( "'

I PB283-850 I
I ~ ~ I I I ~ ~ I _ I I I _ ~
014926-F
Gripping Strength Measurements
of Children for Product
Safety Design
CLYDE·L. OWINGS, M.D., Ph.D.
RICHARD H. NORCUn, M.S.
RICHARD G. SNYDER, Ph.D.
D. HENRY GOLOMB, M.S.
KATHIE Y. LLOYD,B.S.
September 1977
Sponsored By
CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION
------,
: REPRODUCED BY 'I
I
· u.s. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE :
NATIONAL TECHNICAL I
! INFORMATION SERVICE
I , ~ _ SPRINGFIELD. VA22161 )
DATA 11. Report No.
r2.
I n
SHEET
4. Tide and Subtitle 5. Report D,ate
.-/ -
Gripping Strength Measurements of Children for Product September 1977
Safety Design
6.
7. Author(s) C.L.
Owings,M.D. ,Ph.D., R.H. Norcutt ,M. S., R.G. Snyder,
8. Perfotming Organization Rept.
Ph.D. D.H.Golomb M.S. K.Y. Llovd B.S.
No.
O14926-F
9. Petformmg Organization Name and Address 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No.
O14926-F
The University of Michigan
11. Contract/Grant No.
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 CPSC-C-76-0119
12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 13. Type of Report & Period
Consumer Product Safety Commission
Covered
5401 Westbard Avenue
Final Reoort
Bethesda, Maryland 20207
14.
CPSC-C-7 6-011 g
15. SupplementatY Notes
16. Abstracts
The report describes anthropometric and isometric strength measurements of the
hand and upper extremity function obtained of a group of children, age two through
ten. Measurements were taken in the following areas (1) Linkage measurements
with concentration on the hand, (2) Grip strength in the three-point pinch, five-
point pinch, and squeeze or power grip positions corresponding to exertions on
objects between two and nine centimeters size, (3) Torque capability around the
elbow both for flexion and extension was measured at joint angles between 67.5
and 180 degees. Results (males and females combined) are presented with a picture
brief description of the measurement, data table and a scatter plot as a function
of age. Cumulative results are also given at the end of the three sections.
17. Key Words'and Document Analysis. 170. Descriptors
Children
Grip Strength
Elbow-Shoulder Movement
Hand Dimensions
Hand, Hand Force
17b. Identifiers/Open-Ended Terms
17c. COSATl Field/Group
1B. Availability Statement 19. Security Class (This 21. 'No. of Pages
A

20. Security Class (This
22. Price /'CAI3
Page
UNCLASSIFIED mFA-oI
"OR'" NTIS-3S (REV. '073) ENDORSED BY ANSI AND UNESCO. THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED U5COMM- DC B28S- P 74 '
CONTRACT CPSC-C-76-0119 FINAL REPORT
SEPTEMBER 77
GRIPPING STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF CHILDREN,
FOR PRODUCT SAFETY DESIGN
CLYDE L,. OWINGS, M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
RICHARD H. NORCUTT, M.S. (Bioengineering)
Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases
RICHARD G. SNYDER, Ph.D.
Biomedical Department, Highway Safety Research Institute
Department of Anthropology
D. HENRY GOLOMB, M.S.
Highway Safety 'Research Institute
KATHIE Y. LLOYD, B.S.
Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109
Prepared for:
The Consumer Product Safety Commission
5401 West Bard Avenue
Bethesda, Maryland 20207
.\
\
________d_ I
i Preceding page blank il
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"
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A large number of individuals have contributed
long hours of hard work to this mUltidisciplinary
study. We very much appreciate the encouragement
guidance and supervision of Dr. Albert F. Esch and
Mr. Donald T. Van Houten who served as technical
monitors for this project.
Finally, we are very grateful for the dedication
and effort of the children and their parents who made
this study possible.
i I' Preceding page blank-:
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . i
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................... ii
LIST OF FIGURES ...•.................•..............•.. iii
1.0 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Background.............. . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Objectives and Scope 7
2.0 . METHODS AND TECHNIQUE ...•.........•......... : .. 8
2.1 Design of the Study 8
2.2 Elbow Transducer ...•....•....•............ 9
2.3 Giip Transducer 16
2.4 Anthropometer .••.......................... 27
2.5 Strength Criteria .......•....•....•....•.. 29
2.6 Calibration of equipment 29
2.7 Data Acquisition and Display ......•.. 32
2.8 Procedure •••....•................. 32
2.9 Data Reduction ...............•............ 38
3.0 RESULTS
3.1 Description of Data Presentation ..•....... 40
3.1.1 Interpretation of Data .•••.....• 41
3.2 Linkage Measurements ....••...•...........• 49
3.2.1 Index of Data ....•.••.•••.••.•..... 49
3.2.2 Data 51
3.2.3 Statistical Tables ...........•..... ll9
3.3 Hand •••..••....•....•.•..•••...•. 127
3.3.1 Index of Data 129
3.3.2 Data -Strength vs. Age ....••...... 131
3.3.3 Data - Strength YS. Span
3.3.4 Statistical Tables 203
3.4 Elbow Strength •................•.......... 214
3.4.1 Index of Data .........•.•.......... 218
3.4.2 Data - Strength YS. Age 219
3.4.3 Data - Strength vs. Other Variables 232
3.4.4 Statistical Tables ....•............ 240
3.5 Discussion 243
3.6 Sample Strength Calculations .•............ 248
4.0 APPENDICIES
4.1 Static Analysis of Limb Fixture 249
4.2 Principle of Grip Transducer Operation 252
5.0 BIBLIOGRAPHy 255
ii
Anatomical Planes, Axes, and Directions 48
Child Performing a Squeeze .........•........... 19
Child in Standard Test Position 14
Side View of Cha.ir 10
Front View· of Chair 11
9
12
15
17
36
37
Page
.27
...' ,.
LIST OF FIGURES·
Title
Complete Measurement System
Grip: Squeeze - Force Diagram .....•........... 20
Grip: 3 Point Pinch - Force Diagram
............ 21
Grip: 5 Point Pinch - Force D i a g r a ~ , ............. 22
Table A - Selection Guide for Handle Sets
...... 24
Diagram of Arm Fixture
Grip Transducer with Three Handle Sets
Chair Adjusted For 9 Year Old
Grip Transducer with Pinch Handle Set ..•...... 17
Pinch Transducer at 2, 5, and 9 em 18'
Automated Anthropometer
Automated Anthropometer (Internal Construction). 28
Attachment of Calibration Weights 31
Questionaire
Consent Form
Figure No.
lo
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
II.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20·.
iii
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This report describes isometric strength measurements of
hand and upper extremity function obtained on a group of
children, age two through ten. Three-point pinch, five-point
pinch, and squeeze or power grip were measured at different de-
grees of hand closure, corresponding to exertions on objects
between two and nine centimeters size. The torque capability
around the elbow both for flexion and extension was measured
at joint angles between 67.5° and 180°.
Over three hundred fifty children between the ages of two
and eleven served as subjects for hand measurements. The group
was chosen, for the most part, from children who had participa-
ted in a nationwide anthropometric study of over 8,000.
of elbow strength were done on 104 boys and girls.
Studies
1
1.1 Background
An investigation of the strength characteristics of u.s.
children for product safety design was reported in 1975 (162).
A new measurement system was developed and validated for ob-
taining isometric strength measurements, expressed as torques,
at the major joint centers for children. The age range studied
was between two and eleven years, and over five hundred children
were measured. The torque values were obtained at a specified
anatomic position, but only a single position was used for
most measurements. Also force capabilities for squeeze, two
point pinch, three point pinch, five point pinch, and lateral
pinch were measured with each at a single degree of hand closure.
A computer based model for the prediction of strength from
these data was developed.
This report represents a continuation of the measurement
techniques described above and an expansion of the quantitative
strength data in two areas:
1) the elbow at different angles for flexion and ex-
tension
2) the hand at different degrees df hand closure for
squeeze, three point pinch, and five point pinch.
Both contain new data that relate strength and the position of
measurement.
Rather complete anthropometry was obtained on the subjects
of this investigation. Extensive measurements of hand dimensions
were included in order to investigate the relationship between
2
hand size and strength.
The hand, with its opposable thumb, is a mechanically com-
plex region of the body that is responsible for fine control
movements and, on occasion, can supply considerable power.
Many tests of manual dexterity have been developed to evaluate
hand movements in adults (117, 115, 206). Many methods have
been used to measure hand strength, also in adults, but there
is nQ single test that cdmpletely describes hand strength.
The situation is even more difficult to characterize for
children who have different size hands at different ages. As
a child grows his hand becomes both larger and stronger. Very
little information is available on how this growth affects
strength. Indeed, many measurements have been obtained with
little attention devoted to the size of the hand. Most measure-
ments of gripping strength fail to specify the size of the sur-
faces being gripped to secure a strength valrie (74, 134", 160).
One of the most popular instruments for gripping strength
measurements, the Jamar dynamometer, can be adjusted to vary
the spacing between the gripping surfaces. Only one study (151)
was found that evaluated the optimum setting of an adjustable
dynamometer (Stoelting). In this study, Montoye and Faulkner
concluded "a slight advantage is gained particularly for sub-
jects with large or small hand size, through the use of an
adjustable grip dynamometer." Subjects ranged in age between
4 and 52 years but the distance between gripping surfaces
ranged from 4.25 em. to 6.5 em. The data was only reported
according to hand size, and not age. Perhaps hand strength
3
depends upon more than just hand size. For example, a growing
ten year old boy might have the same hand breadth and hand
length as a small fifty year old female,but should one
the same strength capability from both?
The size of a test fixture and the size of the hand it
measures interact in several ways. Obviously,a small hand may
not be large enough to grasp a large object, but the converse
also causes problems. For a large hand, a rod becomes more
difficult to grasp as its size becomes smaller. Closure of the
fingers around an object, together with the compressibility 0=
tissue, interferes with the ability to transmit force to an
object. The force measured for large hands is reduced as the
gripping span is decreased in Montoye's and Faulkner's study (151).
The loading forces on tissue become more important for smaller
objects since the force per unit area increases. For all of
these reasons, an adult would have much more difficulty climb-
ing a 1/8" diameter vertical rod than a 2" diameter vertical
rod.
The most comprehensive measurement of gripping strength
contains data on 6000 males and ·females but only between the
ages of 10 years and 69 years (152). study measured 82%
of the eligible age range in an entire community, as well as
including a measure of arm strength.
Many studies have reported strength measurements about
the elbow,but most were obtained at a single position. The
measurement methods used have been previously discussed (162)
4
but suffer from several defects. The poor dynamic response of
measurements using a cable tensiometer make it difficult to
evaluate the effect of "explosive" strength. The effect of
experimenter expectation (183) has been mentioned and is an
uncontrolled variable in many studies. The subjective nature
of numeric evaluation from chart records introduces an addi-
tional variable in the few studies that use strain gages.
Singh and Karpovitch (197) measured college students and
reported the torque generated about the elbow joint for both
flexion and extension. The instrument used a large electric
motor which moved the arm through its range of motion, as "an
electrogoniometer measured the joint angle. This technique
more nearly approximates isotonic strength rather than isometric
strength.
In an earlier study Williams and Stutzman measured strength
variation through the range of joint motion with a cable tensi-
ometer (231). The results were reported for "college men" and
are interesting mainly for the shape of the curves.
Since no precise data was available for children, this
study was undertaken to measure the variation of strength about
the elbow at different joint angles for both flexion and exten-
sion. These data are needed to improve the prediction process
for strength in a variety of positions.
The safety implications of strength are numerous. This is
especially true for children who may not be aware of their own
limitations. The force transmitted to an object may be suffi-
cient to move the object but not large enough to allow for com-
5
fortable control. A child who lifts a floor lamp may not be
strong enough to prevent it from toppling. As loss of control
is more likely to result in injury to the individual, grasping
force is important in estimating the h a z ~ r d for injury of a
situation.
6
1.2 Objectives and Scope
The objectives of this study were:
1) To design and construct a device for the measurement
of hand strength in children between the age of three
and ten years. The device would have the capacity to
measure three point pinch, five point pinch, and
squeeze at different degrees of hand closure.
2) To develop data acquisition programs that control the
operation of both the new device ~ n d the existing
strength chair.
3) To obtain gripping strength measurements on 350
children ranging in age from two to ten years. To
include:
a) Three point pinch at one centimeter increments
between 2 ern. and 9 cm.
b) Five point pinch at one centimeter increments
between 2 cm. and 9 cm.
c) Squeeze at one centimeter increments between 2 em.
and 7 cm.
4) To obtain measurements of elbow.flexi.on 9treQgth and
elbow extension strength on a. sub-population of 100
children. The strengths are measured at the following
angles of elbow flexion:
157.5°, and 180° (full extension).
5) To analyze and statistically reduce the data in such a
manner as to be convenient for product safety design.
7
· I
2.0 METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
2.1 Design of the Study
There are several ways to measure and report the results
of a strength test. Strength maybe considered as a force .
at a distance so that a complete must
the magnitude of the force and the direction and location at
which it was measured. An alternate way to present the same
information uses the rotational equivalent, or torque, around
a joint center of rotation. Both methods of reporting strength
are used in this report.
The measurements of elbow flexion and elbow extension are
most conveniently expressed as the torque about the elbow center
of rotation. This' is the same method used in the previous re-
port All· torques are expressed in (Kgf-cm) Kilogram force-
centimeters.
For gripping strength measurements it is more appropriate
to report the force magnitude and direction since the transducer
is adjustable to represent standard size objects between 2 and
9 centimeters. The immense mechanical complexity o·f the hand
with a large number of joints would require that the position
of each joint be known in order to express the measurements as
torques. All forces are expressed in (Kgf) Kilogram force.'
The direction of the force is reported as the angle formed with
the centerline of the grip transducer.
8
2.2 Elbow Transducer: Design and Function
j.
The transducer used to measure isometric elbow flexion/
extension at different elbow angular positions was part of a
versatile "strength chair" designed and used to make
similiar child strength measurements at other body joints.
2,3). The chair fits the child sitting in it like an
exoskeleton for the right half of the body. The upper and lower
limbs rest on padded metal bars whose articulated lengths are
adjustable to fit any size child in the 2 to 10 year age range.
(Fig. 4). The child's trunk and limbs are snugly strapped to
supporting bars where their strength can be measured by strain
gages. All the electrical signals are amplified and fed via a
12 bit A/D converter to a Nova 1220 digital where spe-
cial programs control data (Fig. 1). Also while in
the chair, the child's weight can be measured by 'load cells.
Figure 1 Complete Measurement system
l : WEIGHT PLATFORM
BACK FIXTURE
~ ../
CHEST STRAP
SHOULDER FIXTURE
ARM STRAP ~ - " ~ -
- WRIST STRAP
~ ~
HUMERAL FIXTURE
HANDLE
ELBOW FIXTURE
RADIAL FIXTURE
KNEE STRAP
PELVIC STRAP
~ o o
. KNEE .FIXTURE
HIP FIXTURE
o . \ ~
FEMORAL FIXTURE
I-'
.....111111111111I1111 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~
TIBIAL FIXTURE
a
ANKLE FIXTURE
ANKLE STRAP
FOOT STRAP
Figure 2 Side View of Chair
'-"
I LEFT FOOT SUPPORT
I LEFT SHOULDER IMMOBILIZER
• BACK FIXTURE
~ 11I11I KNEE STRAP
I I \\ PELVIS IMMOBILIZER
: J
11111I ,. r","" 111I1 WEIGHT PLATFORM
ANKLE STRAP '.
FOOT STRAP ~
ANKLE FI XTURE ---l
TIBIAL FIXTURE ---
SHOULDER FIXTURE "3;"".
CHEST STRAP. . I
HUMERAL FIXTURE "
ARM S T R A P ~
WRIST STRAP
RADIAL FIXTURE I-
ELBOW FIXTURE .
KNEE STRAP ~
KNEE FIXTURE II
......
......
Figure 3 Front View of Chair
12
Specifically, the upper extremity portion of the chair was
used in this study (Figs. 5,6). The upper extremity fixture bends
and locks at the elbow and shoulder _anatomical joint centers.
Adjustable fixture lengths correspond to the radial and humeral
The child climbs into the chair and his wrist and arm
are secured to the fixtures with Velcro straps. Another strap
is used across the chest to stabilize the child in the chair.
The child is allowed to grip a handle mounted at the end of the
radial.fixture. The elbow joint may be pivoted and locked to
any of six possible elbow positions: 90°, 112.5°, 135°,
157.5°, and 180°. (See Section 3.-4, page 214) the fixture
with the Child's arm secured causes negligible motion between the
arm and the arm fixture, since the axis of rotation of the elbow
follows closely with that of the arm fixture. Flexing the elbow
thus flexes the fixture as well.
Transduction of the elbow torque is accomplished by resistance
strain gages mounted on the metal fixture, aligned with the
J
effective elbow:axis. The electrical resistance of a strain
gage changes in proportion t6 the mechanical strain of the sup-
- F6r the upper extremity the mechanical
strain measured by the gages, is proportional to the torque
about the subject's elbow joint. A change in voltage drop across
strain gages thus corresponds directly to the instantaneous
torque about the joint and is fed into the computer for further
analysis.
Along with the elbow flexion/extension gages, similiar gages
are positioned to measure torque about the wrist and shoulder.
13
"
I
Figure 5 Child in standard te-st position
I
14
! •
I I .. x
y
" STRAIN GAUGE SET A
" JOINT CENTER A
" LIMB A
" STRAP A
I JOINT CENTER B
" STRAIN GAUGE SET B
/ LIMB B
, STRAP B
DISTAL END OF LIMB

B I I
It
d
1

I
A
1-'

Figure 6 Diagram of Limb and Limb Fixture
Since they are independent measurements, several torques may be
recorded simultaneously. In this study, two additional channels
were recorded from the arm along with the elbow flexion/extension
channel: shoulder flexion/extension and wrist adduction/
abduction. These motions occur in the same spatial plane as"the
elbow flexion/extension. Hip flexion/extension was recorded on
an' additional channel in order to evaluate reaction forces occur-
ing at this joint." ~ o r the elbow tests of this, study, the
shoulder was always positioned in a 0° flexed position and ab-
ducted ~ o . The wrist was maintained in a mid pronation-supination
position and otherwise anatomically neutral.
. 2.3
Grip Transducer: Design and Function
The grip transducer has several removable parts that serve
to adapt the basic transducer mechanism to measure squeeze
(Fig. 7) or to measure 3 point pinch and 5 point pinch (Fig. 8).
The distance between two parallel r i g i ~ surfaces can be adjusted
in one centimeter increments so as to mimic the squeezing or
pinching of different size objects and to obtain measurements at
different positions of hand closure.
Figure nine shows the measurement of 5 poiht pinch at three
different positions. The tips of the fingers are positioned on
the transducer. Notice that the lower picture shows a pinch of
9 centimeters. The subject, because of his hand size is unable
to pinch a larger dimension.
The operation of the transducer can be described by consider-
ing a squeeze strength as shown in Figures 10 and 14. For each
16
iiJI" ....-.
-...:.
..... ..
"
Figure 7 Grip with three handle sets
Figure 8 Grip Transducer with pinch handle set
17
i ~ " I, IJ
' ..."
F i ~ i l r e 9
Pinch Transducer at 2, 5, and 9 cm.
18
! .,.'/
Figure 14 Child performing a squeeze
grip span, the 2-dimensional direction, :magnitude, and location
of the resultant force exerted by the on the .handle is mea-
,\<' •
sured and recorded. This resultant force lies in thegeornetric
plane formed by the two handle The component
or perpendicular to the handle (Fn) has been
classically measured in previous studies and is the greatest in
magnitude. A second component, a shear force, which is parallel
to the handle surfaces (Fs) was also measured by the transducer
to:
1) determine the shear effect of the hand on the
handle during a squeezing or pinching exertion,
2) better identify the ultimate 3-dimensional charac-
ter of forces generated in gripping, and
3) study the variation of force direction throughout the
course of a five second exertion from subject to subject.
Diagrams of the two force components for, 3 point pinch anc
pinch are given in Figures 11 and 12.
19
GRIP: SQUEEZE
FORCE DIAGRAM
Distal
Handle
Proximal
Handle
+F
s
I ~ S ...,
F
F ::::
n
s
Total resultant squeeze force·
Normal component of squeeze force (perpendicular to handle
surface)
Shear component of squeeze force
Position (vector) of resultant force on distal handle
surface (measured from centerline between second and
third finger)
Angle of resultant force (F) with respect to handle
centerline
Handle span
Figure 10
20
r
GRIP: 3 POINT PINCH
FORCE DIAGRAM
Distal
Handle
Proximal
Handle
+F
s
F =
F =
n
F =
s
L
F
=
~
=
5 =
I ~ S ..,
Total resultant squeeze force
Normal component of squeeze force (perpendicular to handle
surface)
Shear component of squeeze force
Position (vector) of resultant force on distal handle
surface (measured from centerline between second and
third finger)
Angle of resultant force (F) with respect to handle
centerline
Handle span
Figure 11
21
GRIP: 5 POINT PINCH
FORCE DIAGRAM
Distal
Handle
Proximal
Handle
+F
s
F-s
F =
F =
n
F =
s
L
F
=
~
=
S =
Total resultant squeeze force
Normal component of squeeze force (perpendicular to handle
surface)
Shear component of squeeze force
Position (vector) of resultant force on distal handle
surface (measured from centerline between second and
third finger)
Angle of resultant force (F) with respect to handle
centerline
Handle span
Figure 12
22
The third force component, that perpendicular to the plane
of the handle, was not measured. Its magnitude is felt to be
much smaller than the normal and shear components and an insig-
nificant factor in determining significant gripping characteris-
tics.
The location (LF) of the resultant force in the. plane of the
handle was measured relative to a thin center brace (Fig. 10).
This brace serves as a centerline of the transducer and thus the
zero reference point for measuring LF. During gripping or pinch-
ing the hand is positioned so that as many fingers are on one side
of the centerline as on the other side. The distance (LF) when
compared with the anthropometric measurement of finger breadth
gives the resultant force position on a finger surface. Also,
with the handle span and force angle known, the_ resultant force
position may be determined on the proximal handle surface.
The basic transducer consists of a thin U-shaped aluminum·
bar onto which two handle halves may be mounted, one stationary
and one adjustable at I em. intervals of grip span. On the ~ n n e r
surface of the bar frame, five sets of resistance strain gages
are mounted. The electrical output of the-gages is fed into the
computer and processed in a manner similiar to the elbow strain
gage signals. Three electrical channels of output from these
gages uniquely determine two components of the resultant force
and its location. .See the appendix for a description of the
principles of the grip strength transducer.
Four different pairs of handles are used on the transducer
and are described in Table A (Fig. 13). All handles are color-
23
l'-.l
ot>
TABLE A
FINGER HANDLE HANDLE S·PAN MAXIMUM SPAN
TEST LENGTH GEOMETRY (1 ern increments) TESTED
Squeeze L ( 5 Small Radius (5 mm) 2.0 - 6.0 ern 1.1 L (ern)
Squeeze 5 ( L < 6 Medium Radius (7 rom) 2.0 - 7.0 ern lolL (cm)
Squeeze L> 6 Large Radius (9 rom) 2.0 - 9.0 ern 1.1 L (ern)
3 pt/5 pt Pinch All Flat 2.0 - 15.0 cm 1.5L (ern)
REMARKS:
1. Middle finger measurement (L) is taken from tip of the second finger to
its palmar skinfold.
2. Handle radii chosen to fit average length of middle phalange of the
second finger for each hand size catagory.
3. Maximum span tested is limited to:
Pinch span = 1.5 L
Squeeze span = 1.1 L
Figure 13 Selection guide for handle sets
coded and coated with 2 rom thick hard rubber to distribute hand
pressure. One pair is used for all hand sizes in measuring 3
and 5 point pinch (Fig. 8) while the other three pairs are used
for small, medium, and large hand sizes in squeeze tests (Fig. 7).
The possible span range for pinch tests is 2-15 cm. and for
squeeze tests is 2-9 em. All spans are adjustable in I em. in-
crements with a minimum spacing of 2 em. Where necessary, the'
maximum span actually tested on a given child was limited to 1.5
times the middle finger length (MP joint to tip, phalanx III) in
the pinch tests and 1.1 times the middle finger length in the
squeeze tests. These limits were empirically determined to define
the maximum span at which a child could form a practical grip on
the handles. Radii on the three ~ q u e e z e handle sets were also
empirically derived to provide an average child; of a specified
hand size range, the greatest possible handle surface area over
which to distribute gripping pressure. Such a broad smooth grip
surface prevents the limitation of exertion due to the pain of
gripping too small an object. Handle widths were limited to 2
times the radius to accomodate full flexion of the fingers in the
2 em. span.
Positioning of the hand is controlled vertically along the
distal handle by the inter-finger center brace separating two
or four fingers used in the tests. Transverse positioning during
pinch tests is restricted to only distal phalange contact at the
handles. In the squeeze or power grip, the distal handle con-
tact is restricted to the middle phalange of the fingers.
25
Placement of the thenar eminance vertically along the proximal
handle is allowed to vary to suit the subject's comfort. Prox-
imal handle contact extends from the hypothenar eminance to the
finger web between the thumb and first finger. Flexion of the
metacarpal and interphalangeal joint positions in all test posi-
tions is allowed to vary.
Measurement of normal and shear forces, Fn and Fs, respec-
tively, are accurate within .1 Kgf. Each component is measured
independently. Determination of the lqcation of the resultant
force is accurate within ~ .8 mm. for forces" on the handle regions
used to determine the force location from the three channels of
information, the measurement error for force location tends to
approximately double when either the normal force component (Fri)
falls below 0.1 Kgf or the ratio ~ ~ « l . In the application of
the instrument for pinch and squeeze measurements, however, these
Fn
extremes are either not encountered ( Fs>25 usually) or not
used for maximum strength determinations ( Fn> 1 Kgf usually).
26
2.4 Anthropometer: Design and Function
An automated anthropometer was constructed to minimize the
possibility of anthropometric linkage measurement error and re-
cording error and to increase the efficiency of the measuring
process. A conventional anthropometer was modified by the ad-
dition of a switch, potentiometers, and spring-cable assembly.
As shown in Figures 15 and 16, the potentiometer was mounted on
the end of the caliper and protected by a box. A double pulley
locked onto its shaft was fastened both to a cable-spring recoil
mechanism lying within the anthropometer shaft, and to the sliding
blade of the caliper external to its shaft. The potentiometer
was wired to the computer through the switch mounted" on the po-
tentiometer box.
Figure 15 Automated anthropometer
27
Sliding the caliper blade to a linkage dimension thus rotates
the potentiometer proportionally, while the spring maintains
proper cable tension. Depressing the switch allows the compu-
ter to record the voltage output of the potentiometer in pro-
portion to the anthropometric opening.
For measurements under 30 ern. the anthropometer is accurate
+
to, 1 mm. Adding anthropometer shaft extensions allows measure-
+
ments up to 120 em., accurate to - 3 mm.

POSITION SIGNAL
Figure 16 Automated Anthropometer
(internal construction)
28
2.5 Strength Criteria
Human strength researchers have been- in considerable disa-
greement as to the best measurement of strength. Assessment of
.strength must occur over ~ long enough period of t i m ~ to eliminate
effects due to "explosive" strength and yet must be over a short
enough duration to eliminate decreases in strength due to fatigue.
A variety of algorithms were investigated in the previous
study (162). The average torque (or force) generated over a
period of one second was chosen to represent strength. This
duration is long enough to minimize the effect of a single errOne-
ously high value produced by dynamic inertial effects'but short
enough to minimize the effect of fatigue and loss of motivation.
In this report, when a single number is assigned to "strength",
it is obtained by selecting the average value over one second
of contiguous data that has the greatest value of all possible
contiguous one second intervals in the five second exertion.
This algorithm has been implemented in the computer programs, and
has the advantage of not requiring human judgement and interven-
tion for its proper operation. Thus "strength" is represented by
an average over one second or 20 data points.
2.6 Calibration of Equipment
Calibration of the elbow transducer was accomplished using
a method devised to simultaneously calibrate all the upper ex-
tremity transducers of the strength chair. The arm of the chair
29
was abducted 45° and flexed 22.5° with the elbow in a 90° posi-
tion (Fig. 17) while locked in the position, a weight of 4.47
Kg. was suspended at a standard location on the hand fixture,
providing known components of torque to all gages of the extre-
mity. A. computer program automatically sampled the output from
each gage set in this loaded configuration and after the weight
was removed, the channels were again sampled to obtain baseline
readings. Finally, the difference the gage outputs was ex-
pressed as a calibration factor.
Calibration factor = V load - V no load
input torque
All instruments in a data acquisition channel are thus calibrated
in a single step. Periodically during the study, the calibration
of the system was verified.
The grip was calibrated similiarly with a weight
suspended from the transducer handle to provide known force com-
ponents perpendicular and parallel to the handle surface. The
fixed position of the weight also provided information to calcu-
late a calibration factor for a force.
Anthropometer calibration was easily accomplished by first
obtaining a zero (closed) reading and then moving to a predeter-
mined measurement (read from the scale on its shaft) for a second
reading. The difference in voltage readings divided by the cali-
per span was used as a calibration factor for the instrument.
30
Figure 17 Attachment of Calibration Weights
31
2.7 Data Acquisition and Display
The data acquisition system used for this project con-
. sisted of a 16 bit Data General Nova 1220 computer with 16K
words of memory, a 24 channel analog to digital converter, a
dual Linc tape magnetic t a p ~ system, and a Tektronix 4010
graphics terminal. Twenty-four instrumentation amplifiers,
with adjustable gain were used to amplify the strain gage signals
to a value of + 5 volts for the 12 bit analog to digital .con-
verter. This system allows a signal resolution of 1 part in
4096.
The data acquisition programs were written in an expanded
version of the Basic (R) language. The programs control the
acquisition of descriptive information such as age, name, birth-
date, as well as the sequencing of anthropometric and strength
measurements (approximately 63 measurements).
2.8 Testing Procedure
All testing in the Strength Study was done at the Child
Strength Laboratory at C.S. Mott Children's Hospital. Children
were tested during a six month period. Parents were contacted by
phone and appointments set up convenient for the child and parent.
The children ranged in age between 2 1/2 years and 10 1/2 years.
The younger children were usually tested during ,the mornin9 and
early afternoon hours of the day, while the older children came in
32
after school. Race and sex were carefully considered in the recrui-
ting, in order that the sample be a fair representation of the popu-
lation.
Each testing session, including the anthropometric measure-
ments, described in section 3.2, lasted about 30 to 40 minutes.
Each child was tested in a single session, with the exception of
those children who performed both the elbow and the grip tests.
Parents were required to sign a consent form which gave per-
mission for the child to be tested (Fig. 19) and to fill out a
questionaire containing general information, such as the child's
date of birth, address, etc. (Fig. 18). Parents were encouraged
to remain in the lab for the testing session, and most did so.
Many of the children who participated in the study came with a
sibling or a friend. A small play area was used in one part of the
lab
l
where oqe or more children could play while another was being
tested.· During this wait, the child could draw a picture, which
was later.put on the wall of the lab. This decoration on the walls
helped make a friendly environment for the children.
First, linkaqe ncasurcncnts wcre obtaincr; ~ n ( ~ t n n ~ i n q h e i q ~ t
and weight were measured with the child's shoes removed. An
automatic anthropometer was used to enter the measurements directly
into the computer. The body weight was obtained with the child
seated on the back of the strength chair. When all linkage measure-
ments had been obtained, the results were displayed on the graphics
terminal for evaluation.
33
Using the linkage measurements, the chair was adjusted accor-
ding to the child's size. In this way each child could sit com-
fortably in the chair during the testing session. A "zero weight"
was then taken before the session began. This was done by the
computer measuring the initial voltage produced on each of the
strain gages of the empty chair. Then the child was seated in the
strength chair and the velcrd
R
) straps were carefully placed over
the necessary limbs as a means of maintaining a known position
during each test. The child was encouraged to fasten some of the
straps himself to relieve any apprehensions which he might have.
Simple instructions, which explained the test procedure, were
given each child before the testing session. Then, before each of
the tests specific directions and a demonstration helped the child
understand exactly how to perform the test. The child was asked
to sustain each movement as hard as he could for a time interval
of five seconds. At the end of this time an audible tone, genera-
ted by the computer program, signaled the end of the test.
Immediately after each test, a graph of the torque-force vs. time
was displayed on the computer terminal. This "picture" allowed
the child to see the results of his strength after each of the
tests. The tester could decide whether to accept, delete, or
repeat the test, depending on the child's If a sig-
nificant amount of time elapsed in which there was little or no exer-
tion by the child, or if the directions were not followed properly,
then the test was deleted and repeated. Later in the sequence the
omitted tests were performed. Because of the repetition in using
34
certain muscle groups of the arm and hand, the child was given
adequate rest between each test. If there was any doubt of the
child being able to, perform the test properly, it was omitted and
the next test done. Thus each was hoped to be an accurate
display of the child's strength.
Following the test session, the child was given a snack.
Parents and children were very cooperative during the study and
there were very few times when-the tester did not receive the de-
sirable results.
Motivational techniques for this st,udy remained much the same
as those used in the previous study (162). Children were tested
on a volunteer basis and no child was tested that didn't want to
be. Important in the testing session was the interaction between
the child and the tester. The tester was a certified elementary
school teacher with extensive experience with children and parents.
Her techniques with the children helped determine the outcome of
the session, which was to obtain the best possible results from
each child during each test.
Verbal encouragement during the actual test worked as the
most important motivational technique. The graphics display on
the computer terminal, which allowed the child to view the results
immediately after each test, was also an, important factor in mo-
tivation. The child could see his "picture" of his strength right
after each test. This instant gave the child the in-
centive to perform his best each time.
To compensate for parking and travel costs, all the children,
or their parents, received reimbursement of $5.00 per visit. To'
some of the children this fee served as a type of motivation.
35
CHILD STUDY
University of Michigan Department of Pediatrics
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
Name of School Name of Teacher
--------
Child's Name
---------------------------------
Address

