activity of management of a set of instruments.5). as well as any required sealing and labeling. The EN ISO 10012 standard introduces the notion of measurement process and defines it as: – measurement process (ISO 10012 section 3. This developments has led to a new definition of the metrological function.6 of the EN ISO 10012 norm: “Function which is administrative and technical responsibility for defining and implementing the measurement management system. This operation is defined as follows: – metrological confirmation (EN ISO 10012 section 3. and are not specified in.2). Note 1: metrological confirmation generally includes calibration and verification.” Consequently. Note 4: metrological requirements are usually distinct from. – set of operations to determine the value of a quantity. – set of operations required to ensure that measuring equipment conforms to the requirements for its intended use. . the metrological function will be responsible for the metrological confirmation of the measuring equipment. resolution and maximum permissible errors.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 81 The first point (the metrological confirmation of the measuring equipment) represents the traditional activity of the metrology function of firms as it was conceived a few years ago. product requirements. Note 2: metrological confirmation is not achieved unless and until the fitness of the measuring equipment for the intended use has been demonstrated and documented. It is to be found at paragraph 3.

75012 Paris Tel: 33 1 44 68 82 28/Fax: 33 1 44 68 82 23 . Tallinn 10317 Estonia Tel: 372 602 18 01/Fax: 372 602 18 06 Finland – FINAS c/o Centre for Metrology and Accreditation P. Box 239 FI .110 000 Praha Novemesto Tel: 420 2 2100 4501/Fax: 4202 2100 4111 Denmark – DANAK Dyregaardsvej 5 B DK .1000 Brussels Tel: 32 2 206 46 80/Fax: 32 2 206 57 42 Czech Republic – CAI Opletanova 41 CZ .O.1030 Vienna Tel: 43 1 71 100 8248/Fax: 43 1 71 43582 Belgium – BKO-OBE Federal Public Service Economy/Division Accreditation WTC III . 30 Boulevard Simon Bolivar BE .5th floor.00181 Helsinki Tel: 358 9 616 7553/Fax: 358 9 616 7341 France – COFRAC Secteur Laboratoires 37 rue de Lyon FR .82 Metrology in Industry Signatories of Multilateral Agreement “calibration” Austria – BMwA Abteilung I/12 Dampfschiffstrasse 4 AT .2740 Skovlunde Tel: 45 77 33 95 36/Fax: 45 77 33 95 01 Estonia – EAK Estonian Accreditation Centre Aru 10.

Valdemara St LV .Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 83 Germany – DKD member of DAR Postfach 3345 DE .2006 Vilnius Tel: 370 5213 6138/Fax: 370 5213 6153 Norway – NA Justervesenet Fetveien 99 NO .3500 GT Utrecht Tel: 31 30 239 4500/Fax: 31 30 239 4539 Ireland – NAB Wilton Park House .38023 Braunschweig Tel: 49 531 592 83 20/Fax: 49 531 592 83 06 Greece –ESYD Hellenic Accreditation System 8 Sissini street 115 28 Athens Tel: 30 210 7204514/Fax: 30 210 7204500 Holland – RvA Radboudkwartier 223 P.10135 Torino Tel: 39 011 397 73 35/Fax: 39 011 397 73 72 Latvia – LATAK 157. Kr.O.1013 Riga Tel: 371 7 37 3051/Fax: 371 7 36 2990 Lithuania – LA Algirdo 31 LT .2007 Kjeller Tel: 47 648 48 484/Fax: 47 648 48 485 .2 Dublin Tel : 353 1 607 30 03 / Fax: 353 1 607 31 09 Italy – SIT Strada delle Cacce 91 1 .Wilton Place IE . Box 2768 NL .

4.84 Metrology in Industry Poland – PCA .02 . Osterlanggatan 5 SE .nadstropje) SI . Box 878.POLSKIE CENTRUM AKREDYTACJI ul.50115 Boras Tel: 46 33 17 7730/Fax: 46 33 10 1392 Switzerland – SAS c/o OFMET Lindenweg 50 CH . 240 .7° psio E .O.699 Warsaw Tel: 48 22 548 80 00/Fax: 48 22 647 13 01 Slovakia – SNAS Slovak National Accreditation Service PO Box 74.1000 Ljubljana Tel: 386 (0)1 478 3080/Fax: 386 (0)1 478 3085 Spain – ENAC Serrano.28016 Madrid Tel: 34 91 457 32 89/Fax: 34 91 458 62 80 Sweden – SWEDAC P.3003 Bern Wabern Tel: 41 31 323 3520/Fax : 41 31 323 3510 United Kingdom – UKAS 21 . Klobucka 23 A PL .840 00 Bratislava Tel: 421 7 654 12 963/Fax: 421 7 654 21 365 Slovenia – SA Slovenian Accreditation Smartinska 140 (BTC City.47 High Street Feltham Middlesex TW13 4UN Tel: 44 20 8917 8400/Fax: 44 20 8917 8500 . Karloveská 63 SK .

O.2 Science Centre Road 609077 Singapore Tel: 65 826 3000/Fax: 65 822 8326 South Africa – SANAS P.O. Box 914 2142 1136 Auckland Tel: 64 9 525 6655/Fax: 64 9 525 2266 Singapore – SAC-SINGLAS The Enterprise #02-02 No.Rio Comprido CEP 20261-232 Rio de Janeiro Tel: 55 21 502 6531/Fax: 55 21 502 6542 Hong-Kong – HKAS 36/F.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 85 Signatories of Bilateral Agreements Australia – NATA 7 Leeds Street NSW 2138 Rhodes Tel: 61 29 736 8222/Fax: 61 29 743 5311 Brazil – INMETRO Rua Santa Alexandrina 416 .90 andar . Box 914-2142 Wingate Park 0153 Pretoria Tel: 27 12 349 1267/Fax: 27 12 349 1249 United States – A2LA 5301 Buckeystown Pike Suite 350 MD 21704-8307 Frederick Tel: 1 301 644 3212/Fax: 1 301 662 2974 . Immigration Tower 7 Gloucester Road Wanchai Tel: 852 28 29 4830/Fax: 852 28 24 1302 Israel – ISRAC 2 Habonim Street Ramat Gan 52522 Beit Habonim Tel: 972 3575 1690/Fax: 972 3575 1695 New Zealand – IANZ P.

4 Improvement Clause 5 Management responsibility Customer measurement requirements Clause 6 Resource management Clause 8 Measurement Management system analysis and improvement Customer satisfaction Clause 7 Metrological confirmation and realization of measurement processes Input Output 7. Model of measurement management system (ISO 10012) 3.3. Analysis of the requirements It is vital to accurately and unambiguously define the expectations of the client for the product or service. These characteristics are then translated into specifications and tolerances that ensure that the product or service is functional and/or interchangeable. Figure 3. The marketing. manufacturing and final stages.1 illustrates the model of system of management of measurement and provides the references to the different paragraphs of the ISO 10012 norm. The measurement processes One of the principles laid down in the ISO 9000 standard lies in the so-called “process oriented” approach.1. Conception and development of a new measurement process 3.1. .1.1 Metrological confirmation 7.3.86 Metrology in Industry 3. development and research units are consulted to ascertain the expected characteristics of the product or service. 8. The measurement processes have to be considered as particular processes meant to introduce a support to obtain quality for the products manufactured by the firm.2 Measurement process Measurement results Figure 3.1. and/or that the process can manufacture the product or perform the service required.3. The specifications are subjected to measurements at the conception.

service or process be transformed into quantities to measure on the product. or training. .” 3. reproducibility..economic: cost of implementation. operating cost.. operation.3. The next step will be to verify that the metrological requirements. etc. The person in charge of the metrology function will have to be made aware of the critical nature of the characteristics to be measured and he will see that processes are developed that are suitable for the controls of the specifications. etc. expected uncertainty. ergonomics.1.technical: repeatability.clear definitions of the input data (quantities to measure. safety. etc. Transcription of the characteristics of the product in “measurand” form or “characteristics to be measured” form It is important that the characteristics of the product. there is a link between the importance of the development and the structure of the project.)... etc. The purpose of the synergies is that the developer will take the performances. – A clear definition of what the project is supposed to deliver is required (the notion of the existence of a process is not clear enough): it can be a measurement procedure. – Planning of the development (steps. rapidity of the process. “quality” and “metrology” functions to translate the specifications into characteristics. assignment of the tasks and resources.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 87 Paragraph 4. has to be defined: . 3.1. . demolition.). investment cost. Quite obviously. – A specification of the process.3. an assessment of the “prototype” process for a given period. the economic aspects will be examined.2. an instruction. are compatible with the state of the technique and with the firm’s strategy. The development of a measurement process can be managed as a project It is advisable to manage the development of a measurement process as a project. It is in the firm’s interest to develop the synergies between the “conception”. go/no go stages. stating the goals to be reached. rapidity. the costs of the measurement and test processes into account. or into characteristics to test.3. life cycle cost.7 of the ISO/CEI 17025 states that: “The laboratory must cooperate with its clients or their representatives to clear up the client’s request and supervise the laboratory’s performance with regards to the work done . but a few essential conditions have to be met: – Someone has to be in charge of the project. . in particular. such as they have been defined.

but more cheaply. for instance. In no way does this continuous improvement concern the improvement of the result uncertainty. Figure 3. are important. The purpose is to improve the control of the process and thus reduce the costs. . if the latter meets the expectations. costs.3. rapidity.3. Figure 3. ergonomics.2 is an illustration of the information the “pilot” of the process has at his disposal to optimize the process. in short it is to do as well as possible. the uncertainty of the measurement or test results obtained through the process. reproducibility. It is essential for the firm that the development of the measurement process should accumulate knowledge. Exploitation of a valid process It seems important for critical measurement processes that a “pilot” be appointed in order to ensure a continuous supervision of the process.2 shows the “pilot” of the process being provided with the available information to enable him to act on the process. 3. but the process is important as a way to pass on learning and knowledge.88 Metrology in Industry – At the end of the development process. Continuous improvement of measurement processes It would be wrong to think that the aim of continuous improvement is to ameliorate. 3. This accumulation of knowledge is a vital factor in the continuous improvement of measurement processes. for instance.2. that is to say to do well at a lower cost.) is made. and a decision about whether to put the project into service is taken. etc.3. uncertainty. Chapter 6 describes the main methods of supervision of measurement processes. and the recording of those results. the object of continuous improvement is to reach efficiency. a report (with regards to the defined deliveries and the specifications) corresponding to the characterization of the performances of the measurement process (repeatability. The results obtained.

are suitable for the task. 3.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 89 Characterization Characteristion data Data method mathod Data Characteristics characteristics instrument Characteristics environment Method method Instrumentation Environment Input data specification Measure object output data result of measurement measuremente Numerical value + uncertainty Manpower manpower Qualification continuing Continuing education Batches. Information available for the control and the optimization of measurement processes Measurement process piloting indicators Every process must have its own indicators. Some examples of indicators are: – uncertainty of the measurement and test results. with minimum risk. This system will establish traceability . and likely to have an influence on the quality of the product or the service.4. This is so as to be able to guarantee.2. that the measuring equipment as a whole is within the limits of permissible errors. Batches manufacture Information Elements of Element o processes processus Input/output Input / output data Figure 3. – how many times nonconformity has been the result of a fault of the measurement process. They are useful to assess the improvements achieved and the regressions. Management of the measuring equipment (metrological confirmation) One of the roles of the metrological function is to ensure that all the measuring equipment used in the firm. For that purpose the firm must implement a system of management of all its measuring equipment. – rate of availability of the measurement process. – operating costs of the measurement process.

maintenance. for example. etc. An uncertainty must be associated to each one of the comparisons (see Chapter 2). The metrological function must be able to demonstrate at each level of the traceability chain that the traceability to the SI is ensured through an unbroken chain of comparisons. repeatability. within the framework of EA (European Cooperation for Accreditation). all circumstances bringing. the supplier’s metrological function is to have at its disposal all the equipment necessary for carrying out the calibrations and verifications needed to guarantee the quality of the product or the service. – to limit the choice of subcontractors to only those calibration laboratories that are accredited by the national body in charge of the accreditation of calibration laboratories. Some of the activities of the metrological function can be subcontracted inside or outside the firm (calibration. resolution. In Europe. To secure the traceability of its reference standards to the SI. etc. . In all circumstances it is the responsibility of the metrological function: – to ensure that the subcontractor satisfies the requested demands. The list of accredited laboratories is updated monthly on the Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC) website (www.90 Metrology in Industry to the International System of Units (SI) and carry out the verification of all the measurement equipment in use.) must correspond with the needs of the firm (which can be expressed as a measurement uncertainty). A firm may resort to subcontracting for the management of its measuring equipment (see Chapter 4). through audits or any other method of evaluation. For internal services within a firm. or bringing back. a multilateral agreement has been signed for the recognition of calibration certificates which have been issued by the laboratories accredited by the organizations that have signed the agreement.). who confirms that the equipment is suitable for the expected use. The metrological characteristics of this equipment (measuring range.cofrac.fr). freedom of bias. the measuring equipment into service is the sole responsibility of the person in charge of the metrology function. the metrological function must resort to subcontracting. However.

and the selection of the measuring equipment. 3.1.1. a large resolution will be required. It is advisable to ensure that the measuring equipment meets the requirements of the application in the firm: Conception ------> Tests on the materials or the components Development ------> Tests on the prototype or prototypes Manufacture ------> Setting and supervision of the production tool Control and acceptance of samples Quality control ------> Entrance/exit Marketing ------> Tests of compliance to norms or passed orders At all these levels. In fact. in others it will be a capacity of measurement in dynamic conditions. – the reception. Technical requirements An understanding of the technical needs can be understood from the following points: . the specification of the measuring instrument depends on the needs of the firm. 3. Analysis of the requirement and selection of the measuring equipments The selection of measuring equipment is made after taking the following factors into consideration: technical requirements. In some cases. and evaluation of this measuring equipment. the metrological function remains responsible for the decision to confirm the measuring equipment entering into the quality of the product or the service. in others an excellent freedom of bias and repeatability. – the statement of compliance with the requirements (the confirmation). The purpose of the management of the measuring equipment is to establish and maintain the measuring equipment necessary to satisfy the requirements of the firm.1. the implementation and the follow-up of requirements. This management must take into consideration: – the analysis of the requirement.4.4. etc. – the calibration. the verification and the supervision. – the traceability to the SI.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 91 Whichever solution is implemented by the firm. economic and commercial conditions. the requirements concerning the instruments will be modulated.

or the freedom of bias and the repeatability of the measuring equipments. the homogeneousness of the measuring equipment of the firm can be a deciding criterion if use or maintenance are. handling. definitions for: – the requested characteristics of the measuring equipment. it is recommended that a file of the specifications be opened with. etc.) of these means must be taken into account. . conditions of traceability to national standards (interval/uncertainty). or whether a verification will be made. maintenance. in particular. use it. which makes it possible to say that the measuring equipment is suitable. resolution. it is up to the user of the equipment to decide whether the measuring equipment will be submitted to a calibration test and then used. – the conditions of acceptance. – Measuring equipment must be delivered with the information necessary to bring it into service. mostly. Therefore. – the particular requirements concerning the calibration and the verification. – At the time when the decision is made. which would set the limits of permissible error as well as some acceptance criteria making it possible to qualify the equipment. freedom of bias and repeatability. drafting of the acceptance criteria. environment and maintenance. it may be important to discuss with the supplier the conditions in which the equipment will be used and the content of the assistance required. – When the measuring equipment is new to a firm. – It is judicious to make a prospective and retrospective analysis of the use of the measuring equipment and its possibilities of evolution so as to limit the risks of obsolescence and. parameters ruling the acquisition of data. meet the technological requirements of the firm. for example. the corrections notified in the calibration certificate being applied. – For specific or complex measuring equipment. The following elements show that the firm has the technical information that will enable it to have the measuring equipment adapted for use: measuring range. adapt it or repair it. standards needed to verify that the test or control equipment is fit for use. – A firm’s measuring equipment is often used when assessing whether a product complies with its specification. – the conditions of use. to keep the firm advised of anticipated developments. taken into consideration. the restraints of implementation and use (influence quantities.92 Metrology in Industry – The main thing is ensure that the performances and the accuracy class. or outside its usual scope.

3. .4. Assessment of the measuring equipment The selection of the measuring equipment can also be made from evaluations based the experience of other firms.2. 3. Economic and commercial conditions These conditions must be determined jointly by the purchase function and the metrology function of the firm with the following factors in mind: – should the measuring equipment be bought.1. ISO 9001: 2000. – maintenance contract and/or technical assistance.).2. this will make it possible to justify the cost of one solution or another at the expense of a less expensive option. It will be the role of the metrological function to provide the “purchase” service. the user alone is aware of the future environment in which the measuring equipment will be used and of the measurement method into which it will be used (see Chapter 8). three associations of measuring-equipment users have laboratories of metrology and tests to evaluate equipment (France: EXERA (Association des Exploitants d’Equipements de Mesure. So it might be advisable to obtain all the information or documentation possible to help the firm in its choice. the Netherlands: WIB (Werkgroep voor Instrument Beoordeling) (see Chapter 4). These ideas are embodied in the following standards: ISO/CEI 17025.1. using the technical information about the measuring equipment and its projected use.4. – delivery time. but which would be unsuitable for the projected use.3. etc. de Régulation et d’Autoisme). what time for repairs. or that of metrology laboratories. the UK: EI (Evaluation International). – demands for availability (what time of unavailability allowed. depending in particular on the conditions of depreciation and the risks of obsolescence.4. ISO TS 16949: 2002 and ISO 15189: 2003. Receiving the measuring equipment and putting it into service As soon as measuring equipment arrives. rented or borrowed. the metrological function carries out the following operations. 3. In Europe.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 93 Moreover.

it is a good thing to be able to communicate either with a subcontractor. The choice of the codification system may use a classification which makes it possible to group the equipment together in categories. Some suppliers are marketing software for the management of measuring equipment (see Chapter 4). verification or repair. This inventory is useful when following the technical evolution of measuring instruments. can also be used. upon receiving new equipment.2. 3. instructions. etc.2. When justified by technical reasons. etc. when new equipment is brought into service. report of receipt. Basic definitions At this stage.94 Metrology in Industry 3. 3. Identification of the measuring equipment An identification number is attributed to each piece of equipment.4.4. to open a dossier in which all the documents concerning the equipment can be filed (specifications. order.4.2.3.2.2. for that purpose.4. that all the operators have the information needed for a correct use: copy of the instructions. the number will be affixed on the case of the equipment. which are called life cards.6. to master the basic vocabulary of metrology. or in relation to type of use. and is also useful in relation to calibration operations. or any other event related to any particular instrument. Depending on the requirements of each firm. 3. Inventory (description) The identification number makes it possible to develop a permanent and quantitative inventory of all measuring equipment.4. The number will be affixed to the measuring equipment in such a way as to ensure its indelibility. supplied technical documents are checked. drafting of the procedures. .2. which is as follows. or with potential auditors and. 3. Compliance with the order Conformity to the order and to the specifications of the manufacturer or of special instructions is verified. Technical dossier of the equipment It may in some cases turn out to be useful. 3.5.2.4.1.).4. calibration certificates. the inventory can be in the form of a set of cards. if the manufacturer uses one. The manufacturer’s identification number. Technical documentation Make sure.

Note 2: a calibration may also determine other metrological properties. with or without a scale).8. Calibration (VIM section 6. – a measure of volume (of one or several values. such as the effect of influence quantities. alone or in conjunction with a supplementary device (or devices).4) Confirmation by clear evidence that the stated requirements have been met. in a permanent manner during its use.11) Set of operations which establish. Note 1: the results of a calibration make possible either the assignment of the corresponding values of the measurand to the indications. Note 3: the result of a calibration may be recorded in a document. the relationship between the value of the quantity indicated by a specific measuring instrument or measuring system. under specified conditions. or the determination of corrections with respect to indications. For example: – a weight. Material measure (VIM section 4. or the values represented by a material measure or a reference material. Verification (ISO 9000: 2000 section 3.15 note b) Property of the result of a measurement whereby it can be related to generally stated national or international standards through an unbroken chain of comparisons.2) Device intended to reproduce or supply. .1) Device intended to be used to take measurements. – a standard electrical resistor.12) and (ISO 8 402 section 3. sometimes called a calibration certificate or a calibration report. Metrological confirmation (EN ISO 10012 section 3. Measuring instrument (VIM section 4.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 95 Traceability (VIM section 6. and the corresponding known values realized by standards.5 without the notes) Set of operations required to ensure that measuring equipment conforms to the requirements for its intended use. – a standard signal generator. – a gauge block. one or more known values of a given quantity. – a reference material.

9 without the notes) A parameter. measurement standard. Freedom from bias (VIM section 5. Repeatability (VIM section 5. Accuracy of a measuring instrument (VIM section 5. or a combination of thereof. Bias (VIM section 5. software.4) Distinguishing feature which can influence the results of measurement. .18) Ability of a measuring instrument to give responses close to a true value. Metrological characteristic (EN ISO 10012 section 3. Correction (VIM section 3. Note: “accuracy” is a qualitative concept.31 without the note) Ability of a measuring instrument to provide similar indications for repeated applications of the same measurand under the same conditions of measurement.23) Limits of permissible errors Extreme values of an error permitted by specifications. Maximum permissible errors (VIM section 5. reference material or auxiliary apparatus.15 without the notes) Value added algebraically to the uncorrected result of a measurement to compensate for systematic error. etc. regulations. associated with the result of a measurement.3) Measuring instrument.19 without the note) Class of measuring instruments which meet certain metrological requirements that are intended to keep errors within specified limits. for a given measuring instrument. which characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand. Uncertainty of measurement (VIM section 3.26) Ability of a measuring instrument to give indications free from systematic error. Accuracy class (VIM section 5. necessary to realize a measurement process.25) Systematic error of the indication of a measuring instrument.96 Metrology in Industry Measuring equipment (EN ISO 10012 section 3.

requirements that had been set beforehand (generally as tolerated error limits which allow the measuring equipment to be brought. or – a decision to adjust. into service). User adjustment (VIM section 4. These uncertainties about the values of the corrections will also be used when assessing the causes of the uncertainties so as to determine the compound uncertainty that will be connected to the measurement results (see Chapter 7). The result of a verification can be either: – a record of verification. The calibration. which means for the user that the equipment can be brought back to service.4. repair.30) Operation of bringing a measuring instrument into a state of performance suitable for its use. or does not meet.3. which make the indications provided by the measuring equipment meaningful. A verification can then be made either by: – comparing the results of a calibration operation with the tolerated error limits. The result of a verification makes it possible to assert that the measuring equipment meets. . or brought back. – materializing the tolerated limit indications of the measuring equipment that it is compared to directly by means of a standard. do not include any intervention on the measuring equipment. except for the preliminary operations. scrap or downgrade the instrument. The result of a calibration comprises all the values which have got out of the comparison between the measurement results of the equipment and the standard. This method does not require figures.31) Adjustment employing only the means at the disposal of the user. in the strict sense of the VIM. will generally result in a calibration certificate with a view to applying corrections to the measurement results afterwards. Calibration and verification operations Both the calibration and the verification operations are based on a comparison to a standard and.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 97 Adjustment (VIM section 4. They are indispensable operations. exploiting them will make it possible to decrease the uncertainty of the measurements taken with the equipment. 3. materialized by a appropriate mark indicating the state of the measurement equipment.

distribution in the measuring range. E xa m p le : C o n s u m e r.3 . b e n e fic ia ry a n d p u rc h a s e r.) to the use intended of the instrument (see section 3.3.2. e n d -u s e r. Figure 3.4. N o te : A c u s to m e r c a n b e in te rn a l o r e xte rn a l to th e o rg a n iza tio n (re f. IS O 9 0 0 0 :2 0 0 0 § 3 .3.3. O rg a n iza tio n o r p e rs o n th a t re c e ive s a p ro d u c t. re ta ile r. The different operations for calibration and verification are shown in Figure 3.5 ). METROLOGICAL CONFIRMATION PROCESS N e e d Id e n tifie d S ta rt C a lib ra tio n (te c h n ic a l c o m p a ris o n o f m e a s u rin g e q u ip m e n t w ith a m e a s u re m e n t s ta n d a rd ) Calibration C a lib ra tio n C e rtific a te /R e p o rt C a lib ra tio n S ta tu s Id e n tific a tio n 1 Metrological Verification Recalibration Loop Yes M e tro lo g ic a l R e q u ire m e n ts E x is t? No E q u ip m e n t C o m p lie s W ith R e q u ire m e n ts ? Y es V e rific a tio n / C o n firm a tio n D ocum ent V e rific a tio n Is N o t P o s s ib le No Decisions And Actions Is A d ju s tm e n t O r R e p a ir P o s s ib le ? No T e s t R e p o rt: V e rific a tio n F a ile d C o n firm a tio n S ta tu s Id e n tific a tio n Yes A d ju s t O r R e p a ir S ta tu s Id e n tific a tio n R e v ie w C o n firm a tio n In te rv a l Customer2 R e tu rn T o C u s to m e r End 1 2 C a lib ra tio n id e n tific a tio n /la b e llin g m a y b e re p la c e d b y m e tro lo g ic a l c o n firm a tio n id e n tific a tio n . c lie n t.98 Metrology in Industry We wish to draw the reader’s attention to the need to adapt the verification program (measurement points. note 4) rather than verifying the compliance with the manufacturer’s specifications because what matters is that the instrument should be fit for use. Diagram of metrological confirmation . etc.

it can be agreed to calibrate (or verify) the equipment only for the function or functions used. It is arranged depending on the calibration or verification program set for each measuring instrument. The interval initially determined for a given measuring equipment must be reconsidered and.4. clear mention of use restrictions must be stated on the equipment. Note 4: some equipment is only used for one or a few of its functions. readapted according to the experience that has been acquired.4. the expected drifts in view of the acquired experience. if necessary. Calibration or verification program The technical comparisons program is a document that makes it possible to take into accounts all the operations to be carried out on the measuring equipment. Note 1: proceeding to limited controls within the set period is not to be ruled out. the equipment has to be identified so as to avoid any risk of error if they occasionally were used for a non-calibrated (or non-verified) function. the calibration at set intervals is not required. 3. normative and statutory restraints. Calibration or verification intervals Whichever measuring equipment is considered. they make it possible to detect any glitch at the measurement points that are normally used.1. In no way can these controls replace1 the planned calibration and verification operations (see Chapter 6). Note 3: some measuring equipment is used only now and then. on when each measuring instrument is easily available and on the work schedule corresponding to the tasks to be done.3.2. 1 In some measuring processes it can be considered that if the measuring process remains “under control”.3. To determine the interval of the comparisons (calibration or verification). etc. possibly the economic. the strict periodicity rules are not to be applied to them. the nature and wear of the equipment. In those circumstances there should be written instructions that the instruments be submitted to comparison operations before they are used if the validity period of the previous comparison has expired. Note 2: any intervention likely to alter the metrological characteristics makes it necessary to examine the initially determined interval. . it is necessary to take into account such factors as the rate and type of utilization.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 99 3. In this case. a systematic process of comparison done at set intervals ought to make it possible to prevent any weakening of the quality of the measurements taken and to ensure the equipment’s credibility over time.

4.4. Repeatability and freedom of bias . still possesses the performances and characteristics required to what it is meant to do. drifts between two calibrations or verifications.4. 3. The reader should read the EN ISO 10012 standard “Measurement management systems – requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment”.3.4. – repeatability (VIM section 5. The idea of supervision has been developed in order to prevent malfunctions. Supervision of the measuring equipment Measuring equipment is the essential element of measurement processes.27). repeatability. which contributes to the quality of the product or the service. Freedom from bias. Fitness for use of measuring equipment Just as one has to periodically make sure that employees still have the qualifications required to perform the task(s) required – one cannot rely on the initial training and the diploma possibly obtained – likewise.3. Different methods are proposed in Chapter 6 for the supervision of measurement processes and equipment. stability Three metrological characteristics are essential for measuring equipment: – freedom of bias (VIM section 5.4. it is important to ensure that the measuring equipment. or what it is planned that it will do.100 Metrology in Industry 3. 3. – stability (VIM section 5.4.14).26). ••• •••• ••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Repeatability Freedom of bias Figure 3.1.

The evaluation of the repeatability can be made by.4. This can also be achieved by applying corrections.3.4. Maximum permissible errors The above data materialize the limits that can be set to start the operations of user adjustment. by means of a user adjustment or an adjustment.2. Supervising the drift is equally essential because if the errors become considerable the indications of the instrument might lie outside the tolerated limits of errors. because other factors of variability come into the measuring process. but it is sometimes preferable to set more restrictive limits if you do not want to have to proceed to corrective actions when a verification reveals that a piece measuring equipment does not meet the specifications (see Chapter 6 for the methods of supervision of measuring equipment and measurement processes). The stability will be noted of by watching the calibration results obtained at given intervals.6 of the ISO 9001 standard – “Control of the measurement and supervision devices” – and in paragraph 5. measuring a standard. supervise and assess its environmental performances (ISO 14004 section 4). These three characteristics have to be supervised by the firm’s internal metrology function. The repeatability of the instrument will be assessed by repeated observations of the same measurand.4. when assessing the repeatability of the instrument one must take care not to introduce fluctuations coming from the measured quantity. Demands for an assurance of the quality The demands for quality assurance clearly indicate that it is necessary to regularly keep track of the measuring equipment.4. measuring equipment requires that its drift should be supervised so that its indications can be brought back within the tolerated limit of errors. You have to be aware that the repeatability you will find that way will generally be better than the measuring process. 3. . for example. Why? As it has been seen. These demands are made clear in paragraph 7.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 101 The traceability to standards will make it possible to know the value of the corrections to make to indications of the instrument to compensate for its biases. The ISO standard of the 14000 series concerning the system of environmental management states that the firm should measure. 3.5 of the NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard – “Equipment”.

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3.5. Setting up a metrological structure within the firm 3.5.1. Analysis of the metrological requirements and setting up standards A look at the inventory of the measuring equipment will make it possible to group the equipment according to the three following criteria: – measured physical quantity; – measurement field; – freedom of bias and repeatability. The analysis of these groups reveal three typical cases. Case of one instrument only Generally, buying reference standards to calibrate only one measuring instrument will not be contemplated. The easiest and most efficient solution will be to request a calibration laboratory to calibrate the equipment; this will ensure its traceability to the SI. Either a national laboratory of metrology or a calibration laboratory accredited for the quantity and for the measuring range expected would be acceptable. Case of equipment of widespread use in the laboratory It will be possible, with the help of the inventory of the measuring equipment, and taking the measuring ranges and uncertainties into account, to define the standards needed to calibrate and verify such measuring equipment. Let us take a particular case to illustrate this point: the calibration of voltmeters. When there are a large number of voltmeters in a laboratory, it is better to use a tension generator whose calibration will be entrusted to a laboratory – it makes it possible to ensure traceability – the competence of which is guaranteed by accreditation, rather than send away each one of the voltmeters for calibration. Several benefits are derived from this type of organization: less expense, shorter immobilization periods and the possibility of using a local reference if there is a doubt about a measurement (metrological redundancy). Case of measuring and testing equipment where the connection to physical quantities raise technical problems It is the case when those measurements result from the application of conventional methods. Two types of approach are possible: utilization of reference

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materials or interlaboratory comparisons; in some cases, the two approaches can complement each other. In paragraph 5.6, “Traceability of measurement”, of the NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 norm stresses that:
(...) there are calibrations which cannot at the present time be strictly performed in an SI unit Calibration, in such cases, must introduce confidence into the measurements by establishing traceability to appropriate measurement standards such as: – the use of reference materials – it must be certified they are from a competent supplier – to characterize physically or chemically a material in a reliable way, – the use of specified methods and/or standards chosen by consensus, clearly described and accepted by all the parties concerned. Taking part in an appropriate program of interlaboratory comparisons is required whenever it is possible.

