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Q1. What is internal recruitment? Why is it important for an organization?

Do you think it is
necessary to have a recruitment policy far an organization?

The term internal recruitment is defined as the practice of choosing amongst current
company workers to fill a position that falls vacant over time. The vacancy could
sometimes be advertised throughout a company; this could be on the company's
monthly or quarterly job-sheet. Most institutions of higher learning use this practice. The
practice is evoked occasionally when a company's employee has been rendered
redundant in their current post, and oftentimes it's a way used to promote a certain
company employee sideways other than up the firm. Internal recruitment is often
resorted to as a way of saving money that could be spent through advertisements and
also to cut on training costs that an outside employee would need to become familiar
with the system.

Internal sources of recruitment

• Present permanent employees (based on programs of career development).
• Present temporary / casual employees.
• Retired employees.
• Dependents of deceased disabled, retired and present employees.

Methods of internal recruitment

• Intranets.
• Staff notice boards.
• In-house magazines / newsletters.
• Internal notices.
• Meetings.
• Personal recommendation – often referred to as ‘word of mouth’.

Advantages of internal recruitment

• Cheaper and quicker to recruit.
• People already familiar with the business and how it operates.
• Provides opportunities for promotion with in the business – can be motivating.
• Business already knows the strengths and weaknesses of candidates.

Disadvantages of internal recruitment

• Limits the number of potential applicants.
• No new ideas can be introduced from outside the business.
• External candidates might be better suited / qualified for the job.
• May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed.
• Creates another vacancy which needs to be filled.
• Longer process.

Low compared to advertising externally. It may also reduce costs by reducing staff
turnover and by taking advantage of talent developed in-house.

Potential for discrimination

Recruiting through employee referral schemes, headhunting and word of
mouth/networking may have implications for diversity. These methods can restrict the
pool to people who are culturally similar to, or reflect the personal preferences of,
current employees.
"Use of a consistent, clear procedure, agreed jointly between employer and
employees, has many advantages and avoids suspicion of favouritism." ACAS
• In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment
policy is necessary for organizations to respond to its human resource
requirements in time. Therefore, it is important to have a clear and concise
recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to recruit the best
talent pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right place quickly.
Creating a suitable recruitment policy is the first step in the efficient hiring
process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure a sound
recruitment process. It specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a
framework for implementation of recruitment program. It may involve
organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programs
and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people. Components of
the recruitment policy Recruitment of consultants

• Recruitment of temporary employees

• Unique recruitment situations
• The selection process
• The job descriptions
• The terms and conditions of the employment

Internal recruitment can be effective when nurturing employees into senior position
and can reduce recruitment costs. However, this is not a very diverse method of
recruitment and you risk losing out on interesting and innovative perspectives from
external candidates.

Q2. Can we use the term skills, multi skilling and competency interchangeably? What are
their differences, if any?

A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the
minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain-general
and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills
would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self motivation and others,
whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job. Skill usually
requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being
shown and used.
People need a broad range of skills in order to contribute to a modern economy and
take their place in the technological society of the twenty-first century. An ASTD study
showed that through technology, the workplace is changing, and so are the skills that
employees must have to be able to change with it. The study identified 16 basic skills
that the workplace of the future would need in the employee of the future.

All through our life we have heard the popular maxim: "A jack of all trades, but a master
of none." In the old millennium, special skills were given great importance. Don't try your
hand in many occupations, you were told, or you will burn your fingers.

In such a fast moving world, people are required to do much more than earlier.
Everybody wants to equip himself with a variety of skills. We want to be adept at driving,
skiing, managing people, organizing parties, raising children, and speaking Hebrew.
Time is short, so make hay while the sun shines. This is the new age mantra. Multi
skilling has finally arrived.

In organizations, managers are happy to recruit multi talented employees. Can you
handle teams? Are you competent to organize events? Can you train and motivate your
subordinates? Can you also sell? Well, then walk right in, they say. Multi skilled people
seem to be the answer to many of organizational challenges.

Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a
specific job. It encompasses a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior utilized to
improve performance. More generally, competence is the state or quality of being
adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role.
For instance, management competency includes the traits of systems thinking and
emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. A person possesses a
competence as long as the skills, abilities, and knowledge that constitute that
competence are a part of that person, enabling the person to perform effective action
within a certain workplace environment. Therefore, one might not lose knowledge, a
skill, or an ability, but still lose a competence if what is needed to do a job well changes.
Competence is also used to work with more general descriptions of the requirements of
human beings in organizations and communities. Examples are educations and other
organizations that want to have a general language to tell what a graduate of an
education must be able to do in order to graduate or what a member of an organization
is required to be able to do in order to be considered competent. An important detail of
this approach is that all competences have to be action competences, which means that
a person shows in action that that person is competent. In the military the training
system for this kind of competence is called artificial experience, which is the basis for
all simulators.
I propose the following few viewpoints can well differentiate competency from skill:
• Skill is the know-how, the information almost knowledge. But competency is the
inherent ability in a person to achieve his/her goals by using the skills i.e., the
know-how, the info, the knowledge. For example, you can call a manager
competent only if (s)he can achieve his goals effectively by using his skills. The
manager may possess organizational, planning, communication, computer, and
interpersonal etc. skills. But we won't call him/her competent if he/she fails to
achieve his goals, e.g. lowering production costs, enhancing the product quality
• Skill is related to education whereas competency is related to training,
experience etc.
• A machine can be skilled but cannot be competent. Competency related to
common sense which a machine lacks of from.
Q3. Define transfer. Why is transfer necessary for an organization? What are the different
types of transfer?

Transfer is the lateral movement of employees from one position, division, department
or unit to another
Types of Transfer
• Production transfer
• Remedial transfer
• Versatility transfer
• Shift transfer
Objective of Transfer
• Increase organizational effectiveness
• Add to the versatility and competence of key personnel
• Cope with the fluctuation in work requirement
• Rectify erroneous placement
• Relieve boredom and monotony
• Set right in compatibilities in employee relations
• Look after the interests of the employee
• Provide creative opportunity
• Train employee for the future advancement or promotion
An organisation may transfer personal information about an individual to someone
(otherthan the organisation or the individual) who is outside Victoria only if –

• The organisation reasonably believes that the recipient of the information is

subject to a law, binding scheme or contract which effectively upholds principles
for fair handling of the information that are substantially similar to the Information
Privacy Principles.
• The individual consents to the transfer.
• The transfer is necessary for the performance of a contract between the
individual and the organisation, or for the implementation of pre-contractual
measures taken in response to the individual's request.
• The transfer is necessary for the conclusion or performance of a contract
concluded in the interest of the individual between the organisation and a third
• All of the following apply –
(i) the transfer is for the benefit of the individual;
(ii) it is impracticable to obtain the consent of the individual to that transfer;
(iii) if it were practicable to obtain that consent, the individual would be likely to
give it.

• The organisation has taken reasonable steps to ensure that the information
which it has transferred will not be held, used or disclosed by the recipient of the
information inconsistently with the Information Privacy Principles.