Child's Date of
------------'---
Male 0
Female 0
Child's Race
---------------
Mother's Occupation
-----------------------------
Father's Occupation
---------'--------------------
White c===J
White
More than 12 yrs.
o
Y10re than 12 yrs.
o
Oriental 0
Please specify
------------
community?
---------------
Oriental 0
Please specify-
------------
Mother's Education:
9-12 yrs.
o
More than
16 yrs.o
8 years or 9-12 yrs.
under I 0
Completed· More than
College 0 16 yrs. D
Number of brothers Number of sisters
-------- ------------
How long have you lived In this
Mother's Race: Blackc===J
Other 0
Black 0
Other 0
Father's Education: 8 years or
under 0
Completed
COllegeo
(16 yrs.)
Father's Race:
What is the birth order of this child in r.elation to brothers and
sisters?
------------
For example: 1 - oldest, 2 - second oldest, etc.
Has this child been under treatment for any serious illness?
-----
If so , please explain
---------------
Figure 18
36
CHILD STRENGTH STUDY
Consent Form
I, the undersigned, understand that the purpose of this study is
to take some strength measurements of my child. I am aware that
these measurements will enable collection of information about
the physical strength of children at different age levels and use
of this information in constructing guidelines for the safer design
of children's products.
I have been informed that there will be no health hazards or dis-
comfort to my child associated with this, and that participation is
voluntary. In order to take measurements with accuracy, it is
necessary for the child to remove shoes only.
I further understand that all. of the data is confidential and I
agree to allow publication of any or all of the data collected
on my chi"ld if presented in a c.oded form.
Child's Name
Figure 19
37
Signature of Parent
2.9 Data Reduction and Analysis
Description of the data acquisition program has already been
presented (Sec. 2.7). This program was used to generate 84 magne-
tic tapes filled with data files on each subject tested. Each file
represents a permanent "time" record.of a subject's tests,
making it possible to analyze the data via any method desired.
For quantitative and statistical analysis of the data, a
series of processing and reducing programs was written and utilized.
The first reduction prDgram condensed each data file into a more
compact and. analyzable form, coding the suject's background
information and replacing the 400 data points for each test with
four calculated strength values, based on the
point-average technique (Sec. 2.5). Reduced files were then
transmitted to the University of Michigan's AMDAHL 470 computer
for further processing and statistical analysis.
Ages were computed by subtracting the birthdate from the
date of the subject's most recent testing session. Ages were
represented internally in days and were computed using the approxi-
mation of 365 days to the year and 30 days to the month. Ages
computed in this fashion are never more than seven days in error,
which was sufficient resolution for the purposes of this study.
Data was then analyzed statistically using the Michigan
Interactive Data Analysis System (MIDAS), a comprehensive set of
statistical analysis programs developed by the Statistical Research
Laboratory of the University of Michigan. For the purpose of
38
analysis, subjects were grouped into 8 yearly age groups, from
3 to 10 years. Ages were rounded to the nearest whole year so
that altogether an age range of 2.5 to 10.5 years was represented.
Each of the strength and linkage measurements were analyzed by age
for the following quantities: number of subjects (N), mean (X),
Standard Deviation (S ), median, 5th or 15th percentile, minimum
x
value, and maximum value. (Body weight was included here as a
linkage measurement.)· The exact percentile reported was depen-
dent on sample size. Where (N) was small «20) 15th and 85th
percentiles were more meaningful. Both sexes were combined to
insure sufficient sample size for statistical analysis. The
results of these analyses are reported in tabular form at the
end of each data section.
Graphicai presentation of the data use scatter plots for
an exact representation of the data and to avoid any bias which
might be introduced by curve fitting. The amount of grouping
is readily apparent along with the actual sample size. The scales
have been expanded to provide the best resolution of points.
Note that sample size decreases for large grip spans, reflecting
the limited grip spans capability of small ~ a n d ~ ~ All graphs of
strength vs body size include a first order regression line
drawn through the scatter plot to indicate the trend. Graphs
of strength vs position show the means for pooled age groups
plotted and connected via straight lines.
39
3.0 RESULTS
3.1 Description of Data Presentation
The following sections present a summary of the data,
with both sexes combined, for the 33 linkage measurements,
3 hand strength tests at different spans, and elbow flexion/
extension strength tests at different joint positions. Infor-
mation on the interpretation of the strength data is contained
in the next section. The data section is arranged in modules
corresponding to a general test or measurement. Each module
consists of: 1) A description of the test, the anthropometric
measurements taken, adjustment of the equipment, and instruc-
tions to the subject, 2) A photograph of the subject performing
the test,and in many cases,a drawing which illustrates the
movement is included for clarity, 3) A statistical tabulation
of the data including the sample size (N), the mean (X), the
standard deviation (5 ), the minimum, 5th or 15th percentile,
. x
median, 85th or 95th percentile, and maximum values, tabulated
by one year intervals, 4) Scatter plot of the data. Items
3 and 4 are then sequentially repeated for the same test in a
different test position (span, angle).
The data are presented for linkage measurements in a
similiar format. The thirty three two-page modules contain
a definition of how the measurement was taken along with a
photograph or illustration of the measurement. A ~ t a t i s c a l
summary of-the data for one year age intervals together with a
graphical presentation of the data are given for combined sexes.
40
3.1.1 Interpretation of Strength Data
3.1.1.1 Physical Relationships and Units: In the follow-
ing tables and graphs, the strength data are presented in
the torque units of kilogram force-centimeter or force
I
uni ts of kilogram force' (squeeze and pinch tests). Kilo-
ponds (Kp) or kilogram force (Kgf) is defined to be the
magnitude of force required to accelerate a mass of. 1 kilo-
gram at 1 g (acceleration due to gravity). A kilogram
force-centimeter (Kgf-cm) is defined to be the magnitude of
torque generated about an axis of rotation due to the action
of a force of 1 kilogram force occuring 1 centimeter away
at right angles to the axis. These two general relation-
ships may be summarized along with metric units used in the
study as follows:
FORCE
.g
m
a
From Newton's Second Law
F = (m) (a)
or, in terms of Kiloponds:
F = (l/g) (m) (a)
TORQUE
T = (F) (D)
41
Where:
F = force (Newtons)
m mass (Kg) 2
a acceleration (M/sec )
F = force (Kp or Kgf)
mass (Kg)
acceleration (M/sec
2
)
acceleration due to gravity
at the Eart2's surface
(9.80 M/sec )
T torque in (Kgf-cm)
F force in (Kgf)
o = perpendicular distance from
force to axis of rotation (ern)
UNITS
The elbow strength data is presented in the torgue unit
of kilogram force-centimeters (Kgf-cm). It is worthwhile
to note that these are identical units to kilopond-centi-
I
meters (Kp-cm) since 1 Kgf = 1 Kp. The following conver-
sions may prove useful:
1 Kgf-cm = 1 .Kp-cm
9.806 N-cm = 0.09806 N-M
1 Kgf-cm = 0.806 in-lbf
Notice 1 Kgf-cm is only slightly less than 1 in-lbf which
is useful for estimaiing data in English units.
units for the grip strenqth data are in Kiloqram f6rce (Kqf) .
Conversion to Newtons or pound force is thus:
1 Kgf =.9.806 N
1 Kgf = 2.205 Ibf
3.1.1.2 Torgue: Data expressed in torque units may be in-
terpreted via the definition of mechanical torque previous-
ly mentioned. Each strength value is presented as equiva-
lent to a force times a distance. When a force or force
component acting at right angles to the limb at a particular
point must be known, it may be calculated by dividing the
strength value by the distance to the force from the joint
center. For example, an elbow flexion strength of 300 Kp-cm
implies that the forearm can generate an upward force of 10
Kp at 30 cm away from the elbow, 15 Kp at 20 em, 30 Kp at
42
10 ern, and so on. An estimate of the linkage length can
be obtained from'Section 3.2 to make an estimate of force
capability for a particular age child.
lations see Section 4.2 of this report.
For sample calcu-
It must be kept
in mind, however, that strict mathmatical interpretation
of torque may be erroneous for extremes of force and dis-
tance. In such cases a limitation of capability may be
imposed by considerations other than absolute muscle
strength. For example, very high loading on the
soft tissue can cause pain and thereby limit the strength
capability. Also, exceeding the torque loading capability
of a proximal joint may result in a limitation of the
strength capability.
3.1.1.3 Motivation: Each strength value represents a
maximum voluntary effort obtainable through verbal encourage-
ment. It must be recognized that the child is capable of
stronger efforts than, the data indicate, especially in an
excited psychological state. Section 2.8 of this report des-
cribes in detail motivation used in this study.
3.1.1.4 Strength Criteria: Each strength value is the
average torque measured over a one second This
one second is selected as the one second interval which
has the greatest average value of all possible contiguous
one second intervals in a five ,second exertion. Section
2.5 describes the criteria in more detail.
43
3.1.1.5 Photograph of Test: A photograph of a child
performing the test is presented to illustrate both the
position of the child and the relevant straps on the fix-
ture. The photographs are not intended to have any im-
plications of the subject's motivation.
3.1.1.6 Description of the Tests: A precise anatomic
definition. of the strengths being measured is given with
respect to the anatomic position. Figure 20 shows a sub-
ject in the anatomic position with illustration of the sagit-
tal, coronal, and transverse planes together with their axes:
Figure 21 contains definitions of terms used. All joint
angles are defined to be zero when the subject assumes the
anatomic position and rotates his wrist so that the palms
face the thighs.
3.1.1.7 Test position: The body position is described
with respect to the anatomic position and joint angles are
/
defined as zero in the anatomic position but with the wrists
pronated so that the palms face the thighs. For a series
of tests pertaining to one limb, only relevant joint posi-
tions for that limb are given. The rest of the body remains
in the standard test position as shown in Figures 4 and 5.
Grip and pinch tests are obtained with the right upper ex-
tremity unrestrained.
3.1.1.8 Anthropometric Measurement: These measurements are
obtained in order to adjust ~ h e size of the strength chair.
These measurements are described in detail in Section 3.2.
44
3.1.1.9 Adjustment of Equipment: The adjustment procedure
necessary to fit the strength chair to a particular child
is given. This is intended to help describe the system
of body restraints provided by the strength chair.
3.1.1.10 Instructions to the Subject: The specific test
instructions are given to the subject depending upon his
or her level of comprehension. This section contains a
condensed and stylized version of these instructions and
does not reflect attempts to motivate the child. The topic
of motivation is discussed in Section 2.8.
3.1.1.11 Sketch of Test: A drawing is presented to.clari-
fy the description of the test by illustrating, with some
exaggeration, the motion attempted in perfnrming the test.
3.1.1.12 Statistical Data: The page heading consists of
a test name and a joint angle position as shown in the index.
The data are represented by age groups from 2 1/2 to 10 1/2
years. The 15th and 85th percentiles .were reported since
the sample size in some age groups was insufficient to obtain
a 5th or 95th percentile.
3.1.1.13 Graphs: The data is presented also as scatter
plots of the individual strength values. Elbow strength
was plotted against age,as is conveniently done. Plots
against height, weight, and forearm length appear in Section
3.4.3. The scales are expandea to preserve the resolution
45
between individual points and therefore care must be taken
when comparing graphs. Note that both elbow flexion and
extension were measured in all positions except 180
0
where
only flexion was measured.
Grip strength, the location of force, and the angle
formed by the force vector with the of the trans-
ducer are plotted against age for each setting of the trans-
ducer (2 em, 3 em, ... ). These plots appear in Section 3.3,3.
3.1.1.14 Multiple Positions: Subsequent pages contain
tables and plots of larger elbow angles. Means from these
graphs at various pooled age groups are summarized across
elbow position in Section 3.4.2.
3.1.1.15 Strength vs. Other Variables: Included in this
section are plots of elbow flexion and extension vs. subject
height, body weight, and the sum of the radial and carpal
linkages,since this is a commom lever arm in work performed
by the hand. Also included in this section is elbow flexion
and extension strength plotted against elbow joint angle.
In the graphs involving height, weight, and forearm
linkage, scatter plots are used similiarto previous sections.
However, in addition to the individual data points, a linear
regression line has been calculated and drawn in to fit the
data. The purpose is meant to for convenience and not to
{
imply a first order fit is the best for the data. This line
is labeled "Trend" on the graphs.
46
47
ILONGITUDINAL
lAXIS
~
~ Q R _ O ~ ~ L
AXIS
SAGITTAL
--------
AXIS
ol>o
co
CORONAL
PLANE
SAGITTAL
PLANE
TRANSVERSE
PLANE
ANTERIOR POSTERIOR
MEDIAL
LATERAl
INFERIOR
Figure 20 Anatomic Planes, Axes, and Directions
:.
. ~ ..
,r' -
.-,""'-.
3.2 LINKAGE MEASUREMENTS
3.2.1 Index of Linkage Measurements
Measurement Page
1. Standing Height . ~ 51
2. Body Weight ..•....................................... 53
3. Carpal 55
4. Radial 57
5. Humeral 59
6. Sacral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 61
7. Thoracolumbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 63
8. Cervical 65
9 . Femor a 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67
10. Tibial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 69
11. Tarsal 71
12. Clavical , 73
13. Pelvic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 75
14. Wrist Breadth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 77
15. Hand Breadth at Thumb 79
16. Hand Breadth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 81
17. Finger Breadth at Proximal Interphalangeal Joint 83
18. Finger Breadth at Distal Interphalangeal Joint 85
19 . Hand Length ................................•.........• 87
20. Middle Finger Length 89
21. Wrist Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91
22. Metacarpal Phalangeal Joint Thickness 93
23. Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Thickness 95
24. Distal Interphalangeal Joint Thickness 97
25. Third Phalanx 99
26. Proximal Phalangeal ~ .•....•....................... 101
27. Middle Phalangeal 103
28. Distal Phalangeal •................................... 105
29. Outside Carpal ..•................................... 107
30. Outside Proximal Phalangeal 109
31. Outside Middle Phalangeal 111
32. Outside Distal Phalangeal 113
33. Outside Gr ip Diameter 115
34. Inside Grip Diameter 117
49
Ul
o
~
CERVICAL
HUMERAL
RADIAL
CARPAL
HEIGHT
PELVIC
"\'
'{
CLAVICAL
t
THORACOLUMBAR
SACRAL
fTpEMORAL
I
IJ61-
t
BODY WEIGHT
~ " f I
__L.
50 b
;) ~ j
I ) ~
.... , ...
~ ; ; ~ t
, ... ,,-
~ : ~
~ g
STANDING HEIGHT
DESCRIP.TION: Measure the perpendicular distance from the floor to
the vertex with the child standing in bare feet or
socks.
51
! Preceding page blank 1
, _ . ~ - -
STANDING HEIG'flT (elR)
(!'1ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N ~ e a n s.d. Iii n 5th 50th 95.th l"I ax
2.5- 3.5 31 97.3 4.3 Fl8.1 89.3 96.6 104.5 104.9
3.5-q.5 45 102. 1 4.1 93.6 94.2 101. 7 1013.8 110.4
4.5-5.5 44 111.4 5.5 102.3 102.7 111.0 122.3 125.0
5.5-6.5 49 114. 5 4.8 99.6 104.9 113. B 12 1.2 124.2
6.5- 7.j 46 121 • 3 6.5 103.4 1'2.0 121.0 13 1. 9 132.5
7.5-8.5 52 126.8 5.7 114.1 117.0 125. a 136.0 13 8. 4
9.5- 9.5 42 1.33.1 5.6 118.3 124.4 133.0 H5.2 1qa.9
9.5-10.5 45 140.5 7.2 126.6 127.8 139.2 151. 6 158.0
" .
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.1 .
180.00
150.00
1"0.00
~
~
130.00
<.:)
-L&J
~
<.:)
120.00
z
-
c
z
a:
110.00 ~
U)
100.00'
. . :' ..
. ; .
90.00
, 80.00
2 3' S 6 7 B 9 10 1
AGE (YEARS)
52
BODY WETGHT
DESCRIPTION: Seat subject on back side of chair with shoes off.
Computer records voltage output from all four load
cells supporting the chair. Remove,the subject from
chair. Computer similarily records empty chair
weight. The difference between the two readings,
the child's weight, is displayed on the graphics
terminal and is stored.
53
BODY WEIGHT (kg)
(''I a les and Fellales)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s.d. lIIin 5th ')Oth 9')tb !'lax
2.5-3.5 31 15.2 1.9 11.2 11.3 15.3 17. b 18.8
3.5-4.5 45 16.8 1.9 13.4 14.0 16.5 2 0.0 20.7
/1.5- 5.5 44 1 (). 6 2.7 15.2 15.4 19.2 24.1 26.4
,.5-6.5 49 21.0 2.8 16.2 16.5 20.7 25.5 29.3
6.5-1 :"5 46 23.4 3.2 15.6 18.0 23.3 28.1 30.5
7.5-8.5 52 26.4 4.7 19.2 19.5 2').2 34.4 39.6
q. 5- 9.5 42 30.1
. 5.0
19.7 22.6 30.0 37.1 44.9
9.5-10.5 45 33.0 4.9 24.3 25.2 31.6 41.6 42.6
so. 00
IQ.OO
0:
... ..
o • 0
." .
o 0
o • •
. .
o
.. ....... .. ......
.. :: ..
-I' ...
• 0 •
. ~ , ._ . ;.... ..
.. .. ," --:.. : :........ ...
'I. .-
0"
..
.
••
. .
..
..
. .
... .............. ,
~ . . .. -. -. ..
.. .. ) .... -.. .. .. ..
••: .. •••: .. ~ .. ,.eJ I ~ .. " .; ...... "
...... ..... ..
.... I .. ..'"..
• ...... .. ...... I' .
-, .. .. ..
.. ...... .: .•...
. .. .... ......
.. _.- .. ..
18.00
~ 31&.00
C)
-
~
)-
8
CD 28.00
11 10 9 8 8 7
RGE (YERRS)
5
1 0 . 0 0 + - - - - + - - - ~ - - _ + - - - .....--_+_--___lt__--..._--__f---_1
2
54
CARPAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the wrist (radiocarpal joint center)
to the third knuckle (third carpophalangeal joint
center) . 0 1
55
CARPAL LINKAGE (cm)
(!'Iales and Females)
Age (yrs) N Pilea n s.d. 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5-.3.5 :fa 4 • 1 0.5 3.0 3.0 3.9 4.8 5.0
3.5-4.5 45 4.3 0.5 2.8 3.5 4.2
5. , 5.2
4.5-5.5 44 4.9 0.6 3.7 3.1 4.6 5.7 5.8
5.5-6.5 49 5.2 0.5 3.8 4. 1 5. 1 6.0 6.3
6.5-7.5 46 5.5 0.5 4.4 4.6 5.4 6.2 6.8
7. 5-8:"5 52 C;.A 0.7 4.4 4.6 5.6 7.0 7.4
8.5- 9.5 42 6.0 0.8 4.8 4.8 6•. 0 7.4 8.0
9.5-10.5 45 6.2 0.9 4.7 4.8 6.0 7.8 8.5
9.00
8.00
7.00
""
t.:)

-..J
..J
a:
Q..
a:

u
6.00
5.00
... . .
..
..
...
."
.-..
. .
.. ....
.. .
.
. .
.. .
..-
, .
..
. ..
.. .. .
......
.
.
'-
.
. .
.
..
..
... ... .
..
. . _...
.... 00
3.00
10 9 8 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
5

2
56
DESCRIPTION:
RADIAL L"INKAGE
Measure from the elbow joint thurnero-ulnar joint
center}' to the wrist (radiocarpal joint center).
II
57
25.00
22.00
19.00
.
• I ........ .. .. I,
.,
L&J
~
~
z
-
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..J
a:
-
o
a:
a:
16.00
13.00
", ...'
.
. ':'... .. ..
I •• = ....
.,
.'
"
.. • I' .. I I. ,', I,:
, ::.'-:•• ~ ': ...1. ': \ • :.
.'. .. ..
'. ,
II ....
.'
' .
"
.:.
' .
.........
, .'
.. II II....
\ .. II"
.'
..... .....
"
11 10 9 8 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
5 3
10.00+----+----+-----il----+----+----+---+---t-----of
2
"
.....
58
HUMERAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint
center) to the elbow joint (humero-ulnar joint
center) .
I
I
)
\
) \
U
59
HU!'IERAL L! NU.GE (em)
(l1ales and Felllales)
Age (yrs) N t'lean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th CJ5th "lax
2.5-].5 31 14.2 1.6 ".1
11• 3 14. 1 16. 9
, g. ":l
3.5-4.5 45 15.2 1.5 ".3
12.3 15. 1 11.4 1B. 1
4.5-5.5 44 17.0 1.8 13.9 1q. 1 17.0
1q.6 22. 3
5.5-6.5 49 17.3 1. (, 13.2 14.2 17.2 20.1 21.4
6.5- 7.5 )46 19.2 1.8 14.6 15.3 19.5 21.7 22.3
7.5-8. ') 52 19.7 1.6 16.2 16.6 ' 111.5 22.7 24.1
A. 5- 9.5 42 21.4 1.7 11.7 18.0 21.2 24.4 25.5
9.5-10.5 45 22.2 1.8 18.5 19.7 21.7 25.4 25.9
30.00
26.67
-.'
. : . , .
.' , •• I
.' .... ",
".. : . . '
..
..
.'
,"
.. ,
, .
. .'
'. ;. ..e.
.. I ~ '. • ••
, .
, .. I •
'.
"
..
.',...
, I
"
....
• • II ':. • • ..
." ..
":, .. ", ....
. '
L&J
23.33
Co:)
a:
:.::
z
-...J
...J
20.00
a:
a::
L&J
z:
:::>
r
16.61
.......
13.33
.. I. I
:. ; ....," I
.' .'.
",".. .
, .
11.00 9.20
10.00 t;'-:-----::-t:::-----::-t:-------+----:---t-------l
2.00 3.80 5.60 7 , ~ 0
AGE (YEARS)
60
. '.
..... --
SACRAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the hip joint (femoral head) to the
"hip top (crest of ilium).
J\
J ~
-------
61
SACRAL LINUGE {c. )
("liil €s and Fe Dla les)
A.qe (yrs) N Mean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th . Max
2.5- 3.5 31 5.2 0.8 4.0 4.0 4.9 6.5 7.6
1.5-4.5
qq
5.7 , • 1
3.6 3.8 5.6 7.3 8.3
4.5-5.5 44 6.5 1.3 4.0 4.3 6.3 8.8 9.9
'j.5-6.'j 49 6.9 1.5 4.4 4.5 6.5 9.2 10.4
6.5-7.5 4£ 7.2 1 • 1 5.1 5.3 7.0 8.1 9.1
7.5- 8.5 52 7.5 1.3 5.2 5.4 7.4 9.9 11.0
f3.S-Q.5 42 7.9 1.6 5.3 5.4 7.6 10.6
, 1. .,
9.5-10.5 45 8.8 1.6 4.9 6.0 q.7 , 1.2
13.3
111.00
12.00
.-
10.00
l.&J
<.:)
cr
x
z
-....J
8.00
....J
a:
a::
u
a:
(f)
8.00
It. 00
"
, ' ..
!' .' :
, '
'.... .
.
, .,
.'
....
..
"
.... - -
2.00 +----+---+----+---t----+-----lr----t-----I---....
2 3 II 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
AGE (YEARS)
62
THORACOLUMBAR LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the hip top (crest of the ilium) to
the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint center) .
........"1:.
'l\'"
-1"- j' - ... ,'\ !
.. : --
'. '. -.", /'
"r, , '
. .
63
lIlfHGE (CIII)
(!'Iales and Females)
Age (yrs) N s.r1. l1in 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5- 3.5 31 18.9 2.0 14.1 14.3 19.4 21.5 22.1
3.5-4.5 45 20.B
2. , 14.9 16.3 20.7 211.4 25.3
4.5-5.5 44 22.3 2.6 16.4 16.7 21.9 26.2 27.8
5.5- 6. I) 49 22.2 2.3 16.6 18.4 22.0 26.4 27.4
6.5-7.5 46 24.0 2.1 19.9 20.3 23.5 27.6 29.2
...
7.5-8.5 52 24.9 2.2 20.4 20.8 24.8 28.0 31.3
8.5-9.5 42 26.3 2.8 19.8 20.5 25.8 30.0 33.8
9.5-10.5 45 26.7 2.4 2 O. 5 21.7 26.9 29.9 32.2
35.00
90.00
" .
.. ,
, .'
I" ••
. .:
"
"
, '.
,1,1
. .
,
.'
, ,
: ...... :
..
..
.' . : "
" '. .'. ..
II •••: •
" ,
I' •• ' .:.
• II \. • ,.
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. "
"
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. :.
LLI
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25.00 a:
:lIC
Z
-
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-'
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a:
"
a:
.
.
m .,
,.' .

20.00
' ,
.
..
-'
:
, ..
15.00
11
10.00 +----+----+---t----+----+----+---t----+----i
2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10
AGE CYEARS)
64
CERVICAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint
center) to the ear canal (external auditory meatus).
65
22.00
CERVICAL tI NUGE (ell)
( "ales and Females)
~ g e (yrs) N Mean s.d. !!in 5th 50th QSth Max
2.5- 3.5 31 11.4 1.3 9.0 9. 1 11. 5 13.0 13.6
3.5- 11.5 45 12.9 1.4 9.0 "9.3
13. 1 14.6 15.1
4.5-5.5 44 13.4 1 • q 9.9 10.2 13.3 16.3 18.2
5.5-6.5 49 13.7 1.9 9.1 10.6 13.9 16.5 19.3
6.5-7.5
{ ~
14.7 1 • "] 9.7 10.6 14.8 17.0 17.6
7.5-8.5 15.8 1.7 12.8 12.9 15.5 18.8 19.5
B. 5- 9. 5 42 16.4 1.7 13.] 13.4 16.3 19.0 20.1
9.5-10.5 45 17.3 '.5
13.3 111.3 17.4 19.6 20.4
20.00
:
,
.
"
18.00
lLJ , ~
~
a:
~
, ' ,
z
16.00
. , :
..
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.
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,
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, \
,
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w
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Ill. 00
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, ,
lLJ
,
W
. ,
,
.
, . ,
. ,
12.00
'.
,
.
. I
.'
10.00
.
,
-"
8.00
2 3 5 6 7 e 9 10 1
AGE (YEARS)
66
FEMORAL LINKAGE
Measure from the hip joint to the knee joint
(femorotibial joint center).
67
PE!OlUL LlIUr:AGE (c.)
("'ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N l'Iean s.d,
"'in
5th 50th 95th l'Iax
2.5-3.5 31 21.2 1.9 11.1 11. B 21.2 23.9 2?O
3.5-4.5 45 22.5 1.9 19.0 19.3 22.3 25.7 26.4
4.5- 5.5 44 25.4 1.B 21.5 22.5 25.1 28.5 30.3
5.5-6.5 49 26.1 1.8 22.0 23.5 26.7 29.1 30.6
6.5- 7.5 46 28.3 2.1 24.7 25.2 27.1 31.5 32.3
7.5- B. 5 "'52 30.4 2.2 21t.8 25.6 30.2 33.8 35.1
8.5- (). 5 42 31.5 2.4 24.7 25.3 31.9 34.4 35.8
9.5-10.5 45 33.6 2.5 27.8 29.5 32.9 37.9 39.4
1&5.00
39.00
. '
. ,
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0, •
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1 ' :- II.
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.
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o , \
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.... .:.
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: #. • :
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,
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, ,
•••' 't .' .'" '; I'
I • • •
. ' .. " "
I, .' •
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21.00
I.LJ
c.:l
33.00
z
-....J
....J
a:
a::
27.00
I.LJ
lL.
"
15.
2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
AGE (YEARS)
. ,
.... -
68
TIBIAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the ankle joint (tibiotarsal joint
center) to the knee joint (femorotibial joint center).
69
TIBIAL LIRUGE (ell )
(Males and Fellales)
f>.ge (yrs) N Plean s.d. IHn 5th '50th 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 31 20.0 2.1 16.1 16.2 19.9 23. ; 23.7
J. 5-4.5 45 21.4 1.6 18.2 18.8 21. 3 23.9 24.5
4.5- 5.5 44 23.8 1.2 21.0 21 .7 23.5 25.9 :>6.6
5.5-6.1) 49 24.7 1.9 20.5 21. 1 24.4 27.5 29.0
6.5-1.5 46 26.9 1.9 23.0 23.4 26.6 30.4 30.5
1 • 5 - B• S i "'5 2 28.5 2.2 24.2 24.1 28.2 31.6 32.9
IL5-9.5 42 30.2 2.1 25.9
26. , 30.0 33.8 ~ 4 . 5
9.5-10.5 QS 32.0 2.5 27.8 28.1 31.5 36.6 37.2
110.00
35.00
"
a ..... -,
UJ
~
ex: 30.00
~
z
--1
-1
ex:
-CD 25.00
- .....
, "
" .. -.
.'
.. .. ..
, "
I.' ....
.. :..:" .. ': ~ .. "
. :.: :.... ".. " ':..':
.. .. .1 " ..
.' ,
"
, .
, .
....'
'. ,
"
"
'::. .. .. ',
, .
,t, ....
"." • to
.... t.... , ..
.. :.
..
20.00
"
.. .. -:' I, ,: I.
.'
., ...
11 10 9 e 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
5
15.00 +----+----t---t---+----+-------lf----+----+-----f
2
70
--
TARSAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the ball of the foot (first tarso-
phalangeal joint center) to ankle joint (tibio-
tarsal joint center).
~ I
71
'f!
TAR SA L LINU.GE (ell )
(I''1ales and Fellales)
Age (yrs) N "'ean
s.d. "'in
5th 50th 95th !'lax
2.5- 3.5 31 7.8 0.9 6.1 6.2 1.9 9.2 9.7
3.5-4.5 45 8.6
, • 0 6.8 6.8 8.5 10.0 10.9
4.5- 5.5 44 9.4 0.9 7.6 7.8 9.4 10.8 11. 7
5.5-6.5 49 9.5 1.0 7.1 7.4 9.5 11.0 11 .4
6.5- 7.5 46 10.] 1.0 8.6 8.9 10.3 12.0 12.6
7.5- 8.5
"'52
10.6 1. 1 8.9 8.9 10.6 12. 1 14.1
8.5-9.5 42 11.4 1.4 8.8 9.0 11.2 13.4 15.4
9.5-10.5 45 11.6 1.2, 8.6 9.2 11.5 13.6 14.2
20.00
17.00
1 ~ . O O
"
" • II
, ,
,
, • I
"
'\ ..
I ,
. "' • II .,' .,'
• II. •
,.
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,
',9\'.' I, I'':,',
1. '.-. II':
.." .:. .. . :: .,' ..
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,,' "
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,
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, .
. . . .
II .' ' •• '
,. I ...,••,'. I' I, :
, • ..' • • I, •
• I' I- ,',
I. ..I, ••••••• - •
'. ~ '.,: , . . ..
• • • t- II • •• "
. ., 8.00
11.00
" " .
,', .
, "
1 10 9 8 5
5.00+----+----+----+----+---+---+----+-----lf----
2 3
72
CLAVICLE LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the left shoulder joint (left gleno-
humeral joint) to the right shoulder joint (right
glenohumeral joint center). Subject standing.
73
CLAVICAL LINKAGE (em)
and Females)
Age (yrs) N Mean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th r'lax
2.5- 3.5 31 14.7 1 .3 1 1.7 12.2 14.3 H.7 n.6
3.5-4.5 45 15.8 11.9 12.5 15.8 17.8 '9.2
4.5- 5.5 44 17.3 1.6 12.9· 14.9 17.5 20.2 21.5
5.5-6.5 49 17.8 1.5 14.9 15.3 17.6 20.1 21.7
6.5-1.5 46 fA.1 1.7 14.2 15.2 18. 1 21.0 21.7
7.5-8.5 ....52 19.3 2.0 15.1 16. 1 19.3 22.6 24.8
8.5-9.5 42 19.4 1.6 16.4 16.5 19.2 22.5 22.9
9.5-10.5 45 20.7 2.0 16.2 17.5 20.4 23.B 25.7
so. 00
26.00
.
.
, .
, '. ..
II II II II II II
.. 11'1 II II
• II II II
. .
,I II II
••••• II
.
.
o
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.
.
.
0'
,
. .
..
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..
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, II' .: • • II II' •
• •••• II _._. ',. • :e.: .'
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II • • 1
1
..._1
• .. : .1 I' " .. ".. '.
.. .. ....
. .. ."
.........
II I, ....
.
II . II II II' I
. .
.
.. .1 ••
II.. ':...... • II ••
'. ',. ..'..
. '. . :, .
'. ..-' .. .. .. . ..
. . :'\ .' ....
• :. II II II :.
"
, .
11£.00
I.iJ
C)
a:
x 22.00
z
-
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a:
u
- 18.00
-I
u
10.OO+2-----I----+----iSI----·+6----f7---e+----+9---1+-O----i1:
AGE (YEARS)
74
PELVIC LINKAGE·
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the left hip joint (left femoral head)
to the right hip joint (right femoral head).
Subject standing .
......': .
.•. : :.
. : : : : ~ - : : . : : : : : : : :
" . : ..
...
·4 .
."
..
75
~ I
PELVIC LINKAGE (em)
(I'Iales and Fellales)
Age (yrs) N s.d. Min 5th CiOth 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 31 13.3 1.7 10.0 10.2 13.3 15.8 17.0
3.5-11.5 45 14.0 1.8 10.0 10.9 13.4 17.2 18.3
4.5-5.5 44 15.4 1.8 11.3 11.7 15.6 17.9 18.6
5.5-6.5 119 15.8 1.7 12.7 13.1 15.5 18.4 19.8
6.5-7.5 .... 46 16.3 2.2 11.4 12.2 16.0 19.4 22.5
7.5-8.5 52 11.9 2.4 13.9 14. 1 17.2 21.9 23.1
'3.5- 9.5 42 18.2 2.5 14.1 14.2 17.8 22.9 25.1
9.5-10.5
_5
19.1 2.2 14.7 15.1 18.8 23.1 24.7
30.00
25.00
o
.
" . -,
o o.
. .
," ..
'0 ,
·0
.
. .