In the case of physical methods of chemical analyses (chromatography, spectrometry, etc.), the pre-analysis operations compulsorily include an operation known as calibration or gauging which implements solutions obtained by the laboratory or by reference materials (see ISO 32 guide, “Calibration in analytical chemistry and utilization of certified reference materials”). A procedure has to be established when the firm uses reference materials; this makes possible the control, the implementation of a new sample of reference materials and the answer from the measuring equipment when two samples of reference materials are used. The criteria that have led to the decision to renew the reference material must be in writing. Case of the measuring equipment that cannot be connected to an accredited calibration laboratory Credibility of the measurements will be sought by means of comparisons and cross-checking between laboratories. Contact can be made with the national institutes of metrology and even foreign laboratories may be used to do the calibration, within the scope of EUROMET; the national metrology institutes collaborate and are in a position to direct the requests toward laboratories that can satisfy them. A Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) of the standards and the calibration and measurement certificates issued by national laboratories was signed

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in 1999. See the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website (www.bipm.org).

3.5.2. Traceability of the measuring instrument(s) to the firm’s reference standards The traceability to the firm’s reference standards determines whether a measurement result can be connected to appropriate standards through an unbroken chain (see traceability in section 3.4.2.6). The traceability of the measuring equipment to the firm’s reference standard can be achieved through a working standard. There does not have to be a working standard; it will depend on the technology of the instruments and the conditions of their use. The number of intermediary firm’s reference standards must be chosen in such a way as the degradation of the uncertainties caused by the use of successive standards is compatible with the uncertainty which is obtained by the measuring equipment: a judicious choice should make it possible to obtain a chain of standards well adapted to the intended application as regards their uncertainties, their stableness and their domains of use. Note: if there is no chain of standards, the traceability can be done through fundamental constants, by the methods of reference measurement (chemical analysis, for example) or by using reference materials. Reference materials make it unnecessary to move an instrument: the reference material is the metrological information medium. For example, a viscosimeter can be calibrated if it is sent to a calibration laboratory, but the user can calibrate it himself by using standard oil (reference material) which will, beforehand, have been calibrated by an accredited laboratory.

3.5.3. Traceability of the firm’s reference standards to the SI The purpose of the connection to the SI is to make sure that a measurement result obtained at one point on the globe is unquestionably comparable to another measurement result obtained in the same conditions at another geographic location. The organization of metrology at national and international levels is intended to guarantee consistency between the standards of the different nations and to ensure that the deviations which occur are not significant at the level of the measurements made in the firm.

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The traceability to the SI of all the equipment which can influence on the quality of the product has to be guaranteed. The connection of the firm’s references to the SI is comprised of the following operations: – external calibrations of the firm’s reference standards, which guarantee their connection to the SI; – internal calibrations of the working standards. For either operation, a connection program sets the list of equipment involved, the interval between calibrations, the points to be calibrated and the possible requirements. This program can be drawn up with the help of a national laboratory of metrology or an accredited laboratory. Note: the optimization of connection programs is one of the major tasks of the metrological function. This optimization must be: – technical: uncertainties are to be optimized; – economic: the costs of the calibrations (traceability program and periodicity) are to be optimized. When the traceability of the measurements to national standards or to the SI units is not feasible, the firm’s metrological function must be in a position to demonstrate that the measurement results are correlated; it can be done, for example, by taking part in national or international interlaboratory campaigns. It would be wise, in any case, to look into the ratio between the uncertainty of the calibration of the equipment and the measurement uncertainty requested by the firm

3.6. Suggested approach for setting up a metrology function It is important not to set up a metrology function at random; the order of the operations can be of some importance. A suggested approach is as follows: – to nominate someone to deal with this operation. However, the person must know the firm and its techniques very well; it would not be a good idea to entrust a trainee or a new employee with this task; – to analyze your real needs for information from a measurement or test result; – to make a list of your measurement processes and choose those you regard as critical;

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– to make an inventory of the measuring means already found in the firm (identification, localization, etc.); – to open a technical file in which to store the information related to these instrument (instructions, certificate, order copy, etc.), for comparatively important instruments; – to analyze your manufacturing processes and testing methods, then pick out the instruments which play an essential part in controlling the processes, or in demonstrating the quality of the products. These instruments are the ones you must deal with first; – to analyze your measuring processes and determine the uncertainty of your measurement results; – to analyze your products, testing methods and manufacturing processes, then verify if your measuring processes are appropriate to your intended objectives (ratio tolerance/uncertainty); – to supplement your equipment when necessary; – to think of the different possible traceability patterns for each type or each instrument; try to optimize them economically and technically (ease of use), the uncertainty being adapted to the needs; – to send your reference standards to accredited laboratories for calibration and optimize your calibration intervals; – to examine and write down your procedures of calibration, of verification of your own instruments; establish supervision methods for your measurement processes; – to put in writing all the measurements you take; – to analyze the malfunctions and your errors; to take steps to ensure that they do not happen again; – do not forget that perfection is out of reach; what is sought is to establish a system that will enable you to make progress.

3.7. Bibliography
International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM) ISO-IEC-FICCIUPAC- IUPAP-OIML-BIPM 1993 ISO 10012 (2003) Measurement management systems – Requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment ISO/CEI 17025: 1999 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 107 EURACHEM/CITAC Guide 2: Quality Assurance for Research and Development and Nonroutine Analysis (1998) EURACHEM Traceability in chemical measurement (2003) ILAC P10:2002 ILAC Policy on Traceability of Measurements Results EA-4/07 (rev 01): Traceability of Measuring and Test Equipment to National Standards (previously EAL-G12) .

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except that one should start with the inventory. Chapter written by Jean-Yves ARRIAT – Ascent Consulting. It is a long process that you cannot complete in a couple of months. etc. and responsibility for the follow-up of the metrology function will need to be given to somebody in the firm. you will have undertake thorough quality audits to ensure that the subcontractor is competent. The time needed to initiate the handling of a bank of measuring instruments is also stressed. subcontracting specifications will have to be drafted. with a double purpose: – to give confidence in one’s own measurement results. However. – to show one’s clients that the measurement processes are controlled. following the order of successive steps. Do not forget that it takes time to analyze the measurement requirements and to select the suitable means. Initiating the handling of a bank of measuring instruments has to be done with the desire to improve the current organization of the firm while taking the firm’s culture into consideration. and even in the latter case. and that is something that is not subcontracted. this chapter has been written with certain logic. There is no particular chronology to follow.Chapter 4 Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments The object of this chapter is to suggest an approach to the implementation of a bank of measuring instruments. . the subcontractor will have to be found. unless there are only a dozen instruments or the handling is fully subcontracted. define the responsibilities.

– from 2000 onwards to the workshops. For example. You could also make the allocated number more significant. for those instruments supply results concerning the quality and conformity of products. Identification After you have listed all the measuring equipment. 4. You must take advantage of this step to build up contacts with the users. analyzing and testing”. Inventory The first step is to draw up a complete list of the measuring equipment. – furthermore. for example. and including the gauges. . it is indispensable within the context of contractual relations.1.. templates. It means you have to define a code system. etc. as well. height gauges. 4. – it may save buying new instruments if some are not used.1. you could assign the numbers: – from 0001 to 0999 to the metrology laboratory.1. from 1 onwards. – from 1000 to 1999 to the testing laboratory.1. – it is used as a database when a new instrument needs to be chosen. as in each of these actions the result is obtained through measuring equipment which has to be looked after. the term “measuring” is used in the broad meaning of “measuring.110 Metrology in Industry Throughout this chapter. At the same time. without omitting those which are never used (the question of why some are never used can then be raised) and those no longer in working order. knowing them with an ability to sense their problems will turn out to be very useful later on. you have to identify them in a concrete form.2. Acquaintance with the bank 4. checking. you should take note of the assignment (to places and/or persons) of the measuring instruments and of the people who keep them (in the case of statutory-use measuring instruments). The inventory of the material is very useful for several reasons: – the importance and the size of the bank make it possible to define the policy that directs the metrology function. you could take numbers in numerical order.

0001. can also be used. it appears on the instrument.1 . you must be careful about which method is used. provided by the manufacturer. which can spare trouble when marking instruments.. You could also use a two-part number: 000 .17: 17th gauge in the laboratory. This code system makes the management of the codes easier when the handling of the bank is computerized. it indicates the instrument number. . . It may also be helpful to identify the instrument’s container. Even if this number is not relevant for the firm’s identification system.. where first part (on the left) would be the category: – Series 100: mechanics category. The individual number of the measuring instrument. – do not forget the “others” category. In the same way. – Series 300: weighing category. preferably with a mark or label fixed on the instrument without altering it. the data could appear on the container. green = 2 years. especially if it also contains documents or data useful for the operation of the instrument. on the condition that the container remains in sight of the instrument and mentions its reference.. preferably one that can be used for the codification of the documents related to the measuring instruments (see section 4. depending on its size. the date of the last calibration and the date of the next one. In most cases.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 111 You could also use a combination of letters and figures. .g.g.1 . because of lack of space)..3..1 below).. .-: assigned to the laboratory of ground mechanic-testing. simple system. in case the data about the periodicity of the followup (e. – Series 200: electricity category. date of the next calibration) cannot appear on the instrument (e. The main thing is to establish a clear. for example: DG 1117 which would mean: DG: depth gauge. a label is simply affixed to the instrument. if the marking is engraved.. for example: yellow = 6 months. The identification must be clearly affixed. Almost all measuring instruments have an identification number provided by the manufacturer. The periodicity can be seen immediately by using labels of different colors.-: assigned to the testing laboratory. blue = 1 year.

or that the service company simply attaches a label with an arbitrary date for the next visit without consulting the firm. When there are many measuring instruments to handle.112 Metrology in Industry The date can be mentioned in “week – year”. Nevertheless. Here are two models of labels: Last calibration: Instrument number: Next calibration: or more simply: 06/02 M/Y perhaps in green. it makes the follow-up of the instrument anonymous (which runs counter to the users being made to feel responsible). some firms use bar codes which are stuck straight on to the instrument by means of a label. it is important that the contract should specify which of the two parties is responsible for the marking. The bar code refers directly to the data-processing unit for the whole of the information concerning the instrument. the individual number and the identification sheet make it possible to easily go back to the verification or calibration report. In any event. both marking and identification have to be done right at the beginning. but it involves risks. the label may sometimes not be the ideal solution because it may come unstuck. these difficulties can be circumvented by putting the individual number of the instrument near the bar code. and a little effort may allow you to uncover a good solution. finally. to indicate the conformity M for month and Y for year Though it is easy to use. It is an attractive solution. after the inventory. It does sometimes happen that there is no marking (each party thinking it would be done by the other). When a firm subcontracts the handling of its measuring material to an outside service company. . much progress has been made in this area. However. The firm can define its policy about the handling of the metrology function before or after proceeding materially to the identification of the instruments. it also requires a very advanced computerized management and the ownership of bar code scanners (in good working order) by the users.

the actions to be launched must be specified. it draws up a plan of what has to be done and defines the responsibilities of the various people who are to intervene as well as their “sphere of influence” and the functional connections. 4. he or she must. they will be reminded that natural drifts are possible. The list of the missions to be carried out will be established.2. According to what it has chosen. etc. . whether it wants to do everything internally.1. one person can be in charge of several actions: heading the metrology function. Metrological policy of the firm 4. it is worth trying to estimate the time which is needed to perform each operation. Objective and commitment of the firm’s management The firm must clearly state what objective it wants to reach: for example. 4. from the information gathered during the inventory. You will then have to start informing people and making them aware of the importance of looking after the measuring instrument. or to become qualified for the QS 9000 (American motor referential) or the ISO TS 16949. It has to decide. assessing the capability. that it is important not to believe spontaneously in a “top level electronic” instrument. however. verifying the instruments. of the personnel’s adherence. that uncertainties are related to measurement results. This makes it possible: – to draw up a schedule and a work program. before any action. and a degree of priority for each one will be indicated. identifying the material. etc. Plan of actions to launch Once the objectives have been defined and the commitment has been clearly stated.2. Awareness.2.2. – to assess a part of the cost for launching the firm’s quality system. or all of it.3. training the users. to satisfy the demands contained in the ISO 9001 norm. Then someone has to be made responsible for each action. drafting the documents. to obtain an aeronautical acknowledgement of the JAR 145 type.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 113 4. or subcontract part of it.. training and vocabulary You have to make sure. The firm then defines the objective of the metrology function. make sure that the documents are verified and approved by another person.2. As far as it is possible.

often linked to vocabulary problems. People talk about the same subjects but with different words: they do not understand one another. as a rule. all the means have to be seen to. but not necessarily all in the same way. they agree on terms they understand differently.2. one wonders. On top of this. It is usually at this stage that a number of difficulties arise. of not guaranteeing a lot of parameters on a product if you do not look after the instruments which are used and if you do not record the results obtained. apparatuses. uncertainty. complying with ISO 10012. it is of paramount importance to rapidly define the meaning of the words to be used.4. or worse. calibration. among other things. mean of the measurement results. A training program. Let us underline the importance of carefully defining the contractual requirements (and reading attentively the documents attached to the contract. quite rightly. adapted to the needs of users. security and safety are concerned?” All the instruments that fulfill these requirements should be followed very strictly. will have to be set up. both for the person in charge and for the users. verification. it is easy to panic and consider that it is too heavy. and especially the words: standard. etc. others are followed with normative strictness. However. Some are merely listed in an inventory. Therefore. etc. although this position is far from being unanimously accepted among metrologists and quality managers. for example. . in quality handling and about the notion of traceability.114 Metrology in Industry When you analyze what the firm needs for the handling of metrology. you must not forget to train the person in charge. gauges. What are the criteria which can be selected in order to perform the sorting out? The main question to ask is: “how important is the measurement which is to be carried out as far as the contractual requirements of quality assurance. the military American military norm 45662-A does not leave much room for instruments that are not followed). constraining and expensive a job. he or she should have technical knowledge in metrology. all the measuring instruments are not handled in the same way. 4. This is for a very simple reason: the cost of the operations. one may prefer to do nothing. He or she should also ensure that the users of the measuring instruments have the necessary ability to use the material. gauging (“calibration” in French. the English translation of the French “étalonnage”). so confusion can arise with “calibration”. in this situation. Selection of the material to be followed periodically Faced with all the demands one is supposed to comply with. The answer is obviously no. whether the same strict handling applies to all the measuring instruments. sensors.

section 8. it will be either on account of doubts the users might have or only when it is first verified before it is put into service. This leaves us with two categories of measuring instruments: – for those that are strictly handled over time. for this second category.3) and think of structuring their relationship with the firm’s documentary system. all the requirements are applied to them. then assess how likely it is this “risk” will occur and compare the risk to the total cost of a follow-up. . conflicts between the users. Given the vast amount of “paper”. The instruments must all be listed in an inventory. which are not subjected to constraints from outside the firm. This material will never be followed over time.3. This strictness makes it possible to eliminate all the useless measuring equipment from the firm: they are sources of errors. Codification of the documents The efficiency of the handling of a bank of measuring instruments cannot last if the handling is not formalized.000 temperature gauges) and whenever it is possible. Let us go back to the example at the beginning of the chapter. It is vital to attempt to present and codify them along the same principle as the documents of the firm’s quality assurance system. – for those whose handling is not subjected to a plan.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 115 Concerning the other measuring instruments. let metrology indulge in the free and easy attitude of former times: a minimum of work should always be undertaken. it is important to list those you need (it is advisable to refer to Chapter 8. 4. you will use “DG” in the codification of all the documents concerning the measuring instrument: ISDG1117: identification sheet of the 17th depth gauge of the laboratory of ground mechanic. etc. You must not. if you use “DG” for the depth gauge. unnecessary immobilization (an important element these days when uncontrolled costs are hunted down).3. especially within the context of a “quality management” process. you should ask yourself: “what will be the consequence of an undetected drift of my instrument?”. Drafting of the documents 4. However. only useful documents should be created and they have to be clearly identified. they may simply be listed. the importance of the measurement in the process will be determined. so that they are not thought to be periodicallyhandled equipment that have lost their labels. you must not forget to clearly identify the instruments of this second family. even if they have to be put together in series (this is especially the case in the chemical industries which can have 10. but before the documents are drafted.1.

4. when the materials would be put at risk if these operations were not done correctly. The report mentions the references of the verification instruction which was used to proceed to the said verification... The first work document is the general procedure for dealing with the measurement processes.. . After you have defined the codification for the documents. That is the identification instruction.. The codification is important because it enables you to find your way through all the documents.2.. It provides the outlines of what is to be done and refers to the work instructions for further details.-: verification instruction no.3. It enables all the services and shops to identify the material similarly. but it is useful to create differences between the classes of documents: – CBI. VR-0275: 75th verification report in 2002 The identification sheet mentions the references of the instrument in question. – the calibration instructions for the metrological references which have to be calibrated. These make up two different categories: the work instructions and the documents which will show the results. CR-0201: 1st calibration report in 2002 – TSI. Thinking things out a bit when finalizing the document can make the work much easier.-: calibration instruction no. the meaning of the labels when necessary. – the instructions about upkeep and maintenance.116 Metrology in Industry It is not essential to use an abbreviation of the name of the instrument. You have to set out how the material is identified. as well as the number of the report that contains the results which have been taken into consideration to authorize the instrument being put into service again. You also have to document: – the instruction that sets the intervals for the periodical follow-up of the material over time. Work instructions It is important to emphasize here that this approach is only one way to proceed. you have to draft them.. – the instructions about the verification of the measuring means to define the way each category is verified.-: test instruction no. TR-0269: 69th test report in 2002 – VFI .

You should give an instrument only the time it requires. – the references of the work instructions (verification. Regarding the verification of the measuring instruments. clients. so the documents can be simple. when there is one. – its usual location.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 117 It is advisable to have one instruction per category of measuring instruments: it makes it possible for the documents to evolve more easily as a function of the various demands (normalization. The identification sheet does not contain the detail of the operations which have been performed. If possible. However. If what you have decided turns out not to be enough. this is dependent on how useful and important it is.3. – the account of the interventions it has been subjected to. . get ideas from existing norms and from suppliers’ advice. it only indicates the result. The most important one among these is the identification sheet. the users are technicians whose basic standard is reasonably good. The technical content of the instructions must take the users’ standard into consideration. As a rule. by referring to the documents containing the details of the operations and the figures of the results. work on it to further it. the instructions have to give plenty of details if the personnel are not well-trained. if the question arises. To begin with. you have to define the documents in which the results are recorded.3. Result-recording documents At the same time as you define the work instructions. – the name of the manufacturer. To draft it. etc. it is often difficult to thoroughly apply all that the norms prescribe. maintenance.). 4. If it is possible. you can get your inspiration mostly from the national norm. especially: – the name of the instrument (or standard) and its individual identification. – the maximum length of time between two successive calibrations (periodicity). etc. – the date of its receipt and setting up. There is one identification sheet per measuring instrument and it holds all the information about the life of the instrument in question. the main thing is to define what you want to do and stick to it.) to be used. Do not worry too much about it. only one type of identification sheet should be used in order to facilitate the use of the documents.

etc. electricity. – light intensity.4. – flow (liquid.). Hence. and whose conclusion generally appears in the identification sheet. etc. time. depending on the size of the bank. optics. frequency. according to the firm’s particular needs: – calibration certificates. surface. but the easiest part. step by step. the classification can be by spheres of activities: mechanics. The other documents which have to be formalized are. A template report should be established at the same time as the work instruction it refers to. who have contributed to their development. resistance). Other documents At the stage when a system for handling a bank of measuring instruments is set up.118 Metrology in Industry It is advisable to file the sheets by spheres of activities or categories. demanded by the clients. maintenance reports. By category. – molecular composition (spectrophotometry). understandable by everybody and. – verification reports. force. – non-destructive testing. pressure. hardness. temperature. – time (hour. – quantity of matter. because the first steps are simple. – thermodynamic temperature. – electricity (potential difference. resilience. – mass.3. – test reports. gas). etc. angle. there are the following: – dimension (length. power. – and many others. – volume (gauging). too. roughness. more and more often. the place of use can also be taken into account. current intensity. The reports are the documents that contain the details of the results obtained. – chemical analysis (acidity. etc. . 4. duration). what has been achieved is both the easiest and the hardest parts: the hardest part because it is never easy to lay the first stones of a construction as they are the ones upon which the stability of the work rests. chemistry. – acoustics.).

4. do not forget to check the technical documents that are provided. and who replaces him or her if he or she is absent.1. this should not be done by the supplier. – to inscribe a mark concerning the calibration or verification and thus start the periodicity. Receipt The process of acquisition.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 119 Beyond that. . because it is very likely these materials will be put into service without first being identified or verified. however. A craze for documents often arises. a badly-controlled handling of receipts rapidly leads to disorder in the handling of the bank. – to identify the means of measurement (with a registration number. – to calibrate. 4. they are usually called “internal norms” and might be a formalization of the processes of physical handling of the measuring instruments. also. – to introduce the means into the inventory. in cases of mass and (static or dynamic) volume measurements. especially if the first ones have been launched easily. only what is strictly necessary should be documented. exceptionally. such as they are described in the next paragraph. ideally. can be documented in writing. in an emergency. even then. Until these operations have been completed. It is important to say who in the firm is in charge of acknowledging receipt of the measuring instruments (whether new or being returned). receipt and implementation of new equipment should be defined. you should make sure the following operations are adhered to: – to verify that the equipment conforms to the order. Actually. or initially verify before the implementation (possibly done by the manufacturer). you should do this yourself. for reasons related to the demands of legal metrology. Physical handling of the measuring instruments 4. the manufacturer’s specifications or to particular prescriptions. Concerning the initial verification. unless he or she can give guarantees of his or her impartiality. or have it done by a laboratory which has the required competence. it is generally the approval of the model which defines the class. it must be handed back as soon as possible. the equipment must not be implemented except. Some exception rules.4. if they are peculiar to the firm. for instance). in order to be put through the correct steps. As soon as a new means of measurement is delivered. which makes it possible to determine the class of the instrument.

Transfers have to be controlled so that the equipment scheduled for maintenance may be called in due course.120 Metrology in Industry 4. which should be both satisfactory and adapted to the firm’s requirements. it is indispensable to identify the benches in order to repeat only those measurements which were made on the faulty bench. as the case might be. These operations should be subjected to particular procedures that state what the possibilities of transfer are and.1. 4. Traceability In order to know at any moment the state of the bank of the measurement means. This should make it possible to obtain: – a good progress of the program of calibration and/or verification. as well as which precautions should be taken. their limits. – the detection of the measurements which need to be checked or done again in case a deviation in the operation of the instrument is revealed during a calibration or verification. . If measurements have to be redone. it is vital to ensure a traceability. which would make it possible to know all the transfers. of all the components of the bank. 4. Transfer On top of these processes of receipt and follow-up of the material.2.2. dispatching. It should be possible to locate all the instruments. Several systems are possible. Let us take the example of measurements made on testing benches. changing assignments.2. Traceability of measuring instruments and measurements also means being able to determine which instrument has been used to make a particular measurement. There are three benches and one of them turns out to be faulty. it might be a good working technique to establish a computerized procedure of the “outgoing equipment ticket” type. name the person responsible for them. and know their latest places of assignment or use according to the contractual importance of the measurements made or the cost of deviation in the case of wrong measurements.4. without disrupting the program of the measurements to be made. it is important to perfect control of all the operations concerning the transfer of the metrological equipment: their entry in/out of laboratories or shops. Transfer Any transfer must be performed under someone’s responsibility.4.4. etc.2. Depending on the importance of the bank of instruments and the size of the equipment. occasional moving.

The accesses to the adjustment devices which may affect the performances should be protected so that untimely or accidental handling is prevented. Instruments which are subjected to regulations are protected by lead seals whose location is indicated in the model approval. transportation. This does not concern the devices which are meant to be accessible to the user without any outside help. or between the place of storage and the place of use. for example. if not. appropriate precautions have to be taken. you have to be sure that taking the means of measurement away from the user services can be done without its absence causing a disruption in the operation of these services. appropriate arrangements (e. . the arm of one-pan scales. No uncontrolled intervention by the state should be performed on these instruments.3. packing.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 121 For example. or supply of a replacement means) have to be made in cooperation with the users of the means.g. – a user sector could be made responsible – its mission would be to keep the verification of its means of measurement up to date. 4. You must ensure that the seals are unbroken. and maybe. for zero adjustments. Precautions Every time the means of measurement have to be transferred from the place of use to the place of calibration. the arm of a measuring column. Some elements of the equipment may have to be secured before the transfer. 4. with the purpose of planning calibration campaigns on metrological themes. official derogation on the verification date.2.4. in particular. the follow-up of the procedure has to be ensured. or vice versa. The conditioning of the measuring instruments is well defined and the transfer is subject to instructions which are pre-established and which concern handling. there could be: – a computerized automatic call in the case of a computerized file. a number of operations have to be undertaken and followed up: – to provide suitably fitted-out safe storing areas or premises to prevent the equipment from damage or premature deterioration. that is the case. it might be necessary to send reminders.4. intermediate storage. – a call per type of instrument. In all cases. Storing and environment To successfully carry out the processes of storing and control of the environment.3. However. etc.

dust. – class 1 (wear out limit = 150% of tolerances as new). four classes at most will be defined for their use. 4. hygrometry. Regarding those instruments for which several accuracy classes were provided by the norms when the new instruments are received. etc.4. As measuring instruments can be downgraded. take heed of the manufacturer’s advice.) and knowledge of the consequences of the variations of any of them. – to have a device to watch over the surrounding parameters (if it is felt to be necessary). the downgrading is done along the classes as they have been defined. Replacement should be prepared beforehand so that the services that use the instrument may be as little inconvenienced as possible. of the calibration results. belts. . section 6. the batteries. Regarding those instruments for which only one accuracy class was defined when they were new instruments. To assist you in this task. springs. for example: – class 0 (wear out limit = tolerance as new).122 Metrology in Industry – to define suitable methods to allow receipt into and dispatch from these areas. and of the identification sheets. even though it is very difficult. It is advisable to use the method of the control charts (see Chapter 6. – to equip the premises with the necessary energy sources. in some cases to do so. etc. if not impossible. See Chapter 8 for more details. – to have perfect environmental conditions (temperature. as well as the location where lower-class equipment can be sent and used of for less accurate tasks. There are some elements of the measuring equipment which you know will wear out: in particular. Spares should be kept handy to make the immobilization time as brief as possible while any of these elements is being replaced. It is advisable to store separately the common measuring instrument and the standards of the firm. vibrations. Maintenance It is important to assess the life span of each instrument. it is necessary to define that accuracy limit which can be tolerated. It is advisable to keep the measuring instruments in their original cases and keep them flat (when possible) on an appropriate piece of furniture.2) in order to keep track of the variations of the equipment over time.4.

a compromise is necessary. – there is a drop in the production of measurements when the instrument is immobilized. Periodicity of the follow-up The systematic and periodic comparison of measuring instruments to metrological references is meant to prevent. Following the drift in time will make it possible for the users to avoid facing the very embarrassing situation of the measuring instrument being declared “off limits” at the end of its periodical verification. In addition. the risk a measuring instrument yielding wrong results. However. except for two reasons: – “natural” drift (whether it is used or not). – there may not be a substitute instrument. etc.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 123 – class 2 (wear out limit = 150% of tolerances of class 1).). You should bear in mind two fundamental and opposing criteria which have to be balanced when you set the follow-up intervals.5. – class 3 (wear out limit = 150% of tolerances of class 2). It is impossible to say that a lapse of time would be sufficiently brief to eliminate the risk of a measuring instrument becoming faulty before the end of the period. too long intervals may make it impossible to detect a drift of the metrological qualities of the measuring instrument early enough. – accident. Therefore.5.1. 4. though it is difficult to draw up a list of universally applicable validation intervals. . for as long as possible. Follow-up of the measuring instruments over time Keep in mind that a measuring instrument cannot go off limits. and avoid the question: “what am I doing with the measurements taken with this equipment since its previous verification?” 4. too high a calibration frequency is costly for the following reasons: – the process is never free of charge. It is therefore of paramount importance to ensure that the personnel are fully aware of the precautions to be taken and the necessity to report any accident (fall. overload.

The time intervals between two verifications or calibrations can be adjusted. For some instruments. whether it is to be brought in by the users. or from 6 months to 15 days. a specific method of verification could be used for these means. whether it is to be checked on site. etc. as a quick verification. or exclusively used for one or only a few functions. They will be increased if the previous comparisons show that longer intervals do not impair the reliability or the accuracy of the means of measurement. Campaign of recall It is of paramount importance to tack the instruments down over time. Once the periodicities have been settled. 4. They will be reduced when the results of the previous comparisons do not allow you to permanently guarantee the accuracy of the means of measurement. Knowing a instrument is going to be out of use for a time. you must avoid hampering the production line that might need it. you can use surveillance standards to check the condition of the measuring instrument. all that is left to do is to proceed to the recalling of the means of measurement. The periodicities may be granted a tolerance to give the quality system some flexibility. . – some replacement material be provided. or make it possible to adjust the periodicity of the verifications. If this operation is done in a strict and well-documented way. Sporadic checks to detect any malfunction should be ruled out within these periods. the follow-up periodicity can vary from 1 year to a month. before each use.2. It is strongly recommended that: – the recalls be planned. whether the material is to be collected. The calibration frequency does not have to be constant. It is important to make clear who is responsible for the follow-up. – to make the costs of verification or calibration as cheap as possible. If some means of measurement are used only now and then. – the users be forewarned.5. for example. it can replace the scheduled verifications. These means must then be identified so as to avoid any risk of error. See Chapter 5 about this issue.124 Metrology in Industry They are: – to make the risk of the measuring instrument straying out of the tolerances while being used as small as possible.

4. . it is quite tempting to obtain such software. you can move the cards back and forth and remove them when the work is done. You must not forget to follow the handling of the bank. you have to be very careful before deciding to purchase software because it may not necessarily meet the needs of metrologists and it is not easy to offset its cost. you can see the progress of the follow-up. Follow-up of the results It is important to periodically analyze the results of the follow-up of the measuring instruments. In electric metrology there is software for the handling of multimeters which is almost unanimously approved in the profession (but it is not suitable for other technical fields). Other software has a “users’ club”. and the application of the scheduled plans is facilitated. Software for the handling of the means of measurements As all companies are becoming increasingly computerized. The aim is to detect a possible drift of the measuring instruments and to make use of the results to reduce the uncertainties related to the measurements. you only display on a board the work to be done over the next three months. and as the market offers various software for the handling of measuring instruments. which make it possible to detect a drift before it occurs and to react before it is too late. the inconvenience caused to the users is reduced. This method is also useful when you decide on monitoring intervals. Hence. the instruments which have been sent back can be easily identified by using different colors of cards. A planning-board with “T-shaped” cards could be used to follow the shifts of the measuring instruments. The results of the calibration are used. No particular software will be mentioned here. you can obtain its details from nearly all the big electricity laboratories. at one glance.3. Also. See Chapter 6 for more information. For example.5.6. However. that the system is developed. you can use graphs of the results. It must periodically be subjected to audits to ensure that the procedures are followed. all we wish to do is introduce a few points of reference. the users of the instruments are easily informed if there is easy access to the board. and that research is being undertaken to improve it. You must not keep an eye on them only to meet the requirements of the ISO 9000 norm or those of the client. if there are not too many. 4.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 125 By this way. Also.

it soon becomes a source of problems and then an unwelcome cost for the firm. to have handy all the information about the measuring instrument and. the French club. . Work has been done by some French associations to help potential buyers (or architects) of software handling measuring material. For example. if it is adapted to the real needs of the firm and is in the hands of the person in charge of the metrology function. not to leave any measuring instruments out of the periodical follow-up. – the criteria rated 3 were deemed indispensable when choosing software.126 Metrology in Industry Regarding software. – the criteria rated 2 were more specific to the utilization of the software. Handling software is nothing but a tool. The main goals of computerized management are to have easy access to all the data in the files. to prevent the contents of the data being tampered with by anybody. you first have to be sure that it is economically profitable. it becomes a source of productivity. If it has been badly designed or if it is badly used. to make the updating of the documents easier. finally. Of course. and there are limits on the software. the French metrology group FAQ Ouest (Federation of the Quality Associations of the West) established an assessment grid along the following principles: – the main criteria were listed with a rating. – the criteria rated 1 were a plus. Métrologie Centre. there is a danger of depending a bit too much on computers. pages in a binder do not urge to work with excitement during an audit: but a computer does not do everything. However. A few years ago. has assessed and compared about 30 types of software.

