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CIVE 240 Technical Communications Dr. A. Robinson Hole School of Construction Engineering University of Alberta
1. Bar Chart 2. Critical Path Method (CPM) 3. Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) 4. Line of Balance (LOB)
2 A 1 B C 3 E G 5 H 8 M 10 D 7 9 L
Biding and Award Activities Design Construction
CPM: Activity on Arrow (AOA) Activities are represented by Arrows. Rules for constructing an AOA Diagram: 1) Draw arrows from left to right 2) Each activity must have an (i -j) number A 1 B C 4 2 3 . Events (points in time) are represented by Nodes.
CPM: Activity on Arrow (AOA) 3) Use Dummy activities when needed (Dummy activity is indicated by dashed line arrow & requires neither time nor resources but is needed to properly show the logic) 2 G G H 1 3 Dummy 2 Activity H G 1 3 H 4 1 .
2) Logical relationships are represented by Arrows. .CPM: Activity on Node (AON) Activity A Activity B Activity C 1) Activities are represented by Nodes. 4) No Dummy activities. 3) Single unique number for each activity.
Use of Milestones for AON Diagrams A B C Incorrect representation A Start Milestone B C Correct representation F E Finish Milestone F E .
Information in Activity Node Early Start Duration Early Finish (ES) (Time) (EF) Cost Task ($) (#) Late Start Late Finish Float (LS) (LF) Total/Free.. ...
concrete curing time) Start to Start (SS) = an activity can only start a specified amount of time after another starts (e.CPM Activity Relationships Used to overlap activities to reduce overall project duration Finish to Start (FS) = an activity can only start a specified amount of time after another finishes (e.g.g. done in parallel but trenching equipment must get out of way) . lead time between trenching and piping.
g.g. SS and FF) . lag time between rough in electrical and drywall finishing) Start to Finish (SF) = an activity can finish only a specified amount of time after another starts (can be represented by others) Can have multiple simultaneous relationships (e.CPM Activity Relationships Finish to Finish (FF) = an activity can finish only a specified amount of time after another finishes (e.
ES Finish to Start Start to Start ES LS ES Activity A LS Activity A Activity A EF LF EF LF EF LF ES ES LS ES Activity B LS Activity B EF LF EF LF Start to Finish LS Finish to Finish LS ES ES Activity A EF LF EF LF LS ES LS Activity B EF LF EF LF Activity B Percent Complete LS Activity A 50% ES LS Activity B EF LF .
assuming the predecessors were completed late . assuming the predecessors were completed early 3) Independent Float (IF): Maximum amount of time that the activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any of its successors.Types of Activity Float 1) Total Float (TF): Maximum amount of time that the activity can be delayed without delaying the completion time of the project 2) Free Float (FF): Maximum amount of time that the activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any of its successors.
j) Star = LS (i.j) Dij Star = L (i.Activity Floats ES (i.j) L (j) Star = ES (i.j) Dij Star = ES (i.j) IF E (j) LF (i.j) L (i) Total Float (TF) Free Float (FF) LS (i.j) with split Dij Independent Float .j) E (i) Dij EF (i.
Wall 2 Wall 2 Wall 1 Footing 2 Footing 1 Wall 1 Footing 2 Footing 1 Footing 1 Dummy Footing 2 Wall 1 20 Footing 2 Wall 2 AOA Approach 10 Footing 1 30 Wall 1 40 Wall 1 AON Approach .
crew size. 5.Critical Path Method (CPM) 1. productivity Determine sequence of and relationship between activities Draw Activity on Arrow (AOA) or Activity on Node (AON) diagram showing logic Do forward pass: calculate early start (ES) and early finish (EF) times for each activity . 3. shift length. 4. Determine activities required to complete project Estimate duration based on scope. 2.
Monitor performance and update schedule 6. Develop progress curve for project 12. Assign resources to bar chart and develop resource histograms 11. . Define project calendar 9.Critical Path Method (CPM) Do backward pass: calculate late start (LS) and late finish (LF) times for each activity 7. Calculate total float (TF) and free float (FF) 8. Develop bar chart from network diagram 10.
.e. longest path or sequence of events through project) Let start times = beginning of day Let end times = beginning of next day .CPM Calculations CPM determines critical path for project = minimum time required to complete entire project (i.
1 LF = earliest of LS times of all successors to activity LS = LF . LF = EF Since EF = beginning of next day. ES = 1 ES = latest of EF of all predecessors to activity EF = ES + duration of activity Backward pass: For last activity.duration of activity .CPM Calculations Forward pass: For first activity. then project duration (number of working days) = EF of last activity .
if TF = 0.CPM Calculations Floats: Total float (TF) = LS . TF=FF=0 .ES = LF – EF Free float (FF) = ES of next earliest successor – EF of activity FF <= TF. for critical activities. activity is critical and forms part of critical path.
CPM Example Job Name a b c d e f g h i j k ES. 9 9. 7 7. 11 19. 11 11. 10 8. 5 5. 28 LS. 25 25. 15 11. 8 8. 5 5. 15 13. 25 8. 13 11. EF 1. 11 12. 17 7. 15 15. 25 25. 15 15. 7 7. 28 TF 0 0 0 8 1 1 4 2 0 0 0 FF 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 0 0 0 . LF 1. 11 11.
8 33. 33 25. 29 28. 30 30. 30 30. 28 27. 31 17. 35 30. 34 20. 20 7.CPM Example (Continued) Job Name l m n o p q r s t u v ES. 30 28. 27 27. EF 28. 19 19. 35 28. 27 LS. LF 29. 30 28. 33 33. 22 22. 33 34. 35 TF 1 0 2 8 8 20 0 0 1 8 8 FF 1 0 2 0 0 12 0 0 1 0 8 . 35 30. 28 33.
csc-ca.org/english/index.html .Construction Sector Council Canadian national organization committed to development of highly skilled workforce for construction industry Conduct research on labour market trends. and provide labour supply/demand information by province http://www.
ca/cgi-bin/rp/rp2_desc_e?cjce Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (ASCE) www.gc.aacei.asce.Key Journals in Construction Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering (CSCE/NRC) http://pubs.org Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering (ASCE) www.org Cost Engineering (AACE) www.nrc-cnrc.asce.org Journal of Construction Management and Economics .