. .
.
o
00
.
o o.
o
. '.' . " '
" ",. ". . . .
" '" ".: '0
00
',' .' . . ..... ,," "
: "': . .,
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• o •
o
o
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. " '
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o .. ..
•• 0 :.'c' . ",. • .
. . ".
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", " ;.
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.'
o
I 0
'" '.
o 0 0
" " •• :" ", I. ".
.... II .". • ' •

20.00
z
- ....J
U
->
LLf 15.00
a..
..0
o •
10.00
11 10 9 8 6 7
AGE (YEARS)

2 3 .Q 5
76
DESCRIPTION:
WRIST BREADTH
Measure the maximum width of the wrist across
the radius and ulna at the distal end of the
radius and ulna.
77
IIIIS'! BIH'ADTH (em)
(P'lales and Females)
Age (rrs) N Mean s.d. "in
5th 50th 95th !'lax
2.5- 3.5 31 3.6
. 0.2 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.9 4. 1
3.5- 4.5 45 3.7 0.2 3.3 3.3 3.7 4. 1 4.2
4.5-5.5
ijij
3.9 0.2 3.5 3.5 3.8 4.3 4.4
5.5- 6.5 49 4.0 0.2 3.5 3.5 3.9 4.2 4.4
6.5-1.5
_45
4.2 0.3 . 3.6 3.6 4. 1 4.5 4.6
7.5- 8.5 52 4.3 0.3 3.6 3.1 4.2 4.8 5.2
~ . 5- 9.5 42 4.5 0.3 3.8 3.8 4.4 4.9 5.1
9.5-10.5 45 4.6
. O. J 4.1 4.1 4.5 5.1 5.5
6.00
5.50
5.00
z:
~
c
cz:
L&J
ii ~ . 5 0
~
en
-
a::
:z:
~ . o o
.. . ...
. . ...
. . -.. . .
3.50 •........
10 9 8 5
3.00 +---+---+----+----+----+----+----+-......:...--+-----1
2 3
78
DESCRIPTION:
HAND BREADTH AT THUMB
Measure the maximum width of the hand at the
second knuckle of the thumb (metacarpal-phalangeal
joint of phalanx I) with the thumb fully .
adducted.
79
HAND (ell)
(I'lales and Fellales)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 31 5.5 0.5 3.1 4.4 5.6
6. , 6.4
3.5-4.5 45 5.9 0.5 4.9 5. 1 5.8 6.8 1.1
4.5- 5.5 44 6.1 0.4 5.4 5.5 6.1 6.7 7.2
5.5-6.5 49 6.4 0.5 5.5 5.5 6.3 7.1 7.6
6.5-7.5 ...46 6.6 0.5 5.3 5.6 6.5 7.3 8. 1
7.5-8.5 51 7.0 0.5 5.8 6.0 7.0 7.7 8.3
9.5- 9.5 42 7.4 0.6 6.1 6.2 7.4 8. 1 8.6
9.5-10.5 45 7.5 0.6 6.6 6.6 7.3 8.7 9.4
11 10 .9
.
.. .... ..
•• 0
'1" ....
I ......
o • 0
00 0
o • . .
o
' •• 1 I.
I II .. •• .. .. ..
. .
8
. .
00 •
-
. • 0 _
I' _ ••
I... .... .. ..
.. .. ..
..- ..
.. ..
. .
.
6 7
RGE (YERRS)
.
.
:
3
.' .. .. .... _ .
. .
- ..
. .
- .....
... ..
I ._ .
.. '::. .. .... 1- : .. " - I, :'.. .. .. II. .... ..,
..... ... .. -
.. .. .... .. ...... ..
.. II.. .. .... ......
.0 0
.. .....
........
.
10.00
8.00
8.00
a3
:c

t-
7.00
t-
a:

t- 6.00
0
a:
w
lfi
5.00
0
z
a:
%:
'l.oo
3.00
2.00
2
... -.
80
: . , ; ~ ' l r ~ ~ '
HAND BREADTH
DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum width of the hand at the
third knuckle of the first finger (metacarpal
phalangeal joint center of phalanx II).
81
HilI: Ell! H'TR cc.)
(!!ales and Felllales)
Age (yrs) . N Mean s.d. Min 5th 50th 95th PI ax
2.5-3.5 31 4.9 0.4 4.2 4.2 4.8 5.4 5.8
3. ~ - 4.5 45 5.1 0.3 4.3 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
4.5-5.5 44 5.4 0.3 4.9 4.9 5.2 6.0 6.5
5.5-6.5 49 5.5 0.3 4.B 4.9 5.5 5.9 6.2
6.5-7.5 46 5.7 0.4 4.6 4.9 5.7 6.3 6 ~ 5
7.5- 8.5 ... 52 6.0 0.4 5.2 5.3 5.9 6.6 7.4
8.5-9.5 42 6.3 0.4 5.6 5.6 6.3 6.8 7.0
9.5- 10.5 45 6.5 0.5 5.5 5.8 6.4 7.2 7.1
8.00
7.50
7.00
::z:::
6.50
~
c
a:
L4J
a::::
8.00
CD
c
~
::z:::
5.50
... .
',' .
."
. ..
5.00
.. ' .
......
11 10 9 8 7
CYEARS)
6
AGE
'.00+----t----+----+----+----+-......;--+----+----+-----l
2 S 5
82
FINGER BREADTH AT PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT
DESCRIPTION: Measure .the maximum width of the second finger
at the second knuckle (proximal interphalangeal
joint center of phalanx III).
83
IRTEBPHALANGEAL JOINT


Females)
Age (yrs) .N f'Iean s. d. P1in 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5-3.5 31 1.2 0.1 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.4
3.5-4.5 45 1.2
O. ,
1.0 1.0 1. 2 1.4 1.5
4.5-5.5 44 .,. 3 O. 1 1.0 1.0 1.2 '1.4 1 • 5
5.5-6.5 48 1.3
0."
., • 1
1 • 1 1.2 1.4 1 • 5
6.5-7.5 46 1.3 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.7
'"
"'.5- 8.5 52 1.3 0.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6
1:\.5- 9.5 42 1.4 O. 1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 ".7
9.5-10.5 45 0.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1. b 1.7
• • _.... _.. • • - • _ I ••
••• I" • ..... • ••• ••••• •
....................................
..................._ .
11 10 9 e 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
5
.........1 •
3
2.00
1.80
I-
1.80
z
-
0

.,
Q..
-
Q..
1.20
I-
a::
::I: 1.00
l-
e
a::

0.80
a:::
m
a:::

0.80

z
-u..

0.20
0.00
2
"-
84
FINGER BREADTH AT DISTAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT
DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum width of the second finger
at the first knuckle (distal interphalangeal
joint center of phalanx III).
85
FINGEF BR U DTH-DI STAL IN.TEBPH HANG EAL JOINT
(l'Iales and Felllales)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s.d. l'Ilin 5th .50th 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 31 1.1 0.1 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.4
3.5-4.5 45 1. 1 o. 1 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1 .3
4.5- 5. 5 44 1.1 0.1 0.9
O.q 1 • ,
1.3 1. II
5.5-6.5 49 1.2 0.1 1.0 1.0
,. ,
1.3 1.3
6.5-7.5 46 1.2 0.1 0.9 0.9 1. 1 1.3 1.5
7.5-8.5 "'51 1.2 0.1 1.0
'.0
1. , 1.4 1.5
8.5- 9. 5 42
'.2
O. 1 1.0 1.0 1. 2 1.4 1.5
q. 5-10.5 f15 1.2 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4
, • 5
.11
• __ _ _ •• _ to
........_....... _--_...... .. ... ..... ... ... ..1. .
.,.
3 5 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
86
8 9 10 11
DESCRIPTION:
HAND LENGTH
Measure from the wrist (radiocarpal joint
center) to the tip of the second finger
(phalanx III). All fingers and thumb are
fully adducted and extended.
1,_, .'
\: M
\
. \.'
\ ~ ' ' ' ; ' ' ' '
' ....'
(·_ .. v',-.. .. ,;: ••
87
HA RD L!RG'fH LIUAG! (c.)
(!'Ial es and Felllales)
hge (yrs) N !'lean s.d. l"Iin 5th 50th 95th !'lax
2. 5- 3.5 31 10.4 O.q 8.1 B.7 10.4 11.6 12.2
],5-4.5 45 11 • 1 0.6 9.9 9.9 11.0 12.0 12.2
4.5-5.5 44 12.0 0.8 10.4
10. q'
11. e 13.4 13.9
5.5-6.5 49 12.2 0.7 10.5 10.9 12. 1 1].2 13.6
6.5-1.5 46 12.9 0.8 i 1.5 11.8 12.9 14.2 15.0
7.5- 8.5 ..52 13.4 0.9 11.4 11.6 13.5 14.5 14.9
42 14.2 0.8 12.3 12.9 14.1 15.4 15.9
9.5-10.5 45 14.1 1. 1 12.9 13.0 14.5 16.1 11.5
18.00
16.00
.. ."
. . .
..
.. .
,
.'
:
,
.
',-
, ,
. ,
...
..
.,
,
,
,
o
.,
.
..
• • 0
'.
:.,: ::; .
.
,
.
.. ,
.
,
..
. .. ", II
...
. ....
.. ... .... .
... ..
. .. . ..
• •• ' ••••••• ,I ••
.\.. -,
.
I:. •
." ,
. .
.1 ••
0'
o
.'
12.00
10.00

2 S 5 6 7 e 9 10 11
AGE CYEARS)
88
DESCRIPTION:
MIDDLE FINGER LENGTH
Measure from the palmer skinfold of the second
finger (phalanx III) to the tip of the second
finger (phalanx III).
",.
- ' ' ' ' ' ~ ~ .
---
'. '.
., ~ ". -.~ . , ' - , : ~ , ,
i
' ~ . " ; : ' . ' . '
, (,. ~
" ~ .
89
. ~ . .'
til DOLE FINGER LENGTH (em)
("!ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N ~ e a n s.d. /'lin 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5- 3.5 31 q.5 0.4 3.8 3.8 4.4 5. 1 5.1
3. 5-q. 5 45 4.7 0.3 4.1
4. , 4.7 5.1 5.4
4.5-5.5 43 5.2 0.4 4.3 4.4 5. 1 5.9
6.'
5.5-6.5 49 5.2 0.4 4.3 4.4 5 •. , 5.8 6.3
6.5-1.5 46 5.6 0.4 4.R q.9 5.5 6.3 6.6
7.5-q.5 52 5.8 0.5 4.7 5.0 5.8 6.4 6.7
8.5- 9.5 1f2 6 •.2 0.4 5.3 s.q 6.1 6.9 7.1
9.5-10.5 45 6.4 0.6 5.3 5.4 6.2 7.4 B.O
9.00
8.00
7.00
...
. . .
·..
6.00
5.00
.
• II ••
.. .....
. .. I..
• • •• II II ••
•• .._ II' II
••, II
.
. ..
II • II •
.-.
.
. ..
• I' I II II
••• .. •• II
II • II II II II
II • II II' • II II' II
II II • II II
•• II 'I'
..
II • • II •
.. • II ..
.
. ...
-..
II ......
..
..
·- ... ..
·
.
..
.
1£.00
11 10 9 8 5 3
3.00+----+-- I-----+---......- - - + - - - - + - - - - - + - - - + - - ~ _ t
2
90
DESCRIPTION:
; . '. - ". :"
WRIST THICKNESS
Measure the maximum thickness of the wrist
(radiocarpal joint center) at the distal end
of the radius.

r.-....
- ,,-
.-
':; .
.. ;,.
,
91
ii RIST THICKNESS (c III)
( f'lales and Females)
Age (yrs) N Mean s.d.
"in
. 5th
50th 95th roIax
2.5- 3.5 30 2.7 0.2 2.3 2.3 2.6 3. 1 3.2
1.5-4.5 45 2.8 0.2 2.4 2.4 2.7 3.2 3.3
11.5-5.5 44 2.9 0.2 2.3 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.11
5.5-6.5 49 2.9 0.2 2.4 2.5 2.9 3.2 3.3
6.5-7.5 45 3.0 0.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 3.4 3.7
7.5-A.5 5) 3. 1 0.3 2.5 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.7
8.5- 9.5 42 3.2 0.2 2.6 2.1 3. 1 3.5 3.9
9.5-10.5 45 3.3 0.3 2.8 2.8 3.2 3.7 3.8
...... _ .
.. . ... . ..
.......... _.
. . .
5.00
~ . 5 0
~ . O O
3.50
en
en
LU
3.00
z
:lIC
U
....
7: 2.50
~
~
en
2.00 ....
a=
:%
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
2
..
.... _-
3
.
.
• • •• • II ••
... • II. • •
.,
...
5
..
6 7
AGE (YEARS)
92
8 9 10 11
DESCRIPTION:
METACARPAL PHALANGEAL JOINT THICKNESS
Measure the maximum thickness of,the third
knuckle of the second finger (metacarpal
phalangeal joint of phalanx III).
93
P!ETACARPAL THICKNESS (ca)
(!'Iales and 'ellales)
Age Cyrs) N !'lean s.d.
"'in
5th 50th 95th !"lax
2.5-3.5 31 1.7 0.2 1.3 1.3 1.6 2. 1
2.3 .
3.5-4.5 45 1.8 0.2 1.4 1.4 1.7 2.2 2.5
4.5-5.5 42 1.8 0.2 1.5 1.5 1.1 2.0 2.4
5.5-6.5 49 1.9 0.2
, • 4
1.4 1.8 2.1 2.2
6.5-1.5 46 1.9 0.2 1.3 1.4
'.8
2.2 2.6
7.5- 8.5 "'52 2.0 0.3 1.2 1.4
'.9
2.4 2.9
~ . 5- q. 5 42 2.1 0.2 1.8 1.8 2. 1 2.4 2.6
9.5-10.5 45 2.2 0.2 1.8 1.8 2. 1 2.6 2.7
.,
....
11.00
3.50
3.00
en
en
w
z
2.50
~
u
-~
~
...J
2.00
a:
Q..
a:
a:
u
1.50
a:
~
w
~
1.00
0.50
0.00 2
.... I ••
3
• • It ••
5 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
94
8 9 10 11
PROXIMAL. INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT THICKNESS
DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum thickness of the second
knuckle of the second finger (proximal i n t e r ~
phalangeal joint of phalanx III).
95
PRnXIM.U I NTERPHAL JOINT THICKNESS (em)
( "'ales
and Females)
Age (yrs) N !'!ean
s. d•. "fin 5th 50th 95th
2.5-3.5 31 1 .1 0.1 O.B O.B 1. 1 1.3 1 .3
3.5-ij.5 45 1. 1 O. 1 0.9 0.9 1. 1 1.3
1.ij
4.5-5.5
ij4 1.2 0.1 0.9 0.9 1. 1 1.3 1.5
5.5-6.5 48 1.2 O. 1 1.0 1.0 1. 2 1.ij 1.6
6.5-7.50 45 1.3 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.2
1• ij 1.7
7.5-8., 51 1.3 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.7
8.5-9.5 42 1.4 0.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.7
9.5-10.5 44 1.4 O. 1 1.2 1.2 1. 4 1.6 1.8
II •• •• •• _.. .
. ..... _.. ..... _.. _... .- .. . .... ...
2.00
1.80
1.80
en 1.1iI.0
en
LLJ
Z

1.20
u
-

1.00
z
-0
0.80
...,
Cl..
-Cl..
0.80
0."0
0.20
0.00
2 5
.,
6 7
AGE (YEARS)
96
-- ,
8
-- -- .. -..-
9 10 11
DESCRIPTION:
DISTAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT THICKNESS
Measure the maximurnthickness of the first
knuckle of the second finger (distal inter-
phalangeal joint of phalanx 1111.
97
DISTU JOINT THICKNESS (em)
("ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N "lean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th 'lax
2.5-3.5 31 0.9 O. 1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1. 1 1.2
3.';-4.5 uS 1.0 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1 • 1 1 .2
4.5- 5.5 44 1.0 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1. 1 1.2
5.5-6.5 49 1.0 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.q
6.5-1.5 .... 43 1.0
.0. , 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2
, • 5
7.5-8.5 52 1.0 O. 1 O. B 0.8 '.0
1.2 1.3
B. 5-9. 5 42
, • 1
0.'
0.9 0.9 '.0
1.3 1.3
9.5-10.5 45
,. 1 O. 1 0.9 0.9
1. ,
'.3
1.6
.......-_ -," - _ -..- _ .
. .. ." ...
.. . ... .. ._...... ...
...." ' . . ..- -
11 10 9 8
..
8 7
AGE (YEARS)
·s
2.00
1.80
1.80
VI
VI
I.LJ
Z
:lC
1.20
u
-
:z:

1.00
z
-
0
0.80 -,
Q..
-
CI
0.60

0.20
0.00
2
98
THIRD PHALANX
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the third knuckle (third carpophalan-
geal joint center) to the finger tip (distal end
of the third phalanx).
99
THIBD PHALlIl LIIUGl (c.)
("a.les and le.ales)
I\ge (yrs) N Mean s.d. Min 5th 50th 95th !'!ax
2.5-3.5 31 5.8 0.5 !J.8 4.8 5.7 6.5 7.0
3.5-4.5 45 6.1 0.4 5.4 5.5 6. 1 6.8 7. 1
4.5-5.5 114 6.7 0.5 5.5 5.7 6.5 7.6 ".9
5.5-6.5 49 6.7 0.5 5.5 5.7 6.6 7.6 .7.8
6.5-7.5 46 7.2 0.5 6.0 6.2 7.2 7.8 7.9
7.5-8:"5 52 7.5 0.6 6.2 6.3 7.5 8.4
tL .,
8.5-9.5 .42 7.8 0.5 7.0 7. 1 7.7 8.7 9.0
9. 5-H). 5 45 8.2 0.6 7.1 7.2 8. 1 Q.3 9.q
10.00
9.00
.
.
8.00
x
z
a:
i
0- 7.00
c
a::
-~
...
8.00
..
.
..
.. .
'. 1: ••
.. _.. ...
. .. .... .
. . ... .
.. . .
.. .. .
. ..,.
.
. ..
...
..
. .
...
.
..
..
o • •
••• • I" •
. .. . ..
. .
.
5.00
10 9 8 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
. '£.OO±---t---t---.....t-----t---+----+---+----+----'--
235
100
PROXIMAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the tip of the second finger (phalanx
III) to the third knuckle of the second finger
joint center of phalanx
III) with the finger fully extended.
101
PRon MAL PHHANGEAL LINK AGE (em)
("'ales and Females)
Age (y rs) N r'lean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th r'lax
2.5- 3.5 31 2.5 0.3 2.0 2.1 2.5 2.9 3. 1
3 • 5- Ll • 5 45 2.1 0.3 1.8 2.0 2.7
3. ,
3.6
4.5-5.5 43 2.9 0.3 2.3 2.Ll 2.9 3.3 3.7
5.5-6.5 49 3.0 0.4 2.Ll 2.4 2.9 3.5 3.8
6.5- 7.5 46 3.2 0.3 2.6 2.6 3.2 3.1 3.9
7 • 5- 8 • 5 .- 52 3.4 0.4 2.5 2.6 3.3 3.9 4 . ~
8.5- 9.5 42 3.5 0.3 2.9 2.9 3.5 4.0 4. 3
9.5-10.5 45 3.7 0.4 2.8 2.9 3.7 4.4 4.8
5.00
II. SO
w
11.00
t:) 00 .. 0 .. 0
a:
00 00 o'
:lE::
3.50 z
. 0 ..
-
-l
.... .. .
-l
3.00
0.0 . . ..
a: o. o. 0
W ..
.-
t:)
.. . .. .. .
Z
... •• 0 . .
a: 2.50
00 .
-l
a:
z:
Q...
2.00
-I
a:
~
-
1.50
x
0
a:::
Q...
1.00
0.50
0.00
2 5 6 7 B 9 10
AGE (YEARS)
102
MIDDLE PHALANGEAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the first knuckle of the second
finger (distal interphalangeal joint center
of phalanx III) to the second knuckle of the
second finger (proximal interphalangeal joint
center of phalanx III) with the finger fully
extended .
..
103
MIDDLE LINKAGE (era )
(l'Iales and Pemales)
Age (y rs) N r!ean s.d. IUn 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5-3.5 31 1.6 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.6 2.4
3.5-4.5 45 1.7 0.2 1.3 1.3 1.6 2.0 2.1
4.5-5.5 43 1.8 0.2 1.3 1.3 1.7 2. 1 2.2
").5- 6.5 49 1.8, 0.3 1.1. 1. 1 1.7 2.3 2.5
6.5-7.5 415 1.9 0.3 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.3 2.5
7.5- 8. ') 52 2.0 0.3
1.6 .
1.6 2.0 2.3 2.8
8.5-Q.S"'42 2.1 0.3 1.3 1.5 2. 1 2.4 3.0
9.5-10.5 411 2.2 0.3 1.4 1.5 2. 1 2.6 3.0
1£.00
3.50
UJ
3.00

a:
:lI::
z
-
-J
2.50
-J
a:
lIJ

z 2.00
a:
-J
a:
X
Q..
1.50
lIJ
-J
C
C
-
1.00
::E:
0.50
0.00
2 3 5 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
104
. \.
8 9 10 11
DISTAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the tip of the second finger (phalanx
III) to the first knuckle of the second finger
(distal interphalangeal joint center 'of phalanx
III) with the finger fully e x t e n d e d ~
105
DISTAL PllALA NGF.U lINKAGE (em)
(PlalEs aod Females)
Age (yrs) N Plean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th q5th Max
2.5-3.5 31 1.3 0.2 0.9 0.9 '.2
1.5
, • 6
3.5-4.5 44 1.4 0.2
, .0
1.0 '.3
1.6 1.8
11.5-5.5 44 1.4 0.2
, • 1
1 • 1 1.4 1.8 1 • 9
5.5-6.5 49 1.5 0.2 1.0 1.0 1. II 1.8 2.0
6.5-7.5 "'IUi 1.6 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.0
7.5-6.5 52 1.6 0.3 1.0 1.1 1.6 2.0 2.4
F3. 5- 9.5 142 '.7
0.2 1.1 1.1 '.7 2.0 2. 1
9.5-10.5 45 1.9 0.2 1.4 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.4
.... - I ... _I ......
.-. . . .. .
· ,
......
3.00
2.67
L&J
2.33
~
a:
x:
z
2.00
-
....J
....J
a:
1.67
L&J
~
Z
a:
....J
1.33
a:
~
a..
....J
1.00
a:
t-
en
-0
0.67
0.33
0.00
2 3 5 6 7
AGE [YEARS)
106
8 9 10
OUTSIDE CARPAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the outside of the third knuckle
of the second finger phalangeal
joint of phalanx III) to the wrist (radiocarp
joint center) with the hand held in a fist
and the wrist fully flexed.,

-''..",.
l",. ,".


,: .' -- ,_.-...' - -----" ..
. . _. .
107
OUTSIDE CARPAL LI NKAGE (em)
(Males and Pemales)
Age eyrS) N ~ e a n s.d. !'lin 5tu 50th 95th III ax
2.5-3.5 31 4.4 C.1 3.0 3.2 4.3 5.6 5.8
l.5-1I.5 45 4.6 0.5 3.6 3.7 4.5 5.5 5.7
11.5- 5.5 43 5.3 0.1 4. 1 11.2 5.2 6.3 1.2
5.5- 6.5 119 5.6 0.1 3.9 11.4 5.5 6.7 8.3
6.5- 7.5 Li3 5.8 0.7 4.3 4.5 5.6 7. 1 7.7
7.5-8.5 ...50 6.0 0.8 4.2 4.6 5.9 7.2 8.6
8.5-q.5 40 6.3 0.7 4.7 5.1 6.2 7.2 8.0
9.5-10.5 44 6.5 1. 1 4.8 li.S 6.2 8.8 9.8
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3 5 6
AGE
1
(,EARS)
8 9 10 1
108.
OUTSIDE PROXIMAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the outside of the second knuckle
of the second finger (proximal interphalangeal
joint of phalanx Ill) to the outside of the
third knuckle of the second finger (metacarpal
phalangeal joint of phalanx III) with the hand
held in a fist.
109
OUTSIDE PROII PlAt PRAUNGFAL (ern)
("'ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N Mean s.d. 5th 50th 95th /lax
2.5- 3.5 31 3.7 0.3 2.8 2.9 3.6 4.1 4.q
3. 5- q .5 45 3.9 0.3 3.0 3.5 3.9 4.3 4.6
4.5-5.5 . 44 4.2 0.3 3.5 3.7 4.2 4.6 4.9
5.5-6.5 49 4.4 0.2 3.8 3.9 4.3 4.7 4.8
6.5-7.5 ... 46 4.5 0.3 4.0 4.0 4.5 4.9 5.0
7.5-8.5 51 4.7 0.3 4.0 4.1 4.6 5.• 2 5.3
8.5- 9.5 42 5.0 0.3 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.5
9.5-10.5 45 5.2 0.4 4.2 4.6 5. 1 5.9 6.1
.
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3 5 8 7
AGE (YEARS)
110
8 9 10
.
--
. .
..
11
OUTSIDE MIDDLE PHALANGEAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the outside of the first knuckle
of the second finger (distal interphalangeal
joint of phalanx III) to the outside of the
second knuckle of the second finger (proximal
interphalangeal joint of phalanx III) with the
hand held in a fist.
:;:. til"
II:.
111
OUTSIDE: 1''11 DOLE PHAl1\NGEAL L IliK1\GE (em)
(!'lales and pemales)
Age (rrs) N /'lean s. d. Plin 5th 50th 95th 1'1 ax
2.5- 3.5 31 2.4 0.3 1. B 1.8 2.3 2.8 3.0
3.5- q. 5 45 2.4 0.2 1.8 2. 1 2.4 2.1 2.8
16.5-5.5 44 2.7 0.2 2.3 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.2
5.5:- 6.5 49 2.7 0.3 2.0 2.2 2.7 3.1 3.2
6.5-7.5 ... 46 2.9 0.3 2.2 2.3 2.8 3.2 3.4
1.5-8.5 52 2.9 0.3 2.4 2.5 2.9 3.4 3.5
8.5-9.5 42 '3. 1 0.3 2.5 2.7 3. 1 3.5 4. 1
q. 5- 10.5 44 3.3 0.3 2.7 2.7 3.2 3.8 3.9
.. .. .. ..
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1.00
0.50
0.00
2 "S 5 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
112
8 9 10
1]
OUTSIDE DISTAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION: Measure from the tip of the second finger
(phalanx III) to the first knuckle of the
second finger (distal interphalangeal
with the finger fully flexed.