. mainly in the written standard ISO 9001: Chapter written by Luc ERARD – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). and Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC).2. The same demand applies when you want to be sure of the quality of the measurements performed by a measuring instrument.1. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the main theories that are necessary to achieve this goal in an organization or company that is faced with this requirement. should not be dissociated from the technical operations which are related to it: calibration and verification. 5. Introduction In many fields or activities. in its technical as well as documentary meaning. Definitions Traceability.Chapter 5 Traceability to National Standards 5.2. 5.1. Traceability It is the term that you must base your work on to comply with the demands relative to the traceability to national standards as they appear. the requirements of applicable written standards or contracts require that the measurements performed by the instruments be traceable in relation to the national standards. this is the reason why the definitions of these terms should be known and remembered in order that they might be unambiguously used.

Note: in metrology. usually national or international standards. A second definition appears in the written standard ISO 9000: Essential principles and vocabulary. 1993 (section 6. calibrating or testing activities).11) defines calibration as: – a set of operations which establish.2. through an unbroken chain of comparisons all having stated uncertainties. Note 3: the way the connection to the standards is effected is called connection to the standards. Note 1: the result of a calibration makes possible either the assignment of values of measurands to the indications or the determination of corrections with respect to indications.10 of VIM 1993 is the accepted definition.10): “Property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated references. Note 2: the unbroken chain of comparisons is called a traceability chain.128 Metrology in Industry – 2000 or ISO/TS 16949 for firms. – EN 45011 (ISO Guide 65) for product certification. under specified conditions. which defines traceability as the ability to retrieve the history.” Note 1: the concept is often expressed by the term traceable. – EN 45004 for inspecting activities. 1993 (section 6. ISO/IEC 17025 for laboratories (or firms when they undertake analyzing. 2000 (section 3. or – values represented by a material measure or a reference material. A first definition appears in “International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology” (VIM). the implementation or the location of what has been examined. Calibration “International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology” (VIM). 5. the definition in paragraph 6. the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system.4). .2. and the corresponding values realized by standards.5.

As the basic principle of traceability consists of linking the measurement “in its most general sense” to relevant standards.3.Traceability to National Standards 129 Note 2: a calibration may also determine other metrological properties. the instruments which are regarded as reference standards.2. the decisions concerning the International System of Units (SI) and the recommendations concerning the realization of primary standards are taken into account by the Conférence générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM). Note 3: the result of a calibration may be recorded in a document. adjust it. . a written record of the verification has to be kept in the individual file of the measuring instrument. from calibrations. Traceability chains At the international level. some regulation or a requirement specific to the person in charge of the bank of measuring instruments.3. This written standard should be withdrawn when the ISO 10012 standard about verification comes out. that the specified requirements have been satisfied. sometimes called a calibration certificate or a calibration report. at least in relation to the most accurate measurements. The result of a verification entails a decision to put the instrument back into service. 5. a verification makes it possible to ensure that the deviations between the values indicated by a measuring instrument and the corresponding known values of a measured quantity are all below the maximum permissible errors. most industrialized countries have set up traceability chains which fulfill this function. such as they are defined by a norm. Verification ANSI/NCSL (1) – standard for calibration – Z540: 1994 section 3. 5. repair it. downgrade it or scrap it. In all cases. such as the effect of influence quantities.28 defines verification as an evidence. or those which contribute to the guarantee of the quality of a product or of a test. Notes 1 and 2: within the context of the handling of a bank of measuring instruments. The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) is responsible for coordinating and maintaining the primary standards and for organizing comparisons at the highest level.

etc. for the measurement units they provide to users who may be scientists.130 Metrology in Industry These traceability chains rely. In Europe. Since 1984. The national metrology institutes and the associated laboratories are liable. the accredited organizations (national metrology institutes (NMIs) and SMH calibration laboratories) comply with the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025 written standard and the specific documents of the accreditation organizations.). In their calibration services. both internally and for third parties. in their calibration services. so as to secure the quality of the calibrations. They can issue calibration documents referring to their accreditation body. research laboratories or industries. They have other activities which include: calibration. or to set up a quality system for their calibration activities in accordance with the requirements of the written standard ISO/IEC 17025. Sistema interamericano de metrologia (SIM). the National Engineering Laboratory (NEL) for flow in the UK. for example: Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). and technical assistance. Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP). especially for setting up calibration laboratories. Deutscher Kalibrierdienst (DKD). these laboratories are requested to become accredited. be implemented in associated laboratories which are delegated for this activity by the national organization in charge of metrology (the CETIAT (Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques) for hygrometry in France. The realizations of the national references can. Theoretically. this coherence is obtained through the participation of the National Metrology Institutes (NMI) in comparisons organized by the consultative committees of the Comité International des Poids et Mesure (CIPM). for some quantities. these are directly defined in relation to the SI. etc. improve and maintain the national references. The process of securing the traceability to the SI system is made simpler for industries . Service d’Accréditation Suisse (SAS). It is also their duty to make sure that their realizations are coherent at the international level. training personnel. More and more often. or by regional metrology organizations such as European collaboration on measurement standards (EUROMET). the NMIs and the national accreditation bodies (NAB) have been collaborating in order to allow the free movement of calibration documents. on one or several national metrology institutes whose principal missions are to realize. the national metrology institutes and the associated laboratories directly provide traceability to the references of the accredited calibration laboratories (frequently identified as SMH (Service de Métrologie Habilité) in France) and provide the organization which accredits the calibration laboratories with their technical competence and their support. at the highest level.

Based on interlaboratory comparisons.4. section 5. which is a basic requirement of many written standards dealing with quality assurance.6) The needs of the firm and the causes of uncertainties of measurement will make it possible to determine the consequences of the absence of traceability. 5. the arrangements of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (MRA-BIPM) and the European organization of cooperation for accreditation (MLA-EA) are accessible on the internet: – MRA-BIPM: www. .bipm.org – MLA-EA: www. Traceability It is clear from the definitions that the traceability of measurements.org Each seal that has been recognized as equivalent can be consulted and any additional information can be obtained from the national accreditation body (COFRAC in France).Traceability to National Standards 131 by this recognition of equivalence.european-accreditation. the document which is issued to an industry only has to bear the seal of either the national NAB or the NMI. – to basic constants. Documentary traceability is generally ensured by complying with the requirements of the quality assurance written standards such as the ISO/IEC 17025 written standard (see section 1. to the basic quantities of the SI. Technical traceability is always secured by a connection through an unbroken chain: – to national or international standards in relation to physical measurements. The presence of this “symbol” proves the accreditation and the recognition of equivalence. or on their associated uncertainty (see ISO/IEC 17025. as a last possibility.4. then. The traceability has to be secured when the firm cannot technically show that the absence of traceability does not have any influence on the result of the measurements. is of a technical nature on the one hand and of a documentary nature on the other. perfectly referenced and with documented procedures.6 of this standard). or to reference materials which are well known in the field involved.

which prohibits these logos from appearing on anything that can be related to a product or a result. Calibration accreditation guarantees traceability from a technical as well as from a documentary point of view. it is important to point out that it is not sufficient to look only at the flyleaf (or the label stuck on the instrument). in its field of accreditation (range of measurement and uncertainty). includes the certification organizations. their accreditation body and the principals) no.7. or equivalent.5. appropriate assessments. but the traceability will be secured only for that range if the calibration program includes a sufficient number of measurement points. The traceability will not be secured unless the following conditions are met: – the technical traceability must be justified by traceability of the laboratory’s reference standards to the national standards. which. should make sure the service of the laboratory is in conformity with the different requirements and relevant. G.5. Calibration in an accredited laboratory After calibration has taken place in such a laboratory. . it is necessary to ensure that the calibration program is relevant and sufficient for what is expected from the instrument.5. Calibration 5.5. A calibrator or a multimeter may be calibrated for one function and one range. The user.1. Note: whatever the nature of the laboratory which has delivered a calibration certificate.3. but they are not guaranteed by an accreditation body. not limited to the audit of the system of quality management based on the service company’s ability to perform the measurements requested by the user. – the documentary traceability must be justified by compliance with the requirements concerning quality assurance.132 Metrology in Industry 5. 5. Calibration in a non-accredited laboratory Such a laboratory may issue calibration certificates.2. and by appropriate calibration procedures completed by calculations of the uncertainties. a calibration certificate is issued by the laboratory’s accreditation body. thorough. and they do not mention any certification of a system of quality management in compliance with the requirement of the IAF (International Accreditation Forum. at the international level. from the laboratory or from outside.

– the documentary traceability must be justified by compliance with the requirements concerning quality assurance. should ensure that the verification reports are relevant and in conformity with the different requirement. and by appropriate verification procedures which include the calculations of the uncertainties of the measurement that have led to the drafting of the report. Note: as for calibrations. etc. DKD and UKAS. under certain conditions. point of view. and referring to the national accreditation body. at the technical level. maximum permissible errors. cannot refer to any guarantee from an accreditation body. The user. the user should make sure that. 5. from the laboratory or from outside. uncertainty of measurement. and within its accreditation scope. quite obviously. The requirements of the national accreditation body (COFRAC. for example) guarantee the traceability from a technical. or equivalent. .2.6.1. 5. The main questions that may be raised on this subject are addressed in the following sections. Verification 5. entail the issuing of verification reports in conformity with the requirements in effect.6. The traceability cannot be secured unless the following conditions are met: – the technical traceability must be justified by the traceability of the laboratory’s reference standards to the national standards.7. Verification in an accredited laboratory and in its accreditation scope The verification operations carried out in such a laboratory. the content of the verification report completely fits the use scheduled for the instrument (verification program. Verification in a non-accredited laboratory or out of the accreditation scope Such a laboratory may perfectly deliver verification reports.Traceability to National Standards 133 5. Use of calibration and verification results The measuring instruments which have been subjected to a calibration or verification may. The reports.). be used as references for the calibration or the verification of other measuring instruments. by means of audits.6. as well as documentary.

they are recorded in a file or on measurement sheets. appear in the verification report. . defined by its nominal value. The calibration certificate of the calibrated instrument is one of the links in the traceability chain in the field for which the calibration certificate has been issued. Use of the results of a calibration The calibration certificate.1. the calibration certificate can be used as the starting point of or the reference for a new calibration or a verification in the field for which was been issued. that is.134 Metrology in Industry 5. the instrument and its associated verification report may no longer be used as a new starting point for traceability to standards. However. As a result. a verification report only contains a judgment about whether the instrument does or does not meet the requirements of the specification (permissible error limits). but. the information about whether it is apt to do what it is intended to do. as in a calibration certificate. if a verification report contains the numerical values of the measurements. as defined in the VIM.7. 5. In this case. Use of the results of a verification Theoretically. – uncertainty of measurement. the uncertainties mentioned in the report are those used as a base for the propagation of the uncertainties. or class. the uncertainty used as a base for the calculation of the uncertainty is the one which appears in the certificate. The numerical values of the measurement results and the combined uncertainties do not. it can be used afterwards to ensure the “technical” traceability of any instrument. the numerical value being within the limits of permissible errors. This point is particularly important because a “calibration document” in which no indication of uncertainty appears cannot be used for the propagation of uncertainties or for ensuring the “technical” traceability of any instrument.7. However. In the particular case of a verification report issued for an instrument. or a standard. the standard gauges used to verify calipers).2. the corresponding instrument can also be used to ensure traceability (for example. of course. as a rule. plus the combined uncertainties. theoretically contains all the technical elements that enable the beneficiary instrument to be one of the technical links of the traceability chain: – “relationship between the values of the indicated quantity and the corresponding values of the quantity realized by the standards”.

The verification report. it can also be used as a new starting point for traceability to standards. traceable to the national standards. cannot be regarded as one of the links of a traceability chain.Traceability to National Standards 135 Likewise. As a rule. in its usual form and except in the special cases mentioned above. in some domains or for some particular instruments. but nothing about the uncertainties of measurement. Ensuring the traceability of these instruments can only be achieved by implementing the classical methods: calibration or verification with the aid of standards that are themselves directly. Particular cases It may be necessary. or calibrators of electrical quantities. as in a calibration certificate. such as a Zener diode reference and two resistors of 1 and 10 k .8. . if a verification report contains only the numerical values of the measurements. or indirectly. “Self-calibrating” or “self-gauging” measuring instruments The new multimeters. to be more specific or to give examples of traceability to national standards. 5. to assume that traceability has been reached. 5.8. or their equivalent. The manufacturers of these instruments recommend that they be calibrated with the help of 2 or 3 reference standards. but as the end of it. In such a case – although the principle may be questioned despite being sound on a strictly technical point of view – the values of the uncertainties used as a base for the propagation of the uncertainties are simply the permissible error limits. together with the associated instrument. Using calibrated reference standards is not sufficient.1. can be mentioned in this category of instruments. for example. in theory. the internal working of the instrument and the processing of the data provided by the standards are not known (from the point of view of the corrections as well as of the uncertainties associated with the measurement) and so it is impossible to be sure that the different domains and ranges of the instrument have been correctly linked to the SI.

. It is: “The measuring equipment must be traceable to national or international standards. or the ISO/IEC 17025 or ISO/IEC 17020 (EN 45004) written standards. however. a particular activity (ISO 14001). integrated software makes it possible to compensate some systematic errors. is to summarize things all too briefly. 5. to make complex calculations and to reduce the number of random errors. which measures the dimensional quantities of complexly-shaped parts. These instruments work on identical principles. this software should be validated.2. The problem of the traceability of these instruments is not completely resolved. or a derived quantity. – the coordinate measuring machine.). it is possible to suggest a few ways to solve this problem: – a large enough number of standards measured by these instruments are to be used to determine what errors are related to the measurements made in the whole range of operation of these instruments.8. which measures the components in modulus and phase of high frequency electrical quantities. it is calibrated from a limited number of reference standards. or its specific requirements for a particular industry (automotive. aeronautical. Complex instruments in which components/equipments and software are narrowly combined and large measurement ranges are covered for complex quantities The following instruments are included in this category: – the vectorial network analyzer. Metrology in chemistry and physical methods of chemical analysis Whether the concern is the ISO 9001 written standards. There is nothing in this requirement that makes it possible to differentiate between a “physicist”. to extend the measuring range.136 Metrology in Industry 5.” To say that this requirement for traceability can be applied only in the domains of science in which it is possible to materialize a basic quantity of the SI. there is a requirement for the person in charge of the metrology function and responsible for the bank of measuring instruments. – there should be software to assess the measurement uncertainties.9. and that the measurement should be independent of the measurement equipment and the method used. all at once. They all have to be able to prove that the measurements made are coherent. etc. a “chemist” or a “biologist”. it is also calibrated from a limited number of reference standards.

it makes use of solutions prepared by the laboratory. the metrology function should be able to ensure the coherence of the measurement results. (LGC) UK. the notion of traceability to national standards is understandable. This obviously concerns all the domains of chemical analysis. In all cases. (NIST) USA. though less clear-cut than for physical measurements. or of reference materials supplied by producers who may be accredited ((IRMM-JRC) Brussels. the ISO (International Organization for Standardization). In the case of physical methods of chemical analysis (chromatography. the IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) and the FICC (Fédération Internationale de Chimie Clinique). the operations prior to an analysis usually include an operation which is said to be a calibration or a gauging. This vocabulary was published by the BIPM.1. the OIML (Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale). A pragmatic approach has been taken in a conference by Mr Alain Marschal entitled “Traceability and calibration in analytical chemistry” (National testing laboratory. Traceabilty in metrology in chemistry No matter what document of reference a firm has chosen. etc. According to the international vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM). LNE). or using a standard curve in such a way that for each . In the case of physical methods of chemical analysis. or perhaps there was no standard at the national level. (EMPA) Switzerland). but also all the measurements to characterize a physical property of a material (bending by shock. so as to optimize its method of analysis or by verifying this coherence by using another method of measurement. the IEC/CEI (International Electro Technical Commission). hardness.Traceability to National Standards 137 The objective of the traceability to national standards is to ensure that a measurement result obtained somewhere in the world is clearly comparable to another measurement result obtained in similar conditions in another part of the world. Gauging the measuring equipment of a method of chemical analysis means adjusting the output signal. problems of traceability have always been considered by standardization bodies because.9. 5. the traceability was not technically feasible. etc.). spectrometry. the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry). they thought.). the traceability must be implemented through an unbroken chain of comparisons. for example by taking part in national or international interlaboratory comparisons.

The problems encountered in what could generically be called chemical analysis come from the fact that the “standard” product: – is not a reference material which is certified (or whose traceability is completely established). or by a reference method (absolute). The notion of gauging error. – is not sufficiently resistant to the effects of time for instance. – cannot always have its characteristics verified by the buyer. by one method or another. a thermo gravimetric (TGA) or differential thermo analysis (TDA).138 Metrology in Industry level of concentration. must not be taken into account unless the purpose of the comparison is to “adjust” an alternate method in relation to a method that is taken as a reference. with a modification of the position of the experimental line in comparison with an ideal line. calorimetric methods. Faced with this situation. Gauging errors. many “chemist-analysts” consider that they have only one means at their disposal to validate their method and verify their measurement results: to repeat the analyses on samples characterized by known values which have . As in most methods in which the object is to physically characterize a material. – responds in a way differently from the analytes in the real sample owing to matrix effects. by extraction. etc. even if it is purchased from a specialized producer. a drawback of chemical analyses applied to liquids and to solids is that they usually destroy or modify the sample by turning it into a solution. causes systematic deviations which can be constant or proportional to the input signal and thus dependent on the concentrations. or polluted by gases such as the CO2 from air. as it is subjected to oxidization or reduction reactions. On the other hand. for example. and also of the shape of the cloud of experimental points. a case which ought to be considered is that of a piece of equipment that is very difficult to calibrate or verify and it is practically impossible to obtain traceability to the national standards according to the usual protocol. the mean of the results coincides with the conventional true value (CTV) which is given by reference samples. so no evidence such as an accredited calibration certificate is recorded. This inconvenience makes it very hard to maintain an unbroken real chain of comparison to a national-level standard.

1. 5. in all cases. Some laboratories have become accredited for performing these calibrations since the first edition of this book was published. Absolute methods The principle of the method consists of obtaining the result of the analysis from laws which link physical or chemical phenomena. the samples have to be conceived and prepared in and by the laboratory in accordance with the requested analysis. in many cases. or it is the value of the uncertainty which is dissuasive. then the requirements defined in the ISO/IEC 17025 written standard in sections 5.9. However. to precisely define the concentrations of some elements or components in a specified matrix.2. – determining a volume of generated titration.9. that is to say. – determining a volume of titration reagent. it is rather difficult. or too expensive.cofrac. possibly. It is vital. intervene in them to reduce their effects. The measurements consist of. Should these properties have a significant effect on the results of an analysis. In practice. to make an assessment of the causes of uncertainty in order to be able to identify the most influential ones and.6 must be complied with.Traceability to National Standards 139 been established by a process deemed to be reliable.4 and 5. to use a certified reference material. – weighing a mass of precipitate. Influence of the principle of the method The influence of the type of the method is not insignificant. These samples are selected or prepared by laboratories which are well-known or recognized to be competent because of their experience or because of the results of a campaign of interlaboratory analyses for which the purpose was. Their accredited possibilities are accessible on the internet sites of the European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA) (access through www. 5. It can be classified in three categories according to the principle of calibration which is used. to control all the parameters used for a calculation.fr). The method for the traceability chain consists of separately identifying the elementary quantities which have been measured in the analysis process and linking them to national standards. for example.2. for example: – weighing the quantity of a substance. .

The method of connection consists of using reference materials. content of the measured-out element.2.2. 5. purity of the basic products. preferably certified material if there is any.3. Another technique consists of comparing the results of the sample with those of a reference method from the first two categories. etc. The method of connection consists of connecting the different systems of measurement used for the preparation of the “standards” (mass.).). temperature. volume. geometry of the standard. the concentrations of which are known by the user. This method does not give the same guarantees as the methods which depend on external reference materials. another method consists of using samples prepared from the pure analyte and some blanks. . Relative method The principle of the method consists of comparing the indications given by the instrument for the measurement of the sample with those given for the calibration performed from a range of “reference” products prepared by dilution of the pure analyte in a solvent. Comparative method The principle of the method consists of comparing the indications given by the instrument for the measurement of the sample with those obtained from a “calibration” curve drawn from samples which are known to be of the same nature and taken as references. However. 5. and the nature of which is very close to that of the sample to be analyzed. When no reference materials are available on the market. and without any additional disruptive effects (influence of the matrix.2. In their concern to help industrials and laboratories as a whole.9. that is to say some samples of the same type which are supposed to not contain any trace of the analyte. measuring out fat in milk by infrared spectrometry compared with an ether-hydrochloric extraction. for example. interpolation between two points. nature of the impurities.140 Metrology in Industry This assessment can then be used as a tool of the functional analysis of the measurement process. one should always keep in mind that the objective is to satisfy an industrial need and therefore one should estimate the share contributed by each one of the causes of uncertainty and then compare their total sum to the final uncertainty of the result of the analysis. etc.9. EURACHEM (European Cooperation for Chemical Analysis) and the CITAC (International Committee for the Traceability in Chemical Analyses) have published a document which is a guide to the assessment of uncertainties of measurement.

therefore. the question arises: “what is to be connected and how do you prove the connection?”. For example. Is this uncertainty comparable to the maximum errors allowed for this order of pipettes? Surveys of new or “precision” material have been undertaken and are currently being continued in some laboratories. in France. the question is not so much to find the track of a particular document. it is”. and in Italy. note (b) excepted. The error made at the time of the setting of the “chronometer” is much larger than the uncertainty of the connection. or by a member who has signed the equivalent recognition agreement of the EA. as this term is not defined in any published text of terminology.9. “Documentary” traceability Strictly speaking. in Germany. which has an accreditation by COFRAC. it is to be able to prove that the techniques used for “adjusting” the method make it possible to have confidence in the measurement result and the uncertainty which goes with it. the Laboratoire Système de Références Espace Temps (SYRTE). Therefore. It is possible to verify one volume per weighing: 1. for the moment. The proof of this connection can only be internal as there is no delivery of a calibration certificate issued by a laboratory. Should all the gauged glassware be verified and how often should this be done? This equipment may represent more than 80% of a “chemistry” laboratory’s bank of measuring equipment. they conclude. is the verification of a stopwatch used to determine a time interval traceable to a national standard if you use a method describing the verification process or if you use a “standard telephone” directly linked to the speaking clock? The answer is “yes. On the other hand. what uncertainty can you guarantee when you weigh a volume of water from a micropipette of 10 µl? 2.3. the Physikalish Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). the accuracy of the means of reference is in the order of 0. you need to be cautious about this demand. In the case of physical methods of chemical analysis. However. The traceability to a national standard is valid. the Instituto Electro Nazionale Galiléo Ferraris (IENGF).1 milliseconds in France and the timekeeping of this clock is controlled from an atomic clock connected to the national standards: in France. which is wellknown in metrology. that about . but quite suitable for the use to be made of the measuring equipment.Traceability to National Standards 141 5. it corresponds with the general meaning of traceability as defined in the ISO 8 402 written standard. we use it in opposition to the term traceability chain.

which requires drawing a calibration curve of the indication from internally diluted solutions or from reference materials when there are some. either in a gaseous phase. The laboratories of chemical analysis frequently use this chromatography equipment. The user. To sum up. knowing that deviations of internal repeatability can reach from 3 to 8%. it is like using an experimental graph. the detection at a time T is depending on each one of the constituent elements. the principle of this method consists of an elution of the elements constituting a sample. Instruments such as spectrometers and chromatographs which have to be calibrated every time they are used should be calibrated with chemicals known to be sufficiently pure. It is then possible.142 Metrology in Industry 80% of the verified glassware was within the error limits allowed by their class or their requirements. before turning his attention to the connections of these two quantities. or in a liquid state. or reference materials whose composition is known. depending on the various cases. Once again. has to determine the contribution to the overall uncertainty of the injection system. The result of a measurement is obtained by transferring the determined value on the calibration curve that has been drawn. the same parent solution has to be used for each dilution. In order to reduce the influence of the successive dilutions. it is a relative or comparative method. The reference materials are obtained by the user through successive dilutions (mass and volume). Spectrometry techniques are commonly used in the laboratories which practice the determination of chemical elements of a substance. the geometry of the column. This technique seeks to make use of reference products so as to be able to identify the constituent elements. Spectrometry is not an absolute method. . it is the analysis of the need and the calculation of the uncertainties which tell you whether the method of connection is relevant and whether it is reasonable to invest in these verifications. the response of the detector and the response of the integrator. as long as the sought for uncertainty permits it. The decision to calibrate a spectrophotometer will depend on the type of analysis made with this spectrophotometer. to trust the values of the permissible maximum errors and use them in the evaluation of the overall uncertainty of measurement. the analysis temperature.

the products used as references must be treated like consumable products used as part of the tests or analyses.4. in all cases. then through the internal traceability chain which implements the metrology function.Traceability to National Standards 143 5. The file relating to the equipment should always contain its follow-up information. The laboratory must be in a position to prove that every calibration of the internal traceability chain has been done according to the set up procedures. especially the follow-up of the monitoring of the coherence of the product which is used to control the drift over of the response of the measuring equipment. with the two samples of RM (the older one and the newer one). These procedures concerning the use of reference materials should be described in detail in the documents which are at the disposal of the operators. Control of the reference materials When the laboratory uses reference materials (RM) of its own or from outside. the laboratory must be absolutely sure about the homogeneousness of a lot. In addition. the laboratory should have at its disposal a range of RMs adapted to its sector of analysis. especially when faults are detected. a procedure has to be established which makes it possible to check. that is to say. – manufacture of the products when this operation is within the laboratory’s scope. etc. when this cannot be done. Moreover. make the traceability of the operations possible. The criteria that rule the decision to renew the RM must be written down. check of the products on arrival. to use a new sample and to compare the response of the measuring equipment. etc. – storing conditions. in order to determine the systematic component of the uncertainty related to the reference. the sampling conditions. if these RMs are available. at the level of the external connection to a national standard kept by the national laboratory of metrology or by an accredited laboratory. which belong to and are created by the laboratory.9. the observations made should. The different stages of the manufacturing to be taken into account are the following: – supply and receipt (definition of the expected requirements. These RMs must meet the previous requirements and be applied to the standards related to the SI. The metrological traceability is achieved through reference standards. .). The chain is broken when the final link is compared to a link of the same nature.

The made-up standards should be treated as the reagents. etc. conditioning. – assessment of the uncertainty provided or evaluated by the laboratory. uncertainties and variations of the stated values are usually obtainable from the producers and this information must be used to assess the quality of the CRM and whether it is appropriate to use it for a given analysis. – reference materials which have or have not been certified and about which the laboratory has to show they are suitable for the use that is made of them. with a measured-out addition. The required purity of chemical standards can be defined in relation with the tolerances of the method. For example. – management (identification. follow-up. Details about the tests of homogeneity and stability. the applicability. using a sample. a tolerance of 0. One is encouraged to use them as much as possible. inventory. It is essential to control the impurities for an analysis of traces.1% of the targeted value requires the chemical standard to have a precision of concentration significantly better than 99. The reference materials provide the essential traceability of chemical measurements. they are used to prove the correctness of the results. and the restrictions of use. When there are matrix interferences.144 Metrology in Industry – handling (preparation. They also make it possible to compare methods when they are used as transfer standards.). The users of CRM should be aware that all materials are not validated from the same standard. of a chemical standard is generally acceptable. and so that their documentary traceability is secured. etc. . in relation to labeling. The reference materials and the chemical standards have to be clearly labeled so that they can be unambiguously identified and referenced in relation to the certificates and other documents that go with them. It is important that the certified reference material (CRM) is produced and characterized in a technically sound way. the methods used for certification. the storing conditions. The information must be available and mention the duration of preservation.9%.). Particular attention should be paid to the manufacturer’s advice about the storing and the duration of preservation. to calibrate the material and the methods. to check the performances of the laboratory and to validate the methods. in the case of internal reference materials.

Such campaigns are. . 5. are based on different principles. but “the conscience of the process of measurement”. the development of “crossed” analyses has to be supported and helped either by: – resorting to two similar methods which. etc. Personnel training procedures should reflect these requirements. particularly in wet process chemistry.). as well as in the field of the measurement of the basic quantities of the SI. and will remain. a posteriori. metrology is neither the science of measurements (as defined in the Concise Robert Dictionary) nor the science of uncertainties (Pierre Giacomo – Honorary Director of the BIPM). The measurement process includes additional parameters such as sampling. Conclusion In the domains of what we have called chemical analysis.9. admittedly. rather than making one method more worthwhile than another. Assessment of traceability This is an especially important point because. Theoretically. The difficulties of guaranteeing the traceability to national standards make a good case for the implementation of a quality system which would evolve as and when corrective actions are applied. and have to be connected. which.5. for example) are currently developing. 5. volume. it is fundamentally important to remain open-minded and to take the whole process of measurement into consideration.10. the safest means to make sure. but they must not eclipse other parameters which have a greater influence when assessing the causes of uncertainties and which are not to be dealt with simply by a connection to the basic quantities. many firms have to prove that their measuring equipment is connected to national standards or the like. Thus. of the coherence of the measurements. temperature. preparing the sample and relativizing the influence of basic quantities (mass. however. as procedures to ensure quality (ISO 9004. remain at the base of some methods. Furthermore.Traceability to National Standards 145 Reference materials and standards should be handled in such a way as to protect them from possible contamination or alteration. only the assessment of the traceability makes it possible to verify that the corresponding requirements have been met. or – promoting campaigns of interlaboratory analyses to verify the result of a measurement.

December 1992 (www.org) . etc. etc. an assessment is necessary to make sure that the technical and documentary traceabilities are satisfied and relevant (calibration procedures. gauges. COFRAC in France) in its sphere of accreditation. The assessment will have to be gone through by. the results of national or international comparisons can be used as bases for traceability. The metrology function in the firm. It should be noted that the auditors use the agreements of international recognition (the MRA CIPM. for example.afnor. calculations of the uncertainties. is guaranteed by the accreditation.11. by using the document ILAC P 10. those firms which subcontract the calibration or the verification of practically the entirety of their bank of measuring instruments. it is not necessary to have an audit done since the traceability. he must demonstrate that the services of calibration and verification he has ordered from the subcontractor are relevant.) as evidence of equivalent traceability.ansi. there is reason to ensure the content of the documents (functions. The subcontractor will need to prove that the operations of calibration and verification that he performs are traceable to the SI.org) Guide ISO 35:1989. the best way to ensure that the stipulated requirements have been met is to rely on the technical and documentary requirements of the ISO/IEC 17 025 norm about technical and documentary requirements. As for the principal.) is adapted to the intended use of the instrument. EA.fr) ANSI/NCSL Z540: 1994. 5. standards used.146 Metrology in Industry When the calibration and verification operations have been performed in a metrology laboratory accredited by an organization (for example. In any case. in particular. In cases where there is no accreditation. etc. Nevertheless. programs. there will come a time when the connection to national standards can only be proved by showing a calibration certificate delivered by an accredited laboratory. uncertainties.). both technical and documentary. During an audit. connections to the standards. ILAC. Bibliography French norm NF X 07-010. American National Standard for Calibration – Calibration Laboratories and Measuring and Test Equipment – General Requirements (www. similarly.iso. Certification of reference materials – General principles of statistics (www.

ilac. 1/WGD2 interpretation of the norms of the series EN 45 000.ilac.eurolab. JJ Beliardo – BCR EUROLAB Congress. www. February 1994 (www.eurolab.fr) EUROLAB Congress.html) .eurachem.ul.org) Metrology Congress. www.european-accreditation.lne. 2nd edition. in connection with ISO 9 000. Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement. Guide for calibration and maintenance of measuring test equipment in laboratories. EA Policy on Traceability of Measurement Results. www. NPL. Teddington (www. “Traceability and calibration in analytical chemistry and Florence – April 1994 material testing – Principles and applications to real life. and the Guide ISO/CEI no.lne. Report reference materials – checking the quality of the analyses of agricultural produce. 2000 (www. “Reference material for mechanical testing and uncertainty of measurement”. February 1993 (www.eurachem. LNE (www. ISO-CASCO EURACHEM-WELAC. Quality system requirement for the production of reference materials.fr) Engineer’s techniques Calibration in analytical chemistry and testing of Reference materials R 52 Measurements and Controls.org) EURACHEM-CITAC.fr) ISO 9004: 2000 System of Quality Management – Guidelines for the improvement of performances (www. 25”. Accreditation of CHEMISTRY laboratories: Guide for the no. Introducing the Concept of Uncertainty of Measurement in Testing in Association with the Application of the Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (www.org) ILAC P 10: 2002.Traceability to National Standards 147 Guide ISO 34:2000. Division Material Metrology.ilac. December 2001 (www.ilac. Alain Marschal. 25RNE. Head of Reference Materials Department. “Approach to the metrology function in laboratories of Lille 1993 (MFQ) chemical analyses” – Christian TRICARD/DGCCRF Talence BCR. Malcolm Loveday.lne. LNE (www. Alain Marschal. Calibration of chemical analyses and use of certified reference materials. EN 45 000 and guide ISO/CEI no.org) ILAC-G17: 2002. Head of Reference Materials Department.org/iso/fr/iso 9000-14000/tour/magical.fr.org) ILAC.iso.pt. May 1993/Draft ISO guide 32 (www.fr.org) ILAC.