" .. I .... ' "
,
...
113
OUTSIDE D1STAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE
(ell )
OIales I nd Fe••le.)
Age (y ['5) N !'lean s.d.
'Un
5th 50th 95th I'! ax
2.5-3.5 31 1.5 0.3 0.9 1.0 1. 4 1.9 2.1
3.5-4.5 45 1.6 0.3 1.0
, • 0 1.6 1.9 2.0
4.5- 5.5 44 1.7 0.2 1.2 1.3 1.7 2.0 2.2
5.5-6.5 49 1.B 0.3 1.1 1.2 1. 8 2.2 2.4
6.5-7.5 46 1.8 0.3 1.4 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.5
7.5-B.!r 52 1.9 0.2 1.4 1 •. 5 1.8 2.3 2.5
8.5-9.5 42 2.0 0.3 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.4 3.0
9.5- 10.5 45 2. 1 0.3 1 .5 1.6 2.0 2.5 2.7·
11.00
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11 10 9 8 5 ..
0.00+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+----.----4
2
114
OUTSIDE GRIP DIAMETER
DESCRIPTION; Measure from the outside of the second knuck-1e
of the second finger interphalangeal
joint of phalanx III) to the outside of the
second knuckle of the thumb (metacarpal-phalangeal
,joint of phalanx I) as the hand encircles a
cylindrical object (measuring cone), touching
the thumb tip to the second finger tip.
.. ....
:t····
115
10.00
9.00
OUTSIDE GRIP DB I5ETEIl (em)
(l'Iales and Pemales)
Age eyrs) N (liJean s.d. P1i n 5th 50th 95th l1ax
2.5- 3.5 31 5.5 0.5 4.5 4.7 5.4 6.2 6.3
1.5-4.5 45 5.9 0.3 5.1 5.3 5. B 6.4 6.B
4.5- 5.5 44 6.3 0.4 5.1 5.7 6.2 6.8 7.2
5.5-6.5 49 6.4 0.4 5.6 5.7 6.4 7.1 7.2
6.5-1.5 46 6.8 0.4 5.6 6.1 6.7 1.4 '7.9
7.5- 8.5 ;"'S2 7.0 0.6 6.0 6.1 1.0 7.B 8.1
q. 5- g. 5
42 7.4 0.5 6.5 6.5 7.3 B.3 B.4
9.5-10.5 45 7.7 0.6 6.7 6.8 7.6 8.1 9.B
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s 5 e
AGE
7
(YEARS)
8 9 10 11
116
INSIDE GRIP DIAMETER
DESCRIPTION:· Measure the diameter of the cylindrical object
(measuring cone) at the point where the hand
encircles it touching the thumb tip to the
second finger tip.
'.,'
117
INSIDE GRIP DI (em)
(Males and Females)
(y rs) N s.d. r'lin 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5- 3.5 31 2.1 0.2 2.3 2.3 2.7
3. , 3.1
3.5-4.5 45 2.9 0.2 2.6 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.4
4.5- 5.5 43 3.2 0.2 2.8 2.8 1 3.6 3.8
5.5-6.5 49 3.2 0.3 2.8 2.8 3.2 3.7 3.9
6.5-"?5 46 3.6 0.3 3. 1 3.5 ij. 1 4.7
7.5-8.5 52 1.7 0.3 3.0 3. 1 3.6 4.0 ij.3
l=\. 5- 9.5 3.9 0.3 ].5 3.5 3.9 LJ.5 4.8
9.")-10.5 45 4.2 0.3 3.6 3.7 4.0 4.8 5.0
6.00
5.00
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10 9 8 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
5
0.00+----+---+----+---+-----+------1----.....----1-----
2
118
Anthropometry statistics
(2.5 - 3.5 years)
Measurement D€scriptive Statistics
N Mean 5. d. l1in 5th 50th 95th Max
Height (c m) 31 97.3 4. 3 88.1 89.3 96.6 104.5 104.9
Weight ( kq) 31 15.2 1.9 , 1.2
'1.3 15.3
'1.
6 lB.lJ
Finger Linkage (em) 31 5.B 0.5 Il.B 4.8 5.1 6.5 7.0
Carpal Linkage (em) 30 4.1 0.5 3.0 3.0 3.9 4.B . 5.0
Radial linkage (em) 31 12.5 0.8 10.8 11.0 12.5 13.6 13. <]
Humeral Lenyth (ell ) 31 14.2 1.6 1 1. 1 11.3 1q. 1 16.9 19.]
Sacral Linkage (em) Jl 5.2 0.8 4.0 4.0 4.9 6.5 1.5
Lumbar linkage (c !1l) 31 18.9 2.0 111. 1 14.3 19. q 21.5 22. 1
cervical Linkage (em) 31 11. 1& 1.3 9.0 9. 1 11.5 13.0 13 .6
Femoral Linkage (em) 31 21.2 1.9 1"7.7 17.8 21.2 23.9 21.0
'l'ibial Linkage (em) 31 20.0 2. 1 16. 1 16.2 '9 •. 9 23.1 23.1
Tarsal Linkage (em) 31 7.8 0.9 6.1 6.2 7.9 9.2 9.1
I-'
Clavical Linkage (em) 31 14. "7 1.3 11.7 12.2 14. ] 16.7 17.6 I-'
\0
Pelvic Linkaqe (em) 31 13.3 1.7 10.0 10.2 0.3 15.8 11.0
Distal Phal Linkage (e m) 31 1.3 0.2 0.9 0.9 1. 2 1.5
'.6
Middle Phal Linkage (em) ]1 1.6 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4
proximal phal Link (elll) 31 2.0 2. 1 2.5 2.g :3. 1
OD Distal Phal link (c m) 31 1.5 G.3 0.9 1.0 . 1. 4 1.9 2. 1
OD l1iddle Phal link (c III) 31 2.4 0.3 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.8 3.0
00 Pr 0 x ph ali ink ( em) 31 3.1 0.3 2.8 2.Q 3.6 4. 1 4.4
Od carpal Fhal link (e m) 31 1l.4 0.1 3.0 3.2 4.3 5.6 5.B
Fingerfold Linkage (em) 31 4.5 0.4 3.8 3.8 q.4 5 •.1 5.3
Hand Length Link ( em) 3.1 10.4 C.9 8.1 B.1 10.4 11.6 12.2
DIP finger Breadth (em) 31 1. 1 0.1 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.LJ
PIP Finger Breadth (em) 31 1.2 O. 1 0.9 0.9 1. 2 1.3 1 .4
Han d Rr ea dt h- !'I P (em) 31 4.9 0.4 11.2 4.2 4.8 5.4 5.8
Hand (em) 31 5.5 0.5 3.1 4.4 5.6 6.1 6.LJ
Wrist flreadth (em) 31 1.6 0.2 :3. 1 3.2 3.5 3.9
4. ,
DIP Thiekne.5S (em) 31 0.9 0.1 0.8 O.R· O.q 1• 1 1.2
PIP "hickness (em) 31 1• 1 O. 1 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.3 1• 3
MP Thickness (em) 31 1.7 0.2 1.3 1. ) 1.6 2. 1 2.3
wrist Thickness (e m) 30 2.1 0.2 2.3 2.3 2.6 ) • 1 J.2
Grip OD (em) 31 5.5 0.5 4.5 q.7 5.4 6.2 6. 1
Grip In (em) 31 2.1 0.2 2.3 2.3 2.7 3. 1 ]. 1
r'
I
Anthropometry Statistics
(3.5 - 4.5 years)
Measurement DeseriFtiv€ Statistics
N Mean s.d. l1i n 5th 50th Q5th MalC
Height (e m) 45 102. , ... 1 93.6 94.2 101.7 108.8 '10.4
Weight (kg) 45 16.8 1.9 13.4 14.0 16.5 20.0 20.7
pinger Linkage (em) 45 6.1 0.4 5.4 5.5 6.1
6" 8 7.'
Carpal Linkage (em) 45 4.1 0.5 2.8 3.5 4.2 5. 1 5.2
Fadi'1l Linkage (em) 115 13. ] 0.9 11.5 11.6 13.2 111.9 15.6
Humera 1 Lengt h (em) 45 15.2 1.5 11. 3 12.3 15. 1 17. II 18. ,
Sacra 1 Linkage (em) 411 5.7 1. 1 3.6 J.B 5.6 7.3 B. 3
Lumbar Linkage (em) 45 20.6 2. 1 14.9 16.3 20.7 2!J.4 25.3
cervieal Linkage (e m) 45 12.9 1.4 9.0 9.3 13. 1 14.6 15. ,
Femoral Linkage (e III) 115 22.5 1. 9 19.0 19.3 22.3 25.1 26.4
I-' Tibial Linkage (em) 45 21.4 1.6 18.2 18.8 21.3 23.9 24.5
N
Tarsal Linkage (elll) 45 B.6 1.0 6.6 6.8 ~ . 5 10.0 10.9
0
Clavieal Linkage (e m) 45 15.B 1.6 11.9 12.5 15.8 17.8 19.2
Pel vie Linkage (em) 45 14.0 1.e 10.0 10.9 13.4 11.2 18. "3
Distal Phal T.inkage (e m) 114 1.11 0.2 1.0 1. I) 1.3 1.6 1. B
Middle Phal Linkage (em) 45 1.1 0.2 1.3 1. 3 1.6 2.0 2.1
Proximal Phal link (em) 115 2.1 0.3 1.8 -2.0 2.1 3. 1 1.6
00 Distal Phal link (e Ill) 45 1.6 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.9 2.0
00 Middle Phal Link (e 1\1) 45 2.11 0.2 1.B 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.8
00 Prox phal tink (em) 115 3.9 0.3 3.0 3.5 3.9 II. :I 11.6
Od Carpal Phal Link (em) 45 4.6 0.5 3.6 3.1 4.5 5.5 5.7
Fingerfold Linkage (e m) 45 4.7 0.3 4. 1 4. 1 4.1 5.1 5.11
Hand Length tick (em) 45 , 1 • 1 0.6 9.9 9.9> 11.0 12.0 12.2
DIn Finqer Breadth (c m) 45 1 • 1 O. 1 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.3
PIP Fingec Areadth (em) 45 1.2
O. , 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5
Hand Breadth-I'IP (em) 45 5.1 0.3 4.3 LJ.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
Hand Breadth-Thumb (em) 45 5.9 0.5 4.9 5.1 5.8 6.6 1.1
wrist Breadth (e II) 45 3.1 0.2 3.3 3.3 3.7 4 • 1 11.2
DI!J Thickness (em) 45 1.0 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1. 1 1.2
PIP Thiekness (em) 45 1 • 1 O. 1 O.g O.CJ
,. , , • 3 1 • 4
MP Thiekness lel1') 45 1. B 0.2 ,. It 1.11 1.7 2.2 2.5
wrist Thickness (c rn) 45 2.6 0.2 2.4 2.4 2.1 3.2 3.1
Grip 00 (em) 45 5.9 O. ] 5.1 5.3 5.8 6.4 6.IJ
Grip If) (e m) 45 2.9 0 ~ 2 2.6 2.6 2.9 3.3 J.4
Statistics
(11.5 - 5.5 years)
Measurement
Descriptive Statistics
N !!ean s. d. 1'1 in 5th 50th 95th !!ax
Height (em) 44 111.4 5.5 102.3 102.1 111.0 122.3 125.0
We ight (kCJ) 44 19 6 2.1 15.2 15.11 19.2
211·1 26.4
Finger linkage (cm) 44 6.1 0.5 5.5 5.7 6.5 7.6 7.9
Carpal linkage (cm) 44 4.9 0.6 3.7 3.1 4.6 5.1 5.B
Radial linkage. (cm) 44 14.6 1.2 12.0 12.2 14.4 16.1 11.1
Humeral Length (em) 44 17.• 0 1.8 13.9 14. 1 11.0 19.6 22 .1
Sacral Linkage (em) 44 6.5 1.3 4.0 4.3 6.3 9.9
Lumbar linkage (em) 1J4 22.3 2.6 16.4 21.9 26.2 21.8
Cervical Linkage (c Ill) 44 13 .4 1.9 9.9 10.2 13.3 16.3 1A.2
P'el1lo["i!1 I.inkage (e m) 44 25.4 1.8 21.5 22.5 25.1 28.5 30.1
Tibial linkage (cm) 44 23.8 1.2 21.0 21.1 23.5 25.9 26.6
I-'
Ta["sal Linkage (em) 44 9.4 0.9 7.6 7.B 9.4 10.8 11.7
'" I-' Clavical linkage (em) 44 17.3 1.6 12.9 14.9 17.5 20.2 21.5
Pelv ie Linkage (em) 44 15.11 1.8 11.3 11. 1 15.·6 17.9 lf1.6
Distal phal Linkage (e m) 44 1.4 0.2 1. 1 1.1 1.4 1.8 1.9
!!iddle phal linkage (e m) 43 1.8 0.2 1.3 1. 3 1.7 2. 1 2.2
Proximal phal Link (cm) 43 2.9 2.3 2.4 -2.9 3.3 3.1
00 Distal Phal link (e 18) 44 1.7 0.2 1.2 1.3 1.7 2.0 2.2
00 !!iddle Phal link (en) 44 2.1 0.2 2.3 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.2
00 Prox Pha I Link (em) 44 11.2 0.3 3.5 3.1 4.2 4.6 4.9
ad carpal Phal link (em) 43 5.3 0.7 4.1 4.2 5.2 6.3 1.2
Linkage ( em) 43 5.2 0.11 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.1
Hand Length Link (e Ill) 44 12.0 0.8 10.4 10.9 11.8 13.4 13.9
DIP Finger Breadth (em) 44 1. 1 O. 1 0.9 0.9 1. 1
1.-3
1 .4
PIP Finqer Breadth (e m) 44 1. 3 O. 1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5
Hand Br eadt P (c m) 44 5.4 0.3 4.9 4.9 5.2 6.0 6.5
Rand l3r-eadth-Thumb (em) 44 6. 1 0.4 5.4 5.5 6. 1 6.7 7.2
Wrist Breadth (e III) 44 1.9 0.2 3.5 3.5 3.8 4.3 4.4
DIP Thickness (em) 44 1.0 0.1 O.B 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2
PIP Thickness (em) 44 1.2 O. 1 0.9 O.q 1. 1 1.3 1.5
MP Thickness ( em) 42 L8 0.2 1.5 1.5 1. 1 2.0 2.q
wr-ist Thickness (e m) 44 2.9 0.2 2.3 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.q
Grip OD (em) 44 6.3 0.4 5.7 5.7 6.2 6.8 7.2
Gdp 10 (em) 43 3.2 0.2 2.8 2.8 3. 1 3.6 3.8
,,',
Anthropometry Statistics
(5.5 - 6.5 years)
tescriptive Statistics
N "ean s.d. Min 5th 50th 95th !'lax
Height (e m) 49 1H. 5 4.8 99.6 104.9 113.8 121.2 124.2
weig ht (kq) 49 21.0 2.8 16.2 16.5 20.7 25.5 29.1
"'inqf'r Linkage (e m) 119 6.1 0.5 5.5 5.7 6.6 7.6 7.a
Car pa 1 tin);age (em) 49 5.2 0.5 4. 1 5. 1 6. J
Q.acHal Linkage (em) 49 15.2 1.0 13. 1 13.2 15.2 16.6 17.0
Humer'll Length (em) 119 17.3 1 6 13.2 14.2 17.2 20.1 21.4
saccal linkage (em) 49 6.9 1.5 4.4 4.5 6.5 9.2 10.11
Lil mba r Linkage (em) 49 22.2 2.3 16.6 18.4 22.0 26.4 '21.4
cc-rvieal I.inkage (em) 49 13.1 1 .9 9.7 10.6 n.9 16.5 19. J
Femorill Linkage (em) 49 26.7 1.8 22.0 23.5 26.7 29.1 30.6
Tibial Linkage (em) 49 24.7 1.9 20.5 21. 1 24.4 21.5 29.0
'l"ilcsa 1 l.inkage (em) 49 9.5 1.0 7. 1 7.4 9.5 11 .0 11. 4
I-'
Clavieal Linkage ( em) 49 17.8 1.5 14.9 15.3 11.6 2(). 1 21.7
N
N Pelvie linkage (em) 49 1.7 12.7 13.1 15.5 18.4 19.8
Distal phal Linkage (e m) 49 1. S 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.0
!'liddle phal Linkage (em) 119 1.8 0.3 1• 1
.
1. 1 1.7 2.3 2.5
Proximal Phal link (em) 49 3.0 0.4 2.4 2.4 2.9 3.5 1.8
00 Distal Phal Link (em) 49 1.B 0.3 1. 1 1.2 1.8 2.2 2.4
00 Phal Link (em) 49 2.7 0.3 2.0 2.2 2.7 3.1 3.2
00 ProK Phal link (em) 49 0.2 3.8 3.9 4.3 4.7 4.8
Od Carpal phal Link (em) 119 5.6 0.7 3.9 4.4 5.5 6.7 8.3
Fingerfold Linkage (em) 4l) 5.2 0.4 ij.l 4.4 5.1 5.8 6.3
Hand Length fink (e mJ 49 12.2 0.7 1'l.5 , 0.9
, 2" 1 13.2 13.6
DIP Finger Breadth (emJ 49 1.2 O. 1 1.0 1.0 1. 1 1.3 1 • 3
PIP Finger Breadth (em) 48 1.3 O. 1 , • 1 1. 1 1.2 1.4 1.5
Hand Br eadt h-P1P (em) 49 5.5 0.3 4.B 4.9 5.5 5.9 6.2
Hand Breadth-Thumb (em) 119 6.11 0.5 5.5 5.5 6.3 7. 1 7.6
Wrist Bre" d t h (c m) 49 4.0 0.2 3.5 1.9 4.2 4.11
DI!.» '!'hickness (em) 49 1.0 O. 1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 1 • II
PIP Thickness (em) 48 1.2 O. 1 1.0 .1.0 1. :2 1.4 1.6
MP Thickness ( em) 49 1.9 0.2 1.4 1.4 1.8 2. 1 2.2
Wrist Thickness (c m) 49 2.9 0.2 2. 4 2.5 2. ') 3.2 3.3
Grip OD (em) 49 6.4 0.4 5.6 5.1 6.4 1. 1 7.2
Gri P 1D (c m) 49 3.2 o. ] 2.8 2.8 J.2 3.7 Jog
Anthropometry statistics
(6.5 - 1.5 years)

Descriptive
N s.d. !'1in 5th 50th 95th JIIa x
Height (c m) 46 121.3 E.5 103.4 112.0 121.0 131.9 132.5
Weight (kg) 46 23.4 3.2 15.6 23.3
28.' 30.5
Finger linkage (em) 46 1.2 0.5 6.0 6.2 1.2 1.8 1.9
carpal Linkage (em) 46 5.5 0.5 4.4 4.6 5.4 6.2 ' 6.8
Radial linkage (em) 46 16.0 1.3 13.3 13.5 15.1 18.5. 19.0
Humeral Length (em) 46 19.2 1.8 14.6 15.3 19.5 21.7 22.3
Sacral Linkage (ell) 46 1.2 1.1 5.1 5.3 "'7.0 8.1 9.?
Lumbar- linkage (em) 46 24.0 2 • 1 19.9 20.3 23.5 21.6 29.2
Cervical Linkage ( em) 46 14.7 1 .7 9.7 10.6 11.1. B 11.0 17.6
Femoral Linkage (e m) 46 2A.3 2.1 24.1 25.2 27.7 31.5 32.3
I-' Tibial linkage (em) 46 26.9 1.9 23.0 23.4 26.6 30.4 30.5
tv
Tarsal Linkage (cm) 46 10.3 1.0 ·6.6 B.9 10.3 12.0 12.6 w
Clavical Linkage (em) 46 18.1 1. 7 14.2 15.2 '8. 1 21.0 21.1
Pelvic Linkage (em) 46 16.3 2.2 11. q 12.2 16.0 19.4 22.5
Distal Phal Linkage (e m) 46 1 .6 0.2 1.2 1. 2 1.5 1.8 2.0
Middle Phal Linkage (c [II) 46 1.9 0.] 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.3 2.5
Proximal Phal Link (cm) 46 3.2 0.3 2.6 2.6 3.2 3.7 9
OD Distal Phal link (e 11)- 46 1.8 0.3 1.4 1. 4 1. B 2;2 2.5
Phal link (em) 46 2.9 0.3 2.2 2. 3 2.8 . 3.2 3.q
00 Prox Phal Link (cm) 46 4.5 0.3 4.0 4.0 4.5 4.9 5.0
Od Carpal Phal Link (e Ill) 43 5.8 0.7 4.3 4.5 5.6 7.1 7.1
Fingerfold Linkage (em) 116 5.6 o.q 4.8 4.9 5.5 6.3 6.6
Hand Length Link ( em)
4t .
12.9 0.8 11.5 11.8 12.9 14.2 15.0
DIP Finger Br€adth (cm) 46 1.2 0.1 0.9 0.9 ,. 1 1 .3 1.5
PIP Finger Breadth (em) 46 1.3 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.7
Kand Bre"ldth-MP (e m) 46 5.1 0.4 4.6 q.9 5.7 6.3 6.5
Kand Breadth-Thumb (em) 46 6.6 0.5 5.3 5.& 6.5 7.3 A. 1
wrist flreadth (e.m) 45 11.2 0.3 3.6 3.6 4.1 4.5 4.6
DIP Thickness (em) 43 1.0 O. 1 O.B O.B 0.9 1.2 1.5
PIP Thickness (c m) 45 '.3 O. 1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1. 7
Thickness (em) 46 1.9 0.2 1.3 1.4 1. B 2.2 2.6
wrist '!'hickness (e m) . 45 3.0 0.3 2.11 2.5 3.0 3.4 3.1
Grip OD (cm) 46 6.8 0.4 5.6 6 • 1 6.7 7.4 7.9
Grip ID (cm) 116 3.6 0.3 1.1 3.1 3.5 11.1 4.1
r ~
Anthropometry Statistics
IReproduced Irom
(1.5 - B.5 years)
best available copy.
Measureme n t Descriptive Statistics
N Meiln s.d. l'1in 5th 50th 95th Max
Height. (em) 52 126.8 5.7 llij.7 111.0 125.8 136.0 138.4
Weight (kg) 52 26.4 4.7 19.2 19.5 25.2 ] 4.4 39.6
Pinger linkage (em) 52 7.5 0.6 6.2 6.1 7.5 8.4 8.7
Carpal Linkage (em) 52 5.8 0.7 4. ij 4.6 5.6 1\.0 7.4
Radial linkage (em) 52 17.0 1.4 13.7 14.b 16.9 19.4 20.2
Humeral Length (em) 52 19.7 1.6 16.2 16.6 19.5 22.7 24.1
Sa era I Lin kage (em) 52 7.5 1 • 3 5.2 5.ij 1.4 Q.9 11.0
Lumbar linkage (e m) 52 24.9 2.2 20.4 20.8 24.8 28.0 ]1.3
Cervical Linkage ( em) 52 15.8 1.1 12.8 12.9 15.5 18. B 19.5
. Femoral T, i nkage (em) 52 ]0.4 2.2 24.8 25.6 30.2 33.A 35.1
Tibial linkage (em) 52 28.5 2.2 2ij.2 24.7 28.2 ]1.6 .12.9
I-'
Tarsal Linkage (em) 52 10.6 1.1 8.9 8.9 10.6 12. 1 1II. 1
IV
Clavieal linkage (e m) 52 19.3 2.0 15.1 16. 1 19. 3 22.6 24.3
",.
pelv ie Lin kc'ge ( em) 52 17. 9 2.4 n.9 14. 1 17.2 21.9 23.1
Distal Phal Linkage (e m) 52 1 .6 0.3 1.0 1. 1 1.6 2.0 2.4
Middle Pha 1 li rkiqe (em) 52 2.0 0.3 1.6 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.9
Proximal Phal Link (em) 52 3.4 0.4 2.5 2.6 3.3 3.9 1.1. '3
aD Distal Phal Tink (e m) 52 1.9 0.2 1. 4 1.5 1.8 2.3 2.5
OD Middle Phal Tink (c lit) 52 2.9 0.3 2.4 2.5 2.9 3.4 3.5
00 Prox phal Link ( em) 51 IL7 0.3 4.0 4.1 4.6 5.2 5. 3
ad Carpal P h ~ l link (e m) 50 6.0 0.8 4.2 4.6 5.9 7.2 8.6
Fingerfold Linkage (em) 52 5.9 0.5 4.1 5.0 5.8 6.4 6.7
Hand Length Link (e m) 52 13 .1.1 C.9 1 1.4 11.6 13.5 14.5 14.9
DIP Finger Hreadth (e ro) 51 1.2 O. 1
'.0
1.0 1. 1 1.4 l.S
PID Finger Breadth (ern) 52 1.3 0.1 1. 1 1• 1 1. 3 1. ") 1.6
Hand Breadth-MP (e m) 5? 6.0 0.4 5.2 5.3 5.9 6.6 7.4
Hand Breadth-Thumb (em) 51 7.0 0.5 5.8 6.0 1.0 1.7 8.3
Wr ist Rreadt h (em) 52 4.3 0.3 3.6 3.7 4.2 11.8 5.2
nIP Thickness (em) 57 1.0 O. 1 0.8 0.8 '.0 1.2
, • 3
PI!' Thickness (c m) 51 1• .1 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.6 1 • 7
MP Thickness (c fIl)
<;-
2.0 0.3 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 JL
wrist 'l'hiekness (c: m) 52 3. 1 O. '3 2.5 2.6 1.0 3.11 1.1
Grip 0D (em) 52 7.0 0.6 6.0 6. 1 7.0 7.B B.7
Grip 10 (e m)
.:::-
3.7 0.3 3.0 3. ,
3.6 4.0 4.3 _/
Anthropometry Statistics
(8.5 - q.5 years)
rtea sure ment
Descriptive Statisties
N f'lean s. d. Min 5th 50th 95th t"Iax
Height (em) 42 13J. 7 5.6 118.3 124.4 133.0 145.2 148.9
Weight (kg) 42 30.1 5.0 , 9.7 22.6 30.0
37. ,
44.9
Finger linkage (em) 42 7.B 0.5 7.0 7. 1 7.7
A."
9.0
Carpal Linkage (em) 42 6.0 O.B 4.8 4.8 6.0 7.4 8.0
Badial linkage (em) 42 17.7 1.2 15.6 15.7 17.7 19.4 20.0
Humera 1 Lengt h (em) 42 21.4 1.7 11.7 18.0 21.2 24.4 25.5
Saeral Linkage (em) 42 7.9 1.6- 5.3 5.4 1.6 10.6 11.7
lumbar linkage (em) 42 26.3 2.B 19.8 20.5 25.8 30.0 33.8
Cervieal Linkage (em) 42 16.4 1 .7 13.3 13.4 16.3 19.0 20.1
Femoral Linkage (em) 42 31.5 2.4 24.1 25.3 31.9 34.4 35.8
Tibial Linkage (em) 42 30.2 2.1 25.9 26.1 30.0 33.B ]q.5
Tarsal Linkage (em) 42 11.4 1.4 8.8 q.o
11. 2 '13.4 15.4
.....
Clavieal linkage (em) 42 19.4 1.6 16.ft 16.5 19.2 22.5 22.9 N
U1
Pelvic Linkage (em) 42 18.2 2.5 14. 1 14.2 17.8 22.9 25.1
Distal Phal Linkage (e m) 42 1 .7 0.2 1. 1 1. 1 1.7 2.0
- . 2. 1
rtiddle Pha 1 Li lIkage (em) 42 2.1 0.3 1.3 1.5 2. 1 2.4 3.0
Proximal Phal link (em) 4-2 ].5 0.3 2.9 2.9 3.5 q.O 4.3
00 Distal link (em) 42 2.0 0.3 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.ft 3.0
00 l1idd Ie pha I Li nk (em) 42 3. 1 0.3 2.5 2.1 3. 1 3.5 4. 1
00 Prox Link ( em) 42 5.0 0.3 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.5
Od Carpal Phal Link (em) ltD 6.3 0.1 It.7 5. 1 6.2 "1.2 8.0
Linkage (em) 42 6.2 0.4 5.3 5.4 6. 1 6.9 7.1
Hand Length Link (em) lt2 14.2 0.8 12.3 12.9 14. 1 15.4 15.9
DIP Finger Breadth (em) lt2 1.2 0.1 1.0 1.0 1. :2 1.4 1.5
PIP Finqer (em) 42 1.4 0.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 1• 7
Hand Rreadth-"ln (em) lt2 6.3 0.4 5.6 5.6 6.3 6.8 7.0
Hand sreadth-Thumb (e m) 42 7.q 0.6 6. 1 6.2 7.11 8.1 8.6
wrist Breadth (e 0:) 42 ft.5 0.3 3.8 1. B q.4 4.9 5. 1
DIP Thiekness (em) 42 1. 1 O. 1 C.9 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.3
PIP Thiekness (em) U2 1.ft O. 1 1.2 1. 2 1.4 1.6 1.7
PIP Thiekness (em) 42 2.1 0.2 1.8 1.8 2. 1 2.4 2.6
wrist Thiekness (em) 42 3.2 0.2 2.6 2.7 1 3.5 3.9
Grip on (em) 42 7.4 0.5 6.5 6.5 7.3 B.3 8.q
Grip ID (em) lt2 3.9 0.3 3.5 3.5 J.9 lJ.5 lJ.8
,.-
I
Anthropometry Statistics
(9.5 - 10.5 years)
Measurement reseriptive Statistics
N "lean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th /'lax
Height (e m) r,5 140.5 7.2 126.6 127.8 1'39.2 151.6 158.0
Weight (kg) 45 33.0 4.9 24.3 25.2 31.6 41.6 42.6
Finger Linkage (em) 45 R.2 0.6 7. 1 7.2 8. 1 9.3 9.1}
carpal Linkage (em) 45 6.2 0.9 4.7 /J.B 6.0 '7.8 8.5
padial Lin kage (em) 45 18.8
'.5
16.6 16.9 21.4 23.1
Humeral Length (e m) Ll5 22.2 1.8 18.5 19.7 21.7 25.4 25.9
Sacral Linkage (em) r,5 8.8 1.6 4.9 6.0 8.7 11.2 13. ]
Lumbar Linkage (em) LIS 26.7 2.4 20.5 21.7 26.9 29.9 32.2
Cervical linkage (e m) - 45 17.3 1.5 13.3 14.3 17.4 19.6 20.4
Femoral Linkage (em) 45 33.6 2.5 27.8 29.5 32.9 31.9 39.4
Tihial Linkage (em) 45 32.0 2.5 27.8 2B.l 31. 5 36.6 37.2
Tarsal Linkage (em) 45 11.6 1.2 8.6 9.2 11.5 13.6
'''.2
Clavieal Linkage (em) 115 20.7 2.e 16.2 11.5 20.4 23.8 25.7
f-'
Pelvic Linkaye (em) 45 19 • 1 2.2 14.7 15. 1 18.8 23.1 24.7
N
CJ'l
Distal Phal Linkage (e m) 45 1.9 0.2 1.4 1.4 1. 8 2.3 2.4
Middle phal ( em) 44 2.2 0.3 1.4 1. ') 2. , 2.6 3.0
Proximal Phal link (c m) 45 3.7 0.4 2.8 2.Q 3.7 4.4 4.8
aD Distal Phal Link (em) 45 2. 1 0.3 1.5 1.6 2.0
2.5 -
2.7
aD Middle Phal Link (e m) 44 3.3 0.3 2.7 2.7 3.2 3.8 3.9
aD Prox Phal Link (em) 45 5.2 0.4 4.2 4.6 5. 1 5.9 6. 1
ad carpal Dhal Link (em) 44 6.5 1 • 1 4.8 4.8 6.2 B.8 9.8
Fingerfold (em) 45 6.4 0.6 5.3 5.4 6.2 1.4
Hand Length l,ink ( em) 45 14.7 1.1 12.9 13.0 14.5 16.7 17 .5
DIll Finger Rreadth ( em) 45 1.2 O. 1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1 .5
Breadth (em) ij5 1.4 O. 1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6
, • '7
Hand Breadth-!'tP (em) 45 6.5 0.5 5.5 5.8 6.4 7.2 7.7
Hand Breadth-Thumh (em) 45 1.5 0.6 6.6 6.6 7.3 B.7 Q.4
Wr ist Brea ,j t h (em) 45 .6 0.3 If. 1 4. 1 11.5 5. 1 5.5
nIP Thickness (em) 45 1• 1 O. , 0.9 0.9 1. 1 1. 3 1.6
PIP 1'hiekness (em) 44 1.4 O. , 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 l.fl
l'IP Thickness (e m) 45 2.2 0.2 1. Ii 1.8 ? 1 2.6 2.7
Wrist Thickness (em) 45 1.3 0.3 1.8 2.f\ 3• .£ 3.1 1.8
Grip OD (em) 45 7.7 0.6 6.7 6.8 1.6 B.1 9.R
Grip 11) (em) 45 4.2 O. 3 1.6 3.1 4.0 4.S 5.0
E
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e
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,
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- _ .....
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11")
3.3.1 Index of Grip Strength Data
Measurement P a g ~
1. Three Point Pinch
2 centimeters
Force (Kgf) •...••...••....•.........•' .•. '..........•' 132
Location of Force Vector (em) ......•.•...........• 133
Angle (Degrees) •.......•.•....•....•.•.,. . . • . . . . . .. 134
3 centimeters
135
136
137
138
139
140
144
145
146
141
142
143
Force (Kgf) ..•.•..•....•......•....•..•.•.•....•.•
Location of Force Vector (em) ..•...••....•.•.......
Angle (De..5Jrees) .
, ,
4 centimeters
Force (Kgf) .•......•..•...........•.•....•... ,.•.•..
Location of Force Vector (em) •...•..••..•....•....
Angle (Degrees) .••................••.,.........•....
5 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ...•..•.•..........••.•..•..•.....••....
Location of Force Vector (em) ...••....•.........••.
Angle (Degrees) ••...•......•....•..•'.•........ '.•.....
6 centimeters
Force (Kgf) •.••...•••.........•.•.•..••........•...
Location of Force Vector (em) .•.....•••...•...•..•.
Angle (Degrees) ••••••...•....••.•••••..•.••.•••.•.
7 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ..•.••.••.•.•....•.•..•••••••••••.•.•••• 147
Location of Force Vector (em) .....•..••••...•.••••• 148
Angle (Degrees) ••.•....•...••••.••••••••••••....•••. 149
8 centimeters
Force· (Kgf) ••. ,' ••••.••••....0' • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • •• 150
Location of Force Vector (em) ••••••••••••.•••.••... 151
Angle (Degrees) 0 •••••• '. •• •• • •• • • • • • •• • • • • •• • • • • • • •• 152
9 centimeters
Force (Kgf) •••••••.••••••••.....•••••••...· o ~ • • • • • • •• 153
Location of Force Vector (em) ••.••.•.•......•..... 154
Angle (Degrees) •••..••....•....•.•.••••......•..... 155
2. Five Point Pinch
2 centimeters
Force (Kgf) •.....•••..•.•••....•..•0................ 157
Location of Force Vector (em) ..•...••••••..•.....•• 158
Angle (Degrees) . • • •. • • •• . • . . . • • • • • •• . • . . . . . . . .• . .• 159
3 centimeters
Force (Kgf) • • • • • . . • . • . • . . • . . . . • • . • . . • • . • . . • . . . • . .• 160
Location of Force Vector (em) .•....•.•.•.......•.. 161
Angle (Degrees) .•.•••.•.••......•...•.•.......• ... .. 162
4 centimeters
Force (Kgf) .••.•.••..••••....•.••..•••••...•••.•..• 163
Location of Force Vector (em) ..•................... 164
Angle (Degrees) .........••........•........•....... 165
~ 2 9
!-1casurement
5 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ••••.•..•......•••••.•..••••••.•••••••
Location of Force Vector (em) .•••••..••••••..••.••
Angle (Degrees) •••.•.••.••...••••••.•...•.••.....••
6 centimeters
166
167
168
169
170
171
, ,
Force (Kgf) " ..
Location of Force Vector (em) .••••••.....•.•.....••
Angle (Degrees) ••.•.•••.•......••••••..•••••••..•..
7 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ••••.•.••••••.••...•••••.•...•.•.•.••• 172
of Force Vector (em) ..••••••••..••••••••. 173
Angle (Degrees) ••...••••••••••..••••••••..••••••••. 174
8 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ••••....••••••..•..•.••..••••.••••••••• 175
Location of Force Vector ••.•••.•••••••••.•••••.••• 176
(Degrees) •.•.•••..••••.•...•...•.•...•.••.•• 177
9 centimeters
Force (Kgf) •••.•.•••••••..•...•••••••.•...•.•..••.• 178
Location of Force Vector (em) • • • • • • • • . • • . • • • • . • . .• 179
Angle (Degrees) •.•••••••.•••.••.....••.....•••••... 180
3. Squeeze
2 centimeters
Force (Kgf) •••••••••.••••.•••'. • . • • . . . • • • . • . • . • . . .. 182
Location of Force Vector (em) ••••••...•••••••••••• 183
Angle (Degrees) .••.••.••...•••••••••.....•••••••••. 184
3 centimeters
Force (Kgf) .••..••.••.•...•.••••••.....•••••••.•... 185
Location of Force Vector (em) • • • • • . • • • •• • • • . • • • • •. 186
Angle (Degrees) •••••.••...•••••••••••••••••••••••• 187
4 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ..••••••••••••..••••••••.•••.•••••••••. 188
Location of Force Vector (em) •••••••.•.•••••••••.•. 189
Angle (Degrees) .•••••••..•••••••••...••••••••••••• 190
5 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ••.••••.•••....•••••.••..•..•••••••••• 191
Location of Force Vector (em) • •• • • . . . . . • • • • • • • • . .. 192
Angle (Degrees) ••••••.•....•••.•.•.••••.•.••••••.• 193
6 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ••••.••••••••••.•.••••••••.•........•.•. 194
Location of Force Vector (em) ..................•••. 195
Angle (Degrees) ...•.•.•.•.••.•.•..........•.•....•. 196
7 centimeters
Force (Kgf) ••••••••••••••••••••••••• '•••.•.•••'•••••• 197
Location of Force Vector (em) ....•...•..•.....,•..•. 198
Angle (Degrees) •••...••• ,••••••..•••.•••••••.•.••.•• 199
4. Three Point Pineh Strength vs. Span .••••••..••.•••••• 200
5. Five Point Pinch Strength vs. Span ....••••••...•.••. 201
6. Squeeze Strength vs. Span .....•.•................... 202
130
GRIP: THREE POINT PINCH
DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The anterior surface of the first two
fingers (distal end of phalanges #2 and #3) are pressed in
opposition to the anterior surface of the thumb tip (distal
end of phalanx #1).
TEST POSITION: The thumb and first two fingers are flexed in
the sagittal plane so that the thumb tip is opposite the
first "'and second finger tips and one finger lies on each
side of the distal handle brace. The remaining two fingers
are flexed in the same plane into a tight fist.
ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT:· The length of the third phalanx is
measured with an anthropometer.
ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The pinch handle set is inserted into
the transducer. The handle span (S) is adjusted to the
proper test position.
INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child makes a fist and pinches
the two plates together using his thumb and first two fingers.
Dietal Proximal
Handle Handle
131
3 porn PI NCH. force at 2 ca
(Kgf)
(!"Iales and Pemales)
Age (y rs) N liean s. d.
"'in
5th 50th 95th r1ax
2.5-3.5 28 2. 1 0.4 1.3 1.4 2.2 2.6 3.1
3.5- 4.5 44 2.6 0.5 1.5 1.6 2.6 3.3 3.7
4.5-5.5 44 3.1 0.6 1.9 2. 1 3.0 4.2 4.3
5.5-6.5 49 3.6 0.8 1.9 2. 1 3.7 4.7 6.2
6.5-7.5 46 4.0 0.7 2.2 2.8 4.0 4.9 5.5
7.5-8.5 52 4.4 1.0 2.5 3.0 4.3 6.4 6.7
8.5-9.5 ... 42 5.0 0.9 2.8 3.2 5.0 6.3 7.3
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POINT PINCH. force locat ion at 2 cm
(Males and PelDa les)
llge (yrs) N s. d. Min 5th 50th 95th Mal:
2.5- 3.5 28 1.0 0.11 O. J 0.3 0.9 1.7 1 9
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8.DO
3 POI NT PINCH, angle at 2 c. (Degrees)
(P'Ja les and Females)
Age (yrs) N !1ean s.d. ~ i n 5th 50th 95th ~ a x
2.5-3.5 28 -10.3 4.8 -17.1 -16.9 -10.9 - 3.3 -1.4
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9.5-10.5 44 -2.2 3.3 - 8.1 -7.2 -2.5 2.1 4.5
134
J POIK'I' PINCH, force at 3 ca
(Kgf)
(PIa les and FeBales)
Age (yrs) N P1ean. s. d. Min 5th 50th 95th Kax
2. S-J. 5 29 2.2 0.5 1.4 1. 4 2.1 2.9 3.2
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4.5-5.5 44 3.0 0.7 1.9 2.0 2.9 4.2 5.3
5.5-6.5 49 3.5 0.7 2.4 2.5 3.5 4.6 6.0
6.5";'1.5 46 3.9 0.6 2.4 2.9 3.9 5.0 5.3
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8.5-9.5 42 4.7 0.7 2.9 3.1 4.7 5.7 6.0
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3 POiNT PI NCH. fOt"ce locat ion at 3 em
(/'fales and Pemales)
Age (y rs) N l1ean s. d. /'fin 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5-3.5 29 0.8 0.5 -0.7 -0.4 0.8 1.6 1.7
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4.5-5.5 44 0.8 0.4 - 0.1 '0.0 0.8 1.3 1.5
5.5- b. 5 49 0.7 0.5 - 0.4 -0.2 0.1 1.5 1.13
6.5-7.5 46 0.8 0.4 0.0 O. 1 0.7 1.3 1.9
7.5- 8.5 52 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.6 1. 1 1.2
8.5- 9.-; 42 0.7 0.4 0.1 O. 1 0.7 1.2 1. 8
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AGE O'EAAS)
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3 POINT PIRes, angle at 3 ell (Degrees)
(I'lales and Fella 1es)
Age (yrs) N Plean s. d. !'!in
. 5th
50th 95th Plax
2.5-3.5 29 -11.2 .3.8 -18.2 -17.4 -11.9 -4.7 -3.5
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RGE O'ERRSJ
137
3 POI NT PI HeM, force at 4 c.
(Kgf)
(I!ales and Fellales)
Age (yrs) N Me"an s.d. ~ i n 5th 50th 95th rlax
2.5-3.5 28 2.4 0.6 1.4 1.4 2.3 3.2 3.8
3.5- 4.5 45 2.9 0.0 1.8 1.8 2.7 4.0 4.3
4.5-5.5 44 3.2 0.6 1.9 2.3 3. 1 4.4 4.5
5.5-6.5 49 3.5 0.8 2.3 2.4 3.2 5.0 6.0
6.5-7.5 46 3.6 0.7 2.3 2.5 3.6 4.9 5.4
7.5- 8.5 .. 52 4.4 0.9 2.8 3.0 4.4 6.0 6.0
a. 5- 9. 5 42 4.8 0.9 3.3 3./4 4.7 6.1 7.0
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ftge (yrs) N ",earl s. d. !tin 5th 50th 95th !tax
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AGE (YEARS)
139
3 POINT PINCH, angle at 4 em
(Degrees)
("ales and Females)
Age (y rs) N Mean s. d.
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5th 50th 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 28 -10.8 4.2 -17.11 -16.9 -11.0 -1&.0 - 3. 6
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8.5- 9.5 42 -4.2 3.7 -12.9 -10.3 -3.8 0.5 2.2
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AGE (YEARS)
140
3 POINT PI HCH. force at 5 ell
(Kgf)
("ales and Fellales)
Age (yrs) N Mean s. d. Min 5th 50th 95th ftax
2.5- 3.5 26 2.4 0.6 1. 1 1.2 2.3 3.2 4.0
3. ~ 4 . 5 43 2.9 0.1 1.5 1.6 2.9 4.0 4.6
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3 peINT PINCH, force location at 5 CII
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3.5- 4.5 43 0.9 0.4 - 0.2 -0.1 0.9 1.6 1.9
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5.5-6.5 49 0.7 0.4 -:' 0.3 -0.1 0.7 1.3 1.4
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AGE (YEARS)
142
] POINT PINCH, angle at 5 c. (Degrees)
(r'Jales and Fe.ales)
Age (yrs) N r'Jean s. d. l1in 5th 50th- 95th !tax
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AGE (YEAAS)

2 3 .. 5
143
:3 POI IT PIICR.• foc-c. at 6 ca
(Kgf)
(!'!ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s. d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 19 2.6 0.6 1.4
••
2.7
••
4.2
3.5- 4.5 42 3.0 0.6 1.7 1.9 2.tI 4.0 4.4
4.5-5.5 43 3.5 0.8 1.1 2.2 '3.4 5.2 5.7
5.5-6.5 49 3.8 0.1 2.1 2.9 3.7 4.8 5.5
6.5-7.5 46 4.3 0.8 2.4 3.0 4.3 5.7 5.8
7 ~ 5 - 8 . ~ 52 4.5 0.9 2.7 3.1 4.4 6.0 6.9
8.5- 9.5 42 5.0 1. 1 3.1 3.4 4.9 6.7 8.1
9.5-10.5 45 5.5 1.0 3.4 3.9 5.3 7.0 7.6
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2.00
1.00
2
144
3 PCINT PI NCH. force locat ion at 6 em
(Males and Females)
Age (yrs) N liJean s. d. Min 5th 50th 95th Plax
2.5- 3.5 19 006 0.5 -0.4
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0.5
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1.7
3.5-4.5 ~ 2 0.7 0.5 ~ 0.1 -0.0 0.7 1.4 1.6
4.5-5.5 43 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.7 1.4 1.9
5.5- 6.5 49 0.7 0.3 - 0.4 0.1 O.b 1.2 1.5
6.5-7.5 46 0.8 0.4 0.0 .0.2 0.7 1.4 2.2
7.5- 801. 5 9'2 0.7 0.4 - O. 0 0.1 0.6 1.3 1. "1
8.5- 9.5 42 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.7 1.3 1.4
9.5-10.5 1&5 0.7 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.1 1.1 1.2
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AGE (YEARS)
145
3 POI If,. PIIICH, an qle at 6 c.
(Degrees)
(l'Iales and Feules)
Age (yrs) N I'lean s. d. I'lin 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5-3.5 19 -9.2 2.9 -'11.6
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3.5-4.5 42 -7.0 3.0 -15.8 -13.5 -7.1 -1.7 -0.6
4.5-5.5 43 -6.4 3.6 :"18.5 -12.0 -6.0 -1.6 0.2
5.5-6.5 49 ·-4.5 2.8 -'0.5 -10.0 -4.9 0.3 3.2
6.5-7.5 46 -4.1 3.3 -11.9 -8.7 -4.2 -0.1 8.6
52 -2.9 2.9 -11.8 -7.9 -2.7 1.8 3.6
8.5-9.5 42 -3.0 2.6 -8.5 -7.1 - 3.1 0.9 4.8
9.5-10.5 45 -1.9 2.9 - 9.3 -7.2 -1.5 2.9 5.1
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AGE
5 3
-19. ...... ......----+----......--
2
146
3 POINT PIlfCH. force at 7 CB (Kgf)
(P1ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N !'lean . s. d.
!'lin 5th 50th 95th
"ax
2.5- 3.5 1 4.3
*.
4. 3
••
4.3
••
4.3
3.5- 4.5 25 3.1 0.6 2.1 2.1 3.1 3.9 4.4
4.5-5.5 38 3.7. 0.8 1.7 2.2 3.7 5.1 5.7
5.5- 6.5 43 4.0 0.8 2.1 2.2 4. 1 5.2 5.6
6.5-7.5 46 4.2 0.8 2.7 3.0 4.2 5.7 6.3
7.5"8.5 "'52
4.5 0.8 2.9 3.2 4.5 6.0 6.7
8.5-9.5 41 5.4 1.2 3.2 3.7 5.2 7.3 8.5
9.5-10.5 45 5.8 1.1 4.1 4.2 5.6 1. 9 8.6
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AGE (YEARS)
147
3 POI!lT PI NCH, force location at 1 CII
(f'lales and Females)
Age (frs) N Mean s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th f'lax
2.5- 3.5 1 1.2
••
1.2
••
1.2
*.
1.2
3.5-4.5 25' 0.6 C.4 - O. ,1 -0.0 0.7
, .2 1.4
4.5-5.5 38 0.7 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.6 1.4 1.9
5.5-6.5 113 0.6 0.3 - 0.1 0.2 0.5
, • 3 1.5
6.5-7.5- 46 0.7 0.4 - o. 3 0.0 0.7 1.2 1.3
7.5- 8.5 52 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 O. b 1.3
'.6
B. 5- 9. 5 tl1 0.7 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.7
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, .4
9.5-10.5 45 0.1 0.3
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AGE (YEARSJ
5 3

2
148
3 POIlf'! PI!lCH, angle at 7 c. (Degrees)
(!tales and Fe.ales)
Age (yrs) N r!ean s. d. !lIin 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5-3.5 1 -7.5
••
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••
-7.5
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-7.5
3. 5 - ~ . 5 25 -6.8 2.9 -12.5 -12.3 -7.2 ~ 2 . 1 ';'2.6
4.5-5.5 38 -6.0 3.4 -12.9 -12.2 -6.1 -0.3 3.2
5.5-6.5 43 -4.0 2.8 - 12.2 -8.6 -4.1 -0.3 2.6
6.5-7.5 4q. -4.6 2.7 -10.6 -9.9 -4.6 -0.7 0.9
7.5-8:5 52 -3.2 2.4 -8.5 -7.1 - 3.1 0.4 3.2
8.5-9.5 41 - 2. 1 2.7 -7.8 -6.0 -2.2 1.9 4.1
9.5-10.5 115 -1.1 2.1 -9.3 -6.4 -1.8 2.3 3.3
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149
1 POUT PI NCH. force at
q
cm
(Kgf)
<"ales ~ n d Fe.ales)
Age eyrS) N /'lean s. d. /'lin -5th 50th 95th !'lax
3.5-4.5 1 -3.7
••
3.7
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3.7
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4.5-5.5 4 4.6 0.2 4.3
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4.6
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4.8
5.5-6.5 8 4.7 1.0 3.4
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4.6
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6.3
6.5-7.5 20 4.7 1.2 2.5
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4.7
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7.9
7.5- 8. 5 29 5.3 1.1 3.3 3.4 5.5 6.9 7.2
8.5-9. ~ .34 5.5 1. 1 3. 1 3.2 5. tl 7.0 7.4
9.5-10.5 43 6.0
'.1
4 . ~ 4.5 5.7 8. 1 8.8
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2 3 567 8
AGE (YEARS)
150
3 POTIT PI RCR, force location at 8 cm
(!'Iales and Females)
Aye (yrs) N Mean s. d. rUn 5th 50th 95th ftax
3.5-4.5 1 0.3
••
0.3
••
0.3
••
0.3
4 0.4 0.2 0.1
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0.3
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0.6
5.5-6.5 8 0.5 O.q -0.2
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0.5
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0.8
6.5-7.5 20 0.7 0.3 0.1
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0.7
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1.2
7.5-8.5 ,29 0.6 0.3
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0.0 0.5 1. 1 1. 2
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9.5-10.5
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11 10 8 8 S'· 7
AGE (YEARS)
5 s

2
151
3 POI NT PI IlCH. angle at 8 ca (Degrees)
(!'lales and pe.ales)
Age (yrs) III Plean s.d. I'!in 5th 50th 95th Max
3.5-4.5 1 -6.8
••
-6.8
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4.5-5.5 4 -6.0 1.5 -7.1
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5.5-6.5 B -J.4 3.5 -9.6
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7.5-8.5- ~ 9 - 3. J 2.7 -10.9 -10.4 -3.2 -0.3 2.5
8.5- 9.5 34 -2.6 1.9 -6.5 -6.1 -2.7 0.2 1.2
9.5-10.5 43 - 1.8 2.11 - 8.4 -11.7 -2.4 1.4 6.1
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2 3 5 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
152
r,
J POIIT PIlCH. force at 9 c.
(Kgf)
(!'Iales and Females)
Age (yrs) N Mean s. d.' I'HD 5th 50th 95th Max
5.5-6.5 1 5.6
••
5.6
••
5.6
••
5.6
6.5-1.5 1 5.2
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5.2
7.5-8.5 5 6.0 1.0 4.3
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6.0
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1.1
8.5-9.5 10 5.4 1.2 3.4
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5.3
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9.5-10.5 25 6.2 0.8 4.3 16.5 6.1 7.4 1.9

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2 3 5 '6 7
AGE (YEARS)
153
1.20
3 PCINT PINCH, force locat ion at 9 cm
(Plales and Females)
Age (yrs) N Mean s. d. Min 5th 50th 95th ~ a x
5.5-6.5 1 0.2
...
0.2
*.
0.2
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0.2
6.5-1.5 1 0.5
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2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
AGE (YEARS)
154
3 POlliI'l' IlIICB, angle at Cj ell
(Degrees)
("ales and Fe.ales)
Age (1 rs) N Hean s. d. Min 5th 50th 95th Hax
5.5-6.5 1 -4.4
.*
-4.4
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6.5-7.5 1 - 5. 0
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7.5-8.5 5 -2.,2 2.5 -4.5
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B.5- 9. 5
JO -2.5 1.7 -5.4
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11
AGE' (YEARS)
155_
GRIP: FIVE POINT PINCH
DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The anterior surface of all four finger
tips (distal end of phalanges #2-#5) are pressed in oppo-
si tion to the anterior surface of the thumb tip '(distal end
of phalanx #1).
TEST POSITION: Thumb and four fingers are flexed in the sagit-
tal plane so that the thumb tip is opposite the second and
third finger tips and the distal handle brace is between
them.
ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The length of the second finger (L)
is measured from the tip to its palmar skinfold.
ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The pinch handle set is inserted into
the transducer. The handle span (S) is then adjusted to
the proper test position. .
INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child brings the tips of the fin-
gers together and pinches the two plates using his thumb
and four fingers.
+F.
c1u..al Proximal
Handle Bandle
156
5 POI NT . PI NCft .. force at 2 CII
(Kgf)
("ales and Fellales)
~ g e (yrs) N li!ean s. d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th filial[
2.5-3.5 31 2.5 0.7 1.7 1.7 2.3 3.8 4.9
1.5-4.5 45 2.9 0.5 2.0 2.0 2.9 3.1 4.2
4.5- 5.5 44 3.6 0.9 2.3 2.4 3.5 5. 1 5.6
5.5-6.5 49 4.0 0.8 2.0 2.6 4.0 5.5 6.3
6.5-..,7.5 ~ 6 4.4 1.0 2.3 .2.8 4 . ~ 6.0 6.8
7.5-8.5 .52 5.,0 0.9 3.3 3.5 4.8 6.5 8.3
8.S-Q.5 42 5.8 1.2 1.7 3.8 5.7 8.0 8.9
9.5-10.5 45 6.5 1.4 4. 1 4.7 6.3 8.2 1 1 • 8
12.00
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AGE
7
(YEARS)
8 8 10 11
157
5 POINT PINCH, force location at 2 em
.( l'Iale!'i and Females)
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Age (frs) N Mean s. d. Min 5tb 50th 95th Max
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Age (yrs) N "lean s. d. 5th 50th 95th !!lax
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169
5 POINT PI NCH, force location at 6 CIII
(/'Ia 1es and females)
Age (yrs) N 'ean
s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th 1'1 ax
2.5- 3. 5 22 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.2 1.6 1.8
3.5-4.5 45 1.2 0.4 0.1 0.4 1.2 1.6 2.5
4.5-5.5 43 1.2 0.4 - 0.1 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.2
5.5-6.5 49 1.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1. 1 1. 1 1.9
6.5-1.5 46 1.3 0.5 0.2 0.3 1.3 2.0 2.8
7.5- 8.5 .52 1.2 0.4 - 0.2 0.5 1. 2 1. 8 2.2
q.5-9.5 42 1.4' 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.3 2. 1 2.3
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(YEARS)
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170
5 POINT PI NCR, angle at 6 c. (Degrees)
(Plales and Pe.ales)
Age (yrs) 111 l'Iean s. d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th 1'1 ax
2.5-3.5 22 -4.6 4.2 -n.6 -13.3 -4.3 , .9 4.6
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5.5-6.5 49 0.0 3.5 -9.2 -7.5
o. , 5.7 9.2
6.5-7.5 46 0.1 3.q -9.0 -5.8 '.3
6.6 10.0
1.5-B.5
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1. 1 3.3 -6.3 -5.0 0.8 5.7 8.3
B.5-q-:S 42 2.6 3.6 -3.2 '-3.0 1.b 8.1 9.0
9.5-10.5 45 2.6 4.5 -6.3 -5.8 2.3 9.4 16.3
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171
5 POI NT PI NCH , force at 7 c.
(Kfg)
(!!ales and Fe.ales)
Age (yrs) N !!ean s.d. ~ i n 5th 50th 95th "'ax
2.5- 3. 5 4 3.6 0.6 3.,' **
3. 1
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4.2
3.5-4.5 24 3.4 0.7 2.4 2.4 3.3 4.3 4.7
4.5- 5.5 38 4.0 1.0 2.1 2.5 3.9 5.5 6.5
5.5-6.5 43 4.3 0.9 3.0 3.0 4.3 5.6 6.7
6.5-7.5 46 1t.7 1.1 3.0 3.1 4.7 6.4 6.9
7.5-8.5 52 5.4 1.0 3.2 3.6 5. 3 6.8 9.0
A.5-:9.5
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5.9 1.4 3.3 3.8 5.8 8.3 9 •.1
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AGE (YEARS)
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172
5 POINT PI NCH, force location at 1 CII
(Piales and Females)
Age (yrs) N l1ean s.d. Min 5th 50th 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 4 1.2 0.5 0.8
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AGE (YEARS)

2 5
173
15.00
5 POIIT PI itCH, angle at 7 c. (Degrees)
("ales and Females)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s.d.
"in
5th 50th 95th
"'ax
2.5-3.5 4 -6.1 1 • -7.j:J
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4.5-5.5 38 -1.6 3.2 - 9.3 -7.3 - 1. 1 3. 1 4.5
5.5- 6.5 43 -0.3 3.0 -7.7 -5.1 -0.3 4.1 8.9
6.5-7.5 46 0.1 3.2 -6.5 -5.8 -0.3 4.8 8.7
7.5- B. 5'" 52 1. 1 3. 1 -7.7 -5.5 1.5 5.7 7.1
A. 5- 9.5 42 1.8 2.8 -4.5 -3.4 1.S 6.0 8.3
9.5-10.5 45 2.8 3.2 -4.4 -3.9 2. B 7.7 , 1 .5
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AGE (YEARS)
174
5 POINT PI NCR. force at B ca
(Kgf)
("'ales aDd Fe. ales)
Age (yrs) N "lean 5'. d. l"IIin 5th 50th 95th !'lax
3.5-4.5 1 3.8
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3.8
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1.'
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7.5- 8.5 29... 5.B
1. ,
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B.5-9.5 34 6.3 1.2 3.1 3.1 6.3 1.8 8.4
9.5-10.5 42 6.8 1.2 4.3 5.0 6.9 8.8 9.6
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AGE (YEARS)
2. 00
2 S 5
175
2.50
5 POINT PINCH, force location at '3 cm
(f'IIales and Females)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s.d. MiD 5th 50th 95th f'Iax
3.5-4.5
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7.5-8.5 29 1.2 0.4 0.5 O.l) 1.2 1.9 2.0
A . 5 - 9 . ~ 34 1.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.4 2.0 2.4
9 .. 5-10.5 42 1.3 '0.4 0.5 0.5 1.3 2.0 2.3
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AGE (YEARS)
176
8 s 10 11
5 PIltCH, angle at 8 ell
(Degrees)
("'ales aDd Fellales)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s. d. P1in 5th 50th 95th III! ax
3.5-4.5 1 - 2.1
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8.5-4'.5 34 1.0 2.4 -4.6 -3.& 1.2 4.6
9.5-10.5 42 1.2 2.5 -3.8 -3.0 0.8 4.5 7.5
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2 S 567
AGE (YEARS)
177
5 POI NT PI NCH, force at
q
ell
(Kgf)
(Plales aDd Pe.ales)
~ g e (yrs), N "'ean
s.d. !'lin 5th 50th 95th ~ a x
5.5-6.5 1 5.2
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AGE (YEARS)
178
3.00
5 POINT PI NCH, force location at
q
cm
(!!lales and Fe-llales)
Age (frs) H Mean s. d. !!lin 5th 50th 95th 1'Iax
5.5-6.5 1 1.3
••
1.3
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1.3
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1• 3
6.5-1.5 0
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AGE (YEARS)
179
8 9 10 11
5 POINT PI NCH
w
angle at 9 c. (Degrees)
and Females)
Age eyrS) N Mean s. d.
"'in
5th 50th 95th
5.5-6.5 1 0.7
••
0.7
••
0.7
••
0.7
7.5-8.5 5 1.4 1.2 - O. 1
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1. 1
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8.5-9.5 10 1.4 2.7 - 1.5
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AGE (YEARS)
180
GRIP: SQUEEZE
DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The anterior surfaces of the second knuc-
kles" (proximal interphalangeal joints) of all four fingers
(phalnges #2-#5) are pressed in opposition to the second
knuckle of the thumb (phalanx #1).
TEST POSITION: The handle brace lies between the second and
third fingers. The wrist is left in neutral position. The
thumb tip is allowed to overlap finger tips, if necessary.
ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The length of the second finger
(L) ~ s m e ~ s u r e d from the tip to its palmar skinfold.
ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The handle set is chosen according to
the following table and inserted into the transducer. The
handle span (S) is then adjusted to the proper test position.
Finger Length (L)
(em)
Handle Radius (R)
(nun)
<5
5-6
=>6
5
7
9
INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child squeezes the handle of the·
grip fixture together with his entire hand.
Dietel P:roximal
Mendl. f1.andle
+P 5
181
GRIP
- SQUEEZl .. force at 2 CII
(Kgf)
(I'!a les and Females)
Age (yrs) N I'!ean s. d. Min 5th 50t.h 95th !!ax
2.5-3.5 31 J. 1 1.0 1.0 1.4 2.9 4.6 5.3
3.5-4.5 45
II.' '.2
2.0 2.3 3.9 6.3 7.1
".5-5.5 44 5.0 1. LI 2.4 2.5 4.9 7.1 8.2
5.5- 6.5 .. q
5.fl 1.6 3.4 3.4 5.6 8.5 9.7
6.5-7.5 46 6.7 2.0 2.9 4.0 6.4 10.2 11.4
1.5-8.5 .. 52 1.6 2.2 4'.1
4.6 7.2 11.6 13.1
8.5- 9.5 42 8.9 2.8 3.8 4.2 8.4 14. 1 15.4
9.5-' o. 5 45 9.1 3.0 4.2 5.0 9.7 14.0 17.8
la.OO
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AGE
7
rYEAftSl
8 8 10
182
GJUP
- SQUFEZE. force location at 2 em
(!'lales 'and Fe.ales)
Age (yrs) N !'lean s.d.
'fin 5th 50th 95th Max
2.5-3.5 31 1.2 0.6 O. 1 0.2 1.0 2.2 2.3
3.5- 4.5 45 0.9 0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.8
'.7
2.2
4.5-5.5 44 0.9 0.5 -0.3 D. 1 0.9 1. B 2.3
5.5-6.5 4q
0.8 0.5 - 0.3 0.0 0.8
'.5
2.0
6.5-1.5 46 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.7 2.0
7.5-5.5 52 0.1 0.4 - 0.2 -0.0 0.6 1.3 1.8
8.5- 9. 5 42 0.7 0.5 -0.4 o. , 0_ 6
1.4 2.3
9.5-10.5 45 0.6 0.4
-0.'
-0.0 0.5 1.2 1.6
2.50
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AGE (YEARS)
183
GRIP - SQDEn!, angle at 2 ell
(Degrees)
(fIIales and Pe.ales)
Age (yrs) N /'lean s. d.
"in
5th 50th 95th !'lax
2.5-3.5 31 2.1 8.0 -16.1 - 12.9 1.4 15.0 21.0
3. 5-q. 5 Ll5 5.6 6.9 -8.8 -5.1 5.2 111.3 28.3
4.5-5.5 44 6.9 7.7 -5.1 -3.4 5.7 21.9 31.2
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6.5-7.5 46 6.9 5.9 -12.8 -2.1 6.5 15.5 17.3
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GRIP - SQUEEZE. angle at 3 c.
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GRIP
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6 8 10 11
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GRIP
-
SQUEEZE, force at 7 CII (Kgf)
("ales and Fellales)
Age (yrs) N 'ean s.d.
"in
5th 50th 95th Max
6.5-7.5
,
9.2
••
9.2
••
q.2
••
9.2
1.5-8.5 3 12.4 1.3 11.6
••
11.1
••
n.9
8.5- 9.5 ' 9 13.3 2.0 , O. 6
••
12.9
••
16.3
9.5-10.5 1.8 16.8 3.6 10.5
••
17.2
••
24.6
"
25.00
fi
20.00
.
l"'-
.
.

LIJ
IS. 00 u
. .

..
..
LIJ

..

10.00
I
Q..
-

5.00

2 S 1& 5 8 7 8 8 10 11
RGE £YEARS)
197
1.\&0
1.20
z:
u
,....
1.00
~
a:
~
0.80
-oJ
..
LLI
~
0.80
CJ
U')
I
CI..
O.qO
-
f5
0.20
GIl I P - ~ ? U E E Z E , force location it t "1 ell
(Males and Females)
Aqe (yrs) N Plean s.d. Min 5th 50th 95th r'lax
6.5-7.5 1 0.6 .*
0.6
*.
0.6
*.
0.6
7.5-8.5 3 0.7 0.4 0.4
••
0.6
*.
1 • 1
B.5-q.5 9 O.B 0.4
D.'
.*
O.B
••
1. q
9.5-10. 5 18 0.7 0.4 0.1
•*
0.7
••
1.3
...
0.00 2
3 5 6 7
AGE (YEARS)
198
8 9 10 1
9.00
7.00
5.00
GRIP
-
SQUEEZE, angle at. 1 c.
(Degrees)
(I'!ales and Fe.ales)
Age (yrsl N Mean s. d. rHn 5th 50th 95th !II a x
6.5-1.5 1 1.5
••
1.5
••
1.5
••
'.5
3 0.8 2.9 -2.0
••
0.5
••
3.8
g .5- q. S 9 1.0· 2.3
-'.1
••
0.2
**
4.3
9.5-10.5 18 1.9 2.8· -3.7
••
2. 1
••
8.4
...
...
. .
3.00

. .
1.00
-1.00
-3.00.....
2 3 5 8 7 e 9 10 11
AGE
199
6.00
-+- 2.5 TO 5 YEARS
--- 5 TO 8 YEARS
~ e YERRS AND UP
5.80
~
~
5.20
~
z
UJ
a:
~
1,1.80
(f)
Q..
-
a:
1,1.1,10
~
I
~
1,1.00
u
z
-
Q..
~
3.eo
z
-
0
Q..
3.20
(1')
2.80
2.110
1 5 7 9
CENTIMETERS
200
7.00
--e-- 2.5 T05 YEARS
~ 5 TO B YEARS
--+- 8 YEARS AND UP
6.50
~
~
t-
6.00
to=)
Z
LLI
a:
~
5.50
(f)
Q..
-
a:
5.00
~
I
~
~ . 5 0
u
z
-Q..
t-
~ . o o
Z
-0
Q..
3.50
Ln
3.00
2.50
1 3 5 7 9
CENTIMETERS
201
18.00
--e-- 2.5 TO 5 T
--..- 5 TO 6 T
~ 6 TEARS
,
15.00
:I:
~
C)
z
UJ
a:
~
12.00
(f)
Q..
-a:
C)
I
UJ
9.00
N
UJ
UJ
=>
C3
(f)

6.00 ~
8 7 6
q 5
CENTIMETERS
3 2
3.00 + - - - - + - - - - + - - - - + - - - + - - - - 1 - - - - - I - - - ~
1
202
,
......
Grip Strength Statistics
(2.5
-
3.5 yea rs)
Pleasureaent DescriptivE Statistics
Ii !'Jean s.d. Plio 5th 50th 95th Plax
3-Pt Pinch (2 cII-Foree) 28 2. 1 0.4 1.3 .1.4 2.2 2.6
]-pt Pinch' (2 em-LF,cII) 28 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.9 1.7 1.9
3-Pt pinch (2 em) 28 - 10.3 4.8 -17.1 -16.9 -10.9 -3.3 -1.4
]':'Pt Pinch (3 cm-Force) 29 2.2 0.5 1.4 1.4 2. 1 2.S 3.2
3-Pt pinch (3 29 0.8 0.5 -0.7 -0.4 0.8 1.6 1.7
J-Pt Pinch (3 ca) 29
-".2
3.8 -18.2 -n.1I -11.9 -4.7 -3.5
]-Pt Pinch (4 cm-Force) 28 2.4 0.6 1.4 1.4 2.3 3.2 3.8
l-Pt pinch (4 clI-LP.CII) .28 0.8 0.5 -0.4 -0.2 0.7 1.5, 2. 1
)-pt pinch (4 ell) 28 -10.8 4.2 -17.4 -16.9 -".0 -4.0 -3.6
)-Pt Pinch (5 cil-Force) 26 2.4 0.6 1. 1 1.2 2.3 3.2 4.0
3-Pt Pinch (5 clI-L P, cm) 26 0.8 0.4 -0.1 -0.1 0.9 1.4 1.5
l-Pt pinch (5 CII) 26 -11.2 3.8 -18.4 -18.2 -11.9 - 5.4 -4.b
l-Pt Pinch (6 ca-Force) 19 2.6 0.6 1.4
••
2.1
••
4.2
3-Pt piDch (6 cIt-LF,c.) 19 0.6 0.5 -0.4
••
0.5
•• '.1
)-Pt pioch (6 em) ugle 19 -9.2 2.9 -14.6
••
- 9.4
••
-5.6
3-Pt pinch (7 clI-Force) 1 4.3
••
4.3
' ..
4.3
••
4.3
3-£»t pinch (7 cIt-LF,cm)
,
1.2
••
1.2
••
1.2
••
1.2
l-Pt. pinch (1 CII) lng le 1 -7.5
••
-7.5
••
-7.5
••
-7.5
Squeeze (2 CII- Porce) 31 3. 1 1.0 1.0 1.4 2.9 4.6 5.3
Squeeze (2 CII-L F, cm) 31 1.2 0.6 0.1 0.2 1.0 2.2 2. 3
Squeeze (2 CII) Ang 1e 31 2.1 8.0 -16.1 -12.9 1.4 15.0 2'.0
Squeeze (3 ca- porce) 31 5.0 1.6 . 2.7 2.8 4.6' 7.8 9.6
Squeeze (3 ca-LF,clI) 31 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.8 1.4 1.8
Squeeze (3 CII) Ang 1e 31 -0.1 4.0 -9.6 -9.4 -1. 1 4.7 6.1
Squeeze (4 ca- porce) 31 4.9 1. B 2.1 2. II 4.5 8.3 9.3
Squeeze (4 cm-LPircII) :n 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.9 1.4 1.9
Squeeze (4 cm) Ang le 31 -2.1 4.9 -13.4 -13.1 -0.9 3.5 3.9
Squeeze (5 cm-Force) 8 4.3 0.8 3.0
••
3.8
••
5.5
Squeeze (5 cm- L.P,clI) 8 0.8 0.5 0.2
••
D.El
••
1.4 .
Squeeze (5 cm) 1\ng le 8 -3.5 5.7 -10.0
••
-6.b
••
3
5-Pt Pinch (2 clII-Porce) 31 2.5 0.7 1.7 1.7 2.3 '3.B 4.9
5-Pt Pinch (2 CID- LF,CII) 31
, • 1
0.5 0.2 0.3 1.1 2.0 2.2
5-Pt Pinch (2 CII) Angle 31 -3.6 5.8 -16. l -14.5 -4. 1 3.2 17. )
5-Pt pinch (3 cm-Porce) 28 2.5 0.4 '.6 '.7 2.4 3.0 3.2
5- Pt Pinch (3 ca- LP' ,cm) 28 1.1 0.5 - O. 2 -0.1 1.2
, • 9 .2. 1
5-Pt Pinch (3 CII) Angle 28 -5.0 4.1 -16.0 -14.5 -5•. 4 3.2 7.0
5-Pt Pinch (4 clll-Porce) 29 2.6 0.5
'.5
1.7 .
2.5 1.5 :1.8
'i-Pt pinch (4 cil-LF ,Cll) 29 1.2 0.3 0.6 0.6 1• 1 1.7 '.7
5-pt Pinch (4 cm) Aogle 29 -4.5 5.2 -12.6 -12.4 -4.4 2.4 11.9
5-Pt pinch (5 cil-Force) 29 2.8 0.8 1.7 1.7 2.6 4.4 5.0
5-Pt pinch (5 cII-LF ,CII) 29 1.1 0.5 - 1.0 -0.5 1.1 1.6
, • 9
5-Pt Pinch (5 cm) Angle 29 -2.7 4.5 -10.7 - 10.1 - 3. i 4.8 9'.5
5-pt !linch (6 clI-Porce) 22 2.9 0.8 1.7 1.7 2.9 4.3 4.9
5- Pt Pinch (6 clI-LF,CII) 22 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.2 1.6 1.8
5-Pt Pinch (6 cm) Aogle 22 -4.6 4.2 - 13.6 -13.3 -4.3 1.9 4.6
5-Pt pinch (1 cll-Force) 4 3.6 0.6 3.1
••
3.1
••
4.2
5-Pt Pinch (7 CIl-tP,CII)j 4 1.2 0.5 0.8
••
0.9
••
,. B
5-Pt pinch (7 cm) Angle 4 -6.1 1. 5 -7.8
*.