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3. The ISO 10012 norm. and Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE).1. “System of management of the measurement – requirements for the measurement equipments and processes” introduces the following demand (section 8. . This type of demand also applies to testing and calibration laboratories. Chapter written by Patrizia TAVELLA – IENGF/Italy. the equipment user shall determine the potential consequences and take any necessary action. This can involve re-examination of product produced using measurements taken with the nonconforming measuring equipment. The control of the measurement processes resulting from the application of the norm ISO 9001 (2000) is an inducement to ensure that the measurement process “does produce” correct results. Normative requirements Calibrations at fixed (possibly variable) intervals are indispensable processes which are usually expensive for firms. Having these intervals well under control is a major technical and economic objective.Chapter 6 Calibration Intervals and Methods for Monitoring the Measurement Processes 6.3): If the result of a metrological verification prior to any adjustment or repair indicates that the measuring equipment did not meet the metrological requirement such that the correctness of the measurement results may have been compromised.

Methods for monitoring the instruments in use – general criteria These methods should satisfy some criteria in order to work efficiently and be applicable when the instruments in use are monitored: – ease of implementation: in many cases. . First method: metrological redundancies Principle This method consists of deliberately duplicating some critical elements of the firm’s metrological system so as to easily compare information that should normally be in agreement. 6. – use of the results: the results should be easily understood and provide the operators with information. Any deviation makes it possible to easily detect a fault.150 Metrology in Industry These measures can have significant technical and financial implications for a firm or a laboratory. For firms there are two immediate consequences of this requirement: – the need to have the intervals of calibration of the instruments under control. so that the monitoring can be done frequently. – speed of execution: the time needed to implement these methods must be short.2. these methods have to be implemented by the instrument operators. make it possible to minimize the risk. – the need to set up methods of monitoring the measuring instruments. 6. Those instruments that are especially critical from an economic point of view or for security reasons should be examined first. or at least to control it. The ISO 10012 international written standard requires the organization to specify which measurement processes should comply with the measures stated in this international standard. The determination of the calibration intervals and their modification. – motivation of the operators: the operators must be interested in the methods and motivated to use them.1.2. It is advisable to take into account the risks and consequences of not satisfying the metrological requirements when the limits within which a standard has to be complied with have been defined. plus the setting up of the methods of monitoring. A selection of the instruments to be monitored will have to be made when setting up the monitoring methods.

this alteration is to be compared to the uncertainty on the known diameter of the ring which was +/. or on drafting graphs.2. The reference standard represents the first link of the calibration chain inside the firm. Hypothesis This method assumes that instruments of the same nature. platinum-resistance temperature sensors. perform more or less similarly. by way of example. most importantly. for example. these are undetectable if no duplicating item is available in the firm. reference-standard rings whose 80 mm diameter has altered by 2 µm in a year.17 µm. in particular. Let us mention.Calibration Intervals and Methods 151 Hypothesis The method rests on the assumption that the probability of a similar and simultaneous drift in two instruments is low.0. if it happens to drift. This assumption may lead to choosing measuring instruments which are technologically different or from different manufacturers. the model of the variation of the resistance as a function of the temperature is shown by a second degree polynomial: R = Ro (1 + at + bt 2) It is widely accepted that the value Ro can vary between two thermometers. Applications The two following examples illustrate this method: – An electronic comparator made of a table fitted out with two inductive sensors is generally used to calibrate standard gauges. etc. Second method: checking the coherence of the results Principle This method is based on the examination of the measurement results and the calculation of characteristic values such as the standard deviation of repeatability. A method can be used to monitor .2. but the general aspect of the curve remains parabolic. Applications This method is implemented. and a discontinuity in the curve will act as a warning. in relation reference standards: standard rings. or the same technology. standard masses. 6. this may entail serious errors of measurement and. and comparing them to typical values or to standard graphs. The cause of the alteration was probably a defect in the stabilization of the material. Take.

3. on the other hand. etc. Chiefly adapted to manufacturing processes.1. they are perfectly suitable for the monitoring of instruments. The operator will have to examine if the difference between the two results is greater than the critical difference. – Some analysis procedures recommend that the measurements be repeated twice and to compare the deviation between these values with a “critical difference” that has been determined by taking the repeatability of the analysis procedure for its basis. – the standards used (means). it consists of testing the repeatability of the measurements and to compare them to a “typical” value. . Measurement process concept The measurement process is a set comprising of: – the measuring instrument (means). The operator is alerted if the values are not similar. – the environmental conditions (medium). The measurement process provides the results of the measurements. Statistical control of the measurement processes The measurement process can be considered as a part of the production process For many years. in 1924. are very rich in information and something unusual (change of gradient. manufacturing companies have shown interest in the monitoring of the means of production. 6. but which “manufactures” results of measurement.2. – the method of measurement and the measurement procedure (method). These techniques can be used to verify the calibration of thermocouples by watching out for the regularity of the calibration curves. The measurement process is then considered as a production tool that does not make objects. Graphic techniques also deserve attention. Studying a chart of numerical values does not generally make it possible to detect the abnormal values. graphs. Statistical methods can be used as a basis to perfect this type of test (comparison of a variance to a given value).) in a curve very often reveals a faulty measurement.3. For the first time. – the operators (manpower). Third method: “monitoring standards” and statistical supervision of the measurement processes 6.2. WA Shewhart explained the principle of control charts.152 Metrology in Industry these benches.

Principle The objective of this method is to place and then maintain the process under “statistical monitoring”: the dispersions of the results that are observed are only due to the random fluctuations of the instrument or of the environmental conditions.). cannot turn out identical products. it can be said that the samples represented by the series of measurements of the same object are extracted from the same population and so have the “same mean”. – the means (instruments. but not to attributable causes that can be controlled. and sometimes to the operator’s initiatives. In order to monitor the measurement process. and the environment. standards. so the measurement process comes with errors of measurement that fluctuate from one result to the next. the different causes of variability will be examined when the system of control charts is set up. Measurement process concept Just as any manufacturing process. even one that is perfectly controlled. These causes come from: – the medium. – the measured quantity (measurand). – the method of measurement and the measurement procedure.1.Calibration Intervals and Methods 153 MEANS METHOD RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT MATERIAL MEDIUM MANPOWER MANPOWER Figure 6. . etc. That is why it is necessary to attempt to monitor and control the measurement processes. From a statistical point of view. – the operator.

a voltage reference can be used. or even several. to each measurement bench. It is possible to associate one “check standard”.3. .2. several monitoring standards (representative of the field of measurement) may sometimes be necessary to supervise the measurement process. or the automatic measurement sequences. they make it possible to follow the evolution of the measurement process. special care should be taken when these standards are stabilized. These standards are used at regular intervals to ensure a statistical control of the measurement processes. Checking and control limits have been drawn beforehand on the graph. whose function is to generate or achieve the value of a quantity in a stable way in time. the chart of the standard deviation. material measure. range. These standards are of the same type as those that are usually measured on the bench. and the cumulative sum chart. Several examples illustrate this concept. These techniques are applied in the field of dimensional metrology.154 Metrology in Industry Check standard Monitoring standards have to be used to implement these techniques. A frequent measurement in a laboratory is the measurement of direct current. In order to monitor the digital voltmeters. it can be introduced on different measurement benches to monitor them (by the connection of the reference tension generator to a channel of a channel scanner). or product. 6. The abscissa of each point corresponds to the number of samples and its coordinate is the value of the statistic calculated from these samples. First step: know your process well It is necessary before you compile a control chart to estimate the parameters µ and the characteristic of the distribution of the measurements of the monitoring standard with the aid of the process that you want to check. but in relation to the monitoring of the measurement processes. There are numerous types of control charts.2. three should be retained: the chart of the mean. standard deviation). Control charts A control chart is a graph on which a point is made to correspond to each value of a statistic calculated from successive samples (mean. The value of the quantity which is measured and represented by these monitoring standards must also be representative of the measurements customarily made. A provisional definition of monitoring standards may be measuring instrument.

each made of n1. The series of measurements should be sufficiently representative of the different operating conditions so as to ensure a proper characterization of the distribution. the number of repetitions is n. Either you know the value of m. thanks to a calibration of the monitoring standard by a method of a higher accuracy. knowing the . the monitoring standard has to be measured using the measurement process that you want to control.Calibration Intervals and Methods 155 These two estimators will be called m and s. Two cases are to be considered to calculate the value of m. and you use the value of m supplied by the calibration. … nk determinations. have been made: n0 = ∑n h =1 k h xh = 1 nh ∑x i =1 nh ih then m will be calculated by the quantity: m0 = 1 n0 ∑n x h h The variance of each one of the samples should be estimated with ν h = nh − 1 degrees of freedom by the expression: 2 sh = 2 1 nh ∑ ( xih − xh ) nh − 1 i = 1 The variance of the population should be estimated by use of s by combining the different variances: 2 s0 = (n 1 2 2 2 − 1) s1 + ( n2 − 1) s 2 +A+( nk − 1) s k (n 1 − 1) + ( n 2 − 1) +A+( nk − 1) = 2 2 2 ν1s1 + ν2 s 2 +A+ν k s k ν1 + ν2 +A+ν k The control charts of the mean and of the standard deviation: LS = m 0 + 2 s0 n LC = m 0 + 3 s0 n Regularly. you can draw the limits of control and warning. for each series of measurements. or the monitoring standard is only supposed to be stable and m should be estimated by performing a number of series of measurements. If k series of measurement. n2 . If.

Nevertheless. Its principle is to calculate the mean of the series x for each one of the series of measurements.m0) S3 = S2 + (x3 .α (n-1. whereas an abnormal increase of the standard deviation indicates that the measurement process is not stable.156 Metrology in Industry estimators m and on the graph. The warning and control limits for the standard deviation are: s ≤ s 0 F1− α ( n − 1. They can be modified in accordance with the risk you are willing to take. It seems that the control charts of the mean and of the standard deviation both deserve attention. and then to work out a series of cumulated sums: S1 = x1 . s0 n . they provide complementary information on the way the process works.m0) = S1 + (x2 .m0) + (x2 .m0) . The initial phase of the drawing up of the chart is bound to involve progress because.m0) St = St-1 + (xt . using a whole multiple of the standard deviation is certainly sufficient and more meaningful for metrologists. for example). ν) is the “fractile” of 1-α order of Fisher’s distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom (ν = ∑νh in the numerator and degrees of freedom in the denominator) and has the accepted values of the risk of first kind (α = 5% for the warning limit and α = 2% for the control limit. The mean of the series of the n measurements will be noted The values of the warning limits (WL) and control limits (CL) will be the coefficients 2 and 3 respectively appearing in front of the estimator of the standard deviation of the mean.ν ) in which s2 is the estimator of the variance-estimator obtained with the considered series of measurements.m0 S2 = (x1 .. F1 . The cumulative sum chart Such a control chart can turn out to be a good thing in metrology because it makes it possible to detect small drifts. it will be noticed that the process is not “under control” and the attempts to find the attributable causes will be a indicator of obvious progress. practically all the time. Leaving the checking limits means a compulsory examination of the measurement process. A variation of the mean reveals a drift either of the instrument or of the environmental conditions.

As. the method of the control charts shall be accompanied with information to understand and explain the “abnormal” points which are bound to appear during the life of the instrument and the process. You cannot. It is possible to use a mobile mean to “smooth out” the series. but if on the contrary a phenomenon of drift occurs.Calibration Intervals and Methods 157 If the successive values are all obtained in the region of m. – to have a particularly efficient tool available to adapt the calibration intervals permanently and thus cut down the firm’s metrology expenses. it is quickly detected. – to protect oneself against the malfunction of the instruments and. the cumulated sum remains close to zero. the cumulated sum smoothes out the paths. Use of the monitoring methods The methods of monitoring make it possible: – to know and control the measurement processes. it saves supplementary treatments on the chart of the mean. without information. – six increasing or decreasing points successively. Tests on the successive groups of points on the charts These tests can detect the presence of a phenomenon which might be abnormal: – nine successive points on a same side of the mean. connect the appearance of an abnormal value with an event in the measurement process. –15 points lower than 1 σ. – two points among three successive ones higher than 2 σ.2.3. The log book of the measurement process If it is used with an intention to progress. in order to study the tendency. the measurement processes. – seven points higher and lower than the mean successively. – to monitor the environment parameters of the measurement process (influence quantities). – to provide formal evidence that the results of measurement are under control. 6. more generally. .3. – four points among five successive ones higher than 1 σ.

The same concept is extensively reformulated in the ISO 10012. such as environmental. considerable resources are meant to be paid. For example. Let us assume that the calibration condition of a particular instrument can be monitored by an observable parameter. The calibration interval is often determined by observations on a large group of similar instruments and estimations of their “average” behavior. chemical. in some cases. However. other suggestions can be found in Document 10 of the Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale.3. In order to reduce such costs. Figure 6. Consequently. These intervals shall be reviewed and adjusted when necessary to ensure continuous compliance with the specified metrological requirements. Due to the very different causes that affect the calibration requirements. The determination of the calibration intervals The importance of establishing appropriate calibration intervals for each instrument is well-recognized in international and European standards.2 – Intervals between metrological confirmation The methods used to determine or change the intervals between metrological confirmation shall be described in documented procedures. it is justified to assume that the calibration condition varies according to random steps. When a measuring instrument is found to be outside the limits of permissible errors. Some documents or standards give estimates as to the calibration interval. the EN ISO 9001 requires that measurement and testing instruments should be periodically confirmed through calibration.2 describes an example of the evolution in time of the calibration condition. deciding upon an optimal calibration interval for a given type of instrument may be worthwhile if for instance the item has a particular importance in the firm’s production and quality system. some corrective actions need to be taken on the production process which was measured by the instrument since the last positive calibration check. mechanical. human and electromagnetic fluctuations. s(t).158 Metrology in Industry 6. whose accumulated effect degrades the calibration condition until it reaches an assigned threshold of permissible error.1. ISO 10012 section 7. it is fundamental to establish a system that carefully watches the instrument calibrations. after which the instrument is considered “out of calibration”. . A very good guide is the NCSL RP – 1 document. whose possible variation is bounded by predefined limits of permissible errors ± a .

Let us suppose that the measuring instrument at hand is kept under stochastic control. according to the methods explained in the previous sections. The recalibration is only performed when deemed necessary. as depicted in Figure 6. meaning the time interval at which the calibration condition of a measuring instrument is measured and its value is taken into account for the subsequent measurements. we speak of calibration interval independently if it is followed by a physical or software adjustment. . by means of repeated measurements of check standards. Two calibration interval determination policies can be considered. for example when the calibration condition exceeds an alert threshold ± m . Setting the calibration status to zero or to some other conventional value is called adjustment.2.Calibration Intervals and Methods 159 s(t) + a 0 tim e -a in itia l a d ju stm e n t n e w a d ju stm e n t n e w a d ju stm e n t Figure 6.2. the measuring instrument is always kept under stochastic control and the calibration condition is almost continuously monitored on a control chart. the calibration error is kept in due consideration either by a physical adjustment or by a software a posteriori correction of the successive measures. Example of the evolution in time of the calibration condition with some adjustments Calibration means the passive observation of the calibration status without any action. In the first policy. whose results are registered on a control chart as in Figure 6.3. Nevertheless. Therefore. once a calibration is performed. which is fixed below the limit of permissible errors ± a .

In that case. the probability that the calibration condition exceeds a threshold level at a certain time after calibration. it can be necessary to estimate the probability that the calibration condition has not . for example. at a certain time after calibration.160 Metrology in Industry +a +m 0 ∆t time -m -a initial adjustment new adjustment new adjustment new adjustment Figure 6. Simple stochastic processes as a random running or a Wiener process can be physically justified by considering that the degradation of the calibration condition can be due to the accumulated effect of minor random variations. when using the second policy. The use of stochastic processes to model the degradation in time of the calibration condition of a measuring instrument or standard proves to be very effective in estimating the probability that. Example of the evolution in time of the calibration condition with alert thresholds On the other hand. after which a certain reasonable rule is deduced and the calibration interval is determined. These processes have been examined and some of their properties can be expressed by known analytical expressions. the monitoring of the calibration condition can only be performed for a certain learning period useful to identify a stochastic model suitable to describe the evolution in time of the calibration condition. The optimal calibration interval is then identified by time interval which guarantees that such a risk does not exceed a certain fixed level.3. These analytical expressions are then useful to fix the calibration interval according to a predefined risk level. the calibration condition exceeds the tolerance threshold. Such a learning period can be sufficient to evaluate the risk of using the measuring instrument “out of calibration” when it is used at a certain time after calibration. In this case. the control chart and check standard are only used for a limited period. but they can also be used in the case of the continuous calibration condition monitoring described above.

NF Zhang. Shewhart control charts (1991/Cor1 1993) AFNOR. Rep. National Conference of Standard Laboratories RP1 (1996) R.2. 433-445 (1996) . Therefore.Calibration Intervals and Methods 161 exceeded the alert threshold m at a certain check. FD X 06-030. In addition to the criteria in section 6. to reduce calibration costs. On the other hand. one should choose a brief calibration interval. International Document no.3). plus other costs as standard breakage or their equivalent. but that it has exceeded the limits of permissible errors before the next check. (1984) NCSL. Tech. Kacker. therefore leading to the unpleasant situation of an instrument out of calibration before the adjustment is performed (see last example in Figure 6. the cost of instrument unavailability during the calibration.4. which means calibrating very frequently. Application of statistics – control charts Parts 0 to 4 (1995) AFNOR FD X 07-014. one is led to calibrate very seldom. pp. the cost of calibrations depends on the operations themselves. or of repeated calibrations. Control charts – general guide and introduction (1993) ISO 8258. Measurement management system – requirement for measurement processes and measuring equipment (2002) ISO 7870. Intervals of metrological confirmation (not yet published) OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology): “Advice for the determination of the intervals of recalibration of the measuring equipments used in testing laboratories”. These two contrasting tendencies can be formulated by a suitable annual cost function. Bibliography NF EN ISO 9001: Quality management systems – requirement (2000) ISO 10012. a cost function can be added by inserting the cost either of the use of an instrument out of calibration. either if calibration is performed internally or by an external body. NFX 06-031. “Establishment and adjustment of calibration intervals”. which increases the calibration interval. For safety. to reduce the risks and the costs of using an instrument out of calibration. "Real-time control of a measurement process”. 33 Metrologia. 6. Application of statistics – guide for the setting up of the statistical control of processes (1992) AFNOR. C Hagwood. 10. with the aim to minimize the total cost. whose minimization leads to the identification of the optimal cost saving calibration interval.

Techniques of the Engineer R . Davies and Peter L. Tavella.. Cox. “Monitoring the calibration condition of a measuring instrument by a stochastic shock model”. IEEE Trans. London and New York: Longman (1984) Esa Vitikainen “When do we need calibration of equipment used in testing laboratories?” – Nordtest Report 226 (1994) Jean-Luc Vachette. S. HD. Vol. Development and John Mandel. Bobbio. edited by Owen L. Montefusco. International Metrology Congress. 747-751 (1997) DR. London: Chapman and Hall (1965) Carroll Croarkin Measurement Assurance Programs implementation. Science Paperbacks. Measurement and Statistics. A. Miller. “Let’s make sure of the quality of our measurements”. NBS Special Publication 676-II (1984) Part II. Editions d’Organisation (1990) Gérard Brunschwig and Alain Palsky. 4th ed. Lyon (1991) . pp.290 Marc Priel and Christian Ranson. Instr.162 Metrology in Industry A. P. Meas. Goldsmith. 46. Quality Progress (1981) Statistical Methods in Research and Production. “Statistical control of processes (MSP) – Utilization of control charts”. Costamagna. no 4. The Theory of Stochastic Processes. “Continuous improvement of quality”.

the user will then be able to make a decision about: – the acceptance of a product (when measuring its characteristics or performances toward establishing conformity to a specification). – the setting (or adjustment) of a measuring instrument. As a rule. on the results of the measurements. All these decisions work toward the quality of products or services.1. it can be considered that the result of measuring constitutes a piece of technical information which gets passed over to a user. Aware of this information. – the setting of a parameter as part of the control of a manufacturing process (servo-control). – the definition of safety conditions for a product or a system. Chapter written by Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). – the protection of the environment. that is to say. – the validation of a process. Whether the decisions taken are apt and wise directly depends on the quality of the received information.Chapter 7 Measurements and Uncertainties 7. Introduction Measurement results are necessary to make decisions. – the medical diagnosis. – the validation of a hypothesis in the framework of a development. .

2. Uncertainty: a quantitative indication of the quality of a measurement result Together with a measurement result. or – in relation to the reference values stated in a norm or a specification (measurement results are used to prove the product conformity). – an uncertainty.164 Metrology in Industry The quality of a measurement result can be described by its uncertainty. Note: the words “error” and “uncertainty” which stand for two different concepts must be carefully distinguished. 7. . Without the uncertainty. A physical quantity is an observable property specific to an object. the uncertainty makes it possible to provide a quantitative indication about the quality of the result. The quantity to be measured is called the measurand. This piece of information is vital for the users of this result so that they are able to assess its reliability. The systems of observation and comparison and the standard make up the measurement system. Measurement of physical quantity Measuring amounts to attributing a numeric value to an observed property by directly or indirectly comparing it to a standard. Three inextricably connected elements are included in the expression of a physical quantity: – a numerical value. The firm makes its decision on the basis of the information. the measurement results cannot be compared either: – between themselves (values obtained by two laboratories. they must not be confused or interchangeably used. comparison of successive calibration results with a view to the possible modification of a correction). – a unit. a system or a physical state. The mass of a body is characteristic of its inertia. pressure and temperature are characteristic of the thermodynamic state of a gas.

This chapter is based on the concepts and notations written in the 1993 ISO guide. but it is never perfect). “GUM”. This new approach was initiated in 1980 by a working party formed within the context of the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (BIPM). also known under its acronym.Measurements and Uncertainties 165 Uncertainty: a new concept introduced The concept of uncertainty is comparatively new in the history of measurement. For decades it was error that was calculated. It has resulted in the publication of an ISO guide in 1993 entitled “Guide for the expression of measurement uncertainty”. Presentation of the concept of uncertainty The metrologist’s aim is to get a result close to the right value. The GUM is referred to in numerous national norms. there still remains an uncertainty about the value of the stated result (the correction is done as accurately as possible. probability uncertainty error value 1 value 2 value 3 result true value values that could be attributed to the mesurand Figure 7. he will reduce systematic errors by applying corrections and random errors by repeating his measuring process.1. but the fundamental difference between the concepts of error and uncertainty must be clearly defined. . In order to reach this goal. It is now admitted that once all the known or suspected components of the error have been assessed and the adequate corrections have been made.

an inquisitive mind and a sense of analysis. X 2 ) = – combined uncertainty: uc ( y ) – expanded uncertainty: U = kuc ( y ) with k as coverage factor. The cause and effect diagram method Finalizing the mathematical “right model” requires to have minutely analyzed the measurement process in order to identify the possible causes of uncertainty. u(X 1. – standard deviation of X: s (X).166 Metrology in Industry Notations used in the GUM Classical notations of statistics: – variance of X: V(X). X 2 ) – linear correlation coefficient: r ( X 1 . Two methods can be recommended for the analysis of measurement processes: the cause and effect diagram method or the method which consists of using the list published in the GUM. . Analysis of the measurement process To make the analysis of the measurement process correct is most likely the toughest and trickiest task in the assessment of uncertainties. which makes it possible – with some racking of one’s brain and a very good knowledge of the measurement process – to deduce all of the causes. when these quantities are used to express uncertainties the following notations will be written: – variance of X: u 2 ( X ) – standard uncertainty of X: u ( X ) = u 2 ( X ) – covariance of X 1 and X 2 : u ( X 1 . X 2 ) u ( X 1 )× u ( X 2 ) 7. There is a technique called the “cause-effect diagram”. It can only be performed by somebody who perfectly masters the technique of measuring. This analysis demands some technical abilities.1. 7.3.3. It will be noticed that the u symbol found in the notations is the initial letter of the word uncertainty.

2. Cause and effect diagram method Successively.2. g) inexact values of measurement standards and reference materials. hygrometry. 7. the operator and the measured object (measurand) will be analyzed. c) non-representative sampling: the measured sample may not represent the defined measurand. i) approximation and assumption incorporated in the measurement method and procedure. the contribution of the means. e) personal bias in reading analogue instruments.3. j) variations in repeated observations of the measurand under apparently identical conditions. .3. the method of measurement. b) imperfect realization of the definition of the measurand. etc. pressure.Measurements and Uncertainties 167 MEANS METHOD RESULT OF MEASUREMENT MATERIAL MEDIUM MANPOWER Figure 7. d) inadequate knowledge of the effects of environmental conditions on the measurement or imperfect measurement of environmental conditions.).2) The following list (from the GUM) can also be used in order to have as exhaustive a list as possible: a) incomplete definition of the measurand. Using the list published in the GUM (section 3. h) inexact values of constants and other parameters obtained from external sources and used in the data-reduction algorithm. the medium (temperature. f) finite instrument or discrimination threshold.

for this purpose. The measuring system The measuring system is never perfect. When a standard is being established. – a poor definition of the measurand. The unit is conventionally defined by the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM). without totally managing to. pressure.3. but is that sufficient? If the system of observation is accurate and reliable within a micrometer. The error concept is ideal and errors cannot be known. The objective of the metrologist is to declare a result as close as possible to the true value. Let us take a simple example: an observer is asked to measure the length of a 1 meter standard gauge. the best to be done is to reproduce the definition as precisely as possible. It can be sensitive to the environment (effects of temperature. Have we given precise enough details? Definitely not: the temperature at which we wish the result to be expressed has not been mentioned. . we know from the mechanics of continuous environment that its length will depend on the position of the supports. In fact. the primary standard is an imperfect materialization of the definition of the unit it is supposed to represent. So. it is definitely not reliable (since a dispersion of values is observed when observations are repeated).3. If its performances are 100 times higher. even the standards used for its calibration are not exact.168 Metrology in Industry 7. If the gauge rests on supports. because vertically the length of the gauge is shorter than if it is lying horizontally on a plane (it gets smaller under the effect of its own mass). it will probably be sufficient. An imperfect definition of the quantity is itself is a source of errors Simply consider the numerous details it would be necessary to give to obtain an exhaustive definition of the quantity to be measured. the position of the gauge in relation to the direction of the acceleration of the gravity will have to be given. he has to reduce the errors. Two origins for these mistakes are: – the measuring system.). etc. Errors Any measuring operation is inevitably marred by errors.

Note 1: systematic error is equal to the error. Note 2: like true value systematic error and its causes cannot be completely known. minus random error. 2nd edition. . 1933) makes it possible to write the following equation: Result of measurement = true value + error It is always possible to split up the error into a systematic error and a random error. UICPA. Note 2: because only a finite number of measurements can be made. Cutting down errors The terminology defined in the international vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM) (International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms of Metrology.13) A random error is obtained by a measurement minus the mean which would result from an infinite number of measurements of the same measurand carried out under repeatability conditions.Measurements and Uncertainties 169 7. Note 1: the random error is equal to the error minus systematic error. Random error (VIM 3.3. ISO. UIPPA.14) A systematic error is the mean that would result from an infinite number of measurements of the same measurand carried out under repeatability conditions. minus a true value of the measurand. BIPM.4. CEI. Systematic error (VIM 3. it is only possible to determine an estimate of the random error. OIML. FICC.

170 Metrology in Industry Value obtained with an infinite number of repetitions True value Measuring Result systematic error random Figure 7. Random and systematic error The following equation can then be written: Result = true value + random errors + systematic errors The objective of any metrologist is to provide a result close to the true value. entail variations for the repeated observations of the measurand. this error can generally be reduced by making a greater number of observations.3. The effects of such variations.4. hence the need to cut down the errors. Its mathematical expectation or expected value is equal to zero.1. Although it is not possible to compensate the random error of a measurement result. . 7. hereafter called random effects. – systematic errors are cut down by applying corrections. How can these errors be cut down?: – generally random errors are cut down by repeating the measurements and calculating the arithmetic mean of the readings. Cutting down random errors by repeating measurements A random error probably results from unforeseeable or stochastic temporal and spatial variations of influence quantities.3.

A vast knowledge of the measuring process and of the involved physical principles is very often necessary to imagine the factors which may influence the result of the measurement. Let us consider a very simple case: an operator uses a glass liquid dilatation thermometer. The exact value of the error in the mean arising from these effects cannot be known. depth of immersion of a thermoelectric couple. – perturbation of the measured quantity by the presence of the measuring instrument. – bias of the instruments.2. It is instead a measure of the uncertainty of the mean due to random effects.Measurements and Uncertainties 171 Note: the experimental standard deviation of the arithmetic mean or average of a series of observations is not the random error of the mean.). etc. although it is so designated in some publications. – position of the measured object (warped mechanical part. Cutting down systematic errors by applying corrections This is unquestionably the hardest operation for the metrologist because it requires a keen sense of analysis. etc.4. the numeric value of his measurement result is then: y = x + Ce y = 19.3 °C + 0. – etc.3°C.). In practice. (GUM section 3. – error brought in by the measurement procedure.3 °C y = 19. The measuring process is to be scrutinized in order to identify as many causes of errors as possible. many sources of error can slip in: – effect of influence quantities (temperature.2) 7.3°C. The operator takes the temperature of a bath and he reads it as 19.6 °C . – error brought in by the measuring method. then the necessary corrections likely to compensate the assumed errors have to be assessed.2. – faulty correction of a result.3. – error in an algorithm of measuring results processing. He has it calibrated by a laboratory which gives it back with a calibration certificate indicating a correction (appropriate around 20°C) equal to +0. pressure.

The process of putting this measurement procedure into a mathematic form is called the modeling of the measurement process. – Ce is the calibration correction. it will be decided. an uncertainty concerning the value of the corrections. either to attempt to make up for assumed errors or to express the results in standard conditions. In other words. 7.1.4. do not boast. modeling the process means transcribing in a mathematical formula the way the experimenter uses all the . In relation to random-type errors. – corrections to bring the results back to standard conditions: it is customary in some fields of metrology to express the values of the quantities in normalized conditions. Corrections making it possible to compensate for errors will be applied to the identified errors. to make these corrections you have to know the coefficient of sensitivity of the instrument to the different influence quantities.4. This leads to the development of a measurement procedure. but there will remain a doubt. numerous corrections are made. The corrections can be grouped together in three categories: – corrections of calibration: determined by calibration and appearing in calibration certificates. and a number of repetitions will be decided upon.172 Metrology in Industry where: – y is the numeric value of the measurement result. These corrections will be as good as possible. The next paragraph will examine how these different doubts combine. for example. the values of lengths are usually expressed at 20°C. but think of all those forgotten ones. – corrections related to the environment: compensate the effect of influence quantities such as pressure and temperature. Generally. to repeat the observations so as to cut down these errors. Modeling of the measurement process 7. For example. Measurement procedure and model of the measurement process When the process of measurement has been thoroughly analyzed and a certain number of causes of error have been identified. – x is a one reading (or the mean of readings if measurement process has been repeated). in dimensional metrology.