••
-ij.5
203

"---
Grip Strengtll Stat.istics
(3.5
-
4.5 years)
!'Jeasurellent Descriptive Statistics
N PIe an s. d. P1in 5th 50th 95th "ax
]-Pt Pinch (2 cil-Forcel 44 2.6 0.5 1.5 1.6 2.6 3. J 3.7
3-Pt Pinch (2 cm-LF ,cm) 44 1.1 0.4 0.2 0.4 1. 1 1.7 1.1
3-Pt Pinch (2 CI) Angle 44 -8.2 4.2 -18.7 -17.4 -8.0 -2.6 0.0
3-Pt Pinch (3 cll-force) 45 2.7 0.5 1.5 1.8 2.6 3.6 4.0
3-Pt Pinch (3 Cll- LF ,cm) 45 1.0 0.4 0.3 0• .3 1.0 1.5 1.9
3-Pt pinch (3 c II) 45 -8.7 4.6 -20.7 -15.6 - B. 7 -1.5 5.1
1-Pt Pinch (4 cm-force) 45 2.9 0.6 1.8 1.8 2.7 4.0 4.3
3-Pt Pinch (II ,cm) 45 0.9 0.4 -0.3 0.3 1.0 1.4 1.6
J-pt Pinch (It CI) 45 -7.6 4.2 -13.5 -13.0 -7.9 - O. 8 2.0
3-Pt pinch (5 cll-Force) 43 2.9 0.7 1.5 1.6 2.9 4.0 4.6
3-Pt pinch (5 .cll-LF,cm) 43 0.9 0.4 -0.2 -0.1 0.9 1.6 1.9
3-Pt pinch (5 CII) 43 -6.7 3.7 -15.3 -12.6 -7. 1 -0.2 2.3
3-Pt Pinch (6 cm-porce) 42 3.0 0.6 1.7 1.9 2.8 4.0 4.4
3-Pt pioch (6 em-l.F ,CII) 42 0.7 0.5 -0.1 -0.0 0.7 1.4 1.6
3-Pt Pinch (6 Cll) Aogle 42 -7.0 3.0 -15.8 -13.5 -7. 1 - 1. 7 - O. 6
]-Pt Pinch (7 cm-Force) 25 3.1 0.6 2.1 2. 1 3.1 3.9 4.4
3-Pt Pinch (7 cm-LF,clI) 25 0.6 0.4 - 0.1 -0.0 0.7 1.2 1• ij
3-Pt Pinch (7 ell) 25 -6.8 2.9 -12.5 -12.3 -7.2 -2.7 -2.6
3-Pt Pinch (B cil-Force) 1 3.7
••
3.1
••
3.7
••
3.7
3-Pt Pinch (8 CII-LP ,CIII) 1 0.]
••
0.3
••
0.3
••
0.3
)-Pt Pinch (8 CII) 1 -6.8
••
-6.8
••
-6.8
••
-6.8
Squeeze (2 ell-Force) 45 4.1 1.2 2.0 2.3 3.9 6.3 7. 1
Squeeze (2 cm- LF,CII) 45 0.9 0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.8 1.7 2.2
squeeze (2 CII) Angle 45 5.6 6.9 -8.8 -5.1 .5.2 14.3 2B. 3
Squeeze (3 cm-Perce) 45 6.7 ,. 4.2 4.3 6.7 9.6 10.1
Squeeze (3 CII- LF, CII) 45 0.8 0.5 -0.1 0.0 0.7 1.6 2.0
Squeeze (3 CII) Angle 45 1.8 5.9 -11.4 -8.3 1. 2 12.3 17.7
squeeze (4 CII- Porce) 45 6.7 1.9 3.2 3.8 6.tl 9.6 11. 2
Squeeze (4 cII-LF,CII) 45 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.8 1.4 2.0
Squeeze (4 CII) 45 0.7 3.8 -8.0 -7.0 0.8 7.2 8.1
Squeeze (5 clI-Porce) 31 6.0 1.8 2.11 2.B 6.1 8.8 Q.8
Squeeze (5 ell-LF,ell) 31 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.9 1. b 1.7
Squeeze (5 cm) Angle 31 -1.2 3.5 -7.2 -6.5 -1.8
II. "
6. 1
5-Pt Pinch (2 ci-Force) 45 2.9 0.5 2.0 2.0 2.9 3.1 4.2
c:;-Pt Pinch (2 CII-L F, cm) 45 1.2 0.5 -0.3 -0.0 1.2 1.9 2.2
5-Pt Pinch (2 em) Angle 45 -2.2 4. 1 -11.8 -10.6 -:-2.7 3.& 7.6
5-Pt Finch (3 cm-Force) 45 2.9 0.6 1.7 1.9 2.8 3.9 4.8
5-Pt Pinch (3 clI-Lf,CII) 45 1• 1 0.5 0.1 0.2 1. 1 1.8 2.2
5-Pt Pinch (3 cm) Angle 45 -2.7 3.8 -11.1 -9.11 -3.2 2.7 8. 9
5-Pt Pinch (II cm-Force) 45 3.1 0.8 1.5 2.0 3. 1 11.5 5.7
5-Pt Pinch (4 cm-LF,clI) 4.5 1.2 0.5 0.2 0.3 1.3 1.9 2.2
5-Pt Pinch (4 c II) Angle 45 -2.9 4.6 -12.5 -9.8 -3.0 ' 3. tl 9."1
5-Pt Pinch (5 cm-Porce) 45 3.2 0.9 1.6 1.9 3.0 5.1 5.6
5-Pt Pinch (5 cII-LP,cm) 45 1 • 1 0.5 -0.3 0.3 1. 1 1. 9 2.0
5-Pt Pinch (5 CI) Angle Al5 -3.6 3.8 -10.5 -9.9 - .1.7 '.5 6.8
5-Pt Pinch (6 cm-Force) 45 3.3 0.7 1.9 2. 1 3.2 4.6 5.2
5-Pt Pinch (6 cm-LF,CII) 115 1.2 0.4 0.1 0.4 1.2 1.8 2.5
5-Pt pinch (6 cm) Angle 45 -2.6 3.2 - 8. 4 -1.8 -3.2 3.7 5.1
5-Pt Pinch (7 cm-Force) 24 3.4 0.7 2.4 2.1.1 3.3 4.3 4.1
5-Pt Pinch (7 cm-L F, ell) 24 1.0 0.5 -0.0 O. 1 1. 1 1.6 1. B
5-Pt pinch (1 cm) Angle 24 -2.5 3.11 - 9.9 -9.4 -2.0 2.2 2.7
5-Pt Pinch (B cll-Force) 1 3.8
••
3.8
••
3.8
••
308
5-Pt Pinch (8 CIl-LF ,CII) 1 1• 1
••
1• 1
••
1. 1
••
,.1
5-Pt pinch (8 c II) Angle 1 -2.1
••
- 2.1 ••
- 2. 1 ••
- 2. 1
204
Gdp strength Sta tistics
(11.5
-
5.5 years)
Pleasurellen t Descriptive statistics
N /tean s.d. /tin 5th 50th 95th !!ax
Pinch (2 clII-Force) 44 3.1 0.6 1.9 2. 1 3.0 4.2 4.3
3-Pt pinch (2 cm-LP,clI) 44 0.8 0.4 -0.5 0.0 0.9 1.2 1.6
3-Pt Pinch (2 cm) Angle 44 -6.3 . 11.6 -15.11 -13.9 -7.2 2.2 3.4
3-Pt pinch (3 cll-FOrCe) 1111 3.0 0.7 1.9 2.0 2.9 4.2 5.3
3-Pt pinch (3 clI-LF, CII) 44 O.B 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.8 1.3 1.5
3-Pt pinch
n
cm) ADgle 44 -8.4 4.7 -19.3 -17.8 -8.5 -2.4 6.0
3-Pt Pinch (4 44 3.2 0.6 1.9 2.3 3. 1 11.11 4.5
3-Pt pinch (4 clI-LF,cm) 44 0.8 0.4 - 0.2 0.1 0.9 1.4 1.8
3-Pt Pinch (4 CII) .'ngle .44 -1.8 4.1 -16.8 -15.6 -7.6 -1.0 2.9
3-Pt piDCh (5 cm-Force) 44 3.4 0.7 1.7 1.9 3.2 4.6 5.1
l-Pt Pinch (5 clI-LF, CII) 44 0.8 0.4 - 0.1 0.1 0.8 1.4 1.7
3-Pt Pinch (5 cm) Angle 44 -6.2 4.0 -17.9 -11.9 -6.0 -0.1 O.B
3-Pt Pinch (6 cil-Porce) 43 3.5 0.8 1.7 2.2 3.4 5.2 5.1
3-Pt pinch (6 cm-LF, CII) 43 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.4 1.9
3-Pt Pinch (6 CII) Angle 43 -6.4 3.6 -lR.5 -12.0 -6.0 -1.6 0.2
3-Pt pinch
n
cm-Force) 38 3.7 0.8 1.7 2.2 3.7 5.1 5.1
)-Pt Pinch (7 cII-LF,cII) 38 0.7 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.6 1.4 1. q
3-pt Pinch (1 CII) Angle 38 -6.0 3.4 -12.9 -12.2 -6.1 -0.3 3.2
3-Pt pinch (B Cit- Force) 4 4.6 0.2 4.3
••
4.0
••
".8:
3-Pt Pinch (8 cm-LF, em) 4 0.4 . 0.2 0.1
•••
0.3
••
0.6
3-Pt Pinch (8 CII) Angle 4 -6.0 1.5 -1.1
••
-6.6
••
- 3.8
Squeeze (2 CII- Force) 44 5.0 1.4 2.4 2.5 4.9 1.1 8.2
Squeeze (2 cII-LP,CII) 44 0.9 0.5 - o. 3 0.1 0.9 ·1.8 2.3
Squeeze (2 cm) Angle 44 6.9 7.7 - 5.1 -3.4 5.7 21.9 31.2
Squeeze (3 CII- Porce) 44 9.1 2.3 4.1 5.2 B.8 13.0 13.4
Squeeze (3 clI-LF,cm) 44 0.6 0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.5 1.4 '.1
Squeeze (3 CII) lingle 44 3.5 4.3 - 3. 2 -3.0 3.3 11.0 , 5. 1
Sgueeze (1+ C8l- Porcel
q4 9.5 2.9 3.9 5.1 9. 1 13.9 14.3
Squeeze (4 cil-LF,cm) 44 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.0 1. 1
Squeeze (4 CII) Angle 44 1.2 4.2 -6.6 -6.2 1.4 7.0 7.3
Squeeze (5 CII- Force) 41 8.5 2.5 3.8 4. 1 8.11 12.5 ,14.0
Squeeze (5 CII- t F. CII) 41 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.7 1. :.1
, .5
Squeeze (5 CII) Angle 41 -0.3 3.4 -7.1 -6.4 -0.1 5.5 li.9
Squeeze (6 CII- Perce) 7 8.8 1.3 7.9
••
8.2.
••
11.5
Squeeze (6 C.- LP,cm) 7 1.0
. 0.4 0.4
••
0.8
••
1.6
Squeeze (6 CII ) Angle 7 0.2 3.2 -5.4
••
-0.3
••
5.1
5-pt Pinch (2 clI-Force) 44 . 3.6 0.9 2.3 2.4 3.5 5.1 5.6
5-Pt Pinch (2 clI-LP,cm) 44 1. 1 O.q 0.1 0.5 , .0 1.6 1.8
5-Pt pinch (2 CII) Angle 44 0.4 4.2 -8.2 -7.6 0.8 1.0 10.6
'j-Pt Pinch (3 CII- ForCe) 44 3.5 0.7 1. q 2.4 3.5 4.7 5.2
5-Pt Pinch (3 CII-LP' ,CII) 44 1.0 0.4 0.3
. 0.5 1.0 1.7 1. q .
5-Pt Pinch (3 CII) Angle 44 -1.8 3.6 -13.0 -B.O -1.6 2.6 6.4
5-Pt Pinch (4 cl\I-Porce) 44 3.5 0.8
, .9
2.2 3.4 5.0 5.4
5-Pt pinch (4 CID- t P,CII) 44 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 1.2 1.9 2.0
5-Pt Pinch (4 em) Angle 44 -1.7 3.8 -18.2 -5.8 -2.3 3.1 5.5
5-Pt Pinch (5 CII- Porce) 44 3.B 0.9 1.7 2.1 3.8
5. ,
5.1
5-Pt Pinch (5 cm;"L r: ,CII) 44 1.2 0.4 0.0 0.2 1.2 1.8 2.1
5-Pt Pinch (5 CII) Angle 44 -1.2
4. , -18.3 -10.2 -0.9 3.9 7.4
5-pt Pinch (6 cm-Force) 43 3.B 0.9, 2.2 2.2 3.7 5. 1 6.9
5-Pt Pinch (6 CII-L F,cm) 43
, • 2 0.4 -0.3 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.2
5-Pt pinch (6 CII) Angle 43 -1.9 3.5 -10.9 -8.0 -1 ... 2.9 5.2
5-Pt Pinch (7 clI-FOrCe) 38 4.0 1.0 2.1 2.5 3.9 . 5.5 6.5
5-Pt Pinch (7 CII-L F,cm) 38 1.0 0.4 0.0 0.3 1.0 1.7 2. 1
5-Pt Pinch (7 CII) AnglE 38 -1.6 3.2 -B.3 -7.3 - 1.1 3. 1 4.5
5-Pt pinch (B cm-Force) 4 4.9 0.6 4.2
••
4.0
••
5.1
205
Strenqth Statistics
(5.5
-
6.5 years)
1'1 easare lie nt Descriptive Statistics
N P1ean s. d.
"in
5th 50t.h 95th
3-Pt Pinch (2 cll-FOrce) 49 3.6 0.8 1.9 2.1 3.7 4.7 6.2
3-Pt Pinch (2 CII-LF ,CII)
q8 0.8 O. II 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.5 1.1
3-Pt PinCh (2 CII) Angle 1f9 -5.0 11.11 -111.8 -12.8 -5.6 2.9 5.7
3-Pt Pinch (3 cm-Force) 119 3.5 0.7 2.4 2.5 3.5 4.b 6.0
3-Pt pinch (3 CII- LF, CII) 1f9 0.1 0.5 - -0.2 0.7 1.5 1.8
3-Pt Pinch' (3 cm) Angle 1f9 -5.9 3.6 -12.2 -11.1 -6.1 0.' 1. 1
3-Pt Pinch (4 c"-Force) 49 3.5 0.8 2.3 2.4 3.2 5.0 6.0
]-Pl. Pinch (4 clI-LF,CII) 49 0.7 0.3
O. ,
0.2 0.7 1.3
'.6
l-Pt pinCD (q c II) Angle
q9 -6.5 3.6 -13.2 -12.1 -6.8 -0.2 2.2
3-Pt Pinch (5 clII-Force) 49 3.6 0.1 2.3 2.3 3.5 4.8 5.9
)-Pt Pinch (5 CDI-LF,CII) 49 0.1 0.4 - o. 3 -0.' 0.7 '.3 1.. II
3-Pt pinch (5 cm) Angle 49 -5.6 3.1 -15.3 -11.2 -5.3 -0.9 1. 1
3-Pt Pinch (6 cm-Force) 49 3.8 0.7 2.1 2.9 3.7 4.8 5.5
3-Pt Pinch (6 119 0.7 0.3 -0.4 O. 1 0.6 1.2 '.5
3-Pt pinch (6 el) A.n9le
q9
-4.5 2.8 -10.5 -10.0 -11.9 0.3 3.2
3-Pl. Pinch (1 CII- Force) q3 4.0 0.8 2.1 2.2 4.1 5.2 5.6
3-Pl. Pinch (1 cil-LP ,cm) q3 0.6 0.3 - 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.3 '.5
3-Pt Pinch (1 ell) Angle 43 -4.0 2.8 -12.2 -8.6 -4.1 -0.3 2.6
3-Pt Pinch (8 clI""'Porce) 8 4.7 1.0 3.4
.*
4.6
••
6.3
3-Pt Pinch (8 clII-LP ,CII) 8 0.5 0.4 -0.2
**
0.5
*.
0.8
3-Pt Pinch (8 cm) Angle 8 -3.4 3.5 -9.6
*.
-2.7
••
2.11
3-Pt Pinch (9 clI-Porce) 1 5.6
.*
5.6
.-
5.6
••
5.6
3-Pt Pinch (9 clII-LF,cm) 1 0.2
••
0.2
.-
0.2
_.
0.2
3-Pt pinch (9 CII) Angle 1 -11.4
-.
-4.4
••
-11.11
••
-4.4
Squeeze (2 CII- Porce) 49 5.8 1.6 3.4 3.4 5.6 8.5 9.i
Squeeze (2 clII-LF,cm) 119 0.8 0.5 -0.3 0.0 0.8 1.5 2.0
Squeeze (2 cm) Angle 49 7.1 6.6 -11.5 -3.2 1. ij 11.1 21.2
Squeeze (3 CID- force) 49 10. 1 2.2 4.5 5.6 10.3 13.4 13.9
Squeeze (3 CII- LF, CII) 49 0.6 0.4 - 0.3 0.1 0.5 1• 1 1. e
Squeeze (3 CII) Angle 49 11.0 3.3 -5.8 -1.1 J.7 9.0 11.9
Squeeze (4 cm-porce) 49 11.0 2.3 5. 1 6.3 11.2 14.7 15.5
Squeeze (4 CII-LP,CIII) 49 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.·9
1• ,
Squeeze (4 CII) Angle 49 2.4 3.6 -9.6 -2.3 2.3 7.4 11.9
Squeeze (5 clI-Force) 41 9.9 2.5 5.11 5.6 9.11 13.2 17.3
Squeeze (5 cm-LP,clI) 47 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.7 1.0 1.5
Squeeze (5 CII) Ang Ie 47 1• 1 J.3 -5.8 -4.9 1.2 6.0 '7.2
Squeeze (6 CII- force) 10 8.9 2.6 11.1
••
7.8
••
12.5
Squeeze (6 CII-LF,CII) 10 0.9 0.3 0.4
••
0.9
••
1.6
Sqaeeze (6 CII) Angle 10 -1.0 1.1 -3.0
...
-1.2
••
O. 1
5-Pt Pinch (2 clI-Force) 49 . 11.0 0.8 2.0 2.6 4.0 5.5 6.3
5-Pt Pinch (2 clI-LP,CII) 49 1.0 0.4
0.' 0.4 1.0 1.6 2. 3
5-Pt Pinch (2 ell) Angle 49 1.2 3.5 .. 5.8 -5.0 1.2 6.6 11.7
5-Pt Pinch (3 cm:-Porce) 49 3.8 0.8 2.5 2.1 3.7 5.0 6.4
5-Pt pinch (3 cil-LF ,cm)
49 .
0.9 0.4 - O. 0 0.2 1.0 1.5 1.8
5-Pt Pinch (3 em) Angle 49 -1.1 3.2 -13.4 -5.8 -1.3 3.5
5- Pl. Pinch (II cm-Porce) 119 3.9 0.7 2.3 2.1 3.9 4.7 6.4
5- Pt Pinch (II CID-L F, ell) 49 1.0 0.5 - O. 2 0.2 1.0 1.7 1•
S-pt Pinch (4 CII) Angle 49 -1.6 4.0 -8.8 -8.1 -1.9 4.9 9.2
5-Pt Pinch (5 clII-Porce) 119 3.9 0.6 2.3 2.7 3.6 5.1 6.3
5-Pt Pinch (5 CDl-LF,cm) 49 1. :2 0.4 0.3 0.4 1. :2 1.8 2.0
5-Pt Pinch (5 CII) Angle 49 -0.6 11.11 -11.8 -9.8 5.2 7.6
5-Pt Pinch (6 cm-Force) 49 4.0 0.6, 2.6 2.9 3.9 5.11 6.2
5-pt Pinch (6 CIII-LF ,cm) 119 1.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1• 1
'.i 1.9
5-Pt pinch (6 ca) Angle 119. 0.0 3.5 -9.2 -7.5 0.' 5.1 9.2
5-Pt Pinch (7 CII- Force) 43 11.3 0.9 3.0 3.0 11.3 5.6 6.1
206
Grip Strength Statistics
(0.5
-
7.5 yea rs)
Pleasurement Descriptive Statistics
If Plean s.d. "in
5th 50th 95th !'lax
3-H Pinch (2 cII-Porce) 46 4.0 0.7 2.2 2.8 4.0 4.9 5.5
3-Pt pinch (2 CII-L P, cm) 46 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.3 1.9
3-pt Pinch (2 CII) Angle 46 -4.4 "3".0 -10.5 ":10.3 -5.2 0.7 1.6
3-Pt Pinch (3 cm-Force) 46 3.9 0.6 2.4 2.9 3.9 5.0 5.3
3-Pt Pinch (3 clI-LF,CII) 46 0.8 0.4 0.0 O. 1 0.1 1.3 1.9
3-Pt piL.=h (3 011) Angle 46 -5.5 4.2 - 18 • 3 - 10~ 3' -6.4 1.5 9.0
3-Pt Pinch (4 clI-Porce) 46 3.8 0.1 2. ] 2.5 3.8 4.9 5.4
)-Pt Pinch (4 cII-LF,cm) 46 0.7 0.4 - O. 3 -0.1 0.1 1.4 1.6
3-Pt Pincb (4 CII) Angle 46 -:5.9 3.9 -15.1 -13.3 -6.9 0.3 2.6
3-Pt Pinch (5 cm-Force) 46 4.0 0.7 2.1 2.9 1.1. 1 4.9 5.6
]-Pt Pinch (5 cm-LF,cll) 46 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.3 1. B
]-Pt Pinch (5 CIl) Aogle 46 -4.8 3.3 ,-11.0 -10.8 -1.1.9 1.0 1.2
]-Pt Pinch (6 CD-Force) 46 4.3 0.8 2./& 3.0 4.3 5.7 5.8
3-Pt pinch (6 cm-L F,ca) 46 0.8 0.4 0.0 '0.2 0.1 1.4 2.2
3-Pt pinch (6 CII) Angle 46 -4.1 3.3 -11.9 -8.1 -4.2 -0.1 8.6
]-pt Pinch (1 cm-Force) 46 4.2 0.8 2.1 3.0 4.2 5.7 6.3
3-Pt Pinch (7 cm-LF,clD) 46 0.7 0.4 - 0.3 0.0 0.7 1.2 1.3
3-Pt Pinch (1 CII) Angle 46 -4.6 2.7 -10.6 -9.9 -4.6 -0.1 O.q
]-Pt pinch (8 cD-Force) 20 4.7 1.2 2.5
••
4.7
••
7.9
3-Pt Pinch (8 cm-L F,COl) 20 0.7 0.3 0.1
••
0.7
••
, • 2
3-Pt Pinch (8 ca) Angle 20 -5.0 3. 1 -12.0
••
-4.3
••
- O. 9
]-Pt Pinch
(q cD-Force) 1 5.2
••
5.2
••
5.2
••
5.2
)-pt Pinch (9 clII-LF ,CID) 1 0.5'
.,.
0.5 ••
0.5
••
0.5
3-Pt Pinch (9 CII) Angle 1 -5.0
••
-5.0
••
-5.0
••
-5.0
Squeeze (2 CII- Force) 46 6.1 2.0 2.9 4.0 6.4 1 0 ~ 2 11.4
squeeze (2 ell-IF,CD) 46 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.7 2.0
Squeeze (2 CII) Ang le 46 6.9 5.9 -12.8 -2.1 6.5 15.5 17.3
Squeeze (3 CIII- Force) 46 11.7 2.7 7.3 7.7 11. 1 15.8 1B. 4
Squeeze (3 cm-LF,cm) 46 0.6 0.3 - 0.0 0.1 0.5 1. 1 1.6
Squeeze (3 cm) Angle 46 4.4 3.6 - 3.0 -1.0 3.7 9.1 .16. l
Sq.ueeze (4 CD- Porce) 46 13.1 2.6 7.3 8.6 13.1 11.0 18.3
.squeeze (4 CID- LP, ell) 46 0.6 0.3 - 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.9 1.3
Squeeze (4 cm) Angle 46 3.6 3./& -3.3 -2.5 3.2 9.2 12.2
Sqaeeze (5 CII- Porce) 46 12.0 2.7 6.0 7.1 12.0 16.4 H.9
Squeeze (5 cm- L'f' ,cm) 46 0.1 O. 3 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.2 1.6
Squeeze (S cm) Anqle 46 2.2 2.9 -5.1 -2.2 1. 9 6.9 1.8
sqaeeze (6 CID- Porce) 28 10.7 2.0 6.8 7.1 , 0.9 13.1 14.5
Squeeze (6 cm- LP ,em) 28 0.8 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.8 1.3 1.4
Squeeze (6 cm) . Angle 28 1. 1 5.0 -9.5 -7.3 o. 1 9.2 18.5
Squeeze (7 cll-force) 1 9.2
••
9.2
••
9.2
••
9.2
Squeeze (1 cm- LF ,CID) 1 0.6
••
0.6
••
0.6
••
0.6
squeeze (7 c m) Angle 1 1.5
••
1.5
••
1.5
••
1.5
5-Pt Pinch (2 em-force) 46 4.4 1.0 2.3 2.8 4.4 6.0 6.8
5-Pt Pinch (2 .cm-LP,CIII) 46 1. 1 0.4 0.3 0.4 1. 1 1.1 2.0
5-Pt Pinch (2 C ID) Angle 46 1.5 3.4 -1.3 -/&.5 1.2 1.0 7.9
5-Pt Pinch (3 cm-Porce) 46 4.4 0.9 . 2.4 2.8 4.5 5.8 6.0
,;-Pt Pinch (3 cm-LP ,cm) 46 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.9 1.6 1.9
5-Pt Pinch p cm) Angle 46 -0.9 3.7 -, O. 3 -6.8 -1.4 4.6 6.4
5-Pt pinch (1.1 cII-Porce) 46 .4.3 0.8 2.5 2.6 4.2 5.b 5.1
5-Pt Pinch (4 cD-LF ,CII) 46 1.1 0.4 0.2 0.3 1• 1 1.8 i.l
5-Pt Pinch (4 cm) Angle 46 - 1.1 5.1 -10.0 -9.3 -1.6 1.4 13.3
5-Pt Pinch (5 cm-Porce) 46 4.4 0.8 2.9 3.0 4.2 5.8 6.7
5-pt pinch (5 cm-LP,cm) 46 1.2 0.4 0.2 0.5
,. 1 1.9 2.3
5-Pt Pinch (5 c II) Angle 46 -0.5 4.3 - 9.1 -8.3 -0.9 6.7 8.2
5-Pt Pinch (6 cm-Porce) 46 4.6 0.9 2.5 3.1 4.5 6.0 6.5
207
Grip Strengtb Sta tistics
(8.5 -
9.5 years)
fleasu rellen t Descriptive Statistics
N ReaD s.d. "in
5th 50t.h 95th "ax
)-Pt Pinch (2 cil-Porce) 42 5.0 0.9 2.8 3.2 5.0 6.3 7.3
3-Pt Pinch (2 clI-LF ,em) 42 0.7 0.4 - O. 0 0.1 0.6 1. 1 2.2
3-Pt Pinch (2 ell) Angle 42 -2.2 3.7 -9.5 -8.3 -2.8 2.6 5. 1
)-Pt Pinch (3 e .... Porce) 42 4.7 0.7 2.9 3.1 4.7 5.7 6.0
)-Pt Pinch (3 e 11-1 P , ell) 42 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.7 1.2 1.8
3-Pt Pinch (3 em) Angle 42 -4.2 3.6 -11 .1 -10.0 - 3.8 2.3 3.7
)-Pt pinch (4 cil-Force) 42 4.8 0.9, 3. ) 3.4 4.7 6.1 7.0
3-Pt Pinch (4 CII-LF ,ell) 42 0.1 0.4 -0.0 -0.0 0.6 1.4 1.6
3-Pt pinch (4 CII) Angle 42 -4.2 3.7 -12.9 -10.3 - 3. 8 0.5 2.2
~ - P t Pi. nch (5 clI-Force) 42 11.8 1. 1 3.2 3.4 4.7 6.7 8.3
)-Pt Pinch (5 CII-LP ,CII) 42 0.1 0.3 - 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.3 1.4
3-Pt I'>inch (5 CII) Angle 47
-3.3 3.6 -13.4 -9.2 - 3. 5 3.7 4.2
J-pt Pinch (6 CII- Porce) 42 5.0 1• 1 3.1 1 ~ 4 4.9 6.1 fl.1
3-Pt Pinch (6 CII-LF ,CII) 42 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.7 1.3 1.4
J-pt Pinch (6 CIII) Angle 42 - 3. 0 2.6 -8.5 -:-7.1 - J. 1 0.9 4.8
3-Pt Pinch (7 cm-Porce) 41 5.4 1.2 3.2 3.7 5. :2 7.3 6.5
3-Pt Pinch (7 CII-LP ,cm) 41 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.7 1.2 1.4
J-pt Pinch (7 CII) Angle 41 -2.1 2.7 -7.8 -6.0 - 2.2 1.9 4.1
3-Pt Pinch (8 cm-porce) 34 5.5 1. 1 3.1 3.2 5 ~ 8 7.0 7.4
3-Pt Pinch (8 CII-LF ,CII) 34 0.1 0.4 -0.0 0.0 0.5 1.3 1.8
3-Pt Pinch (A ell) Angle 34 -2.6 1.9 - 6.5 ":6.1 .-2.7 0.2 1.2
3-Pt Pinch (9 clI-Force) 10 5.4 1.2 3.4
••
5.3
••
7. ,
3-Pt Pinch (9 cm-LF ,cm) 10 0.3 0.2 O. 1
••
0.3
••
0.7
3-Pt Pinch
(q
cm) Angle 10 -2.5 1.7 -5.4.
••
-2.3
••
-0.5
squeeze (2 em-Porce) 42 8.9 2.8 3.8 4.2 8.4 14.1 15.4
Squeeze (2 clI-lf,CII) 42 0.7 0.5 -0.4 0.1 0.6 1.4 2.3
Squeeze (2 ell) Angle 42 9.1 5.5 -10.4 -1.7 9.9 15.8 20.0
Squeeze (3 CII- Porce) 42 15.3 3.2 9. 1 9.9 15.4· 20.5 23.2
Squeeze (3 cII-LF,CII) 42 0.5 0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.5 0.9 1.3
Squeeze (3 Cll) Angle 42 5.3 2.8 -1.4 0.3 5.2 8.9 111.0
Squeeze (4 cm-Porce) 42 17.2 3.3 11.4 12.2 16.5 22.11 25.6
Squeeze (4 cm-LF,cm) 42 0.6 0.2 - 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.9 1.0
Squeeze (4 C Ill) Ang Ie 42 4.6 3.1 - 1.4 0.3 4.3 9.3 13.4
Squeeze (5 cm- Porce) 42 16.3 3.2 10.6 11.0 16.0 22.4 211.]
Squeeze (S CII-LF ,CII) 42 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 o. b 1.0 1. 1
Squeeze (5 ell) Anq Ie 42 3.4 2.7 -1. I) -1.8 3.7 1.1 9.2
Squeeze (6 Cll- Force) 39 15.2 3.0 10.6 10.6 14.8 20.9 21.5
Squeeze (6 ell-Lf,cm) 39 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.1 O.b 1.0 1.3
Squeeze (6 ell) Ang le 39 2.8 2.5 - 2.9 -2.3 3.0 6.1 8.1
Squeeze (7 CII- Force) 9 13.3 2.0 10.6
••
12.9
••
16.1
Squeeze (7 CII- LP, ell) 9 0.8 0.4 0.1
••
O. B
••
1.4
Squeeze (7 em) Angle 9 1.0 2.3 -1.7
••
0.2
.*
4. 3
5-Pt Pinch (2 clII-Force) 42 5.8 1..2 3.7 3.8 5.7 8.0 8.9
S-pt Pinch (2 ell- LF, ell) 42 1.0 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.0 1.6 1.6
5-Pt Pinch (2 ell) Angle 42 3.1 3.El - 5. 5 -5.1 3.3 9.0
10. ,
5-Pt pinch (3 ell-Poree) 42 5.6 1• 1 3.4 ·1.8 S.6 7.1 8.3
5-Pt Pinch (3 cm-I. F,Cll) 42 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.9 1.6 2.0
5-Pt pinch (3 ell) Angle 42 0.9. 3.3 -5.6 -4.9 0.9 ·6.4 7.8
5-Pt Pinch (4 cil-Porce) 42 5.4 1.0 3.6 3.6 5. 1 7.2 7.B
5-Pt Pinch (4 em-LP ,cm) 42 '.1
0.5 0.0 0.2 0.9 2.0 2.4
5-Pt pinch (4 cm) Angle 42 0.8 3.6 -6.8 -4.7 0.6 5.4 10.4
5-Pt pinch (5· em-porce) 42 5.5 1. 1 1.6. 3.7 503 7.1 8.0
s-Pt piDch (5 cm-LF,clI) 42 1 ~ 3 0.5 0.2 0.3 1. 3 2.0 2.3
5-Pt Pinch (5 CII) Angle 4.2 1.9 4.5 -9.7 -S.6 1.5 9.8 10.5
5-Pt Pinch (6 cll-Force) 42 5.9 1.3 .1.7 4.0 5.8 8.1 9.5
209
Grip Strenqth Statistics
(9.5 -
10.5 ,..ars)
!'Ieasure.ent DescriptiYe Statistics
II l'Iean s. d. Ilin 5th 50th 95th Ilall:
3-Pt Pinch (2 cm-FOrce) 44 5.2 1.0 3.4 3.7 5.1 6.7 9.7
3-Pt pinch (2 clI-LP,CII) 44 0.6 0.3 - O. 0 0.0 0.7 1.0 1.2
3-Pt Pinch (2 cm) Anqle 44 -2.2 3.3 -8.1 -7.2 -2.5 2.1 4.5
3-Pt pioch (3 cil-Porce) 45 5.0 0.9 3.6 4.0 4. B 6.6 8.4
3-Pt pinch (3 CII-LF ,CII) 115 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.5 1. 1 1.4
::l-Pt Pinch (3 CIII) Angie 45 -3.6 3.0 -10.6 -9.6 - 3. 6 1.5 3.1
3-Pt Pinch (4 cil-Force) 45 5.2 1. 1 3.6 3.9 5.0 7.5 B.2
3-Pt pinch (4 clI-LP,CII) 45 0.5 0.3 - 0.2 0.1 0.5 1. 1 1. 2
3-Pt Pinch (4 CII) Angle 45 ~ 3 . 2 3.5 -11.6 -8.5 - 3. 6 3.6 5.8
3-Pt Pinch (5 CDl- Poree) 45 5.3 1.0 3.3 3.5 5.1 7.3 1.6
3-Pt Pinch (5 clII-LF,CIII) 115 0.6 0.3 O. 1 O. 1 0.7 1. 1 1. 2
l-Pt pinch (5 CII) Angle 115 -2.7 3. 1 -9.2 -9.0 - 3.5 1.tI 5.9
3-Pt pinch (6 ell-ForCe) 45 5.5 1.0 3.4 3.9 5.3 7.0 7.6
3-Pt Pinch (6 cII-lP ,CII) 115 0.7 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.7 1.1 1.?-
3-Pt pinch (6 CII) Angle 115
-'.9 2.9 - 9.3 -7.2 - 1. 5 2.9 5. 1
3-Pt Pinch (7 cm-Force) 45 5.8 1. 1 Q. 1 4.2 5.6 7.9 8.6
3-Pt pinch (7 cDl-Ll",CIII) 115 0.7 0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.7 1• 1 1.7
3-Pt pinch (7 cm) Angle 115 -1.7 2.7 - 9. 3 -6.11 -1.8 2.3 3.3
3-pt Pinch (8 cm-FOrCe) 43 6.0 1.1 '1.4 4.5 5.7 8.1 8.8
3-Pt Pinch (8 cII-LF,CII) 43 0.6 0.3 -0.0 O. 1 0.6 1.0 1.2
3-Pt Pinch (8 cm) Angle 143 -1.8 2.4 - 8.4 -4.7 -2.4 1.4 6.7
3-Pt Pinch (9 clI-Porce) 25 6.2 0.8 4.3 4.5 6.1 7.4 7.9
3-Pt Pinch (9 ell-iP,cm) 25 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.11 0.9 1• 1
3-Pt Pinch (9 CIII) Angle 25 -2.5 2.3 - 6. 7 -6.5 -2.5 0.5 3.5
squeeze (2 CII- force) 45 '9.7 3.0 4.2 5.0 9.7 111.0 17.8
Squeeze (2 c.-l F, cm) 45 0.6 0.11 - O. 1 -0.0 0.5 1.2 1.6
Squeeze (2 CII) Anqle 45 9.9 4.2 - 2.7 1.8 9.6 16.4 21. 1
Squeeze (3 Clll- Porce) 45 16. 1 3.1 10.0 10.3 16.5 21.1 21.8
Squeeze (3 CIll-L'P,cm) 115 0.5 0.3 - 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.9 1.0
Squeeze (3 CI) Angle 45 6.3 2.6 1.5 1.7 6.3 9.8 10.9
Sq lJeeze (4 CID- Po rce) 45 19. 1 3.5 1 1. 0 13. 1 19.0 25.0 21.9
Squeeze (II cm-LP,clIl) 45 0.5 0.2 O. 1 0.2 0.5 1. 1 1.2
Squeeze (4 cm) Ang le 45 11.4 2.3 1.0 1• 1 3.9 8.3 11.4
Squeeze (5 cm- Force) 45 19.5 2.7 15.0 15.2 19.2 23.9 27.8
Squeeze (5 cm-LF,cm) 45 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.9 1.0
Squeeze (5 CIII) Ang le 45 4.0 1.9 -0.9 0.6 II. 1 1.0 9.0
Squeeze (6 ClD- Force) 44 17.2 3.8 10.1 10.6 17.2 23.3 26.1
Squeeze (6 clI-LF,CII) 411 0.6 0.3 -0.0 0.1 0.6 1.3 1.5
Squeeze (6 CII) Ang le 411 2.4 2.• 8 -1.6 -1.5 1.7 7.3 9.0
Squeeze (7 clI-Force) 18 16.8 3.6 1.0.5
**
17.2
.*
211.6
Squeeze (1 em- LF, em) 18 0.7 0.4 0.1
••
0.7
••
1. 3
Squeeze (7 CII) Angle 18 1.9 2.8 -3.7
.*
2.1
••
~ . 4
S-nt Pinch (2 cm-porce) 45 6.5 1.4 4. 1 4.7 6.3 8.2 11 • 8
5-Pt. Pinch (2 cm-LF ,CIII) 45 1.0 0.3 0.11 0.4 1.0 1.11 1.5
5-Pt pinch (2 elll) Angle 45 4.0 2.9 - 2.4 -0.5 4.0 B.B 10.6
5-Pt Pinch (3 cm-Force) 45 6. 1 1.3 4.1 4.4 5.8 1.6 10.9
5-Pt flinch (3 cm-LF.clI) 45 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.9 1.4 1.7
5-Pt pinch (3 ell) Angle 45 1.3 3.0 -6.3 -3.5 1.4 5.5 7.9
5-Pt pinch (4 cll-Force) 45 5.9 1.2 3.9 4.0 5.7 7.7 10.3
5-Pt Pinch (4 clI-L F.cm) 45 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.3 1.0 1.5 1.9
5-Pt pinch (II cm) Angle 45 1.7 3.7 -4.8 -4.2 1.7 8.2 10.1
5-Pt Pinch (5 cil-Porce) 45 5.ll 0.9 3.9 4.8 5.9 7.3 8.6
5-Pt Pinch (5 clI-LF.em) 45 1• 1 0.5 0.1 0.3 1. 1 1.8 2.3
5- Pt Pinch (5 CII) Angle 45 1.8 3.5 -5.1 -4.2 1.5 7.0 8.9
5-Pt pinch (6 cm-Force) 45 6.1 1.2 3.6 4.6 5.7 8.3 8.8
210
..
ZERO ORDER CORRELATIONS
Finger Cervical Hand Hand
Grip
Height Weight
Linkage Linkage Length Breadth
Outside
Diameter
3 Point Pinch
l'J 2 ern
I
.8074 .7796 .7355 .6122 .7861 .7558 .7764
I-'
I-'
I
3 ern '.7968 .7751 .7260 .6278 .7717 .7568 .7692
4 ern .7460 .7397 .6772 .5844 .7219 .7109 .7712
5 ern
I
.7291 .7184 .6480 .5509 .6881 .7024 .6862
6 ern .7415 .7438 .6480 .5855 .6870 .7060 .6674
7 ern
I
.6372 .6531 .5470 .4244 .5848 . 6 ~ 0 1 .5738
8 ern .3734 .3958 .2972 .1909 .3654 .4646 .3804
9 ern I .2106 .2314 .2498 .2234 .1964 .1351 .2919
r.
ZERO ORDER CORRELATIONS
Grip
Height. Weight
Finger Cervical Hand Hand Outside
Linka.ge Linkage Length Breadth Diameter
Squeeze
2 ern .6846 .6240 .5752 .5057 .6311 .6278 .6136
3 ern .7809 .7271 .6950 .6258 .7396 .7578 .7323
tv
t-'
tv
4 ern I .8665 .8188 .7967 .6765 .8359 .8367 .8205
5 ern .8609 .8107 .7647 .6425 .8211 .8187 .8030
6 ern . 7286 .6780 .5953 .4609. .7047 .6874 .6265
7 ern .6154 .6246 .3805 .3750 .6303 .5929 .6321
,;
ZERO ORDER CORRELATIONS
Finger Cervical Hand Hand
Grip
Height Weight
Linkage Linkage Length Breadth
Outside
Diameter
5 Point Pinch
IV
2 em I .8269 .8078 .7451 .6171 .8047 .7670 .8059
......
w
3 ern .8278 .7979 .7502 .6450 .8021 .7765 .7978
4 em .8028 .7877 .7319 .6348 .7808 .7661 .7645
5 ern .7521 .7452 .6917 .6068 .7309 .7297 .7149
6 ern .7332 .7348 .6483 .5840 .7047 .7321 .6830
7 crn .6819 .7011 .5970 .5004 .6539 .6954 .6381
8 em .4403 .4387 ~ 2787· .3299 .3580 .4029 .3175
9 ern I .0914 .2257 .1605 .0517 .0234 .0285 .1539
; ..
_..... -
3.4 ELBOW STRENGTH
EXTENSION
FLEXJ;ON
EXTENSION
112.5°
EXTENSION
214
EXTENSION
15l5°
EXTENSION
67.5
0
215
67.5
0
112.5° 112 .. 5°
216
.--
:/-
-,,','/'
217
3.4.1 Index of Elbow S ~ r e n g t h Data
Measurement Page
1. Elbow Flexion
67.5° ...•............................................. 220
900: •••.•••.•••••••••.••••• ~ ••••••••••••.••••.•.•••.•. 221
112.5° .........•.••.......................· 222
135° ............•..•.................•............... 223
157.5° ............•......... ~ .......•................ 224
180° .•.........•..•......•••......••................. 225
2. Elbow Extension
67.5°
90
0
••• ,. e ..
112.5° ..........•.......•............................
135
0
..
157.5° •......••.•••.........•........................
3. Elbow Flexion vs. Joint Angle •.....••................
4. Elbow Extension vs. Joint Angle ....•.................
5. Elbow Flexion at 112.5° vs. Height .
6. Elbow Extension at 112.5° vs. Height .
7. Elbow Flexion at 112.5° vs. Weight •.•.•.....•........
8. Elbow Extension at 112.5° vs. Weight ••...............
9. Elbow Flexion at 112.5° vs. Forearm Linkage .
227
228
229
230
231
232
233 ../
234
235
236
237
238
.,
....
10. Elbow Extension at 112.5° vs. Forearm Linkage
218
239
ELBOW FLEXION
DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The radius and ulna are rotated anterior-
ly at the elbow joint (humero-ulnar joint center) in the
sagittal plane.
TEST POSITION: The shoulder is abducted 5°, elbow flexed to the
test position, and wristnuetral at 0°. The right hand
grasps a 2.5 cm diameter handle, the left forearm (distal to
the humero-ulnar joint center) is unrestrained.
ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The carpal, radial, humeral,
sacral, and thoracolumbar linkages are measured with an
anthropometer.
ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The chair back fixture is set to the
sacral plus thoracolumbar length, aligning the shoulder joint
center with that of the chair. The chair arm fixtures are
set to the humeral and radial plus carpal lengths, aligning
the elbow joint center and center of grip with those of the
. chair. Thin rubber pads are placed under the arm as needed
to maintain these alignments. The shoulder abduction angle
is locked at 5° and elbow flexion at test position. The
distal edge of the wrist support is adjusted to align with
the wrist joint center. The wrist and arm straps are then
secured snugly around the arm and the chest strap around the
chest and left upper arm. The subject's right hand is placed
to grasp the handle on the chair. His left forearm is' placed
in his lap.
INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child pulls his wrist (and hand)
up and his elbow down.
219
300.00
;: LD Oiol FLEXICN (61.5 DEG)
(Kgf-crn)
(/tales and Females)
'je (y rs) t' 'lean s.c!. Min 15th SOth 'I')th
1 40.5 21.6 q.5 10. 3 :I 8 2. 1 76.2
3.5-4.;" 9 51.3 28.5 31 • 1 54.0 63.5 76.9
4.5- 5.5 1 : 59.8 32.1 2 q. q 33.0 42.lJ 88.": 129.6
5.5-5.') 23 3 25.2 29.3 3. j fl6.:! 100." 143.5
6.5- 1. 5 1)
10B.7 10.0 56.13 61.1 1 3 131.2 11.19.1
7. S- 8.5 1;" 145.5 39.5 13'1.1 188.7 230.g
>3 • 5- '3.5 1 4 1 E1.5 36.9 94.5 123.1
, S
195. 7
9.5-10.5 8 175.2 42.1 90.4 101.6 180. ') 208. J 22 6.5
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AGE
(YEARS)
220
350.00
300.00
ELBOW FLEXION (gO DEG)
(Kgf-cm)
(Males and Females)
A.ge (yr-s) N Mean s. d. Min 15th 50th R5th Ma x
2.5-3.5 7 54.6 24.8 23.9 24.5 47.1 66.6 9S.3
~ . 5 - 4 . 5 9 76.6 8.9 68.0 08.0 7S. 1 79.0 97.6
4. is- 5.5 15 84.9 28.2 .17.3 67.2 71. 1 113.5 , 37.8
5.5- 6.5 ~ 3 l1l. 1 29.·6 57.3 83.2 1.1 , • ~ 141.8 165.9
6. 5- ., .5 13 135.2 34.9 79. O. 103.9 12 a. 1 157. A 198.6
7.5-8.5 15 172 ... 5 48.4 115. 3 127.7 149.7 219.8 284.7
A. 5- q. 5 14 189. 8 39.2 11840 5 149.6 184.8 215.3 275. 1
9.5-10.5 8 237.5 36.7 195.6 197.'4 219.7 265.5 305.1