X 2 . and even illusive. X N ) The corrections (or corrective factors) appear among the Xi. It is. useless. it is sometimes useful to write the developed mathematical model. X 2 ..4. X N through the functional relation f. An essential stage for the assessment of uncertainty: modeling the measurement You must be aware that the most critical phase of the evaluation of the uncertainty of a result happens when the mathematical model describing the measurement is being written. See section 7. That is why the stage during which the measurement process is analyzed and as thorough as possible an assessment of the causes of error is made is the key part of the estimation of measurement uncertainties. the model for the process is then: Y = f ( X 1 . the value of a correction read in a calibration certificate. to increase it rashly. Meanwhile the input quantities are made explicit according to that same quantity t in order to avoid the introduction of terms of covariance into the application of the law of propagation of uncertainties later on. you will forget about it when the law of propagation of uncertainties is applied.2 for an example of the application of the realization.Measurements and Uncertainties 173 information at his disposal to calculate the measurement or test result he gets: for example. . the measuring or the assessment of the effects of an influence quantity... When several input quantities X i . If you omit to introduce a correction into the model (even if it is estimated equal to zero. On the other hand. as well as some quantities which take all the other sources of variability into account: the different observers. X j are contributory to a same quantity t. the function must consider all the quantities that significantly contribute to the uncertainty of the final result. due to ignorance)..6. 7.. etc. however. the value of a quantity obtained from a book. in particular. the measurand Y is usually not measured directly... laboratories and times of the measurements. it is determined from N other quantities X 1 . samples.2.... the instruments. Therefore. Optimization of the number of measurements It is often possible to decrease the effect of random errors by increasing the number of repetitions. the function f does not merely refer to a physical law.. a series of readings of the instrument. but to the process of measurement or test.

the result is referred to the arithmetic mean of n observations.4.5.00 2. As you watch the curve of the compound uncertainty you can observe that increasing the number of measurements n does not make the uncertainty drop dramatically. for n > 5 for example. Therefore.00 5. the contribution of each one of the input quantities to the uncertainty of the announced measurement result will have to be assessed. Application: – let us suppose that s = 5 and u = 3. Assessment of the uncertainty of the input quantities When the model of the measurement process has been established. 7. – the curve s / n shows the decrease of the variable part of the uncertainty as a function of n and the curve u = 3 shows the invariable part. Uncertainties .00 1.174 Metrology in Industry It is often possible to express the combined standard uncertainty by an expression such as: uc = s2 + u2 n in which s represents the variance of repeatability of the measurement process and n the number of measurements defined in the measurement procedure. the two components have to be of the same quantity. it can be admitted that in order to optimize the number of observations n.00 6.00 0. the uncertainty is the result of the combination of two terms. – the diagram below illustrates the situation. – let us estimate the optimal number of measurements.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number of repetitions "n" Figure 7. Evolution of the uncertainty as a function of the number of repetitions 7.

a scattering of the measured values is generally observed. 7. If there are enough resources. They are chiefly used to quantify the repeatability uncertainties of the measurement processes. all the components can be estimated with Type A methods. the same instruments and in similar conditions. These different series will enable him to calculate some estimators of the variance of the population: s12 . 2 k . the operator often performs numerous series of measurements (the number of measurements in the series can be different) with the same method.Measurements and Uncertainties 175 In every process of assessment of the measurement uncertainty. Type B methods require experience and technical skills. When a measurement process is repeated while keeping (as well as possible) the same conditions. The estimator of the expectation is given by: x= 1 n ∑ xi n i =1 The estimator of the standard deviation (experimental) is given by: s= 1 n ∑ (xi − x ) n − 1 i=1 As in the past.. With n independent values xi ... The best estimator of the expectation of the population is given by the arithmetic mean of the individual values x.5.1. Type A methods Type A methods are based on the application of statistical methods to a series of repeated determinations. s 2 .. s 2 . if the measurement process has a good enough resolution. the best estimator of the standard deviations is given by the arithmetic mean of the individual values xi . the standard uncertainties u(xi) or the corresponding variances u2(xi) of each one of the components occurring in the combined uncertainty will have to be assessed. the same procedure. Two methods can be used to estimate the numeric value (standard deviation or variance) of each one of the components: Type A method and Type B method.

and on the knowledge of physical phenomena.(n k − 1) which can also be written depending on the number of degrees of freedom υi = n i − 1 : s2 = υ1s12 + υ 2s 2 + . Type B methods are used when you cannot or you do not want to use statistical methods.. + υk sk 2 υ1 + υ 2 + .. a better knowledge of the variance of the total population can be obtained by combining the different estimators (pooled variance): s2 = (n1 − 1)s12 + (n 2 − 1)s 2 + .. then the variance would have been divided by five. uncertainty about the environment corrections. etc. nk). for example: u 2 (x ) = s2 n Note: this method of calculation (pooled variance) enables a better assessment of the variance of repeatability of the measurement process because the estimator bases itself on a significant number of observations.. then u 2 (x ) = s 2 . This highlights the advantage of assessing the repeatability of the measuring process with preliminary tests (implementing the highest number of causes of variability of the measurement process) before starting the operation. + υ k 2 The application of this reasoning makes it possible to calculate the component of repeatability u 2 (x ) . because in this case n = 1... if in his routine measurement process the operator performs only one measurement. .176 Metrology in Industry The number of measurements in each series being (n1..2. + (n k − 1)s 2 2 k (n1 − 1) + (n 2 − 1) + . For example. on some tests. The operator can then use this value to assess the variance of the average of his observations in his usual measurement process..5. If the (routine) measurement procedure had planned five observations.. 7. Type B methods These methods are used to quantify the uncertainties of the different components occurring in the model of the measurement process: uncertainty about the calibration corrections. These Type B methods will be based on the experience of the operators.. n2 .

Example 2: a standard mass is returned after calibration with its calibration certificate which specifies its deviation from the nominal value and a calibration uncertainty expressed as follows: U = 0.006g (k = 2). the equation above can be written: 1 s x = ai2 3 i from which the standard uncertainty of xi can be assessed as u xi = . but this correction (xi) is not completely known. the value of the correction will be estimated by: xi = 1 (aii + ais ) 2 and the estimator of the corresponding variance will be: s x2 = i 1 (aii − ais )2 12 If the difference between the two limits (lower and upper) is noted 2ai. ( ) a . The first column specifies the type of the component. the second the a priori selected distribution law and the third indicates which calculations to make.003g.Measurements and Uncertainties 177 For each one of the Xj occurring in the model describing the measurement process. The following table sums up various practical cases. Example 1: a correction must be made in a measurement process. 3 These calculations correspond to a rectangle distribution. the only information you have is that between two limits (lower (aii) and upper (ais)). ais]. the corresponding standard uncertainties will be “assessed” by using all the available technical information (extent and a priori distribution of possible values). the standard uncertainty about the correction will be very simply assessed by dividing the expanded uncertainty U by the coverage factor k. which means that xi is as likely to take some value or other in the interval [aii .006/2 = 0. that is u(Ce) = 0.

3. Correction not done. the GUM suggests a solution: see sections 6. then u = b / 12 Effect of influence quantities derivative of sine If the variations of the temperature arc varying between two extrema in a are referred to by ± a.2. for a/1. The uncertainty about this correction is assessed. This has nothing to do with assessing uncertainties.1 and F.5. knowing about it.178 Metrology in Industry A priori distribution rectangle rectangle Component Resolution device. you can not talk of drift. of an indicating Calculation method If the resolution is b u = b / 12 If the maximal difference between the indications obtained by increasing and decreasing values is b. you do not do a correction. then u= d 18 Asymmetric components of the type: error of parallelism between the measured object and the standard in dimensional metrology. If the analysis of the results of the successive calibrations reveals a tendency that can be modeled. Nevertheless. but of reproducibility. Hysteresis. If the class is defined by ± a. in rectangle You make an error if. then a correction is made. then u = more or less sinusoidal way. a Type A method is used. or pouring out the contents of a phial in chemistry (the quantity poured out is always smaller than the contents of the phial). If the process is under statistical control. Example of Type B evaluation of uncertainty . right-angled triangle Instrument verified and conformity with a class. If the basis of the right-angled triangle is equal to d. for example by a regression technique.1. the temperature of premises whose temperature is regulated. then u =u=a/ 3 Table 7. Drift of a measuring instrument.4 example. If the examination of the results of the successive calibrations does not show any tendency.4.

2. Table 7. techniques of assessment of statistical parameters. Use of statistical methods. Type B methods Results of previous measurements-makers’ data. The expression “systematic uncertainty” must not be used. then he calculates the mean of the values and their standard deviation (Type A method). a Type B method based on long experience is preferable to a repetition of observations that would not implement all the causes of variability. if. or he consults the characteristics of the air-conditioning system. Comparing the Type A and Type B methods The following table compares Type A methods and Type B methods. Note: the classification in A or B types applied to uncertainty is not a substitute for the word “random” or “systematic”. – the assessment of the limits of the variation of Xi (the extension of Xi). Type A methods require resources to perform experimental tasks. for example. Type B methods require some experience and scientific knowledge. Assessment of a standard deviation from an extension and the choice of a form of distribution. . the system is set for a prescribed temperature of 20°C ± 2°C. series of measurements. the norm ISO 5725: “Accuracy of results and measurement methods” is put into practice. when you have little experience. repetitions make it possible to get closer to the uncertainty. Comparison of the Type A and Type B methods To conclude.Measurements and Uncertainties 179 In summary. Type A methods Experimental results. Conversely. an example will be found in which the uncertainty is assessed by only using Type A methods. data obtained from calibration certificates or books. the Type B methods are based on: – the choice of a form of the distribution of Xi.5. Example: alternative use of the Type A or Type B methods: an operator wants to study the effect on his measurement process of the influence quantity “temperature”. formerly used to classify the uncertainties.7. In section 7. He has two options: either he measures the temperature at regular intervals.3. too great a stress should not be put on the differences between these two approaches. all he will have to do is divide the half range (2°C) by root of 2 to assess the standard deviation (Type B method). 7.

..6. uc(y).1. x j ) ⎢ ⎥ u (xi ) + 2 i =1 J =i +1 ⎣ ∂xi ⎦ 2 ∑∑ The law of propagation of uncertainty.180 Metrology in Industry 7. For example. the law of propagation of uncertainty can then be used to calculate the combined uncertainty on the measurement result..6.... Situation when the input quantities are independent and the model is a sum y = x1 + x2 + . introducing the coefficients of sensitivity c i : 2 uc ( y ) = ∑ ci2 u 2 (xi ) i =1 7. + u 2 (xN ) . which in its general application may seem a bit complex. + x N then: uc2 ( y ) = u 2 (x1 ) + u 2 (x2 ) + . if in the mathematical model the temperature is mentioned as an influence quantity..6.1. Note: it will be noticed that the partial derivatives represent the “coefficients of sensitivity of the result” to the different input quantities. Calculating the combined uncertainty on the result Once the model has been worked out and the standard uncertainties of the input quantities of the model have been assessed. then the corresponding partial derivative may represent the coefficient of temperature of the measuring instrument. The law of propagation of uncertainty makes it possible to calculate the “combined” uncertainty of y.1. 7.. Situation when all the input quantities are independent In this case the terms of covariance are zero and the law of propagation is more simply written: 2 uc ( y ) = ∑ N ⎡ ∂f ⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ u (xi ) ∂x i =1 ⎣ i ⎦ N 2 or. or rather its variance uc2 ( y ) : u (y) = 2 c ∑ i =1 N N −1 N ⎡ ∂f ⎤ 2 u (xi . does in many cases get simpler.

. Q2 . Assessment of the covariances by calculating the terms of covariance In a case where you have two connected input quantities X i and X j ...1. if the variance associated with the estimation q k of Qk is noted u 2 (qk ) .. -1. j − xi )(x j. three methods of assessment are possible: 7. It is also possible.. QL ) some of the variables possibly only appearing in one or the other function. Q2 .. but this requires much experience.k − x j ) k =1 n 7..2. to evaluate r. x j ) can be assessed. x j )× u (xi )× u (x j ) A practical solution will consist of varying r for the extreme values. x j ) You can write: u (xi ..QL ) and X j = G (Q1 . the relative variance of the result Y is the sum of the relative standard uncertainties for the different input quantities xi of the model: 2 uc ( y ) y 2 = u 2 (x1 ) 2 x1 + u 2 ( x2 ) 2 x2 + . The covariance u (xi . through reasoning based on physics.3..6. × x N This type of model is frequently seen in chemistry. Situation when the model is a product y = x1 × x2 × . x j ) = r (xi . and watching the values of the uncertainties on y and for safety’s and caution’s sake keep the utmost value of the uncertainty.. the terms of covariance are expressed by u xi . x j = s xi . x j = ( ) 1 n(n − 1) ∑ (xi. 0. +1.. 7.. assessed by their means X 1 et X 2 .2. + u 2 (x N ) 2 xN 7. x j with: ( ) ( ) s xi ... then the covariance can be calculated by the following expression: u xi . determined from n independent pairs of repeated simultaneous observations. In such a way as X i = F (Q1.2. Assessment of the covariances by assessing a coefficient of correlation r(xi.. Q2 .6. Situation when the input quantities are dependent In this case the terms of covariance will not be zero any more... In this case.QL .6....2.6.2.1... Assessment of the covariances by considering the terms common to two input quantities Suppose two input quantities X 1 and X 2 assessed by x1 and x2 are dependent on a set of unconnected variables Q1 .6. x j = ( ∂F ∂G ) ∑ ∂q ∂q u 2 (qk ) k k k =1 L ...Measurements and Uncertainties 181 7.2.

.182 Metrology in Industry See the GUM section F. The example below uses this expression of the covariance to calculate the uncertainty about the sum of the two masses. the common term comes from using the same standard. you get an equation in which there are no more terms of covariance: Of course the same result will be obtained if you consider that 2u ( A. it can be randomly developed. it avoids introducing covariance terms. see the GUM sections 5.7. you should include terms 2 of a higher order in Taylor’s development for the expression of u c ( y ). This term comes from the fact that A and B have been calibrated in relation to the same standard E: 2 uc ( y ) = u 2 ( A) + u 2 (B ) + 2u ( A. The way the model is written may lead to simplifications when the law of propagation of the uncertainty is applied.1. If you apply the law of propagation of uncertainty directly. Experience teaches us that it is advisable to develop written models.1.2. it will be noticed that the covariance of A and B is the variance of their common terms.3. To conclude. you get the following equation in which there is a term of covariance.2. The fact is that if different input quantities are dependent on another quantity. Let us take the following example: two masses A and B. B ) = 2u 2 (E ) (see GUM section F1. whose nominal value is 50 g. Then. and x2 the result of the comparison of the mass B to the standard E. Making clear their relations with the third quantity when writing the model makes it possible to avoid introducing terms of covariance. B ) If you take the precaution to simplify the model it can be written as follows: y = E + x1 + E + x2 If then you apply the law of propagation of uncertainties. What is common to A and B is the standard E. these quantities are connected. When you write a model describing a measurement process. are compared to a same standard E. 2 uc ( y ) = u 2 (E ) + u 2 (x1 ) + u 2 (E ) + u 2 (x2 ) Note: when the non-linearity of f becomes significant.2 and H.1. it is better to use a developed written model of processes. A and B are used together to make a 100 g standard: what is the uncertainty on the 100 g mass thus obtained y = A + B? The mathematical model can be written as follows: A = E + x1 B = E + x2 y=A+B in which x is the result of the comparison of the mass A to the standard E.3).

Use of the performances of the method (repeatability and freedom of bias) to assess the uncertainty of the measurement result The method developed in this section constitutes a means which supplements the procedure of the GUM (see Chapter 8) when you do not know how to. the conditions in which the test method is implemented are vital and must be perfectly controlled. There are numerous situations for which the method for obtaining the result is complex enough to make it impossible to model it. where independent tests results are obtained with the same method on identical test items in the same laboratory by the same operator using the same equipment within a short period of time.021: Assistance to the process of assessment and use of the uncertainty of measurements and test results (1999). reproducibility and trueness estimates in measurement uncertainty estimation”. write or use the mathematical model to describe the measurement process. they are the subject of the ISO TS 21748 publication “Guide to the use of repeatability.Measurements and Uncertainties 183 7.7. The quality of a test method is judged by its accuracy (see ISO 5725): – trueness of agreement between the average value obtained from a large series of test results and an accepted reference value. The method is described in the fascicule of documentation AFNOR X 07 . You are always situated between two extremes: – repeatability (r): precision under repeatability conditions. Precision corresponds to a characteristic which quantifies a performance of a method. This method is based on the idea that information can be drawn from the results of interlaboratory tests or intra-laboratory tests to assess the uncertainty. – precision of agreement between independent test results obtained under the stipulated conditions. In order to ensure a reproducibility of the results. it means that a method is appropriate to supply test results which are very close to each other when the same product is tested several times with the respect of the test conditions defined by the method. . The publication “Guidelines on the expression of uncertainty in quantitative testing – EA 4/16” also develops this approach for the domain of testing activities. or you do not want to. This idea has been taken up at the ISO level by the “statistical methods” 69 Technical Committee. This situation is particularly found in some test processes.

previous experience and validation data (section 5. The ISO/CEI 17025 norm provides that the validation data can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of the measurement result: Reasonable estimation shall be based on knowledge of the performance of the method and on measurement scope and shall make use of. repeatability and/or reproducibility. for example. The collective approach is the richest in information since the sources of variability of the result are more numerous: different laboratories.4. linearity. Those readers who might find it difficult to connect this with the traditional application of the GUM can imagine a “Type A super method”. it will be necessary to make sure that the largest number of causes of variability can be expressed during repeated tests so that the dispersion of the results is representative of the uncertainty. one is an intra-laboratory approach: the characteristics will be determined exclusively by tasks done within the framework of a laboratory. A collective approach (called interlaboratory) can also be conducive to the evaluation of the characteristics of the method. In an intra-laboratory approach.) can also contain some interesting information to assess the uncertainty. In general. The branch entitled “analytical process” represents the classical approach developed in the preceding sections and . etc. but not all are useful for assessing the uncertainty.184 Metrology in Industry – reproducibility (R): precision under reproducibility conditions where test results are obtained with the same method on identical tests items in different laboratories with different operators using different equipment. robustness. different equipment and personnel.. etc. the robustness of the linearity and the freedom of bias are sufficient to assess the uncertainty of the result.7. 7. Figure 7.g.1. The most quoted characteristics which quantify the performances of the method are “detection limit. robustness against external influence. knowing the repeatability. which alters all the identified factors as having an effect on the measurement result. All these characteristics matter when making sure that a method is capable of meeting the needs of the customer of the test.5 illustrates the possible different approaches by repositioning the procedure of the GUM described in Chapter 8. selectivity of the method. Other characteristics of the method (e.2). the reproducibility.or interlaboratory approaches Several approaches are possible to assess the characteristics of a method. linearity. etc.6. Intra.”.

This model can be written as: y = m +C Jus +C Lin + ∑c x + e i i i where: y = result of the measurement.g.2. Definition of the Definition measurand. C Jus = correction of freedom of bias of the method. m = true value. ∑ ci xi = corrective terms for robustness. Diagram of the different possible approaches for the evaluation of the uncertainty 7. the operator. repetitions. there is still a statistical model for the data processing.uncertainty on the bias uncertainty on the bias Use of values already published Published + Uncertainty on the bias on the bias and factors not taken into account during interlaboratory study Variability + Uncertainty on the bias not taken and factors not taken into account during interlaboratory intelaboratory study Figure 7. factors e. List of uncertainty components Intra-laboratory Intra laboratory approach interlaboratory Inter laboratory approach Yes Analytical method Physical model ? model? Including correction No Statistical model Proficiency testing Proficiency testing Evaluation Evaluation of standard uncertainties of standard. validation method validation method Method accuracy ISO 5725 Iso 5725 ISO guide 43 Iso guide 43 + Iso/Dis 13528 ISO/Dis 13528 Use of propagation law of uncertainty GUM Adding othersuncertainty Adding other uncertainty factors e. this channel can be activated either by an intra-laboratory approach or by an interlaboratory approach.uncertainties Organization of Organisation of repetitions.g. C Lin = correction of linearity.7. Intra-laboratory approach Although there is no physical model that describes the measurement process. sampling. . time. i e = residual error (repeatability). Measuran .Measurements and Uncertainties 185 summarized in Chapter 8.5. The other branches present the channel “use of the method’s validation data”.

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The law of propagation of variances is then applied to this statistical model to assess the variance on the final result y:

u 2 ( y ) = u 2 (cJus ) + u 2 (cLin ) +

∑ c u (x ) + S
2 2 i i

2 r

The methods of evaluation of the different components will be presented in section 7.7.4 below.

7.7.3. Interlaboratory approach

Just as a statistical model has been established for the intra-laboratory approach, the same thing can be done for the interlaboratory approach with:

y = m +δ + B +

∑c x + e
i i i

where: y = measurement result; m = true value;

δ

= freedom of bias of the method;

B = laboratory effect;

ci xi = corrective terms for not included effects at time of interlaboratory tests;
e = residual error (repeatability). The variance of reproducibility is the sum of the variance of repeatability and the intra-laboratory variance:
2 2 S R = S L + S r2

and the variance of the result will be noted:
2 u 2 ( y ) = u 2 (δ ) + S R +

∑ c u (x )
2 2 i i

The methods of assessment of the different components of the uncertainty of the result y will be presented in the next section.

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187

7.7.4. Data processing for intra- and interlaboratory approaches

7.7.4.1. Assessment of the repeatability and the reproducibility The processing methods, whether for an intra-laboratory approach or an interlaboratory approach, will be similar for assessing the repeatability and the reproducibility. If you plan a test (for a level of the quantity) you should use a table in the following form:
Laboratories Measurements Position dispersion

1 : : i : : : p

y1 y11..........y1n1 y1 yi1..........yin1

s1

si

yp yp1..........ypnp

sp

If the approach is intra-laboratory, the experiments will not be repeated in different laboratories, they will be repeated in the same laboratory. Two statistical tests (Grubbs and Cochran tests) will then be used (homogeneity test and elimination of ouliers). After checking the validity of the data, the average level will be calculated; it is the arithmetic mean of the different values:

y=

∑y
i =1

p

i

p

then the standard deviation of repeatability sr:

sr =

∑s
i =1

p

i

p

and the standard deviation of reproducibility sR:
sR =

1 p −1

∑ (y − y )
p i i =1

2

+

n −1 2 sr n

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If the laboratory has applied the test method correctly and the obtained results could have been partly used in the interlaboratory test, it may first be satisfied when its uncertainty can related to the reproducibility as follows:
uc ( y ) = s R

This statement is not quite correct, because if you adopt this solution, you actually modify the definition of the measurand; you are no longer concerned by the value announced by a laboratory, but by the average value resulting from the tests of all the laboratories. Considering that the standard uncertainty is equal to the standard deviation of reproducibility may lead to overestimating the uncertainty, which is being cautious, but it entails drawbacks, namely a standardization of uncertainty. This practice may conceal real differences of quality between different laboratories. It is preferable to give an attention to the intermediate repeatability. 7.7.4.2. Assessment of the freedom of bias (trueness) References must be available to be able to assess accuracy. Reference values may come from certified reference materials, values obtained from a reference method, values from an interlaboratory aptitude test, but you have to check that the reference value is traceable to the International Units System (SI). Corrections of bias are seldom applied in some fields (e.g., analytical chemistry); it is customary to improve the accuracy of the method until it is acceptable. This procedure is developed in chemical analysis; you have to be able to decide whether the bias is acceptable and the following test can be used. To calculate the normalized error En, if this quantity is lower than 2 the deviation from the reference is regarded as negligible: EN = xi − xRe f
2 ui2 + uRe f

However, even if the deviation is not significant, the uncertainty of the reference will come into this process and at least it will be necessary to consider that the uncertainty due to the bias is equal to the uncertainty about the reference used:
2 u 2 (CJus ) = uRe f

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189

7.7.4.3. Evaluation of the linearity To evaluate the linearity on the studied domain of measurement, n measurements are to be repeated at k levels of the quantity, then the calibration line will be estimated by the method of least squares. The deviations from the line are calculated (deviation between the value experimentally obtained and the value obtained by the model); these deviations are then tested by comparing them to the repeatability to determine whether they are significant. The following equation can be used as an uncertainty component related to the lack of linearity. In this equation, the maximal residual constitutes the largest deviation between the experimental points y and the modeled points y, by the calibration curve drawn by the method of the least squares:
U (C Lin ) = Residual Max 3

7.7.4.4. The terms


i

ci u 2 (xi )

The reader has noticed that the terms of this type appear in the intra- or interlaboratory approach. They represent all the contributions to the uncertainty of the result which it has not been possible to implement, or that were not used when the tests were being repeated. For further details, see the norm ISO TS 21748.

7.8. Reporting of the measurement result

Applying the law of propagation of uncertainties makes it possible to assess a combined standard uncertainty uc ( y ) . For diverse reasons, the expanded uncertainty U has to be written as:
U = kuc ( y )

in which k is the extending factor. The value of the extending factor k is chosen according to the level of confidence requested for the interval y - U, y + U; generally k = 2 or 3. Choosing k = 2 is the same as considering an interval with a confidence level of approximately 95%. The numerical values of the estimation Y and its standard uncertainty u (y) or U must not be given with an excessive number of digits. Two significant digits are usually enough for the standard uncertainty and the expanded uncertainty: Y=y±U

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As for the numerical value of the result, the last figure to retain is the one which holds the same position as the second significant figure in the expression of the uncertainty. The estimate of the measurand has to be rounded according to its uncertainty: for example, if y = 10.057 62 Ω with u c (y ) = 27 m, u c (y ) has to be rounded up to 10.058 Ω.
7.9. Example

Calibration of a mass: nominal value 10 kg (from an example published in the EAL R2 document, supplement 1) The calibration of an OIML M1 class, 10 kg nominal value mass is carried out comparatively to an OIML F2 class reference mass with the same nominal value by using a mass comparator whose characteristics have been determined beforehand. E1: Analysis of the measurement process The analysis of the measurement process shows the following causes of error: – value of the standard mass; – drift of the standard (durability of the standard); – repeatability of the comparator; – effect of the off-centering of the mass on the pan of the comparator; – thrust from the air. E2: Measurement procedure In order to eliminate the phenomenon of drift during the weighing process, a method of substitution called Standard Mass Mass Standard (SMMS) will be used: the standard, then the unknown mass, then the mass again, and finally the standard are placed on the pan of the comparator. In order to reduce random errors, the weighing process is repeated three times. E3: Mathematical model of the measuring process
mx = ms + δmD + δm + δmc + δB

where:
m x : value of the unknown mass (conventional mass); ms : value of the standard mass (conventional mass);

δmD : drift of the standard mass since the last calibration;

its value is considered equal to zero with variations of ± 15 mg. the value of the corresponding standard uncertainty is: u (δmD ) = 15 3 = 8.77 mg – Thrust of the air ( δB ): no correction is applied to make up for the effects of the air thrust. the corresponding standard uncertainty is: u (δmc ) = 10 3 = 5. but it is considered that these effects result in a maximal variation of the indications of the comparator of ± 10 mg. 45 = 22. δmc ): a previous evaluation of the repeatability of comparison of two masses having the same nominal value of 10 kg has resulted in a variance (accumulated. – Correlations: a survey of the different input quantities of the model does not show any correlations.000. the value of the standard uncertainty is u (m s ) = 2 – Drift of the standard ( δmD ): the drift of the value of the standard mass is inferred from previous calibrations. Therefore.2) of 625 mg2. if a rectangular distribution is surmised. If a rectangular distribution is surmised. The limits of the possible variations are estimated to be at most ± 1 x 10-6.5 mg. E5: Making the measurements Three observations of the difference between the value of the unknown mass and that of the standard mass are made by using a substitution method whose sequence is SMMS. E4: Estimation of the standard uncertainties on the input quantities of the model – Reference standard ( ms ): the calibration certificate indicates the value of 10.Measurements and Uncertainties 191 δm : difference observed between the unknown mass and the standard.5. δmc : correction to make up for the error due to the off-centering of the mass. see section 7. δB : correction of thrust from the air. . No correction is applied to make up for the variations due to the off-centering of the masses on the pan.66 mg – Comparator ( δm .005 g with an expanded uncertainty of 45 mg (extending factor k = 2).

02 g The arithmetic mean is δm = 0.040 g +0.4 mg 5.77 mg 29.015 g +0.025 g +0.192 Metrology in Industry Differences observed Series no. see section 7.5 mg 8.025 g +0. the standard uncertainty on the mean of the three measurements is u (δm ) = s(δm ) = 25 mg = 14.0 1.4 mg .3 mg .020 g 0.0 1.1) is s p (δm ) = 25 mg . Mass Readings 1 2 3 Standard Unknown Unknown Standard Standard Unknown Unknown Standard Standard Unknown Unknown Standard +0.005 g 0.5. application of the law of propagation of uncertainty The mathematical model of the measurement process is written: mx = ms + δmD + δm + δmc + δB The law of propagation makes it possible to calculate the variance on the value of the unknown mass: uc2 (mx ) = u 2 (ms ) + u 2 (δmD ) + u 2 (δm ) + u 2 (δmc ) + u 2 (δB ) – Synthesis table Quantity Estimator Standard Probability distribution Sensitivity uncertainty Contribution to uncertainty Xi xi 10.77 mg 5.01 g +0.025 g u (x i ) 22.020 g +0.000 g 0.045 g +0.95 mg 14.000.025 g +0.03 g +0. 3 E6: Calculation of the combined uncertainty.020 g .020 g +0.5 mg 8.020 g +0.000 g 0.The estimator of the standard deviation of repeatability of the weighings (estimated by an accumulated standard deviation of tests carried out earlier.77 mg Ci 1.77 mg 5.4 mg 5.000.055 g +0.0 ui (y ) ms δmD δm δmc δB mx normal rectangle normal rectangle rectangle 22.0 1.95 mg 14.000 g 10.010 g +0.050 g +0.0 1. Thus.

SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute Quantifying uncertainty in analytical measurement EURACHEM/CITAC Guide CG4. “Guideline for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results”. “A beginner’s guide to uncertainty of measurement”. 1 Expression of the uncertainty of measurement in calibration. Measurement good practice guide No 11 (1999) National Physical Laboratory. ISO/TS 21748 The expression of uncertainty and confidence in measurement. NAMAS M 3003 Barry N Taylor and Chris E Kuyatt.000.021 (1999) Guide to the use of repeatability. Measurement uncertainty leaflet (SP INFO 2000 27 uncertainty pdf).3 mg ≅ 59 mg Final result The fiducial value of the 10 kg nominal value mass is: 10. 7. Teddington. this comes from the fact that the mathematical model of the measurement process is a sum.Measurements and Uncertainties 193 It will be noticed in this table that the sensitivity coefficients (partial derivatives) are equal to 1. AFNOR X 07 . Introducing the concept of uncertainty of measurement in testing in association with the application of the standard ISO/IEC 17025 . 1994 edition Stephanie Bell. reproducibility and trueness estimates in measurement uncertainty estimation. UK Magnus Holmgren et al. 1/2002 June 2002 Measurement uncertainty in testing ILAC – 17: 2002. QUAM: 2000.10.4/02 (December 1999) EA Guidelines on the expression of uncertainty in quantitative testing – EA-4/16 Eurolab technical report no. EAL . NIST Technical Note 1297. 2nd ed. ISO 5725 Metrology and application of statistics – help for the process for the estimation and the use of measurement and test results uncertainty.3 mg ≅ 59 mg U = k × u (mx ) = 2 × 29. Bibliography Norms and general documents Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement ISO (1993) Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. E7: Expression of the final result and its uncertainty Expanded uncertainty: U = k × u (mx ) = 2 × 29.025 kg ± 59 mg (k=2).

Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) ISBN 0-7503-0840-0 . Collège Français de Métrologie. (1999) Christophe Perruchet. Estimer l'incertitude – Mesures Essais (Assessing uncertainty – Measurement and tests). Afnor (2000) ISBN 2-12-460703-0 Ignacio Lira. Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty: Fundamentals and Practical Guidance. Marc Priel.194 Metrology in Industry Books Twenty-seven Examples of Evaluation of Calibration Uncertainty.

it is essential to make a few general points: – depending on the expected accuracy.” The result of a measurement is the conclusion of a process which is comprised of: – the implementation of a method. Chapter written by Jean-Yves ARRIAT – Ascent Consulting. All these elements have an influence on the result. the measurement procedures. As in any field. – so as to make sure of the quality of the measurement results. – a measurement procedure. Thus. it is important to ensure the suitability of both the manpower and the function.). the qualification of the operators has to be checked and ascertained. – the utilization of measuring equipment. – the intervention of operators. and Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). the place where the instrument is used is analyzed in order to reveal any possible significant interactions. etc. – it can be difficult to guarantee the quality of these activities without a good document which describes. .Chapter 8 The Environment of Measuring This chapter might be summed up as: – “It is not because a measuring instrument is new that it is good. – a physical environment (temperature.” – “It is not enough to use good equipment to make good measurements. among other items.

emanation of alcohol or chlorine. the user determines these limits depending on the uncertainty on the measurement results that is sought. These environmental conditions are of differing natures. according to us. – to define appropriate instructions to ensure that the premises are kept clean. depending on the measurements required they can be: – the average temperature and its variations as a function of time and space. fitted out so as to prevent damage to or premature deterioration of the equipment. 8. For equipment which requires periodical maintenance.196 Metrology in Industry These are. – to define the procedures for the reception and the dispatch of the material (when instruments are sent away for maintenance or calibration). there are a certain number of processes: – to define safe storing areas. The premises In order to successfully carry out the operations of measurement. calibration or verification. – the radioelectric disruptions. – the quality of the air. It may sometimes happen that the cleansing products are not compatible with the measuring premises (for example. for example). – the atmospheric pressure. as well as of storing the instruments when they are not used. – the shocks and the vibrations. These main parameters cannot be completely controlled and kept independent from the outside environment. if particular conditions of hygiene and cleanliness are required and specified for the measurement procedures. – the relative humidity of the ambient air.1. – the various fluctuations related to the supplies (power. etc.). . the cleaning and maintenance must be thorough. the main points that should be taken into account and are what we define as the “environment of measuring”. some instructions must indicate how to deal with this maintenance. Thus. – to know and control the environmental conditions as well as the influence quantities which should be taken into consideration.). – to define appropriate instructions about maintenance and protection (against corrosion. the dust and the drafts. It is advisable to record the evolution of these parameters over time. etc. so they will have to be maintained within certain limits (defined in accordance with contractual demands). fluids.

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It will be necessary in some firms to reserve a place specifically for calibrating and verifying the measuring equipment. For more information about the creation of a calibration laboratory, see the bibliography in section 8.4. The requirements about premises depend on: – the physical parameters (for example, thick lead walls and remote controls are necessary for the measurements of ionizing radiations); – the uncertainties (for example, in the national metrology laboratories, the calibrations of gauge blocks are taken with interferometers whose temperature is known within a few hundredths of a degree Celsius; for the measurements of components with margins of a few hundredths of a millimeter, variations of a few degrees in the workshop will be acceptable). Based on our experience, we would suggest that: – north-facing exposures are preferable; – an indoor curtain insulates from the light and an outdoor curtain insulates from the sun so that the room cannot become warmer; – personnel and equipment require sufficient space so that two operations do not influence each other; – external disruptive activities should be avoided (arc-welding instruments for stamping press, etc.); – electric wiring should be up to the norms with an earth plug adapted to instruments of measurements; – smoking should not be allowed. We will now take a closer look at some of the parameters. We suggest that the reader carefully note each one of them. If the reader thinks that some of the parameters do not concern him, he will be wrong. By way of example, the remarks about electric measurements concern most laboratories as there are electronic devices which can be sensitive to radioelectric disturbances in all measuring instruments instruments.

8.1.1. Ambient temperature This is not subjected to any particular requirement (except, of course, contractual requirements). Nevertheless, the engineering industries work at around 20°C ±2°C and 65% RH ±10% HR, complying with the recommendations of the international ISO no. 1 standard which sets the reference ambient temperature at 20°C. Electricians prefer to use the value 23°C ±1°C and 50 % RH ±10% RH as reference temperature, which complies with the criteria of the ANSI D 2865 and D 3865.

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Recently, attempts have been made to standardize the reference temperatures (a change from 20°C to 23°C for various reasons: comfort of the operators, standardization in firms with mechanical and electronic activities, and also decreasing costs of air conditioning in tropical countries). As a change in reference temperature would result in a large number of changes in many companies (new plans, checking tools, etc.), as well as in costs of such changes, it has been decided to maintain the status quo. In many cases, keeping the temperature at about 2 to 3°C will be satisfactory. Depending on what uncertainties are sought, a fluctuation of 0.4°C to 0.6°C will also be satisfactory. We would like to emphasize the approach a firm should adopt: the specifications on the conditions of temperature have to be established according to the margins on the manufactured items, the uncertainties of measurement required to master the manufacturing processes and the uncertainties of measurement which establish the conformity of the manufactured products. It is one of the firm’s responsibilities to check their implementation. We would draw the reader’s attention to a very important point: the cost of installation. You may wish to have a very hi-tech installation to make life easier, but you must also have the means to ensure its maintenance; it is not enough to have the funds to buy it, you also have to keep it functioning over time. In metrology, good working organization and an ability to meet deadlines and under pressure are usually the required qualities.

8.1.2. Relative humidity Regarding causes of error, in practically all the fields of measurement, relative humidity (RH%) has comparatively little influence. It can nevertheless generate the following problems: – too low a rate of RH% causes discomfort to the personnel who have to remain on the premises; – big or sudden variations in time between the place of use and the place of calibration can generate abnormal drifts at the level of the supports of the standards of resistor – or capacitor – standards; – if the RH% value is too high, it can cause damage to the measuring equipment due to oxidation of the contacts, variation of the insulation resistance, corrosion, etc. Too high an RH% must be subjected to a measurement procedure when the laboratory is situated in an area where the humidity rate is high. A stocking time

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must be determined before the instrument is plugged in, in order to avoid harmful condensations; likewise, when the equipment is temporarily stored after calibration, means have to be found to make it possible to control the environmental conditions as well as possible.

8.1.3. Handling of the air conditioning systems Particular attention must be given to the handling and the maintenance of air conditioning systems; in some metrology laboratories, temperature is one of the essential components in the budget of uncertainty. It could be considered that air conditioning should be looked upon as a measuring instrument and be as well looked after. Technical files with the recordings about all the maintenance operations and adjustments, and charts of the temperature readings should be kept.

8.1.4. Power network The fluctuations of the voltage of power supply may affect the performances of the electrical measuring equipment. The variations of the effective voltage may appear in two ways: – slow variations of voltage, which are generally attenuated by the equipment itself; – rapid variations of voltage, which require an external adjustment. It may be useful to dispose of several power supplies, when it is justified by the activity of the laboratory, i.e.: – a general circuit (lighting, air conditioning, various equipment); – a voltage – regulated and filtered measurement – circuit; – an emergency circuit: supply of the reference standards which need to be working permanently, e.g. the battery cases and, to a lesser extent, the thermostatcontrolled baths where the standard resistances are kept.

8.1.5. Radioelectric disturbances One should consider taking certain precautions in order to protect the measuring equipment from the influence of these disturbances, especially in those laboratories that are close to a strong source of radioelectric disturbance (radiodiffusion transmitter, etc).

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The “electrical earth” or “grounding” must be the object of the precautions; it is sometimes useful to have one earth specifically connected to calibration equipment. The safety regulations require that the personnel must not be able to access to two different earths. Thus, precautions should be taken at the time of the implementation when the equipment is installed to ensure the security of the operators. In some geographical areas, or when carrying out some measurements, it is necessary to protect oneself against the radiation that is emitted. Consequently, a Faraday cage should be available, or all the laboratory, or part of it, should be screened. 8.1.6. Measurements on-site In many cases, the firm must calibrate the measuring equipment on-site where they are used, either because the instruments cannot be transported or because once they are installed they are not easily dismantled. The calibration equipment used has to be specifically developed for that use (robustness, container for the transportation, autonomy, etc.). The factors that influence the different environmental parameters likely to be found on the site have to be assessed. A specific procedure for the assessment of the uncertainty should be prepared. It should, in particular, take into account the “sensitivity coefficients” of the instruments to the different influence quantities (see Chapter 7). 8.2. The personnel 8.2.1. The connection to the metrology function It is necessary to secure independence for the metrology function; it is often connected to the quality manager. When it is connected to quality, this type of organization provides the metrology function with: – the authority it needs to do its work; – the independence from the other services which makes it possible to avoid the pressures (in particular, from production) that might influence the judgment and the work of the personnel concerned. Assuming that its metrology function does not automatically result in a company creating a laboratory equipped with expensive material, the company can simply obtain a few references such as boxes of gauge blocks, of smooth rings, of reference temperature gauges, etc. These references will then be used to check such measuring means as calipers, micrometer screws, air-conditioned chambers, etc.

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The metrology function can subcontract out of the firm all or part of its activities, or delegate some to other sectors of the firm (especially if it is an industrial firm) but the person in charge of the metrology service remains responsible for the metrology function and continues to manage it.

8.2.2. Staff involved in the metrology function Metrologists must have the technical competence required to do their job. Their job is precisely defined. The person responsible for the service ensures that the qualification and experience of the personnel is maintained at an appropriate level through continuing education. There are different ways to achieve this: – the circulation of scientific and technical journals; – information and training meetings; – the participation in the work of vocational groups; – training courses, etc. The basic need for technical knowledge must not ignore certain useful human qualities such as precision, which is not the least of them. Training-activity records should be permanently available, and should include, among other pieces of information, the results of the activities. The training gets started according to pre-established schedules; it should disturb the metrology activities as little as possible. The metrology function also often takes the role of adviser about the choice of measuring instrument and it participates in the training of the personnel who use the equipment. Therefore, it should be aware of the need for information and should inform the other people in the firm about the existence of courses that are in their fields of activity, or likely to interest them. The metrology function puts them in touch with different working entities which can answer their queries as far as possible. Inexperienced or temporary personnel can undertake measuring operations, but only if this does not entail any risk of prejudice to the quality of the measurements. Such personnel should not be left on their own and there should be more experienced personnel than inexperienced personnel.

They make up the firm’s “reference system”. measurement procedures. The documentation 8. Even if there were no formal requirement to do so.3.3.1.1. with metrology.3. See Chapter 12 for further information about the metrological profession. 8. procedures. if it has created any. – the firm’s internal norms. guidebooks. consequently.). clients. – the technical documents (directions. etc. Documents dealing with the quality system These documents. which are reference documents. . the operator has to demonstrate his skill and it should be approved. their training makes it possible to ensure that: – their abilities are appropriate to the needs of the firm. – there are faster and safer initiatives and decision-making. etc. – the internal documents (programs. define the criteria that the firm (or the laboratory) has set up to deal with quality and.2. precise and methodical when dealing with them. The fact is that for delicate operations. it can be obtained through organizations approved by the state authorities. The qualification of the personnel Some regulated activities require a certification. – the abilities evolve and adapt to the technology and to the requirements of the markets.202 Metrology in Industry 8. instructions. Records of all training and qualifications are indispensable.3. it would seem sensible to adapt the knowledge of the personnel to the demands of the activities they undertake. Different notions have to be taken into account regarding these documents: – the national and international norms. etc. 8. The personnel are the motor of the firm.1.) from outside the firm (suppliers. There are two categories of documents.). Training structures for and qualification of the operators make it possible to define the types of measurement or calibration the personnel are able to undertake. it is important to be well-organized. Filing of the documents Given the number of documents that exist in a firm in relation to the metrology function and their diversity.

this has to be done with clarity and must be ambiguous. and remember to make the documents reader-friendly. or if corrections have to be made in. Every document must be dated. clearly. Records regarding quality This second category (the documents concerning measurements) makes it possible to preserve the primary results of the measurements so as to be able to repeat all the investigations that might be needed in the future. Presentation must be given special attention and care. If anything has to be added to. 8. it creates an awareness of responsibility for any metrological action. about calibration and verification. The results are given with their uncertainty. The importance of the signature must be emphasized. The signatories of the documents and the meaning of their signatures or initials must be explained in a separate document. either calculated or estimated. etc. in conformity with instructions which may be part of the method of measurement. the report of revenue.3. adjustments or alterations which are real problems for quality. The results must be laid out accurately.2. – the calibration certificates. These documents should be handled and set up with great care before they are used. – the monitoring cards of the measuring instruments. and to build up confidence between the client and the supplier of the measuring operations. .The Environment of Measuring 203 – the files related to the measuring equipment which can include specifications. These documents include. – the identification sheets of the metrological means. a clever use of this data makes it possible to be more accurate about the intervals of calibration and to extract information on the quality and the condition of the different materials. These documents should be easily accessible.1. unambiguously and in full. It often avoids later corrections. In addition. the documents about maintenance. for example: – the measurement records. as well as the copy of the order. The documents in which the measurement results are saved must be clearly presented. The time spent considering and specifying what you want is seldom wasted. especially on the transcription of the parameters and the measurement results. Similar documents should be as uniform as possible. Preserving these data also makes it possible to show that the measurements have actually been taken. the measurement files.

These operations are done by different members of the personnel. If so. It is vital for the reader that he or she should not to forget that a document is not created for the personal satisfaction of its author. two signatures (the drafter’s and the approver’s) are likely to be enough. preferably by an outsider. . – the frequency of revision.3. The verification may entail some modification. – the latest edition in use. Depending on the importance of the document. – the name of the signatory persons. the approver who is at least as competent is not the drafter. Management of the documents The management of the documents is based on different stages. who should receive a document should be determined at the time of its drafting.204 Metrology in Industry 8. In general. for it meets a need that has been expressed. the users will not be in a position to reject a document that they do not know. The phase of creation is fundamental. but to satisfy a need. – the category of readers the document target. etc. the verification will or will not be done by the signatories. How many people should sign the document? Not too many. This should make the integration of the documents easier as ownership of the documents will have been given to the users. It is useful to put the documents into charts with the following information (these lists can preferably be computerized): – the sources of the documents. Only the documents created inside the firm need to be submitted for approval.2. Every document has to be checked. Controlling the circulation of documents makes it possible to have the relevant editions of the appropriate documents at all the necessary places. – the titles of the documents. Documents such as work instructions have to be read by the users (there is nothing against involving the users in the drafting. the document will be re-examined after the modification. sometimes it is advisable) so that they can give their opinion before the final approval. to facilitate the detection of errors. prior to approval. These charts make it possible to know at all times the titles of the documents in use and the name of their present readers.

CHIRON publisher M. – a change in the contents of the documents. “Constitution type d’un laboratoire de référence en métrologie électrique” (Typical constitution of a reference laboratory in electrical metrology) Techniques de l'ingénieur – R 925 – France . Any irrelevant document should not remain available. Depending on how important the changes are. Modifications may be necessary following: – new needs of the users. It is then necessary to make arrangements for this. Doubt is a generator of chaos. The reference documents should be regularly revised.4. it can mention the significant modifications that have occurred since the previous edition. It is also necessary to ensure that old editions have been regularly withdrawn from the circulation except those that are retained for the archives. 8. it could lead to errors and a loss of credibility in other documents. Erard. Recommended Practice RP-3. any modification must entail a re-examination and approval by the metrology functions who originally approved the documents. Some documents dealing with contractual requirements or security have to be archived in special conditions and for minimum periods. Priel and B Schatz. according to a scheduled frequency. Recommended Practice – Laboratory Design (July 1986) National Conference of Standards Laboratories.The Environment of Measuring 205 A system of “acknowledgement of receipt” proves that the documents have been received. – internal audits of the services that use the documents. Calibration Procedures (January 1990) Monograph no 7 of the BNM . The people who use the documents should immediately say if they do not understand a document or if a document is outdated. Bibliography National Conference of Standards Laboratories. “Organisation d'un laboratoire d'étalonnage” (Organization of a calibration laboratory) Techniques de l'ingénieur – R 1215 – France L. a new edition must be brought out. As a rule. If modifications are necessary.

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8.5. Appendix Major elements applicable to metrological activities (calibration, verification, etc.) to be taken into account when drafting a procedure When you write a procedure, you must include a certain amount of information. The level of information must be suitable to the level of knowledge of the potential readers. The following are the main headings that you ought to consider, even if all of them are not used: 1. Purpose and scope of application of the procedure 2. Physical principle of the method of measurement 3. Reference to the norms in use, bibliography 4. Limitation of the method – scope of measurement – uncertainty of measurement – types of equipment concerned by this method (category and main characteristics) – satisfactory environmental conditions (considering what uncertainties are expected) 5. Reference materials (related to national standards) – draw up the outlines of the traceability to the national standards 6. Maximum errors permissible, or uncertainties 7. List of the equipment and accessories to implement – diagram of assembly – special instructions about the use of the material 8. Preliminary operations The purpose of these operations is to guarantee the validity of the process after you have ensured that the instrument works correctly; the description of these operations can be found in specific documents. The operations have to be realized so that the validity of the verification, or of the calibration, can be ensured. The following are examples of these operations:

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– the stabilization of the temperature of measuring instruments – the setting of the mechanical zero of analog instruments – the cleaning (and demagnetization) of the gauge blocks – the switching on beforehand of the electrical measuring instruments, etc. 9. Applicable measurement procedure The mode of operation is the main part of the procedure, so it should be welldeveloped. The description of this mode of operation can be found in specific documents. The written procedure must precisely define the sequences of the different operations and, when necessary, refer to the instructions for the software that is used. The measurement procedure indicates the number of points of measurement to be undertaken and the predetermined values to take on the scale of measurement. This will be the largest part of the document; it contains the firm’s know-how and, as such, it is often confidential. The procedure should be adapted to the level of competence of the operator in charge of the work. The question of relation between mode of operation and procedure is often raised. From our point of view, the mode of operation is the paragraph of the written procedure that contains the detail of the operations. However, depending on how complex the procedure is and whether the operators have different levels of qualifications, several modes of procedure (more or less detailed) may have to be written for the same procedure. 10. How can the raw results be processed when necessary? 11. Assessment of the uncertainties of measurement – related to the method – related to the calibrated or verified equipment (short-term repeatability, resolution, discretion, etc.) See Chapter 7 on this particular point. 12. Presentation of the results 13. Criteria for decision-making when a verification is in question 14. Document of evidence (recordings about the quality as it is understood in the ISO 9000 norms)

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This document completes the procedure; it contains the results that have been obtained from the calibration or the verification. At least one copy should be kept to ensure traceability has been achieved. The document will be the calibration certificate if calibration has occurred. In the case of verification, the report of the verification will show which decision has been taken about the measuring instrument verified. Whether a calibration or a verification, the operation will appear in the instrument’s file and will be noted on the instrument’s identification sheet. For further information, you can consult the French documentation fascicle of AFNOR titled “Practical method for the drafting of the procedures of calibration and verification of measuring instruments”.

Chapter 9

About Measuring

9.1. Preliminary information 9.1.1. Physical quantity Set a problem correctly and it is half solved. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary that you should know well the physical quantity, or quantities, to be measured. In the easiest cases it is enough to determine one single quantity: a mass, a temperature, a length of time, an electric value, etc. In many applications some set of quantity has to be measured: – several dimensions of a component; – several electric features of an instrument; – the timing of several events. Finally, when the quantity measured is very sensitive to an “influential parameter”, it is essential to determine this parameter together with the considered quantity. For example: – the mass of a powder does not mean anything unless you know its water content; – measuring a Weston battery is of no use if its temperature is not known;

Chapter written by Claude KOCH – retired.

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– since the coefficients of expansion of metals is never equal to zero, the temperature of gauges is always taken when they are measured. The example of quartz is not so well-known. Even when set in air-tight bulbs, quartz is slightly sensitive to atmospheric pressure. So, even in relation to the best quartz oscillators, one should, strictly, take into account the atmospheric pressure at which they are used.

9.1.2. The object to be measured The choice of instruments, the methods and the precautions will vary depending on the object to be measured. Thus, the pressure exerted by a sensor to measure dimensions is acceptable if the part you examine is made of metal, but it must be rejected if the object is soft. The length of a material will raise other measuring problems. Finally, if the object the length of which you want to know is a red-hot metal ingot, you will have to use non-contact, then optical, methods. Another example: electric resistances with two, three or four terminals require different methods and measuring equipment.

9.1.3. Field of measurement The field of measurement is the set of values that the quantity to be measured can take; this field is entirely defined by the minimal and the maximal values of the quantity. The range of measurement is the difference between the minimal value and the maximal value. It follows from these definitions that the range can be deducted from the field, but not the reverse. Therefore, it is far more favorable to know the field rather than the range. Example: quantity in temperature In a catalogue, a manufacturer introduces five types of mercury thermometers with a resolution of 0.1°C covering the following fields: -20 to +10°C 0 to +30°C +20 to +50°C +40 to +70°C +60 to +90°C These five types have the same range of 30°C, but their various fields design them for totally different applications.

or to be over-careful about shocks. Whenever you have to make a choice.About Measuring 211 9. as in a research laboratory the instruments are subjected to low variations of temperature and are not moved about much. On the other hand. For a building site. Ease of calibration and verification should be taken into account. – digital instruments can be equipped with thresholds to automatically find out those results that do not fit in a given range. they must be watertight and very robust. the most adequate type is the automatic monofunction instrument. – when the analog/digital conversion has been done. nor even which way it varies. it is advisable to have accurate multifunction instruments at one’s disposal. it will not be necessary to go through a large field of working temperatures. its precision and its price are limited.4. which saves having too many instruments. then you can go on working while some references are left with a calibration laboratory. for example: – length comparators and separate gauges. whereas reading a non-digital dial requires interpretation from the operator. – this type of display can be used unambiguously by anyone. you have to choose instruments that are automatic and multifunctional and the accuracy of which is limited. – Wheatstone’s bridges and separate electric resistances in order to be able to use several references alternately. however. In manufacturing. you should choose types without in-built references and purchase separate references. Some electronic instruments can be supplemented by filing cards or drawers. Nevertheless.1. monofunction instruments with high accuracy and resolution will be preferred. which is very well-suited for these conditions of use. Four types of uses of measuring instruments For research. the displays can. – digital measuring makes it easier to pass the measurements to a global control by computer. a digital instrument is not to be used when the operator has to do an adjustment because then the display changes constantly and the operator cannot read its variation. it is moderately robust. if needed. . Digital display instruments do very well for manufacturing. be situated at a distance. For a metrology laboratory.

However. Finally. – handling by qualified personnel. especially soon after they have been plugged in. for example. the oil bath does not provide thorough protection against problems in the air-conditioning. For traceability. it is impossible to make them proof against influencing quantities. nor electronic instruments that reach their nominal characteristics after only a few minutes.5. or to plug them in the evening before using them the following morning. In order not to be affected by temperature variations.212 Metrology in Industry If you have to choose between adjustable references and fixed references. – no vibrations. Metrology instruments should not be subjected to rough conditions of use.1. All this can be taken into account when selecting the types of instruments. if the laboratory temperature varies by 0. especially the following two which almost always interfere: – Temperature. – Time (lapse). Consequently. choose the latter because the traceability of a fixed element is easier to establish.002°C. alters the characteristics of electronic components. 9. – possibility of leaving the electronic instruments working permanently. it is advisable to leave metrological instruments working uninterruptedly.001°C when placed in ideal surroundings of 20. an adjustable element may have been modified without it appearing in its file.0°C. whatever the quality of their manufacture. using thermostat-controlled oil baths does not mean you can avoid using airconditioning. which dilates substances.5°C. references are kept in air or oil thermostat-controlled chambers. that of the oil changes by about 0. which modifies many quantities. see Chapter 5. for example: – no shocks. modifies the viscosity of fluids. . – restricted temperature field. Hence. the frequency of oscillators and the characteristics of electronic instruments. etc. it is no use choosing instruments that are automatic or equipped with a remote control. it divides the fault by roughly 200. Influencing quantities Whatever the principles of measuring instruments. The best thermostat-controlled oil baths that can be obtained limit temperature variations to ± 0. Therefore.

About Measuring 213 There are many other influencing quantities: the hygrometric level of air. finding their effects in order to get rid of them or compensate for them. how do influencing quantities interact? And how does one become free of them? This is a difficult problem because of the frequent lack of information in technical notices. it is essential to make inquiries before any purchase in order to know which principle has been chosen for the instrument that one is considering buying. It can be solved by making a list of the influencing quantities. Choice of a measuring principle Before you make an inventory of the criteria of choice to consider for a measuring instrument. when the batteries are new. when it is motionless. this temperature will then be able to vary without the comparison being affected. – to proceed by compensation: this will be possible if the element to be measured has the same dilatation coefficient as the gauges. which – still in the same case – will imply a reduction of the variations of temperature affecting the references and elements being controlled. or even assess their effects. . the location of the instruments in the area. it will be possible to measure the temperature at which the comparing of length is done and calculate the error resulting from the gap between the temperatures. Each has specific benefits and drawbacks. If element and gauge are kept at exactly the same temperature. which act as an influencing parameter. you have to choose a principle to apply. – to undertake some calculations: more generally. What happened the accuracy when these conditions change? In other words. shocks and vibrations and.2. As an example let us take the case of metal gauges that dilate when the temperature rises. it must be added. if the element in question and the gauges have different dilatation coefficients. There are three main measuring principles. or if it is battery operated. sitting on a horizontal surface. It will be necessary: – to assess the interference of the influencing temperature quantity: this may entail finding out about the alloy of the gauges in order to know their dilatation coefficient. at the rated temperature – often +20°C – plugged in on the 50Hz mains at precisely 220V. electric and magnetic fields. 9. Therefore. – to get rid of the influencing quantity. A measuring instrument should reach the accuracy stated by its manufacturer after a period of stabilization.

The user no longer has to bring together a comparator and separate references. However. the multimeter compares the unknown voltage to that of its Zener diode.2.3. usually a quartz one. the user does not have to proceed to any assembly. when a student. reference and comparator make up a whole. 9. which makes connecting easier. representing a ruler. Contrary to what it seems. the same instrument enables the user to choose between differential measuring and direct measuring. In some cases.1. The issue will come down to measuring a length with gauges or with the aid of a tight link. Direct and differential measurements have the same principle but set out in two different ways: – differential setup is preferable for metrology laboratories. Direct measurement In the case of direct measurement. – all-in instruments (masked differential measurements) are better suited for industrial uses. a frequency meter for a frequency. Indirect measurement Indirect measurement is altogether something different. a multimeter for a difference of potential.214 Metrology in Industry 9. Differential measurement is above all else the metrological procedure: the comparing instrument and the references are identified separately.2.2. a direct measurement is a “masked” differential measurement. or a chronometric magnitude by comparing the time of the studied phenomenon to a reference clock. 9. a comparator or a differential instrument. measured a crazy-shaped surface by materializing it with cardboard or metal sheet and comparing the mass of the sheet to that of one square decimeter of the same material? All industrial thermometers .2. The point is to replace the measurement of the unknown quantity by determining another quantity proportional to it. which leads one to forget that it is a comparison that is being made. the frequency meter compares the unknown frequency to that of its internal oscillator. this measurement is also a differential measurement because there is in the instrument a reference of the same nature as the measured magnitude: the caliper “refers” to its graduated body which. he uses an instrument that immediately gives a result: a caliper to measure a length. Differential measurement Differential measurement consists of comparing the unknown object to another object of the same nature by means of a measuring bridge. Who has not. a weight with a set of masses. In fact. This is true of digital frequency meters if the user can choose between the inbuilt quartz and an external synchronization signal.

Measuring a length by determining a length of time An echometer sends a brief impulse in a cable. by a frequency or an electric quantity that is easily measured even from a distance. you must always keep in mind that indirect measuring instruments. – list. the temperature of the wire is identified by the indication of the electric resistance. require calibration.About Measuring 215 proceed indirectly: with liquid-. but actually it is an electric resistance that is eventually measured. 9. in effect. the wire through which an electric current passes gets cooler at a rate dependent on the speed of the air flowing around it.3. it is most frequently used to “replace” the physical quantity to be determined. a precise measurement of mass makes it possible to measure the volume of a liquid or a number of identical objects. Likewise. The time the electric impulse takes to go there and back is proportional to the distance covered and indicates the length of the undamaged cable or the position of the fault. more than any others. In this case. Measuring the velocity of a fluid by determining a temperature As in the hot-wire anemometer. All these extra actions transform mere measuring into a “metrological action”. a length. and – determine the uncertainty of the results. a potential difference. quartz-thermometers you determine. this signal is “reflected” either at the end of the cable if the cable is sound. It is not sufficient just to read or record a physical quantity from a suitable apparatus. or at a fault if there is one. it is. – calculate the effect of the influencing quantities. However. Practicing in metrology The problem is to take measurements in a metrological context. Here are other examples of indirect measurements. thermocouple-. resistance-. . Indirect measuring is useful. in addition you must: – directly or indirectly connect the instruments you use for references. respectively. check and criticize the working conditions. an electric resistance or a frequency linked to the temperature by a one-to-one relation. from the earth to the moon was established by echometry with an ultra-brief light impulse. a temperature that is to be found. In a similar way. the distance. within under one meter. In principle.

– use a guide list that you have drawn up for each type of operation. – give sufficient time for the stabilization of the elements to be measured. – the accessories: calculator. the instruments have to be implemented. 9. the metrological spirit urges one to repeat the measurements again and again and to practice self-verification. Measurements Taking measurements may take little time compared with the preparation. operations undertaken. results. less speed”. a many precautions must be taken before starting: – check the measuring assemblies.1. etc. recorder. to avoid a series of measurements turning out to be useless. etc.. Precautions before measuring The secret of metrology lies in the saying. separate references included. – the mass Mx. 9. time. temperature variations and. “More haste. – a laboratory notebook. . – keep a laboratory notebook and write down all the information about the operations: date. – the instructions for use of the main measuring instrument. Implementing the instruments Once chosen. temperature. protected from any disruptive “agent”. identification of the elements controlled.3. printer. As an illustration. generally speaking. meaning they have to be set up in a suitable place. – the instrument or the measuring assemblies. It will be wise to do five determinations one after the other: – a mass marked 100 grams. Regarding notices concerning the stabilization of measuring instruments: if there is a lack of indications in technical notices – which frequently occurs – tests will have to be carried out in order to determine how long they should work to obtain the nominal characteristics. Indeed. let us take the measuring of a mass Mx of roughly 103 grams.3. that is: – the elements to control.3. It is highly desirable to have a large table at one’s disposal with nothing on it but what is necessary.2.216 Metrology in Industry 9.3. However. away from vibrations.

997V. – the difference within one-tenth of a micrometer between two gauges.3. on the contrary. If. The raw result of the control (10. Variations and their sign To measure is to compare an unknown element to a reference. What would be the use of determining: – the variation within a nanosecond of two clocks. for example. . that is about the sign of the difference? You have to be all the more careful as all measuring benches are not based on the same principle. again. The three determinations of the 100 gram mass (reference) may possibly reveal a systematic error. but the sign of the variation is dependent on the assemblies. tension. For example. this demands much care from the metrologist.About Measuring 217 – the same 100 gram mass. to control digital voltmeters there are: – sources of reference providing round values of. for a tension (source) of 10. The result of any comparison is a measurement made up of two elements: an absolute value and a sign. – sources of reference that have to be adjusted until the voltmeter displays a round value.003V and 9. – if a mistake were made about which way the variation goes. The value is given unambiguously by the instruments. the connections or some commutations.997V. it will be a sign of exactness and it will be a plus in the evaluation of the uncertainty in the two determinations of Mx.997V) only means something if one knows the principle of the measuring bench used and the method applied.003V. represent the same flaw in the voltmeter.4. 9. the voltmeter of the example will show 10. for example. the three weighings are repeated correctly. seemingly conflicting. The two results 10.000V a given voltmeter will display 10. – the mass Mx a second time. – a third determination of the 100 gram mass. – the defect of a right angle within one second of an arc.000V when the source supplies 9.003V or 9.

At the risk of making the time spent on this preparation even longer. . – the date.2 of Chapter 7: – the numerical value. As for the actual result. Expression of the results In metrology. The expression of the results must always indicate the two following elements: – the designation of “the object” that has been measured: identification of the instrument. – the uncertainty.4. it is not unusual for the preparation to last 20 to 30 times as long as the execution of the measurements.005 mm There are three parts in this result: – the numerical value – the unit symbol – the uncertainty 1. it must include the three parts indicated in section 7. choosing a method and some instruments. recorded or committed to memory.999875 g within ± 5 µg The three elements of the result are: – the numerical value – the unit – the uncertainty 999. printed. 9.218 Metrology in Industry 9. 2nd example: a kilogram of steel has a mass M = 999.005 mm. a set of measuring is completed when the values that have been found have been written.5. especially if the operations are exceptional and only irregularly performed.999875 gram (or its symbol g) ± 5 µg. Preparing actually means studying the problem. and in some cases the precise time of day of the measurings.072 mm ± 0. testing them and critically assessing the results. of the subset. it is advisable to write a procedure.072 mm thick within ± 0. – the unit. setting these up in a stable thermal surrounding.3. The time factor When a measuring problem is tackled for the first time. of the sample. 1st example: a blade is 1.

is an algebraic quantity made up of a value and a sign. – or by a relative variation with regard to a reference (the quotient of two quantities of the same nature. A variation. – the uncertainty. In this form. the result includes more than three elements: – the nominal value (1 kg). These three examples highlight the following principle: You can express a metrological result: – either by a value (a number and the unit you use).000. with its many repetitions of the number 9.999985 Hz.000000 Hz F = 4.000 015 Hz = = F0 F0 5. 999985 hertz (symbol Hz) To avoid using a great many 9s or 0s. so it will be expressed differently. 3rd example: the frequency of a quartz measured with an atomic oscillator (cesium) is: F = 4. – the algebraic value of the variation (with regard to the nominal value). The relative variation of the frequency is: F − F0 ∆F −0. for the nominal value.3. the frequencies of oscillators are most frequently expressed by their relative variation with regard to the reference. In this example: reference quartz Fo = 5. – or by an absolute variation with regard to a reference (expressed with the same unit as that of the quantity you study).About Measuring 219 The value of this measurement. which is implied.999.10−12 (no dimension number) It is customary to say this oscillator is at . is not easy to read.999. absolute or relative. 000. The value of the mass is at -125µg (which implies “with regard to the nominal mass”).999. .999. the variation and the uncertainty.000.000 Hz = − 3.10-12 which implies “from the reference”. – the units. therefore a no-dimension number).

taken as an example in section 9.704900 0. except the fourth result.704891 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of measurements Figure 9.704901 0.1. this series of results which should have had the same value: 0. Histograms A histogram is a graph which for each value found gives the number of times it has appeared (frequency).4. but a diagram in a proper scale immediately shows that indeed the results form a cluster.1. Consider.704895 0.704899 These values are apparently close.4. numerical results will be supplemented with a graph. Value 0.704893 0. Number of measurements 9. the histogram is as follows. Graphs Whenever possible.704897 0.704898 0. for example. For the series of 7 measurements.704899 0.4.704892 0. .220 Metrology in Industry 9.704900 0.704901 0. the great benefit of which is to bring out discrepancies when any occur.704896 0.704892 0.704899 0.704898 0.2.704899 0.704902 0.1 above.704894 0.

which is the number of cycles per unit of time and which is expressed in hertz (symbol Hz). all the results are mixed up together in the same diagram and the order in which the values appeared is lost. The group of the six results on the histogram goes without any comment and the isolated value stands out. What qualities does a metrologist require? Whatever physical quantity he may be dealing with. Two notes about the terminology: – The word frequency is used in statistics and means number of times an event happens.About Measuring 221 Frequency 3 2 1 0 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 Results Figure 9. a metrologist must reason and behave in a way “adapted” to accurate measuring. whereas the word history comes from the Latin historia (history. statistically) according to measurement results. 9. In a histogram. in spite of the definitions of two words being similar. the histogram conceals the history of the results. story).5. Therefore. web).2. it must not be confused with the frequency of a signal or of a phenomenon. Let us remember that the word histogram comes from the Greek histos (texture. he must have many qualities. So. – A histogram is a “bar-chart” that provides the frequency (that is. .

for example: – criticize the processes in order to improve them. He must visit laboratories and meet other metrologists. stabilization. even better. Doubting inevitably leads to repeat measurings. and his curiosity must take many forms. current and future. preferably with several instruments and. It is best to aim for a repeatability and reproducibility of measurings. . Doubt will urge him to.5.2.5. These comparisons will be worthless if they are not always performed in exactly the same way. and be about everything.5. Be observant A keen sense of observation will enable a metrologist to avoid many mishaps. a metrologist has to be curious. for example: – by noticing that an assembly has to be modified. Be inquisitive First and foremost.1. Be open to doubt A good metrologist ought to question everything: references. But that is not all: he must also keep himself regularly informed of his firm’s activities that have a direct influence on measuring problems. 9.222 Metrology in Industry 9. 9.4. – check that the references implemented were calibrated when they were supposed to be.5. 9. creating a vacuum for measurements of absolute pressure. – about the influential quantities.3. – about the proceedings. A metrologist must make inquiries: – about the instruments he controls. applying other methods. measuring means comparing an unknown object to a reference. etc. comparators. – check the proceedings are correct: right temperature. For some complex operations. proceedings. it would be advisable to write detailed procedures and faithfully follow a guide list rather than rely on one’s memory or on instinctive habits. Be tidy and methodical Frequently.

5. odd values can be of great interest because they usually lead to significant results: unstable instrument. – by noticing that a standard gauge is scratched. even unexpected values. more commonly.About Measuring 223 – by noticing that a 127/220V tension switch must be reversed. – writing down all the results without making any change. effect of an influential magnitude or. You could almost assert that one takes up metrology as one takes holy orders. This is a long list of qualities. Be honest Being honest for a metrologist means: – leaving a blank in a result table every time a determination has not been worked out because of a lack of time or any other cause. a confusion between two elements to be measured. 9. . but do not let that worry you. – by finding out the temperature of an instrument is not normal. Tackling metrology is the fate of those who intensely love measuring.5.

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100 people from the scientific and technical services of the Solvay Group work there.1. the group is deeply involved in a policy of total control of quality for the benefit of its clients.000 people. minus the pharmaceuticals sector. Close to 1. Its research programs take in Solvay’s activities.Chapter 10 Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 10. The site is located at Neder-Over-Hembeek (Brussels) and it stretches over 23 hectares. Organized in “strategic business units” and in “competence centers”. plastics. it has subsidiaries and joint companies in 50 countries and employs some 31. transformation and pharmaceuticals. Presentation of the company Solvay is an international pharmaceutical and chemical group headquartered in Brussels. Chapter written by José MONTES – Solvay/Belgium.900 million coming from four areas of activity: chemicals. Solvay Research and Technology is the major research center of the group. In 2002. . its consolidated turnover reached €7.

2. the greatest part of this control consists of periodical calibrations. Creation The creation of a metrology sector in 1995 was the result of a 1994 survey concerning the organization of the firm in conformity with quality insurance. Missions These following missions are assigned to the metrology sector: – to ensure the development and the management of the working standards and their connection to national standard. . masses. – to take charge of the computerized management of the periodical verification of the measuring means. 10. – to centralize and keep up-to-date the data of the supply of measuring instruments which are periodically checked.2. – to carry out the plan technical tasks of calibration.226 Metrology in Industry 10. mass flow of gases.). pressures. – to draft the necessary general and measurement procedures.3. in agreement with the ISO 9000 or GLP-GMP rules followed then by the rules of the internal clients. Organization The organization of metrology is dictated by the company’s internal rules. The metrology sector was naturally integrated to the group in charge of the activities concerning the instruments and the automation on the site. keep records. Organization of the metrology sector 10. – to keep documents (draft the calibration certificates.2. etc.2. archive.1. and in which the consistency of the management of the metrological requirements was secured.). The main conclusions of the survey revealed the urgent need for some divisions to join a quality system (ISO 9000. – to provide internal clients with advice and technical support.2. 10. time. some of its personnel who were technically competent were recruited. measuring and testing equipment. The mission assigned to the organization was that it should be a center of competences in which the means and experience of the site were integrated. GLP-GMP) and the necessity to create a metrological organization of the basic quantities (temperatures. etc. One of the major requirements of these rules is to control the checking.

the standards. Once started. the process goes through the main following stages: – inventory of the representative measuring equipment and analysis of the metrological constraints is undertaken with the client. Geographic localization of the activities Calibration activities are carried out either at the laboratory of metrology where the instruments are returned. The figure below represents how the categories of measurements are distributed. using labels. drafting the documents and handing them over. the temperature of which is regulated and the hygrometry of which is under control. 10.2.4. – checking whether the measuring equipment is suited to the needs specified by the clients.020 units. which is periodically attended to. marking the measuring equipment. or directly on-site. When he decides to set up a quality system. – calibration of the measuring equipment.2. – introduction of the data and the specifications of the measuring equipment into the database. .5. – periodical follow-up of the measuring equipment. the data-processing tools. continues to grow and in December 2003 numbered 4. the client uses these services in order to define and organize the calibration operations. 10. Calibrating on-site makes it possible to consider the measuring equipment in their environment. Composition of the bank of measuring equipment The bank of the measuring equipment. – identification of the measuring equipment in agreement with the codification that has been adopted and. The metrology laboratory has air-conditioned premises. it also favors direct dialog with the client. In it are most of the working equipment. the documents and the archives.Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 227 The metrology sector has organized itself in such a way as to provide a technical competence which is adaptable to the needs of the client and to offer an administrative organization which is as homogeneous as possible for all the internal clients of the site.

Solvay R & T Park – metrology distribution of the measurements 10. and – the identification related to the geography location (building and premises) as well as to the type of instrument (viscometer.3. . oven. Self-adhesive labels mark the measuring equipment and instruments. PI. In cases where the manufacturer did not identify the equipment.228 Metrology in Industry Dimension 1% Pressure 30% Mass 8% Others 15% Flow 6% Speed 2% Level 2% Temperature 49% Others 4% Figure 10. Identification The measuring equipment must be identified one by one.1. The identification attributed to the equipment at the time of the manufacturing process has priority and is maintained. The latter part also mentions the general identification of the equipment.3. TE. and thus a coherent link is ensured.1. identification is determined from an internal general convention of engineering based on the ISA (Instruments Society of America) norms. Metrology 10. In their turn. Connection of the standards The measuring instruments or equipment are calibrated with the help of working standards. the working standards are periodically calibrated by laboratories accredited by the OBE (Belgian Organization of Calibration). FT). etc. The basic principle of identification has two parts: – the functional identification generated by the type measurement (for example.3.2. 10. which is itself a member of the EAL (European Cooperation for Accreditation of Laboratories).).

All the clients can access and read the file. The work done amounts to more than just a calibration. 10. as well as that due in two and four weeks’ time.3. The periodicity is defined according to the manufacturer’s specifications.3. and of the working standards is entered into the database. The data concerning the measuring equipment are recorded in a file located in a share zone of the firm’s local area network. as a result of a particular cause. which are metrologically dealt with.3.4. which is not worth investing in expensive standards. conversely. it will be shortened if drifts or systematic excesses are observed. The chief benefit of this organization is the updating of the source in real time and the ability of the client to use his part of the file for his own internal management. A sliding schedule is drawn up at the beginning of the week and is used as a base for planning the interventions. it is a certificate of verification as it declares the instrument to be in a state of conformity or nonconformity. The schedule includes the list of the measuring equipment that is due for verification in the week. our experience with the equipment. It will be lengthened if the results prove to be stable and always within the tolerance interval. . the environment in which it operates and whether the client makes intensive use of it or not. The periodicity can be reviewed. 10. or as a consequence of the results of several calibration cycles. Calibration operations The calibration schedule is subordinate to the dates which are obtained by confronting the requested checking periodicity with the date of the last calibration. is simply calibrated by a competent accredited laboratory.Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 229 This procedure guarantees the traceability of the measuring instruments or equipment through their connections to the national standards. Periodicity of the calibrations The periodicity of the measuring equipment calibrations. Some equipment.

there are several steps (or stages): – the results of the calibration before corrective maintenance (adjustment or repair). The copies of the calibration certificate and of the worksheet are archived in the metrology laboratory and make it possible to keep track of the measurements. mass. corrective maintenance. – encoding of the results and intermediary automatic calculations on the worksheet. The document. The results of the measurements are recorded in a document which is addressed to the client. – the results of the calibration after. etc. .) have led to develop a more complete specific worksheets for specific categories of measurement. the chief identification data of the measuring equipment are automatically transferred from the file to the worksheet. The synthetic results are then automatically transferred from the worksheet to the calibration certificate. – automatic input of the main identification data from the file to the worksheet. 10. a drying-oven temperature). The document for the benefit of internal clients is always the same regardless of who the client is or what type of measurement has been made. perhaps. flow. – automatic input of the identification data and of the calibration results on the certificate. The successive operations stated on the certificate sum up as follows: – selection of the equipment to calibrate. they concern the time since the last calibration and make it possible to verify the possible impact of a measurement drift on the process.5. it is called a calibration certificate or metrological control if the testing was of a secondary piece of measuring equipment that it is not really possible to adjust (for example. – the ruling about whether the measuring instrument that has been checked is metrologically in conformity with the specifications. temperature. – the final comparison with the specifications.3. – the comparison with the specifications (tolerances). The constraints inherent to each category of measurements (pressure. the results concern the period to come. When you select the measuring equipment’s identification. beyond the date of the calibration. Documentation of the calibration results The documentation of the calibration results is made complex by the diversity of the measuring equipment found on-site.230 Metrology in Industry Details of the work done are given in the calibration certificate.

the measuring equipment is said to be not conformable. which means one of the three following solutions: . both interventions require a new compulsory calibration before the measuring equipment returns to service.6. The comparison of the calibration results with the instructions about measuring equipment (tolerances) leads to two possible types of decisions to be decided: – if the deviation is within the interval of tolerance. . .Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 231 In order to make the transcriptions of the information dependable.scrapping.7. are salvaged. intended for the repair of similar instruments. 10. the measuring equipment is said to be conformable and brought back into service. If there is no label – the label having been lost or deliberately removed – it means the state of calibration has been not conformable. – if the deviation is outside the interval of tolerance.3. 10. The label guarantees that the measuring instruments has been verified and tells how accurate it is.3. The label mentions: – the identification of the metrology sector. .adjustment or repair. the instrument is judged to be unsuitable to measuring. it is scrapped and some parts. Verdict of the metrological confirmation Metrology is responsible for the quality of the measuring equipment it has verified and its role is to guide the client into establishing the overall conformity of his equipment. In the end. – the reference of the calibration certificate. Indication of the state of the calibrations When a measuring instrument has been calibrated. – the dates of the calibration and of the next calibration (based on the determined interval). there will be a less demanding new prescription adapted to the new use. – the identification of the measuring equipment (according to the file). – the initials and signature of the performing operator. its state is indicated by a calibration label clearly visible on the instrument. after supplementing the results of the calibration certificate(s) and any other tests undertaken. it is up to the client to make the decision about conformity. the database is automatically updated after the documents have been edited.downgrading.

. It is autonomous in the performance of its tasks and the production of its documents. They work according to the procedures and with the documents established by the metrology function. Handling the amount of work and spreading it over the year is done in agreement with the clients.8. The metrology function is responsible and answerable for the quality of the performances of the subcontracting personnel.232 Metrology in Industry 10. Qualified subcontracting personnel are used to carry out part of the activities. Personnel and subcontracting The personnel of the metrology function organize its interventions according to plans dependent on the list extracted from the database.3.

mostly regarding the strictness of their technique. Its drafting by quality directors somehow raised problems for its implementation by metrologists.Chapter 11 Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 11. etc.1. Chapter written by Philippe LANNEAU – Management Services. From the beginning. a chapter (out of the 20 of the original standards) was devoted to this theme. and Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). – you cannot trust your equipment if you do not have them under control. Introduction The control of measuring equipment is based on the following observations: – you cannot know what quality you have obtained if you cannot measure it. – you cannot make measurements if you do not have the proper equipment for it. This binding link between metrology and quality was taken into account by the quality directors who took part in the drafting of the ISO standard of the 9000 series on the “management of quality”. particularly the specificity of the vocabulary. and that is the object of metrology. .

234 Metrology in Industry On the other hand.6) is explicitly mentioned in the phase which describes “the realization of the product” (Chapter 7). Finally. The concept of continuous improvement Continuous improvement symbolized by the “(PDCA) cycle” proposed by E. at the national as well as international levels. As a matter of fact. it is to “manage the quality” on behalf of the firm.1. Deming is familiar to quality managers. 11. The control of the checking. as part of the organization which has been set up. easier to read. The new output is more user-friendly. the client gets something out of it. French. This has brought the Comité francais d’accréditation (COFRAC) together with the National Metrology Institute (BNM). The elements which are necessary to control the measurements are found in the phases called “monitoring and measurement of the processes” (section 8.5. It is not without reason that metrology is positioned as one of the elements integrated into the firm’s central process. it is proposed split it up into four phases which come one after the other in a logical order with the purpose of improving the functioning of the existent organization. because it is written in a more “everyday”. Naturally. and “control of the production” (section 7. so everyone is satisfied. it is the basis of the structure of the new system of reference. The concepts themselves – the ideas – are accessible to most readers.2.1d). with all the partners concerned and circulated under the double stamp of COFRAC and BNM. “product” (section 8. Metrology will be one of the elements to “manage”.2.3). measuring and testing equipment (section 7. 11. the aim is no longer to give the clients “the assurance of quality”. less manufacturing industry-oriented. Introduction to the evolution of the standard The third version of the “quality” ISO 9001 standard (December 2000) presents noticeable evolution in comparison with the previous versions. the approach is more general. has to be coherent with the requirements of the system of reference. .2. the official metrological structure.2. less normative.4).

in order to meet the needs of user of the measurement (the client of the process). .Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 235 11. this makes it possible to make a decision that is suitable for the kind of risk the management has decided to take. In this context. It is the process (sometimes called “client – client” process) that is positioned crosswise in comparison with the firm’s vertical hierarchical organization.2. first of all. the client being the user of the result of the measurement. the “policy of the control of the measurement” has to be defined at the firm’s highest level. at the time of choosing of the equipment which means at the time of implementation. which means a higher cost for a greater security. to the delivery of the product (or service!) to the client. that is either: – moderate control of its measurements for a low cost. However. Metrologists become involved very much earlier. our approach to metrology is defined in the ISO 9001 standard as a control of the “measurement process”1.1. or – an intensive control. 1 The ISO 10012 standard provides the elements of an explanation. Measurement request Measurement process Measurement result Figure 11. The process approach The phase of the process of “realization of the product” also proposes an original approach that seeks to put the functioning of the firm on a line which goes from the client’s request.2. This approach has consequences in the area of the process which concerns metrologists who are no longer satisfied by simply having their measuring equipment calibrated and affixing the appropriate labels. but a high risk of internal malfunctions or of clients’ complaints.

The decision will be made “in accordance with each different case”. Given its implications. by analyzing the case’s need in measurement. analysis and improvement Satisfaction Requirements Input Product realization Product Output Value-adding activities Inform ation flow Figure 11. Model of a process-based quality-management system . it is unquestionably up to the firm’s management to make this decision about a risk of such a level. 11.2. Continua l improveme nt of the quality mana gement system Management responsibility Customers Customers Resource management Measurement. The function which assumes the responsibility of the “measurement process” will then have to implement the policy of the control of measurement.3.2) to situate the process of measurement control.236 Metrology in Industry It is obvious that something between these two extreme options would be preferred. It is one of the “management processes”. its impact on the control of the firm’s general process or of the quality of the products. Measurement control process Let us start with the schematic representation to be found in the ISO 9001 standard (section 0. This evolution of the standard encourages the firm “to take itself in hand” by defining objectives without going into details or fixing the means necessary to reach the objective.

in agreement with the client. and also the realization of the “administrative” part of the control of the equipment. the assembly. From this step it will be possible to give a correct answer to the problem regarding: – which technique to implement. – the tolerance of the measurement. – the range in which the expected results are to be found. This last part consists of identifying the equipment (marking it. . These latter checks make it possible to ensure that the equipment has an adequate calibration status. the metrological follow-up corresponds to the traceability to the national references (the standards) and to the checking done within the firm. for example) and opening a file or an identification sheet (one can get ideas from the FD X 07-018). – the corresponding fitting range. It also makes it possible to specify and make clear the need. the receipt. This includes the supply (purchase. This makes it possible to create confidence in your exchanges with the clients. or looking for what is immediately available). Step 4 – traceability In our approach. The characteristics of the need will be: – the type of measurement. Step 2 – analysis of the need for measurement This second step corresponds to the metrological competence’s taking responsibility for the process. as the client’s and his supplier’s results are similar. The control of the whole process depends on the quality of this cooperation with the client. Step 1 – expression of the need for measurement This step comes from the “customer” of the measurement. or outside (the buyer or the consumer who sets the specification in his schedule).Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 237 The contents of the five steps of the measurement process are described as follows. Step 3 – setting up of the appropriate equipment (the response) From the elements defined in the previous step. It is necessary to make a periodic check of of the calibration status to be able to confirm that it is fit for use. this step makes it possible to set up the measuring equipment. from inside the firm (the design department or the process service). – the uncertainty that goes with it.

11.1 Control of production and service provision d) the availability and use of monitoring and measuring devices The requirement about measuring equipment is integrated into the chapter that is devoted to the “realization of the product”. are kept away. the environmental conditions of the measurement must be defined and the setting up of the appropriate means must be ensured. It is about the availability and the implementation of the equipment. the conditions of the implementation. the measurement procedures and the operator’s competence. which are presented as one of the elements of the control of the realization of the products of the company. to assess these components in order to take them into account when stating the result of the measurement. etc. The significant moments of the “life” of the equipment are to be recorded on the identification sheet mentioned in step 3. both at the technical level and concerning the amount of equipment needed to carry out the measurements.5. Available equipment means that the need has already been defined. in the same way as it is for the other . The ISO 9001 (2000) standard step-by-step This chapter addresses the different requirements of the ISO 9001 standard and provides point-by-point explanations and practical illustrations: Section 7 – Product realization 7. dampness.6 – Control of monitoring and measuring devices It is to be noticed that a specific paragraph of the ISO 9001 standard is devoted to the control of the measuring equipment. and where electromagnetic radiations.5 Production and service provision 7. For example. Also included are the methods of protection while the material is used. In addition.4.238 Metrology in Industry Step 5 – availability This step comprises the work environment. Section 7. The implementation implies that one knows and complies with the measurement procedures and/or the specific competence of the personnel. when this is not convenient. this may mean premises where the temperature is controlled and where there are no vibrations. This makes it possible to minimize the components of uncertainty or. This makes it possible to complete the whole set of the measurement processes. stored or transported. dust.

It ought to be available inside the firm.6 (continued) – The organization shall determine the monitoring and measurement to be undertaken … This requirement corresponds to the step where the need for measurement. specific competence is unquestionably necessary to see this step through successfully.2. the fitting range for this measurement and the tolerance which goes with it. – available range.6 (continued) – The organization shall establish processes to ensure that monitoring and measurement can be carried out and are carried out in a manner that is consistent with the monitoring and measurement equipment. The determination of the uncertainty about the measurement is one of the essential elements for the definition of the aptness of the measurement. either by the ultimate client or by the person who has conceived the measured element (the measurand).6 (continued) … and the monitoring and measuring devices needed to provide evidence of conformity of product to determined requirements (see section 7. Section 7. This last point is provided earlier. This point is amply developed elsewhere in this book. . A real. This confirms the place of metrology in the management of quality and in the control of the product (or service). – periodicy of external calibration and/or verification useful to ensure SI traceability. in relation to the equipment capable of meeting the need determined in the previous step. Section 7.1) … This step corresponds with the definition of the technical response that is to be set up. – uncertainty that goes with it. This includes various parameters that associate the methods implemented and the personnel’s competence to the equipment which has been used. Section 7. Into this notion of accuracy should be integrated the type of measurement. necessary competence has to be on hand to assess this.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 239 requirements of the realization. The functions should assess their needs for measurement and have an objective knowledge of these needs. The answer as regards equipment: – type of measurement. It must be satisfied by the functions which are concerned with the result of the measurement is defined.

the basis used for calibration or verification shall be recorded. the environment.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. Taking the uncertainties into account is a part of the fundamental elements of these connections. In France. . measuring equipment shall a) be calibrated or verified at specified intervals. which are the measurement processes themselves. … This requirement concerns the connection to the national traceability chains. etc.org. The evidence of the connection with the references (metrological traceability) has to be available at the level of the firm. in chemistry).european– accrediation. We now return to the need to control measuring equipment and associated uncertainty. these connections are made under the aegis of the COFRAC2 whether the quantities concerned are physical or chemical. More information can be found on the EA website: http://www.240 Metrology in Industry After the need for measurement and the relevant responses have been defined. Section 7. what competence the personnel who implement them must have and what environment conditions are required. measuring equipment shall a) …. in accordance with whether it suits the need.org). there has been a multilateral agreement of recognition of the equivalence of the calibration certificates delivered by European calibration laboratories (www.org). 2 Since 1989. against measurement standards traceable to international or national measurement standards. or prior to use. This phase also broadens the notion of equipment to the notion of the process as a whole. Section 7. This phase widens the notion of “standard” as it is generally used in the fields of physical measurement to the other fields of monitoring and measurement (for example.europeanaccreditation. where no such standards exist.ilac. The setting up of the rules is described elsewhere in this book. It is the firm’s responsibility to make sure they are implemented and complied with. which includes the measuring instrument as well as the personnel who operate it (and their competence). the methods.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. Since then. this phase corresponds to the implementation of the tools in accordance with defined methods. an identical agreement at global level has been reached (www. It is vital to say what methods are to be set up to realize the measurements.

or some ranges of a measurement (“use only between 100 V and 500 V”). It makes it possible to restore conformity to this equipment by using its fitting devices. The solution can be anything from a mere label (with the date of the limit of validity) to the supplying of the calibration certificate (or its copy).6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. the point is to determine the appropriateness of the equipment to be used and the degree of criticity which is associated with it. This phase comes after a verification that has concluded that a piece of equipment is beyond permissible error limits. The methods of assessment use the classical statistical tools which make it possible to get as close as possible to the true value and determine the uncertainty around the assessment. (Some elements are given by the ISO guide 35 on this point.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 241 One speaks of “references” or of “reference materials”. For example. and – adjusting: fitting it by using only the devices that are at the user’s disposal. a multimeter is limited to one type of quantity (“use only on ohmmeter function”). These standard references have to be evaluated to give a reference value.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results.) It is the recording of this analysis which should be retained. The method of identification must be adapted to the context (environment) and to the users. Section 7. … Identification consists of providing the user with information about the extent to which the equipment can be used in relation to its suitability or its possible restrictions of use. if it is equipped with any. a new calibration and a new verification must take place which will make it possible to confirm that the equipment can be used (and is back within “maximum permissible errors”). Section 7. “Best before …” says the inscription printed on the pot of yoghurt. Metrologists make a distinction between: – fitting: bring an equipment “as close to zero as possible”. or the verification of some values of “product” tolerance. measuring equipment shall c) be identified to enable the calibration status to be determined. measuring equipment shall b) be adjusted or re-adjusted as necessary. When the calibration status is being considered. It is to be noted that after any fitting (and therefore any adjustment). likewise a calibration value may still be used beyond the date that ends its .

UV). … In order to avoid undue adjustment of the equipment. humidity. He can decide whether to take the risk from the follow-up of the corrections made between two successive calibrations. the measuring equipment ought to be protected from extreme variations of temperature. Consequently. transfer. shocks. what metrologists generally call the “drift”.) to prevent access or adjustment. or which can detect these: varnish.) should not be able to make adjustments.242 Metrology in Industry effectiveness. etc. measuring equipment shall d) be safeguarded from adjustments that would invalidate the measurement result. storing. The instruments may therefore be equipped with blocking devices: “locks” (physical or computer) or physical protection (shutters. . etc. the organization shall assess and record the validity of the previous measuring results when the equipment is found not to conform to requirements. Section 7. as well as a “quality assurance” approach. but there is a risk that only the user can accept. access to the devices which make it possible to make these adjustments should be limited to competent persons. the components. Likewise. etc. Investigation of the consequences of a doubtful measurement result concerns metrology function and quality assurance function through on the one hand the measuring equipment and on the other hand the measurement of the product. the most fragile instruments are delivered in packaging which protect them during transport.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. etc.6 (continued) – In addition. hatches. and. which go into them. measuring equipment shall e) be protected from damage and deterioration during handling. cleaning. from dust.) with care in order to guarantee the preservation of their metrological qualities. Frequently. maintenance and storage. etc. the storing conditions must take into account the restraints relative to the materials. The users or handlers (transfer. etc.. of course..g. Section 7. light (e. Measuring equipment is generally fragile or at the least needs to be handled (during use.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. The instruments should be kept in these containers when they are not in use. storage. seals. even by mistake. Section 7. whether initially or after verification. The organization shall take appropriate action on the equipment and any product affected … This requirement concerns metrology.

user adjustment. . – modification of the permissible error limits set on the measurement if relevant.2. with or without informing the user (external or internal client).). There are two aspects of this requirement: – all the calibration and verification results have to prove that the operation has been performed. thus informed. which limits the consequences of non-conformity. the deviation on the instrument having had no impact on the quality of the product.6 (continued) – Record of the results of calibration and verification shall be maintained (see section 4. – accepting products as they are. the requirements of “control of the recordings relative to quality” of section 4.4). the information that the operations has to be done has to be kept available. Section 7. – it is particularly important to be in possession of the information on the initial state of the equipment before a calibration or any other intervention (adjustment.4 are applicable. makes a decision about the product that has been measured with the faulty equipment. repair. thus informed. The equipment itself is subjected to specific action so that the fault does not occur again: – small verification intervals. so that the previous point may be applied efficaciously. – dispensation. it is also (and is chiefly) intended to apply the corrections necessary for the use of the measuring equipment. With this objective in view. Let us point out that the materialization of an action is not the only aim of a calibration certificate. etc. – change of measurement method and/or of equipment. makes a decision about the product that has been measured with the faulty equipment: – recall of the doubtful products.2.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 243 The metrologist makes use of his knowledge of the equipment and of the consequences of the registered deviation through asking the following questions: – Is the deviation significant in relation to the measurement and the use to be made of it? – What is the relation between the level of the measured non-conformity and the uncertainty on the method of measurement? – Does the deviation have an influence on the process regarding the accepted tolerances? This technical information has been passed on to the firm which. This technical information is passed on to the firm which.