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AGE
(YEARS)
221
i::l.BOtoi fLEXlCN (11';;.5 (Kgf-cm)
(Males and Female!')
(y ['s) N :'lean s.d. bth 50th q"lth :1 a x
5- J. 5 7 73.3 23.6 27.2 2 <1. 3 72.7 91.b 102.2
3 " 5- 4 • ') 'd 'lb.7 19.7 72. 1 91.L 115.0 13' .7
4. 5-:>. S 15
108" 3 25.3 6"7.5 72.5 104. J 134. ;: 153.0
5.5- 6.5 23 137. 0 91. 1 10 1. 1 1 ] 1.8 165.6 209. ,
6. 7.5 13 1 4 51.8 "'0.0 95.2 146.b 214.b 26G.7
7. 5- tj. 15 203.1 56.3 149.7 154.6 188 •. 3 243.4
q. 5- 9.5 14 220.9 116.1 16b.3 216.5 33H.5
9.5-10.5 8 112.8 74.0 209.3 213.fl 2'J 1. 7 386.lJ 415.4.
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2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 u
AGE
(YEARS)
222
'lOG. 00
350.00
• 300.00
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(")
-
ELBOW HE nON (135 DI:;G)
(.Kgf-cm)
(l'1alES and Pelrales)
~ q e (y LS) N Mean s.d. Min 15th 50th H5th Max
2.5-3.5 7 6<1.1 23.6 41.7 -42.0 56.7 g4.7 96.1
1.5-4.5 9 87.9 15.3 72.6 73.2 8u.ti 105.9 111.4
4.5-5.5 15 120.A 36.4 62.1 69.0 121.3 156.9 1a1 • 1
5.5- b. S 23 1J4.3 40.8 34.7 107.0 128.0 17 2.3 220.6
6 . 5 - 7 . ~ 13 1 58.3 62.3 56.4 70.6 157.' 9 180.9 303.4
7.5- 8.5 15 1B1. 1 ~ 7 . 7 104.2 131.5 157. 1 249.6 301.3
:3.5- :}. 5 14 218.6 52.7 163.2 164.9 199.1 ~ 90. 1 318.4
').5-10.5 8 295.7 71.7 190.0 191.3 319.2 342.4 383.5
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0.00
2 3 5 8 7 e 8 to 11
AGE
(YEARS)
223
,
.....
eLBOW FIEXION (157.5 DEG)
(Kgf-cm)
and Females)
A<]c (yrs) l\ Mean s.d. "lin '5th 50th B5th
5- 1. 5 0 61.4 25.4 26.3
*.

**
tJS."7
3.5- 4.5 Ii 83.3 15.0 62.8 63.8 fl 1. J 99.3 1 02 • 1
4. 5.5 15 94.9 33.1 1J6.2 59.4 91. 9 1 J. "7 17 2. 'J
5.5- 6.5 2j 1 16.0 34.0 fil.7 78. 1 105.J 142.6 19 8.0
6.5- 7.5 n 134.8 51 .3
48.4 .
81.'3 12 q. 1 Hi 1. 0 256.6
1.5- 8.5 15 H4.1 58.4 101.3 108. 3 132. :, 2'<: 5. 3 7.87.9
d. 5-Y. 5 14 lH7.9 50. 1 123.2 130.1 1g 2. 1 216.3 '286.9
9.5-10.5 8 268.6 78.0 143.0 150.b 27 J. 7 ]U 7.4
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50.00

0.00 2
3 5 8
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8 9 10 11
AGE (YEARS)
224
300.00
ELBOW flEXICN (1 B0 DEG) (Kgf-cm)
(Males and Fl:!lIlaf€s)
Age (y rs) N s. d. Min 15th SOtl. 85th Md x
2.5-3.5 1 40.0 27.1 14.5 14.6 :3 O. d 59.6 92.6
3. 5-4.5 9 54.6 20.7 16.6 22.5 53.9 74.6 RO.S
4.5- 5.5 15 79.A 29.6 l.j6.3· :. 9.0 ·75. q
90.8 150.5
5.5,.. 6.5 23 134. () 20. 1 45.7 64.4 81.3 98.0 138.5
13 96. C; 38.9 111.5 53.0 9 140.5 112.6
1.5-8.5 15 119.3 45.9 114.q 63.t:i 118.4 '16 4. 210.6
8.5-9.5 14 153.5 61.1 ·5"7.2 94.0 126. 13 220.6 254.2
9.5-10.5 8 202.7 53.8 11 J. 2 119.5 206.0 235. 1 286.1
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7 8· 8 10 11
AGE
(YEARS)
225
ELBOW EXTENSION
DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The radius and ulna are rotated posterior-
ly at the elbow joint (hurnero-ulnar joint center) in the
sagittal plane.
TEST POSITION: The shoulder is abducted 5°, elbow flexed to
test position, and wrist neutral at 0°. The right hand grasps
a 2.5 cm diameter handle, the left forearm (distal to the
humero-ulnar joint center) is unrestrained.
ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The carpal, radial, humeral, sacral,
and thoracolumbar linkages are measured with an anthropometer.
ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The chair back fixture is set to the
sacral plus thoracolumbar length, aligning the shoulder
joint to the humeral and radial plus carpal lengths, aligning
the elbow joint center and center of grip with those of the
chair. Thin rubber pads are placed under the arm as needed
to maintain these alignments. The shoulder abduction angle
is locked at 5° and elbow flexion at the test position.
The distal edge of the wrist support is adjusted to align
with the wrist joint center. The wrist and arm straps are
then secured snugly around the arm and the chest strap around
the chest and left upper arm. The subject's right hand is
placed to grasp the handle on the chair. His left forearm
is placed in his lap.
INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child pushes his' wrist (and hand)
down and his elbow up.
226
300.00
ELrWW EX'IP.NSIO"l ,( L1.5 DEG) (Kgf-cm)
(Males and Females)
Age (yrs) N '1ean s.d. Min 15th 50th 85th fl!ax
2.5- 3.5 7 72 • .1 15.8 42.7 42.8 5 '}. 7 79.7 145.6
1. 5
q
72.0 18.3 42.6 49.4 93. 1 97.8
4.5- 5.5 15 90.7 31 .3 46.5 61.3 7q.3 114.9 165.q
5.5- 6. ') 23 21.9 37.13 63.3 79.7 102.7 1) O. 5
6.5-7.5 13 q3.9 37 .8 .1.3.3 49.3 82. 130.6 lS4.0
7.5- 8.5 ' 1S 123.7 29.6 76 '-9 93.0
"5. b
172.4
8 • 5- '1 • S 1 140.5 4301 72.1 'l2.2 12CJ.b 181.2 223.2
9.5-10.5 II 158.3 62.3 91.4 95.0 137.0 208.6 27A.3
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AGE (YEARS)
227
8 9 10 11
ELBOW ::XTENSION (91l
(Kgf-cm)
(!"Iales an d Females)
;> (yrs) N Mea r s.d. 15th SOtl! 85th
2. 5- J. 5
i
7"'1. C J 1 41.1 47.2 64.0 9 2 14'" •
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1.5-4.5 9 67. '3 15.0 39.4 45.7 r.c7.c '14.2
5- 5.5 1 106.0 49 • .1 18.5 5 O. 1 '00.0 13
Q
.-j 2."? J. J
'). 5- 6 • 5 23 100.2 .10.5 59.6 AO.5 10 0.4 13 S. 1 1':is. b
6.5- .., .5 1j
121.2 34.2 51.] . 85.6 114.
4
1 4 17 ='.:3
1') 39.8 99.9 95.3 lln.6 17 u. 1 )40.'1
B. ::,- g. 14 169.1 50.6 '19.5 115. 1 1:'R.1 215. 3 271.3
9.5-10.5 U 1'11.1 96.4 7'i.2 80.8 141. 7 276.6 3':i' .5
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10 11
AGE
(YEARS)
228
lIOO.OO
350.00
EL130W FX'IENSION (112.5 DEG)
(Kgf-cm)
('/''1 a l€s and
.I\ge (y ["S) N !\lean s.d. Min 15th 50th '35th a x:
2. 5- 3.5 7 lOU.4 28.3 71.7 72.0 lJ3.3 133. 1 14£.8
3.5-:+. ') 9 "1.7 21.2 64.7 68.0 7 110. 2 132 • .3
4.5- 5.5 15 1.'0.6 43.2 57.1 75.3 13 1.1+ 144.4 1 • 2
5.5- 6.5 ;n 11q. 1 48.3 2 88. 1 134.U 17 5.4 271.5
6. 5- "7. S 13 176 • .3 5"7.2 q7.6 le9.5 163.5 .; 0 2b7.6
7.5- 8.5 15 208.8 58.7 107.5 147.7 184.6 '254.7 33 O. 6
8. S- <J. 5 14 2.3 1.1 55.6 144.6 163.2 20C:l.2 295.3 31 e. 2
9.5-10.5 8 245. 1 92.6 130.0 133.2 335.4 314.7
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AGE n'EFlASl
229

I 10 11
E:LBOW EX'IENSION (135 lJ£'; I
(Kgf-crn)
(''Iales and Females)
Age (y rs)
'"
'Iei'!. n s.d. ~ i n 15 tb 50th R'jtb ~ : n : :
2. 5- 3.5 7 QO.7 18.9 60.2 b1 .4 A5.:" 104. 1 ' 20. ,
1.5-4.5
r;
81.8 2Q.7 47.3 52. 1 6 R. 1 ':1 4. 1 , ~ 7 • ~
4. 5- :>. 5 15 125.9 46.1 67.2 75.'" 122.0 15'.0 247. 1
5.5-6.5 23 1 3'1. 7 54.0 S5.7 7B. (l 126.2 17S. b ? 72;, 1
6.5- 7.5 1 .3 160.3 60.0 28.8 100.0 lS 7.9 214. 1 2.1:'. S
7.5- U.. ~ 1S 193.7 68.2 110.1. 121. U 17 S.l 2il7.1 309.0
5.5-9.5 1 Lj 261.2 66.1 13 3.8 119.7 25 j. 7 332. :) 3l:Jl.7
9.5-10.5 I:l 276.9136.9 11 R. 8 128. 1 188.':1 41B. b 488. 1
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8 8 10 11
AGE
(YEARS)
230
P,LBOW EX'IENSION (157.5 DEG) (Kgf-cm)
(l'Ia 1es and Fe'lIIales)
Age (yrs) N Mean s.d. ~ i n
1 jth 50th R'it h "lax
2.5- 3.5 6. 75.0 13.0 58.8
**
66.4
**
00.5
3.5-4.5 9 72.5 29. 1 37 ~ 1 38.4 65.8 94.7 128 .. 5
4.5-5.5 15 83.5 32.8 31.7 37.3 83.b 106.0 162.5
'i. 5- 6.5 23 99.5 44.0 35.0 53.0 82.8 14 J. 2 194.6
6.5-1.5 13 110.0 63.9 34.1 51.5 110.5 19 g. 2 246.0
7.5-'3.5 15 145.4 65.3 32.0 80.4 '33.5 ~ 10.7 277.0
~ . 5 - g . ~ 14 206.8 85.5 77.2 90."7 201. 1 297.7 335. q
9.5-10.5 8 278.5149.8 79.5 92.7 205.4 4l8.ti 462.9
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AGE
(YEAftSl
231
..
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--e-- 2.5 TO 5 YEARS
--- 5 TO 8 YEA
8 YEARS AN UP
90.0
250.0
210.0
L
b 170.0
ffi
a:::
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130.0
90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.C 202.5
DEGREES Of fLEXION
87.5
so. 0

232
........- 2.5 TO 5 YEARS
~ 5 TO 8 YEARS
~ 8 YEARS RND UP
250.0
230.0
210.0
190.0
z:
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130.0
110.0
80.0
70.0
~ . O 87.5 80.0 112.5 135.0
DEGREES Of EXTENSION
233
157.5 180.0
~ 5 0 . 0 0
- TREND
z ~ o o . o o
0
-
(f)
z
w
350.00
~
x
w
~
SOD. 00
w
c
In
.
250.00
N
-
-
~
200.00
a:
x:
~
~
lS0.00
z
w
CI:
~
en
100.00
:x
0
CD
-J
SO.OO I.LJ
O.OO+----+----+---+----+----+----+----f
80.00 100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 11l0.00 150.00 160.00
HEIGHT (eM)
234
~ . o o
---- TREND
z
1100.00
0
-
X
l£J
350.00
~
C)
w
300.00
c
11)

N
250.00
-
-
~
a:
200.00
::I:
~
C)
ffi
150.00
a::
~
en
% 100.00
0
m
ci
so. 00
0.00 +----f----+----+--.....--+-------lI----+-----1
90.00 100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 1110.00 150.00 180.00
HEIGHT (eM)
235
t&SO.oo
- TREND
z
1100.00
0
-
X
LU
350.00
-oJ
I.L.
(,:)
LU
300.00
c
In
.
N
250.00
-
...
-
~ ;
a:
200.00
J:
~
(,:) I
z
150.00
LU
a:
~
en
:% 100.00
..
0
....
m
IA1
so. 00
0.00
10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 "0.00 1&5.00 50.00
WEIGHT
(KG)
236
1&50.00
- TREND
z IAOO.OO
c
-
en
z
L&J
350.00
~
.J<
LLJ
C)
300.00
LLJ
C
l/)

250.00
N
-
-
~
200.00
a:
%:
~
C)
150.00
z
LLJ
a::
~
(f)
100.00
3
C
m
rd 50.00
0.00 + - - _ _ i ~ - _ + - - _ + _ - - + _ - _ _ i ~ - _ + - - _ + _ - _ _ _ t
10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 SO.OO 35.00 ~ O . O O 1£5.00 50.00
WEIGHT (KG)
237
.-
-- lREND
1&50.00
r-
CL:
200.00
:::I:
..
.....
~
z
150.00
'" L&J
a:
.....
en
~
100.00
~
50.00
0.00
15.00 17.50 20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00
RADIAL+CARPAL LINKAGE (eM)
z 1100.00
o
-
X
~ 350.00
...
<.:)

o 300.00
L/)