244 Metrology in Industry Section 7. measuring equipment is connected with software which directly intervenes in the process of measurement. it is possible to have it installed later. Any modification of only one of these bits results in a different sum and the user is alerted. If this verification is not integrated into the software (find out from the supplier or manufacturer). The classical methods of validation of software that apply here are: – measurement in parallel with other software that is certified to be fit for the purpose. As this point is given in a “note”. 07011. analysis and improvement Section 8. The detail of the technical answers to be implemented has been partly transferred to the ISO 10012 standard.6 (continued) – When used in the monitoring and measurement of specified requirements. or before each new use.3 – Monitoring and measurement of processes . More and more frequently. You have to ensure that the software does not bias the final result provided by the equipment. It stands to reason that the software. Two levels have been defined by the standardization body: 1. 07015 and 07017. Nevertheless. particularly about the determination of measurement uncertainties. and is invisible to the user and it makes the sum of the “0” or “1” of the program in binary. among other metrological norms which were drafted by French experts in the field. Such a verification is integrated in some software. Section 8 – Measurement. – non-automatic verification that the software is working correctly. it is not compulsory to put the recommendations of these standards into practice. it is its “genetic fingerprint”. a test should make it possible to ensure the software has not wandered. This shall be undertaken prior to initial use and reconfirmed as necessary. Further technical norms. it is called the “check sum”. are to be found in the bibliography of this book. The ISO 10012 recommendations can be completed by reading the norms NF X 07010. There is only one result and it is characteristic of the program. Section 7. should be subjected to the same principles of control.2 – Monitoring and measurement Section 8.2. Periodically. 2. the ability of computer software to satisfy the intended application shall be confirmed. they should be known and complied with.6 (continued) – Note: see ISO 10012 This note allows the possibility of using the ISO 10012 standard ‘Measuring equipment – meteorological confirmation’. too.

to the need for measurement.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 245 The organization shall apply suitable methods for monitoring and. It goes back.5. This is especially the case for production processes (the “proceedings”). at the same time it generates greater dependence on and a greater trust in the relationship with partners.1d). first of all. After it has determined the critical points of the manufacturing process. controlling measuring equipment is. Section 8. with a greater precision with more details. The associated equipment is then within the competence of the metrological control mentioned in section 7.2.6 and already analyzed. where applicable. previously discussed. which is then certain of optimizing its measurements and the cost of its metrology. 11. These methods shall demonstrate the ability of the processes to achieve planned results … Controlling the progress of the processes may require the implementation of measuring equipment.4 – Monitoring and measurement of product The organization shall monitor and measure the characteristics of the product to verify that product requirements have been met. This section corresponds to section 7. the firm must define the corresponding checks and set them up. measurement of the quality management system processes. . and it replaces the need into its context of surveillance of the products. Conclusion Putting the answers which have been proposed in this chapter into concrete form makes it possible to satisfy the requirements of an audit of certification which relate to the control of the processes of measurement. But beyond strict answers to the questions of an auditor. a means of progress for a firm. It is the section that connects the control of the process of measurement to the need for measurement itself.5. either clients or suppliers.

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. It has. is therefore an activity which should enable the user to give meaning and reliance to the stated measurement results. it is obvious that metrology still remains a mystery in higher education curricula. 1 Secondary education students in France have to pass an exam called baccalauréat -Bac. Bac+ 2 is the level required to enter a school for engineers. + 3. Bac+ 2.Chapter 12 Training for the Metrology Professions in France 12.. It does supply the necessary tools to claim the conformity of a product while controlling the risks. it is also the level necessary (and sufficient) to be a higher-level technician. BEP (Brevet d’Enseignement Professionnel) and Bac Pro are lower-level exams opening straight into professional life.at the end of the cycle to acceed to higher education. a vast field of applications. in fact. Metrology. If firms are short of specialized metrologists. etc. The metrology function in a firm’s strategy Metrology training at education’s higher level is provided by a few organizations in France1. It is generally limiting and metrology is often understood as management of the measuring equipment or laboratory activities.1. indicates the level reached in higher education (how many years after the Bac are normally required to reach that level). Chapter written by Bernard LARQUIER – BEA Métrologie. the science of measuring. as the dictionary defines it. It is often difficult to know what comprises the metrological activity of a firm. CAP (Certificat d’Aptitude).

in the fullest sense of the word. agriculture.2. The different professional categories (engineers. without looking into the influence factors which affect the results and. The synthesis tables show which long-lasting courses are currently available in France. How. can one give meaning to a survey of clients’ satisfaction.248 Metrology in Industry It is clear then that controlling measuring amounts to controlling processes which may be complex. they are an important aspect of the competence expected from the person in charge of the metrology function of a firm. Metrology profession Long-lasting specialized training courses in the field of metrology are most often provided at the higher education level and they generally lead to management jobs. nuclear power. The evolution of the norms relating to the control of quality systems in firms leads one to ponder over the growing influence of the metrology function. pharmacy. medicine. therefore. agribusiness. The general-education universities are beginning to offer supplementary training in the field of measurement. far beyond the mere technical aspect. technicians. indeed. To reach this objective the metrologists will have to have much broadened competences. operators have entered the metrology function thanks only to brief training courses within the framework of continuing education. biology. chemistry. etc. 12. The set of organizations given do not provide an exhaustive list of the establishments likely to offer long-lasting training courses in metrology. operators) consequently get very different training. or to an investigation of performance. space. Managing a firm’s metrology function requires a competence which reaches far beyond merely managing measuring instruments or knowing about calibration techniques. If engineers and technicians have been able to benefit by specialized training courses. It is therefore probable that the list to be found here will be greatly extended in the years to come. . It is logical to think that the position of the metrology function. All the industrial sectors are concerned: mechanics. aeronautics. electronics. environment. into the uncertainties of measurement. will be strategic for the management of firms in the years to come.

He may. have to see to the improvement of the national standards.or medium-sized business in which the metrology department is often limited to one or two persons from whom a broad polyvalency is generally expected. 12. his role is to control the measurement techniques and their traceability. the metrological engineer is in charge of the metrology department. Metrological engineer Having received a higher scientific education. aspire to take charge of an accredited laboratory. or in organizations specializing in measurement. but he can also implement specific measurement processes. that he holds his position. He is able to head a team of operators.or mediumsized firm. he has added to this qualification by spending an extra year in one of the organizations that provide specific training courses. He is responsible for the laboratory or the accreditation of the organization. the metrological technician is trained as a higher-level technician. Metrological technician Initially. .2. So it is in large companies.1. He may also intervene in the phase of conception of methods and manufacture.2. Wishing to specialize. He can. He has the necessary competence to determine the uncertainties of the measuring processes and initiate actions to optimize the metrology function.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 249 12. He can go on studying to obtain a doctorate in metrology. In laboratories or technical centers. meaning that two years after completing secondary education – Bac+ 2 – he has passed a DUT (university diploma of technology) or a BTS (higher level technician diploma). the technician assists him.2. among other missions. The metrological engineer is seldom employed by a small. These specific courses enable the technician to have a broad knowledge in metrology. or the development or settlement of calibration methods. He is then in the position to be in charge of the metrology function in a small. If the organization chart of the firm includes a metrological engineer. He may also be called upon to manage the quality section and it is not unusual for him to have to manage both quality and metrology. his mission is to implement all the actions that are needed to optimize the metrology function. He usually manages a team of technicians and operators. as well as a good basic understanding of the domain of quality. after a few years’ experience. He then becomes an expert in some field and generally works as a researcher in a top-level laboratory.

It is a pity that there is no specific training for metrological operators at the level of secondary education because firms frequently bemoan the lack of training of their operators.3. . Bac) of initial education. Their curricula are general to prepare to the metrological trades. technician or specialized operator diplomas. are dispensed by numerous organizations and by most accredited laboratories. BEP or Bac) is supplemented by short. which are not discussed in this chapter. or specific to the command of a particular quantity. the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) and the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs du Mans.250 Metrology in Industry 12. specific training courses in metrology. Depending on the school. In the latter case it is a supplementary or an alternate course. Metrological operator In general. Initial training Metrology is very seldom taught in level IV and V (CAP. The metrological operator works along procedures and measurement methods established by an engineer or a technician.1. Frequently. BEP. he becomes a metrological operator through advancement inside his firm. the training is provided either the traditional way. which are generally too brief to master the different aspects of measurement. His initial training at the vocational-training certificate level (CAP. It is found mostly at a post-secondary education level and it delivers engineer.3. 12. 12. These courses. or through continuing education. The firms find it necessary to resort to short (less than three weeks) continuing education sessions. In France. Schools for engineers Schools for engineers turn out metrological engineers after five or six years of training (Bac+ 5 or Bac+ 6). a metrological operator has not had any specific training in metrology. On his first job a technician can serve as an operator.2.3. the most comprehensive courses at this level are provided by the Ecole Supérieure de Métrologie at Ecole des Mines of Douai.

12. the main concern of the course is the control of dimensional checking and metrology. It is dealt with. but in a very limited way. This has induced some lycées or university institutes to open supplementary courses (one extra year. Continuing education It has been said in Chapter 3 that some organizations that offer training courses in the context of initial training also give some candidates the opportunity to enroll for continuing education.3. Vocational high schools There are no high schools that specifically train metrologists at the end of secondary-education level. Courses for higher level technicians Higher level education in two years.3.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 251 The characteristics of these different schools are presented in the tables below. so do those of the Ecole Supérieure de Métrologie which has an international vocation and attracts many foreign students. Metrology is on the syllabus of some of them. does not have any specific module for metrology. 12.2. the University of Provence. Bac+ 3). They are chiefly intended for young holders of diplomas who wish to go on with their initial training. more in a way to make students sensitive to it than as a specialized field of study. equivalent to a professional degree or to a metrological technician diploma. the IUT of Aix en Provence.3.4. Except for the Lycée Jules Richard. personal training time-off and qualification contract. 12. These courses are open at the Lycée Jules Richard. . mechanical topics holds first place in these training units. the University of Toulon and the Var. Bac+ 2 (DUT or BTS). The particularities of the CNAM’s course are worth noticing: it offers working people the possibility of upgrading their training by attending evening classes. but they can be open in some cases to people who already have professional experience. In general.

to remunerate the candidate. Larger firms can rely on candidates with good basic knowledge to specialize. . The continuing-education courses offered by the training organizations are of two types: they are either long-lasting (over 8 months) or short. from one day to a few weeks. among which are: – the laboratories accredited by the COFRAC. Short courses are provided by a number of organizations. if the organization that gives the personal training time-off money agrees.252 Metrology in Industry Applicants have to be under 26 years old to benefit from a qualification contract that makes it possible to receive remuneration and which subsidizes the firm in relation to the training costs. The personal training time-off can be used by employees who have been working for their firm for several years. if necessary. – the schools for engineers. – the training centers in large companies. It enables small. completely or partially. while he is away from his firm and to pay. Its position is such that it complements the different diplomas and qualifications identified in France. New courses are being established: the CNAM has set up a program called “metrologist for the year 2000” and Bordeaux’s ENSAM offers a flexible course intended for the heads of metrology functions. – the technical centers.or medium-sized firm. The long-lasting courses train technicians.AFPI de la Vallée de l’Oise). or as higher-level technicians at Bac+ 3 level (Bordeaux ENSAM which trains quality metrologists). but also of assuming the care of the quality section in a smallor medium-sized firm. for the training costs.and medium-sized businesses to depend on personnel that are versatile in dimensional metrology and metrology function. The “Quality Metrologist” course at the ENSAM trains versatile technicians who are capable of setting up a metrology function and managing it in a small. It makes it possible. The training course of the CETIM – AFPI Vallée de l’Oise is meant for candidates at Bac level. either as metrological operators (CETIM . in production control or laboratory metrology. completely or partially.

how much theory and how much practice (it is important that there should be a practical side as it helps the students to grasp the theoretical concepts). what teaching methods are used. The choice of the organization is made along several criteria: its reputation in the selected subject.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 253 – the adult training organizations. 12. Long-lasting training courses The information that appears in the following tables has been obtained from well-known organizations. It is also likely that some organizations that provide long-lasting courses have not been identified. where it will be. However. only one company is responsible for the training. the level of knowledge required to attend the course. Specific training courses are experiencing a boom. In this case. The very small firms find it difficult to have their personnel trained because the size of their staff is not large enough to make up for the absence of those people who are away training.5. – private specialized companies. It is likely that. how much it will cost. The below-mentioned courses last more than eight months. Very diverse subjects. The information to be found in the tables in this chapter does not pretend to be exhaustive it needs expansion. The different organizations come up with a catalogue of inter-enterprise training courses. they are also in a position to organize specific courses according to the specific needs of a company. general or specialized training courses about well-defined metrological aspects are being established. how long the course lasts. general or specialized. they make it possible to aim at precise objectives. as this chapter is being written. and the coursework to be submitted. A “training” group of the French College of Metrology has played a large part in the collection of the information. The development of training via the internet may become one solution. They are opened to very different education levels (from the Bac level to that of engineer). are taught. . A large enough number of trainees are necessary to enable a company to amortize the cost of the course more easily.

optics (images. properties of the instruments and acquisition of the signals Electrical and optical measurements Options in the 2nd year: industrial checking (ground networks. two of which are in the specialty) Contact Notes . sensors and operators). expression Knowledge of professional English Mr Himbert (33 1 40 27 27 73) There are two stages in the training course: the probationary cycle (1st year) and the deepening cycle. culture. optical measurements) Measurements and traceability Laser measurements. outside working hours.75003 PARIS Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Engineer in measuring instruments unknown Training available in the whole of France In 1st year: Bac+ 2 In 2nd year: after probationary cycle of the measuring instruments course 3 years 1st year: 360 hours (part-time) 2nd year: 280 hours (part-time) 3rd year: 2. dimensional measurements Measurements of temperature and radiation Control of discrete event systems Management and economy of the firm Human and social management Communication.254 Metrology in Industry CNAM (PARIS) 292 rue Saint Martin . you have to be at least 24. or personal training time-off Engineer Measurement and instruments: physical principles of sensors. you have to take the (BULAT) test (technical English) and also meet the required conditions of professional experience (three years’ experience. supervision. noise. quality.028 hours (full-time) Economic and social management and communication: 240 hours (evening classes) The training is done in theoretical and practical modules outside working hours Level at end Bac+ 5 of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Firm training scheme. To defend the thesis and obtain the diploma of engineer in instrumentsmeasurement. experiment plans. metrology). you have to obtain all the scientific and technical modules and the management and communication modules. quality metrology (signal.

In a small-or medium-sized firm the job may require its holder to head both quality and metrology Contact Notes .Training for the Metrology Professions in France 255 CNAM (PARIS) 292 rue Saint Martin . to the management of a set in the case of total or partial subcontracting. capability.75003 PARIS Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Training of metrologist for the year 2000 2002 Maximum 12 Bac+ 2. technical responsibilities connected with the operations of calibration and verification Definition of the methods and procedures of calibration. NF X 07 010) Securing conformity and keeping the firm in conformity Metrology measurement expert: calculation of uncertainty. or having worked for 3 to 5 years in a laboratory 10 months: one 30-hour-week per month. ISO 10 012. technical negotiations. audit and follow up of subcontractors Mr Himbert (33 1 40 27 27 73) The training should lead to appointments as heads of the metrology function. ISO CEI 17025. method of supervision Training the firm’s personnel in metrology and setting up training programs Being able to organize normative watchfulness and watchfulness over the techniques of measurement Analysis of the value Management of the measuring means and of the personnel of a laboratory. should award a certificate in the short-term Metrology function: organizational responsibilities and securing conformity with the quality systems of reference applicable to the firm (ISO 9001. hence a total of 300 hours Level at end Bac+ 3 of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Firm training scheme. qualification of the personnel: responsibilities linked to the internal management of the sets of measuring instruments. or personal training time-off Training of head of metrology. connection of standards Choices.

6 months in a firm).256 Metrology in Industry CETIM AFPI Vallée de l’Oise Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Controller in dimensional metrology 1997 8 to 16 Bac Pro. establishing uncertainties National calibration chain National standardization and ISO texts Analysis of needs in metrology Management of a set of measuring instruments Practice of measurements: influence quantities Rules about the setting up and the operation of a metrology laboratory Mr Gabriel – CETIM (33 3 44 67 33 59) Mr Jacquemain – AFPI Vallée de l’Oise (33 3 44 63 81 63) Great demand from industry Finding a job is easy after the course. Over 50% of the trainees are hired by the firm where they have been trained This qualification should be widened in 2002. by the establishment of a less demanding course. processing of the results. Employed person with recognized level of Bac Pro 10 months (4 months (450 hours) in training centre. for firms’ personnel with an experience in dimensional checking and metrology Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . The trainees spend1 week at the centre and 2 weeks in the firm alternately Level at end Bac+ 1 of course Financing Continuing education Qualification contract Training time capital Personal training time-off Training of controller in dimensional metrology with attribution of diploma MQ 97 04 60 0158 Training centered on dimensional checking and metrology Metrology: vocabulary and generalities Concepts of quality and checking for quality Definition and setting up of procedures Measurement instruments and techniques Verification of the tolerances of products Applications of statistics.

international (teaching in French and in English) General metrology Sensors and signals. magnetism Dimensional metrology Mass. software engineering Data processing Working safety and legislation Quality and project management Metrology of different physical quantities. practice. force. flowmetry Time/frequency Acoustics Ionizing radiations Physio-chemical tests Mr Senelaer (33 3 27 71 23 24) or Mrs Cordelle (33 3 27 71 22 22) Open to all holders of positions involving responsibility in metrology and who are able to: Understand metrology as a full-blown discipline Integrate the metrological component into the conception of products Conceive and implement measuring systems International character of the course. pressure Volume. particularly: Electricity.Training for the Metrology Professions in France Higher School of Metrology (Ecole des Mines de Douai) 941 rue Charles Bourseul BP 838 . only training course of Bac+ 6 level Main items of the program Contact Notes .59508 DOUAI Cedex Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Metrological engineer or specialized master degree 1929 15 to 20 257 Hold a scientific diploma of Bac+ 5 or Bac+ 4 level and have professional experience International recruiting 1 year 7 months at the school (700 hours of lectures. practical work and supervised practical work) 4 months or more of training in a firm Modulated over several years for firm executives Level at end Bac+ 6 of course The training is finalized by an engineer diploma or by a specialized masters degree accredited by the Conference of Higher Schools Nature Engineer or masters degree This training is based on 4 main concepts: innovation (contribution from research laboratories). excellence.

The course consists of 3 modules which can be separated: Metrology function (84 hours) Uncertainties and optimization (80 hours) Quality-audit training (84 hours) There is no provision at present for a diploma to be delivered at the end of the course Organization of the metrology function Expression of the metrological requirement and drafting of specifications Management of the measuring equipment Organization of a checking and calibration laboratory Determination of uncertainties and optimization of the metrology function Statistical Process Control (CMM) Quality process Setting up of self-checking and its management Training of personnel Audit of the metrology function Mr Le Roux (33 5 56 84 53 21) Mr Larquier (33 5 56 34 20 63) This course. based on the principle of alternation. It also offers the trainee the opportunity to be assisted in the accomplishment of a specific mission in his firm Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes .258 Metrology in Industry ENSAM Bordeaux Esplanade des Arts et Métiers 33400 TALENCE Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Training of personnel in charge of metrology 2002 6 to 12 Member of personnel in charge of metrology with Bac+ 2 level or with 10 years experience 248 hours over 9 months at the rate of 3 to 4 days every 3 weeks Assistance for a firm’s project possible (10 half-days) Bac+ 3 Provided by firms. enables some people in charge of metrology to increase their knowledge with a possibility of choosing modules.

chemical metrology. pressure. temperature. or job-seeker or working person with acknowledged Bac+ 2 level 10 months (4 months (470 hours) in a laboratory.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 259 ENSAM Bordeaux Esplanade des Arts et Métiers 33400 TALENCE Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Training of metrologists in charge of quality 1997 11 to 20 Bac+ 2 post-diploma. geometrical permissibility Checking of machine tools and other checkings connected with mechanical manufacturing Drafting of procedures. the trainee can get in touch with his professional tutor at any time to obtain advice about accomplishing his mission Bac+ 3 Contribution of the Ministry of Industry to help make the small. electricity. Dimensional and three-dimensional checking.or medium-sized firms In charge of quality: client or supplier In charge of quality in production In charge of a laboratory Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . realization of audits Determination of uncertainties of measurement and use of the Statistic Process Control Production management and self-checking in production Communication Mr Le Roux (33 5 56 84 53 21) Mr Larquier (33 5 56 34 20 63) There are many prospects In charge of the metrology function in small. 6 months in a firm) The trainees do the 4 months in a laboratory. then the mission in a firm Significant assistance in the firm is provided (4 to 6 visits of about half a day) Moreover. etc.and medium-sized firms responsive to metrology A contribution is requested from firms Diploma at the end of the course Setting up of the metrology function Stimulation of awareness of different quantities: dimensional metrology. accelerometry. mass.

General education in physics. engineering. Masters degree-holders in 2nd year 3 years. or Bac+ 2. volumic mass. technological training in engineering. security systems. management of quality Organization of firms. etc. data-processing. plus school records. measurements of temperature. user-machine interaction) There are many opportunities for jobs and all the engineers find a job within months of leaving the school Level at end of course Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . and environment At the end of the course. vibratory analysis. digital modelization. etc. production (manufacturing processes. chemistry. nondestructive control. length. etc. polarimetry Non-destructive control Calculation of the uncertainties when using the different types of sensors Use of experiment plans. electronics. flow. plus success at competitive exam. the trainees can prepare one of the DEAs which are on the curriculum at the University of Maine (acoustics. electronics. acoustic and vibratory control. colorimetry. weight. hygrometry.). including: 800 hours of practical work 300 hours of lectures and industrial projects 6 to 10 months of training Bac+ 5 Engineer diploma authorized since 1995 by the commission of engineer titles General education in industrial instruments and measurements. optics. signal processing and automatics Measurements and sensors: organization of metrology. materials. velocity. management.260 Metrology in Industry ENSIM (LE MANS) University of Maine Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course ENSIM engineer in industrial measurements 1995 60 to 70 2-year post-Bac classes. pressure.). techniques of job seeking Mr Breteau (33 2 43 83 39 51) The fields open to the trainees are those of research (integration of sensors. force. acceleration. quality control (metrology.). viscosity.

measurements. technical and methodological abilities about instruments. in a statutory and lawful industrial setting. automatisms and tests The intended prospects are: Being in charge of research or business in checking. detection of sources of uncertainty. or equivalent Open to working people as part of continuing education 600 hours. followed by 12 weeks’ practical training Spread out over one school year Bac+ 3 Public financing Professional degree Adaptation modules Theoretical metrology Applied metrology Methods English 120-hour tutored project 12-week training course in industry: its purpose is to materialize the acquired knowledge in the context of professional practice Mr Bois ( 33 4 91 10 62 05) The aim of the “instrument metrology” professional degree is to train some foremen and higher-level technicians for the metrology function of firms to be capable of implementing.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 261 University of Provence – University of Aix-Marseille Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Instrument metrology professional degree unknown unknown Technical Bac+ 2. calculation of uncertainties. measurement and instruments Being in charge of the metrology/quality services Designer of measuring equipment Being in charge of a quality metrology mission Being in charge of maintaining process instruments Contact Notes .

checking unit Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . production quality Other option: simultaneous engineering 2000 8 Bac+ 2. setting up a checking on a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). metrology of surfaces. or a technology transfer subject 12 weeks’ practical training during which trainees must assume responsibilities 33 4 42 93 90 82 The intended openings are: Being in charge of the metrology department Designer of checking. economy and growth of the firm. experience plans. control of the project. methods. measuring and testing equipment Being in charge of a quality metrology mission Coordinator of research. 300 hours of profession-oriented options. non-dimensional industrial measurement Tutored project: it is the materialization. setting up a checking at the surface plate based inspection. non-destructive checkings. etc. by one individual or a team. of an industrial subject. or equivalent Open to working people as part of continuing education 600 hours followed by 12 weeks’ practical training (150-hour foundation course. metrology of great lengths ISO permissibility.262 Metrology in Industry IUT of Aix en Provence – University of the Mediterranean Title Professional degree in industrial production sciences with optional industrial checking. 150 hours for synthesis project and application) Spread over one school year Bac+ 3 Public financing Professional degree Completing a project: management. labor laws Computer and mathematical tools and methods. fundamental functions of industrial CAD systems Statistics Metrology: Qualification of a measurement.) General training: communication. methodological tools (AMDEC. dimensional metrology. technical English.

acceleration. vocabulary of metrology. tools and methods for total quality. voltmeter.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 263 Lycée Jules Richard (PARIS) Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Training of metrological technician (qualification accepted by the National Joint Commission for Employment in the Metallurgical Industry) 1995 12 to 20 To have passed a DUT or a BTS 1 year. material resistance. quality system. integral calculus. alternately 600 hours’ training in Paris/the rest in the firm. parameter curves. masses. acoustics. volumic mass. certifying organizations. of impedance. light Scientific and legal metrology: national and international official organizations. The trainee is paid by the firm which employs him under a qualification contract Bac+ 3 By the firm and an approved collecting joint organization Qualification of metrological technicians Mathematics: calculation of uncertainties. complex numbers Electrical measurements: definition and calculation of the mean values which are effective For variable currents. ammeter. of the resistance of a resistor. force. measurements. magnetic and electronic measurements Dimensional measurements: measurements of lengths. principles used in measuring temperatures. statistics. written and oral communication. results of measurements and connected uncertainties Quality assurance and communication: standards. matrix calculus. measurement of flow. probabilities. linear and angular measurements. vibrations. metrology function. measurements of humidity. pressure Other physical measurements: temperatures. what is a problem is finding 20 candidates for the course Contact Notes . measurement of power. French and English Technical vocabulary of the metrological technician (French. definition of physical quantities. audit. of time and frequency. English) Mr Desbordes (33 1 53 72 83 60) Openings: In charge of the metrological service Assistant of person in charge of quality assurance Laboratory technician The trainees do not have any problem finding jobs.

They are generally posts that involve responsibilities such as: Person in charge of the metrology service Designer of checking. Physical Measurements. all spread over one year Level at end of Bac+ 3 course Financing Nature Main items of the program By the trainee University degree of metrologist in charge of quality Applied mathematics and physics Characterization of materials Non-destructive checking Scientific and legal metrology Surface plate based inspection Calibration of measuring instruments Measuring machines Dimensions. measuring and testing equipment Person in charge of a quality metrology mission Contact Notes .or medium-sized businesses or industries. Production engineering BTS) or people of a like level recognized by validation of professional experience 520 hours + project and training in a firm. OGP. reading of plan and CAD (design and drawing) English Communication Office automation Applied statistics Quality Reliability 33 4 94 14 21 77 The jobs offered come from all the types of firms. laboratories. small. large companies.264 Metrology in Industry University of Toulon and Var BP 132 83957 LA GARDE Cedex Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Training of metrologist in charge of quality 1992 10 to 14 Bac+ 2 (DUT GMP.

uppermost satisfaction from clients and the highest profitability. food. The user-friendliness of data-processing means has dimmed the notions of observation. particularly in secondary schools. it is important not to make measurements any way and to remember that the measurement is not imputable to the instrument. Now. Probably the appeal can be emphasized today. The hardest part for training organizations is to find candidates for these jobs. the methodist. chemical. of doubting which goes with any measurement result. of meaning of significant numbers. The curriculum does not draw enough attention to the importance of measure in daily life and to the problems which arise when measurement should be controlled correctly.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 265 12. but it is the outcome of a whole process in which the leading parts are played by the operator. have revealed pupils’ interest in metrology. and when environmental. the agencies for the employment of managerial and non-managerial staff conscious of the risks that can be generated by badly-controlled measurements. The teaching of metrology in secondary schools The training courses specific to metrology are justified by the deficiencies in the traditional school system. It seems important to promote such initiatives until metrology is integrated into school programs. The need for this collective awareness is essential so as not to run the risk of making irreparable errors. Prospects for the development of long-lasting training courses It seems obvious that firms have a need for specialists in the sectors of measurement at a time when they are determined to reach absolute faultlessness. 12. Initiatives from the French College of Metrology and the METRODIFF association to arouse awareness at different levels. The teaching of basic notions of measurement control has practically disappeared from the initial school years. .6. as students are poorly informed about them and the image of metrology professions is still austere. the big companies have to act as catalysts to make the authorities. the Education Secretary.7. medical measuring grow more and more extensive. when the principle of precaution is called to mind. and the expert in metrology.

Desbordes.8. Le paysage de la formation longue durée en métrologie française – Background of long-lasting training in French metrology. L'école supérieure de métrologie: une nouvelle formation d’ingénieur – Higher School of metrology: a new training for engineers. un moyen pour intégrer la fonction métrologique dans les entreprises – Qualification of operators in dimensional metrology. International Congress of Metrology (1999) . Larquier. International Congress of Metrology (1999) M. Bibliography Documentation from the different organizations referred to P. a way to integrate the metrological function in small. S Gabriel and D Jacquemain. Fritz.266 Metrology in Industry 12. International Congress of Metrology (2001) French College of Metrology. International Congress of Metrology (2001) B. Metrology in the Firm: The Tool of Quality (1996 edition) P.or medium-sized firms. Qualification des opérateurs en métrologie dimensionnelle. Besoins des entreprises: compétences des métrologues en Europe – Requirements of firms: abilities of metrologists in Europe. Souquet.

cfmetrologie.com . Collège Français de Métrologie 1 rue Gaston Boissier 75724 Paris Cedex 15 – France www.The Authors This book has been written by a working group of the Collège Français de Métrologie. The following writters have taken part in the compilation of the book: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jean-Yves Arriat Luc Erard Claude Koch Philippe Lanneau Bernard Larquier Jean-François Magana José Montes Roberto Perissi Marc Priel Patrick Reposeur Klaus-Dieter Schitthelm Patrizia Tavella Jean-Michel Virieux Ascent Consulting Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) Retired Management Services BEA Métrologie Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML) Solvay/Belgium ENIQ/Italy Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC) Metrology Expert/Germany IENGF/Italy METAS/Switzerland Pierre Barbier has led the working group and coordinated the compilation of the book.

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54-55. N Maintenance 116. 153. 154-157. 160. 215 Initial training 250-251 International system of units 129 L Label 111-112. 115-118 European cooperation 45. 75 Accuracy 36. E Differential measurement 214-215 Direct measurement 214-215 Distribution of the measurements 228 Error 164-165. 186. 199 Bank of measuring instruments 113. 53. 100 Freedom of bias 183. 31. 150. 115-118 Indirect measurement 214-215 Influencing quantities 212-213. G Field of measurement 210 Fitting 239. 97-100 interval 149. 122 Maximum permissible error 79. 118. 159. 241 Follow-up 123-125 Freedom from bias 96. 134 Capability of measuring instruments 29 Check standard 154. 160 Continuing education 251-253 Continuous improvement 234 Control chart 152. 161 label 231 results 133. 59. 160 Covariance 180. 35-42. 41 Adjusting 241 Air conditioning 198. 101 . 158. 28. 159. 181. 188 Graphs 220 C Calibration 22-24. 70 F. B Accreditation 54-55. 116 Legal metrology 67-77 Long-lasting training courses 253265 D.Index A. 96. 168-169 M. 34. 120. 182 I Identification 228-232 Identification sheet 112.

36. 92. 150. 174-177. 248. 179. 202. 252 technician 249. 94. 264 Metrology profession 248 Mode of operation 207 Monitoring the measurement process 149 National calibration system 63. 100. 137. 139. 187. 86-89. 101. 65 metrology institute 130 S Scientific metrology 74 Stability 100-101 Standard deviation 166. 205207 Process approach 235 V. 183 Measuring principle 213 Metrological confirmation 95. 141-145 Regional organization 51-59 Relative humidity 198 Repeatability 87-88. 187-193 Reproducibility 184. 175. 30. W Variance 166. 186. 251. 145 Training 247-266 True value 169. 181. 169-171 T Temperature variations 196 Traceability 127 chain 126. 122 Recognition agreements 50. 184. 31. 134. 149. 251. 97100. 186.270 Metrology in Industry Measurement process 79. 133 Verification results 133. 36 to national standards 127. 141. 137. 200. 117. 263 Metrologist 247. 96. 42. 186 P Periodicity 111. 21. 143 of the measurements 22. 90. 170. 123-124 Procedure 195. 255259. 80-86 operator 250. 183. 191-192 Verification 81. 98 engineer 248-250 function 20. 152-157 control process 236 uncertainty 163. 90. 54. 174. 140. 252. 187-188 . 91. 165. 26. 188. 119. 192 Standards 39-42 Storing 121 Subcontracting 232 Systematic error 165. 135. 180. 169-170 Range of measurement 210 Receipt 119. 135. 129-131. 134 Work instruction 116-117 R Radioelectric disturbances 199 Random error 165. 55 Reference materials 131. 142. 198.

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