~ 250.00
-
238
_....
~ o . o o
-TREND
300.00
250.00
350.00
so. 00
150.00
100.00
z 1&00.00
c
-
ffi
~
X
LLJ
Cl
LLJ
C
1.1)
.
C\I
.-
-
0.00+-----4---+---+-----4---+---+-----+---4
15.00 17.50 20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00' 32.50 35.00
RADIAL+CARPAL LINKAGE (eM)
239
Elbow Strength Statistics
(2.5 - 3.5 years)
Pleasurement Descriptive Statistics
N Plean s. d. !'lin 15th 50th t;5th !'lax
Elbow Extension, 67.S deg 7 72.3 "35.8 42.1 42.8 59.7 19.7 145.6
Elbow Extension, 90 deg 7 77,.0 35.1 47. 1 47.2 64.0 93.2
lln.7 .
Elbow Extension, 112.5 deg 7 108.4 28.3 . 71.1 72.0 103.3 133. 1 146.8
Elbow Extensicn, 135 deg 7 SO.7 1S.Q 60.2 61.4 85.5 104. 1 120.7
£lboII', ExtensicD, 157.5 deg 6 75.0 13.0 58.8
--
66.4
--
90.5
nbow Flexion, 67.5 deg 7 40.5 21.6 5.5 10~ ] 34.8 52.1 76.2
Elbow Flexion, 90 deg 7 ~ 4 . 6 24.8 23.9 24.5 47.1 66.6 98.3
Elbow Flexion, 112.5 deg 7 73.3 23.6 27.2 29.3 72.7 91.6 102.2
Elbow Flexion, 135 deg 7 69. 1 23.6 41.7 42.0 56.7 94.7 96.1
Elbow Flexion, 151.5 deg 6 61.4 25.4 26.3
••
54.5
••
95.7
Elbow Flexion, 180 deg 7 '10.0 27.7 14.5 14.6 30.8 59.6 92.6
Elbcw Strengtb Statistics
(3.5 - '1.5 years)
Pleasurement De sc rip t i ve Sta tist ics
N Plean S.d. P1in 15th 50th 85th Max
Elbow Extension, 67.5 deg 9 72.0 18.3 112.6 48.4 65.4 93.1 97.8
Elbow ExtensioD, 90 deg 9 67.3 15.0 39.4 45.7 61.6 74.2 94.2
Elbow Extensio D, 112.5 deg 5 91.1 21.2 64.7 68.0 84.7 11 0.2 132.3
Elbow Extension, 135 dEg 9 81.8 29.7 ~ 7 . 3 52.1 68.1 94.1 141.8
Elbow Extension, 151.5 dEg 9 12.5 29.1 37.1 38.4 65.8 94.7 128.5
Elbow Flexion, 61.5 deg 9 53.3 14_ II 28.5 31.7 511.0 6].5 76.9
Elbow Flexion, 90 deg 9 76.6 8.9 68.0 68.0 75.1 79.0 97.6
Elbow Flexion, 112.5 deg 9 96.7 19.1 66.8 12.1 91. b "5.0 131.7
Elbow Flexion. 135 deg 9 87.9 15.3 72.6 73.2 80.8 105.9 111.4
Elbow Flexion, 157.5 deg 9 83.3 15.0 62.8 63.8 81.3 99.3 102.3
Elbow Fle:xion, 180 deg 9 54.6 20.1 16.6 22.5 53.9 74.6 80.5
Elba.. Strength Statistics
(4.5 - 5.5 years)
Keas ure me nt DescriptivE Statistics
N PleaD s.d. ~ i n 15th 50th 85th "ax
Elbow Extension, 61.5 deg 15 90.7 31.3 116.5 61.3 79.3 114.9 165.9
Elbow Extension, 90 deg 15 le6.0 119.] 38.5 50.1 100.0 139.9 22].0
Elbow Extension, 112.5 d 15 133.6 43.2 57.7 75.3 131.4 149.4 241.2
Elbow Elttension, 135 d€g 15 125.9 46.1 67.2 15.7 122.6 157.0 241.1
Elbow ExtensioD, 157.5 d 15 83.5 32.• 8 31.7 37.3 83.6 106.0 162.5
Elbow Flerion, 67.5 deg 15 59.8 32.1 29.9 33.0 ij2.9 88.2 llCJ.6
Elbow Flexion, 90 deg 1!: 84.C:; 28.2 37.3 67.2 71. 1 113.5 137.8
Elbcw Flexion. 112.5 deg 15 108.3 25.3 67.6 72.5 1011.3 1311.2 153.0
Elbow Flexion, 135 deg 15 120.8 36.1.1 62.1 69.0 121.3 156.9 181 • 1
Elbow Flexien, 157.5 deg 1 ~ 94. S 33.1 46.2 59.ij 90.9 123.7 112.0
Elbow Flexion, 180 deg 15 19.8 29.6 46.3 49.0 75.9 90.8 150.5
240
Elbow Strength Statistics
(5.5 - 6.5 yea rs)
Measure.ent Descriptive Statistics
N Pfean s.d. Pfin 15th 50th 85th Max
Elbow Extension, 67.5 deg 23 82.4 21.9 37.8 63.3 79.7 ·102.7 130.5
Elbow Extension, 90 deg 23 108.2 30.5 59.6 80.5 100.4 135.1 195.6
Elbo.w Extension, 112.5 138.1 1t8.3 64.2 . 8B.1 134. a 175.4 21'.5
Elbow Extension, 135 deg 23 135.7 54.0 55.7 78.8 126.2 179.8 272.1
Elbow Extension, 151.5 deg23 99.5 44.0 35. a 53.0 El2. 8 143.2 194.6
Elbow Flesion" 67.5 deg 23 e2.3 25.2 29.3 53.3 86.8 100.9 1113.5
Elbow Flexion, 90 deg 23 '13.1 29.6 57.3 83.2 111.5 141.8 165.9
Ubow Plexion, 112.5 deg 131.0 33.C 91.1 101.1 131.8 165.6 209.1
Elbow Flexion, 135 deg 2.3 134.3 40.8 107.0 128.0 1.12.3 220.6
Elbow Flexion, 157.5 deg 23 116.0 34.0 61.7 76.1 105.3 142.6 198.0
Elbow Flezion, 180 deg 23 . S4. C 20.1 45.7' 64.4 81.3 98.0 138.5
Elbow Strength sta tistics
(6.5 - 7.5 years)
!!easurellent Cescriptive Statistics
N Mean s. d. Pfin 15th 50th 85th ft ax
Elbow Extension, 67.5 deg 13 31.8 33.3 49.3 82.9 130.6 154.0
Elbow Extension, 90 deg 13 121.2 34.2 51. J 85.6 114.9 154.4 172.8
Elbow Extension, 112.5 deg13 176.3 57.2 97.6 109.5 163.5 2Q4.0 267.6
Elbow Extension, 135 deg 13 160.3 60.0 28.8 100,.8 151.9 219.1 232.5
Elbow Eztensioll, 157.5 deglJ 130.0 63.9 34.1 51.5 110.5 199.2 246.0
nbow Flexion, 67.5 deg 13 108.7 30.0 67.1 109.3 131.2 169.7
Elbow Flexion, 90 deg 13 135.2 34.9 19.0 103.9 128.1 157.8 198.6
Elbow Flexion. 112.5 deg 13 158.4 51. B 70.0 95.2 146.6 214.6 266.1
Elbow Flexion, 135 deg 13 158.3 62.3 56.4 70.6 157.9 180.9 303.4
Elbow Flexion, 157.5. deg 134.8 5'.3 48.4 81.8 129. 1 161.0 256.6
Elbow Flexion, 160 deq 13 96.9 38.9 41.5 53.0 86.9 140.5 172.6
Elbow Strength Statistics
(7.5 - 8.5 yea [s)
r!easu['ement Descriptive Statistics
N Sean s.d. P1in 15th 50th 85th !!ax
Elba., Extension, 67.5 deg 15 123.7 29.6 76.9 93.0 115.6 150.3 172.4
Elbow EJ:tension, 90 deg 15 149.2 39.8 89.9 95.3 147.6 174.1 248.9
Elboll Extension, 112.5 d 2Ce.S 58.7 1,01.5 141.7 184.b 254.7 330.6
Elbow Extension, 135 deg 15 193.7 68 •. 2 110.2 123.8 175.2 287.1 309.0
Elboll Eztension, 151.5 d 15 14S.4 E5.3 32.0 80.4 133.5 210.7 277.0
Elbow f'lell:ion, 61.5 deq 15 145.5 3C; .. 5 84.8 100.8 135. 1 188.1 23 0.9
nbow FleXion, 90 deq 15 172.5 46.4 115.3 127.7 149.7 219.8 284.7
Elbow Flexion, 112.5 deg 15 203.1 56.3 149.7 154.6 188.3 363.2
Elbow Flexion, 135 deg 1!S 181.1 57.1 104.2 '3145
157. , 249.6 30'.3
Elbow Flexion, 157.5 deg 15 164.1 58.4 101.3 108.3 132.5 225.3 287.9
Elbow Flexion,
'80
deg 15 119.3 45.9 44.8 63.8 118.4 164.5 210.6
241
Elbow Strength Sta. tistics
(8.5 - 9.5 years)
Measurement
DescriptivE Statistics
N Mean s.d. Min 15th 50th 85th Max
Elbow ExtensioD, 67.5 deg 14 140.5 /43.1 72.1 92.2 129.6 181.2 223.2
Elbow ExtensioD. 90 deg 14 169.1 50.6
q9.5 115. 1 158.1 215.3 271.9
Elbow Extension. 112.5 deg14 2:: 1. 1 55.6 144.6 163.2 209.2 295.3 318.2
Elbow Extension, 135 deg 111 263.2 66 .1 13].8 119.7 253.7 332.5 361.7
Elbow Extension, 157.5 deg14 206.8 85.5 77.2 90.7 201.1 291.7 335.9
Elbow Flexion. 67.5 deg 14 161.5 36.9 94.5 123.7 157.5 195.7 229.9
Elbow Flexion, 90 deq 14 189.8 39.2 118.5 149.6 184.8 215.8 275. 1
Elbow Flexion, 112.5 deg 14 220.9 57.5 116.7 166.3 216.5 234.3 338.5
Elbow FleXion, 135 deg 11f 218.6 52.7 16]. :2 164.9 199. 1 290.1 318.4
Elbow Flexion, 157.5 deg 14 187.9 50.1 123.2 130.7 182. 1 216.3 286.9
Elbow Flexicn, 180 deg llf 153.5 61.1 57.2 94.0 126.8 220.6 254.2
Elbolll Strength Statistics
(9.5 - 10.5 years)
Plea surelien t Descriptive Stati!:tics
N Mean s. d. !! in 15th 50th 85th Max
.Elbow Ex tension, 67.5 deg 8 158.3 62.3 91.4 95.0 131.0 208.6 278.3
Elbow EztensiOIl, 90 deg a 191.1 96.4 75.2 80.8 143. 7 276.6 351.5
Elbow Extension, '12.5 deg 8 245.1 S2.6 130.0 133.2 231.8 335. ~ 374.7
Elbow F.xtension, 135 deg 8 276.9136.9 118.8 128. 1 188.9" 418.6 488.1
Elbow Extension, 15.7.5deg 8 278.51115.8 79.5 92.7 205.11 418.8 462.9
Elbow Flexion, 67.5 deg 8 1 1 5 . ~ 112.7 9C.4 101.6 180.5 208.3 226.5
Elbow Flexion. 90 dt:!g 8 237.5 36.7 195.& 197.14 219.7 2&5.5 305.1
Elbow Flexion, 112.5 deg 8 312.8 74.0 209.3 213.8 291.7 386.0 415.4
Elbow Flexion, 135 deg 8 295.1 11.7 190.0 191.3 319.2 342.u 383.5
Elbow Flex ion, 157.5 deg 8 268.6 78.0 143.0 150.6 273.7 316.2 387.4
Elbow Flexion, 180 deg e 202.1 5].8 113.2 119.5 206.0 235.1 286. 1
242
,
. "-
3.5 Discussion
THREE POINT PINCH: In general, the strength value
obtained for three point pinch increases for older
children. This is seen on the scatter plots as a
gentle upwards slope towards the right. Notice that
the standard deviation is also larger for older children.
This trend of increased variance .for larger values
was seen in the previous strength study and has been seen
in most reports in the literature. As children grow,
larger, Height, weight and most physical dimensions
also exhibit a similar increase in the standard
deviation.
The location of the force vector is approximately
constant but decreases in magnitude as the span between
gripping surfaces is increased. The location of this
force vector passes through the tip of the index finger,
for small spans. This suggests that the index finger is
doing a larger portion of the work, at least for smaller
spans.
For three point pinch, the angle formed by the
force vector with the center line of the transducer
becomes smaller for older children. This change
probably relates to the increased precision with which
an older child can control his movements.
The number of children performing a three point
pinch is progressively less for 7 cm., 8 em. and 9 em.
243
This reduction in numbers is caused by the inability
of smaller children to reach the larger spans. The
same reduction in numbers is also seen for five point
pinch and squeeze, for the same reason.
The first graph of section 3.3.3 (page 200) summa-
rizes the results for three point pinch. The data at
each span is pooled into three age groups and a mean
value computed for each interval. The means have been
connected with straight lines to show how strength
changes for different sized objects. The oldest age
group exhibits somewhat greater strength for the
smallest dimension of 2 em. than for 3 - ~ cm. This
may be due to the better mechanical advantage afforded
by a larger hand size.
FIVE POINT PINCH: The results for five point pinch
are very similar to those for three point pinch. The
actual strength value is greater for five point pinch
than for the corresponding three point pinch, but the
increase is modest.
The same trends are present for the location of
the force vector as were seen with three point pinch.
The angle formed by the force vector with the center line
of the transducer may be either positive or negative,
but is smaller in average magnitude than for three
point pinch.
The second graph of section 3.3.3 (page 201)
244
summarizes the results for five point pinch. The lines
are again constructed to connect the mean value of data,
subdivided into three age groups; For both of the older
age groups, the minimum strength value does not appear at
the smallest span of 2 ern. The largest v ~ l u e for each
age group does appear at the largest span tested, and
this was usually the largest size object that a child
could successfully pinch.
SQUEEZE: The strength value for squeeze also shows an
upward trend with age, and in general, is larger than
the two types of pinch. The distribution of points on
the scatter plots suggest a more linear change with age
than was found for three and five point pinch. The signif-
icance of the location of the force vector is less clear,
but it does indicate the approximate position of the hand
on the transducer.
The third graph of section 3.3.3 (page 202)
summarizes the data for squeeze by subdivision into
three age groups. Several trends are evident on these
curves. The maximum strength value for each group
occurs at a grip separation of three to five centi-
meters. The maximum strength is found with larger
grip dimensions for older children. The maximum
strength occurs on a rather flat region of the curves,
but it is apparent that performance falls at both extremes.
245
There is a large decrease in strength for small objects
such as the two centimeter span. The curves are approx-
imately evenly spaced and similarly shaped.
CORRELATION: Tables of correlation for pinch and squeeze
are presented in Section 3.3.4 (pages 211,212,213). The
Personian correlation coefficients are reported for selected
variables. The values obtained, show a strong correlation
with height for three point pinch, five point pinch, and
squeeze. The magnitude of the correlation coefficients
decrease for the two largest spans, but the number of
subjects is reduced also. Since this reduction in number
always eleminates smaller children who cannot reach the
larger spans, it alters the distribution by age and all
age related variables. The main utility of the correl-
ation tables is to suggest a relative ordering of physical
dimensions in their relationship to strength. Tne relative
ordering seems remarkably constant across the pinch tables.
ELBOW FLEXION AND EXTENSION: The data for elbow flexion
and extension were obtained on a subpopulation of approx-
imately one hundred children; therefore the number of tests
in each age interval is much smaller than for the hand tests.
Accordingly, the number of points seen on the scatter plots
is less.
As with other strength tests, the measured values are
larger for the older children. There is an increase in the
strength standard deviation as the mean value increases.
246
One of the more surprising findings in this study,
is that smaller children appear to be stronger for
elbow extension than for elbow flexion. By age ten
years, the strength for flexion is greater than extension.
The differences between age groups may be explained
on the basis of differing lever arms at different ages,
so that the mechanical advantage is different.
The data for elbow flexion and extension is
summarized in Section 3.4.3 (pages 232-239). As before,
the sUbjects are subdivided into three age groups, and
the average strength value in each age group is plotted
against the elbow angle. The maximum value of strength
occurs near 112.5
0
for flexion and for younger children
performing extension.' The oldest age group has maximum
strength near 135
0

Scatter plots are presented for elbow flexion and
extension against several related variables. In each
case, a trend line, . fitted by least square methods', is
shown with the data. Notice that the trend lines are
more horizantai for flexion than for extension.
The statistics grouped by age are also presented.
247
3.6 Sample of Strength Calculations
Suppose it is desired to estimate the force which could be
produced by an "average" (50th percentile) 6 year old male who is
pulling upward on a knob situated in the center of a horizonal,
circular surface having a 30 cm. radius. The surface is situated
at waist level for the child and the knob is large enough to allow
easy grasp in the right hane.
One can observe that the linkages used correspond to the sum
of the radial and carpal lengths and from the table for combined
sexes ---
L Linkage Length
L
R
+ L
C
.
15.2 cm. + 5.1 em.
20.3 cm.
consider first the force which would be produced if the waist is
held fixed so that the torque of elbow flexion is exerted at a
lever arm of 20.3 cm.
_ Torque
F = Force - L' k
~ n age
For a 50th percentile child the torque is found to be 111.5 Kgf-cm
thus
F
( l l l . ~ Kgf-cm) (2.2046 LB/Kgf)
20.6 cm
12.1 LBF
Now consider the torque capability in the desired direction
at the wrist. That is, the torque produced by wrist adduction is
22.9 Kgf-cm for 6 year old child. (See reference 162.)
F = T (22.9 Kgf-cm) (2.2046 LB/Kgf)
D 5.1 cm
50.5 cm-LBS = 9.89 LBS Force
(5.l"cm)
Thus, the wrist adduction capacity imposes a limit on the de-
sired force and one would conclude that the desired force on
the knob would be 9.89 pounds force.
4.1. STATIC ANALYSIS OF STRENGTH CHAIR
NOTE: Refer to limb and limb fixture shown in Figure 4.1.1.
The sum of the moments about any point on a body in static
equilibrium must equal zero. A free body diagram of the can
be drawn showing all the forces acting on the limb (excluding
gravitational effects): -
Note:
FAX
- force on A in the X direction, etc.
Azt, M
AZ
y
t-
A
,
1
1

I
A
1
J
.......
X
-FAX
8
t-FAY

Is
Summing the moments about joint A:
EM
AZ
= -(-FAX£l) - (-FBY£B) - M
AZ
0
M
AZ
= FAX£l+ F
By
2
B
Equation #1
Similarly, a free body diagram of the limb fixture can be drawn:
249
Summing the moments about point AI:
EMA,Z FAX£l + FBY(£B'+ d2) + FAy
d
2 - MA'Z
MA,Z = FAX£l + FBY£B + (FAY + FBy )d2
Solving Equations #1 and #2 simultaneously
MAZ = MA,Z - FAy
d
2 - FByd 2
o
Equation #2
Equation #3
Since MA,Z is the bending moment to which gage set A will
and M
AZ
is the "strength" about joint A, the strain gage
set at A provides an adequate measure of the torque generated about
joint A providing the error terms F
Ay
d
2
and F
By
d
2
are small or can
be approximated by either of the following methods:
1) By design d
2
«£B and the approxiamation may be made
FBY£B»FByd2 0 and Equation #3 becomes
Equation #4
2) b
T
measured by the gage set at B' where
M
BZ
= MB,z exactly and F
By
= MB,Z
f
B
Substituting this relation into Equation #4 gives
Equation #5
Where:
M
A
, 7,
= output of gage set A
MB,Z
= output of gage set B
£
= known linkage measurement
B
d
2
= known constant
Method (2) is conveniently used since the secondary channels
were sampled specifically to provide the required additional data,
i.e., the simultaneous torque about the more distal joints. For
the hip and shoulder joints, a error term is generated.
250
Sampling the more distal joints allows for precise calculation
of the error terms.
Finally, it should be noted that these error terms arise
only when the axis of rotation does not pass through the gage
set used for measurement. It is implied that when a gage set'
does not align with the axis in one plane, it does in a perpen-
dicular plane and no error term exists for strength measurement
in that perpendicular plane. This general example was chosen
to exemplify error terms which generally arise only in sagittal
plane strength measurements (by chair design) .
251
4.2 Principle of Operation of Grip Strenoth Transducer
In the plane of its handle, the grip strength transducer may be
represented schem?tically as a bar of constant eros section shaped
like the letter "G". The child forces the two handles together
where indicated, by exerting shear and normal forces F and F
. . s n,
respectively. Resistance strain g a g e ~ are located at positions
A
l
, A
2
, B
l
, B
2
, and e and respond to bending moments on the bar at
these locations.
Severing the bar at each gage set and writing static equations
of equilibrium of moments for the distal handle: (Note:
MAl
~ . bend
moment at gage set AI)
At
AI:
(1)
MAl
=
-F (D)-F (L -L)
n s 3
At A
2
: (2 ) M
A2
+F (L -D)-F (L -L )
n 5 s 3 1
At B
l
: ( 3) M
BI
-F (L +D)-F (L -L )
n 4 s 2 1
At B
2
: (4 ) M
B2
-Fn (L
4
+D) +Fs (L
l
)
At e : (5)
Me
=
-F
n
(L
4
+D)
5
L
3
~ L l i
L2
--
--- 1
B2
e
B1
L4
-F
I
s
All
1
~
I
I DISTAL/ I
F ,
n
HANDLE
t
L
\PROXH1AL
F
s
HANDLE A2
L-
-F
n
252
i
.
Subtracting equation (Z) from equation (It:
Subtracting equation (4) fr.om equation ().):
(7) MBZ-M
BI
= FsL
Z
In,the appropriate wheatstone bridge configuration, the difference
in strain gage outputs at two different bar locations may be bb-
tained providing the cross sectional material and geometry at each
position is
Thus,
(8) LlM
A
= MAZ-M
AI
(=FnL
S
)
(9) AM
B
= MBZ-M
BI
(=FsL
Z
)
are measured independent quantities requiring Z channels of data.
Next, substituting equation (8) into (S) .and rewriting:
(10)
Therefore, utilizing a third gage set input Me' one can determine
F
n
, F
s
' and L
F
(=L
4
+D) by equations (8), (9), and (10):
-,
, ,
- :;
-- ...... _-
F = LIM
s. B
L
2
253
Additionally, a resultant force on the handle may be determined as
well as its direction ( ~ J perpendicular to the handle:
F
==
-:. V(F J 2 +
(F ) 2
n s
¢
-1 F
tan s
F
n
Finally, it should be noted that determination of L
F
requires a F
n
component to generate Me and M
A
. In power grip configuration, F
n
is the major force component and no difficulty is encountered.
Generally F » F ("<20°).
n s
254
r
ALDEkMAN, h.B., AND bANFIELD, T.J.: kELIAI:HUH ESTI:VJATI'J,\J
IN THE :vIEASUhEi"1ENT Snm\JGTrl. HES. blUAKT.,
:2 ALEXAI\JDEk, J., AI\JD 1010LNAk, G. E. : VlUSCULAK STKENGTrl IN
3N STANDAkDS. AKCrl.
t-'HYS. MED. kEHABIL., 54:424, 1973.
3 ANDEKS,)N, T. w.: wEI GHTED STkE,\JGTrl TESTS Fl.JK TrlE I-'kEDI ClIOI'\)
:) F ATI"{ EL ETI C ABI Ll H }.\J HIGH SCHJ0L GI h.L S. kES. I>iLJAKT.,
7: 136, 19 36.
4 AKI"1STK()I\JG, T.J •• AND CHAFFIN, D.B.: A E:HO,MECrlANICAL MODEL
lF THE HAND IN GKIt-'. AND SAFETY
ENGI NEEKI U,\JlI.iEkSI TY JF 'MI CH IGA,\J. 9 L<J t'.
5 AUXTEk. D.M.: STkE:NGTH A,\JD FLEXlBILITY OF DIFFEkEl\lTlALU
DIAGNOSED EDUCABLE MENTALLY kETAkDED 80YS. KES.
37: 455, 1966.
6 BEASLEY. v..c.: II\JFLUENCE OF ,VlETH1D IN ESTI."1ATES OF ,N')kMAL
KNEE EX TDJS.Jk FlkCE A''1JNG \JI)KMAL A\lD t-'OST-h)LIO
CHILDkEN. THEk. kEI.i .. 36:21. 1956.
7 BECHTOL, c.·o.: GkI l"' TEST S1
ADJ USTABLE riAND St-ACI NG.
36-A:821O, 1954
USE OF wlTri
J. BO,\JE & JOINT SUkG.,
8 BEDFIJKD, T., A'\lD WAkNEK, C.G.: STKENGTri TESTS: OBSEkvA-
TI:JNS ON THE EFFECTS I)F hOSTUKES ON STkENGTri OF I-'ULL..
TriE LANCET, 2: 132rl, 1937.
'} 'BEkGEk, K.A.: EXTENSIJI\I FI)KCE AT THKE!:: DIrFEKEI\lT
ANGLES. kES. l:.IUAkT •• 37: 5610, 1966.
1 BOI]K wAL TEk. K. w.: GKI STKENGTri 1\10 hiM S FO k ''1AL ES. KES.
blUAkT., 21:249.19510.
11 BOiNEkS, L.E.: INVESTlGATIJNJF Tr-IE 'JF rlAND
Sl t E AND LJ wEK Ak,"1 GI kTH S T) HAND GK1 t' STkE\lGTH
,"1EASUkED ElY SELECTED HAND DY<\JI)M!JI'1ETEt<S. KES. l>IUAkT ••
32: 311:18, 19 6 1 •
12 E:lKI)I,...N. BUCHANAN, C.J., Ai\lD MANDEL, J.: A STUDt' OF
STKENGTH CAI-'AblLl II ES DF CHILDKEI\J AGES HJO THkl)UGI"! SIX.
(23 I-'AGES) FI'NAL kEt-'OKT, ,Nl:::lSIk 73-156, t'1(I)JECT 44610142,
1973.
255
13 BUk-{E. II..E.: A TrlE kELATI),\JSrllt-' 'JF A("E TJ
AND E\JDUhANCE DJCT)KAL
U,\JIVEr,SITt )F IJV-,A. 1';152.
ILi tJUho{r:; .. E.: TtiE hELATI)'J t)F .::,rKENGTti AND
.':>1t\E\J(,'[rl E,\JOUhA'\JCE T) AGE. J. AI-'t'L. I-'rll'':'IJL •• vlL. 5. 1953·
15 LJUXTn.\I. D.: E"TEN':'!").',) IF Tr-iE TE':'1. hE:::'. (,JUAKT ••
2 I iLl. I 9 5 7 •
If, CALf*ELL.L.:::'.: H)[)Y '::'fA8ILltATl··HI/ IN TtiE STKENGTrl \JF AK,"1
J.HU"1AN Li: 125. 1';162.
17 L.S.: THE EFFECT JF FlJT-KEST rJ::>ITI,JN 0,\1 THE
STkEi\)(;TH OF HOkltJi\JTAL t-'ULL !:Jl' TrlE HAI\JD. U':'HM"L. Li23.
191'>1').
Itl L.':'.: TrlE EFFECT 'JF Tr-iE t-"JSlTILJ,\I 'IF A
TrlE 1F ::>1" LI'JEAk,HANO MOVEMENT':'.
USA'1hL. Lill. 1959.
19 CALDlAELL. L.':'.: HlDY I-'·)':'ITI,),'J A\l1J TrlE Sfr;EI\JGTrl
A'\lD ENDUkANCE ilF' ''1A\JUAL r'ULL. J. HU,'1AN FACT,)h::. Li: 125. 1962.
2 iLl CALOI.o.ELL. DECI\E''1E\JT A'\JO KECJVE,\l' wi Tn KEI-'ElI TI VE
"1MI."1U,'1 '1USCULAk J. HLJ"1A.\J FACTQnS. 12:5Li7. 1';170.
21 CALOV-,ELL. L.S.: kELAfIVE LJADING AND ENDUKANCE.
J. EN(;INEEKINli t-':::'YCrlJL')Gt. Li:155. 196J.
22 CA"1h\lE'f. rl.K •• Ai\l1J k.I.o..: AN I,\JTEI\t-'KETJ-ITI')\1 JF THE
SThDJETH "'IIH vAktll\)(; /-I'\JGLE':' lJF
I-'ULL. hES. UiUAkT •• 3(,: Li113. 1965.
2J CA;'1r'·\JEY. H.K •• AND wErik. 1\.1.'1.: ,:,IGNIFICA,\JCE iJF SThE·\IGTrl
liAkIATI'l'\) THk')UGei A I\Ai\JGE ·JF JJIi\lT I\I)JTIoJ,\I. J. /-I,'1EI\. t-'HYS.
TrlEk. ASSOC., "5:773. 1965.
2Li !i.h •• AI\JD -<k')LL. w.: TrlE USE IF JF
VAkIANCE IN ESTl'1ATl\lG ,.. ELIA8ILIHH' ISDi\l)ETklC ELb,JiN
FLEX.l J.\J ST/xE·\)(;Trl. 61UAKT.. Li 1: 129. 1971<).
25 CAhi"1AN., A.: I-'A!i'J AND ,sTht:\JGTrl :JF 1,507
SCrl')!)L CHI LOkEN I ,\JSAGI NAw. IVJI Cri I GAI\J. A''1EK. J.
I-'Sl'Crl')L.•• 116: 392.
2(, CAkt-'EI\JTrk. A.: A STU[)t )F Ai\JGLES 1\1 THE '!'1EPSUI\EI'1E,xlT tJF
LEG LIFT. r..ES. l:JUAKT •• 9:711. 1';136.
256
,

27
28
29
31
32
33
35
36
37
38
CAhPENTEk. A.: STkENGTH TESTI.'JG I:'J TriE FI KST TriKEE
GkADES. kES. biUAfn •• 13: 328. 19ij2.
CAkPENTEk. A.: THE aF MOTuK
CAPACITY AND GENEKAL ''10TI)k ABILlT'I' li\l TriE F1KST
THkEE GkADES. kES. blUAkT •• 13: ijijij. 19 ij2.
CAkTEI-<. G.H. : kECONSTkUCTION OF KQGEkS STkENGTH
AND t"'HYSICAL f1T\JESS li\lD1CES FOk UI-'I-'Ek E::LE,"1ENTAK'l'.
JUNDk HIGH AND SENI')K HIGH SCrluOL E:l:JYS. U,'JI-'UI:lLlSHED
DI)CT')KAL DISSEkATIDN. UNIVEt\SITY OF JKEG'J\I. 1958.
CHAFFIN. D.B.: EkG')NO,"1IC5 GUIDE FJK THE ASSES5''1ENT OF HU.'1AN
STATIC STkENGTH. AMEk. HYGIENE ASSOC.
J I) U1'<:\1 AL • I-' • 51,1 5. 19 7 5.
CHAFFIN. 0.8•• A'ND I:lA>(EK. W.H.: A E:I10MECrlANICAL 1'10DEL FOk
ANALYSIS DF S'O-1i'1ETkIC SAGITTAL PLANE LIFTING.
AilE TRANSACTIONS. 2: 16. 1971ll.
CHAFFIN. 0.8.: A CO"1r-UTEkltED BIO'-1ECrlANICAL ,y],jDEL-
DEVELOI-'MENT OF AND USE IN STUDYING GkOSS BODY
ACTI'JNS. J. BlljMECrlS.. 2: ij29. 1969.
CHA'J. E.Y •• Ot"'GkANDE. J.D•• AND AX. !...,EAk. F.E.: THhEE-
DIMENSIONAL FOkCE ANALYSIS JF FINGEK JOINTS IN
SELECTED ISO''1ETkIC HAND FU.\lCTI,)NS. J. I:HOMECri ••
9:387.1976.
CriktAN. A.E•• GIE:lSrJN. G.I""., AND TrlOMt"'SON. G.8.: A kE-
STUDY OF THE OF FOUt< INSTkUMENT5 FOK
kEC!1 kDI NG MUSCL E STKENGTH. UNt-'UBLI Sri ED :-1ASTEk' S TH ES1 S.
SI-'KINGFIELD COLLEGE. 1953.
CHlIkCHILL. E.. AND KU!:3'l'. A.: N)I'-10GKAPH OF THE HAI\lD AND
ITS kELATED DH1ENSI'Oi\lS. wkl GHT AI K DEVELtJh"1ENT CENTEk.
TECH. kEt-'. Nf). 57-198.1957.
CLAkKE. H••. Ar\l[) T.: STl<ENGTH CUI\VES FrJI'I
FOUkTEE,\J JI)lI\lT "-1')VEr'1ENTS. J. Assr)c. PHYS. MENT. kEHAE:l ••
ij: 12. 195"-'.
CLAkr<E. H.H •• bAILEY. T.L •• Ai\lD CLAYTON. !\lEw
IJBJECTI VE STkENGTH TESTS OF l"1U5CLE GkOUPS lJ,( CAE:lLE-
TE;NSIi)N :'1ETHOD5. kES. blUAkT. 23: 136. 1952.
CLAkKE. H.H •• EL"<INS. E.C•• MAkTIN. G.,.., •• AND WAKli,'1. >(.G.:
kELATIr)NSHI t-' I::JETWEE\I I:lrJDY t"'l)SI TO'\I AND THE AI-'I-'LI CAT! ON
JF MUSCLE 1-'o)\o.Ek TO ','10VEMENTS JF THE JOli\lTS. AhCH. r-HY,S.
,"lED.. 31:81. 19511.
257
39 CLAHKE. H.H.: A ,'1AI\JUAL: CA8LE-TE,\J5IJI\J STKE\JGTH TE'::'TS.
5TUAhT E. MUhl-'l-{Y CO •• wEST St-'kINGFlELD. N.H •• 1953.
illl) CLAKKE. H.H.: A KELATI'),\JSHIJ-' I)F STI\EI\lGTH A,\lD Ai\lTrlKJ-
J-'0'1ETkiC MEASUKES T0 VAkiOUS AKM STKENGTH CKITEKIA.
kES. l,;UAkT.. 25: 13il. 195il.
ill CLAkKE. H.H.: C')I:'1J-'AkIS')N IlF INSTKU"1E'\JT5 FOk kECOKDlNG
,'1USCLE STkENGTH. KES. (,JUAkT •• 25: 398. 1954.
42 CLAkKE. H.rl.: kECENT IN MEASUKEMENT AND
U\JDEkSTANDING QF VOLITIONAL MUSCULAk STkENGTH. KES.
blUAKT •• 27:263. 1':156.
il3 CLAkKE. rl.H.: kELATIil'\JSrllJ-'S.JF STkEI\lGTH AND ANTHkO-
hlMETKIC :"1EASUkES TL) t'rlYSICAL t-'EkFJk'1ANCES INVOLVING
THE TkUN>< AND LEGS. kES. blUAKT •• 2t1:223. 1957.
44' CLAkK E. H .H.: COkKELATI)N BETwEEN TrlE STkENGTH/i"lASS
kATI1 AND TH E St-'EED OF AI\J Ak'1 I"!') VE,'1ENT. kES. biUAKT ••
31 : 57(,1. 19 6 (.1.
ilS CLAkI<E. H.H •• AND CAKTEk. G.H.: ')KEGO\J SL'1t-'LIFlCATIONS
'JF THE STKENGTH AND j-'Hl'SICAL FIT,'\lESS INDICES. /\E5. biUAKT ••
30: 3. 1959.
46 CLAkKE. H.H •• AND JAl'\MA\l. B.a.: SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVP1ENT
()F 8Jl'S 9. 12. AND 15 YEAKS IJF AGE AS kELATED TO VAKIOUS
STkE,\JGTH AND Gk'J wTrl ,'1EASUKES. kES. l:.iUAkT •• 32: 155. 1961.
il7 CLAkKE. H.H •• AND t-'ETEkSI),\j. I'(.H.: CONTKAST OF
MATUkATIONAL. STkUCTUkAL AND STKENGTH CrlAkACfEKISTICS
OF ATrlELETES AND I\Jl,\lATHELETES 10 TO 15 YEAk,:, OF AGE.
kES. biUAkT •• 32: 163. 1961.
48 CLAkKE. H.H •• A'\JD CLAkKE. D.H.: S()CIAL A\\JD
MEI\lTAL ,JF 8'Jl'S AS kELATED TO Tt:iEIH i'1ATUr;ITY.
STkUCTUkAL AND STKEI\JGTH CHAkACTEkI STl GS. kES. b1UAl\T ••
32: 326. 1961. '
Li9 CLAkKE. H.rl .. It'VING. k.i\l .. AND rlEATrl. 8.rl.: kELATlO:\l
OF 1'1ATUKI TY. STkUCTUkAL AI\J D ,5TKE,\I(;1H T'J TH E
Sr)r"lATOTYPES 'IF 8Dl'S 9 THk'JUG'-l 15 l'EAkS OF AGE. blUAKT ••
32: Li 49. 19 61 •
50 H.H •• AND ':'HELLEY. 1'1.: MATUKIT'r'. SThUCTUKE.
STkENGTH. ABILITY AND INTELLIGENCE TEST I-'K0FILES
DF' ')UT.STANDING ELE'1.E,\jTAkl' AND JUNIOk HIGH '::'Crl)')L
AT""ELETES.....HYSICAL EDUCATOK. 1961.
258
, "
51 CLAkI<E, H.H., AND HAK,dSO'J, J.C.: DIFFEKENCES I,'J
I-'HYSICAL A:'IlD f"1JT,)k TKAlT::' BETwEEN BOYS ,)F ADVA,'JCED,
NOk:vJAL AND kETAKDED ,:vJATUKI TY. kES. bJUAKT., 33: 13,1962.
52 CLAkKE, H.ri., A,'JD wICI<ENS, J·.S.: ,:vJATUKIT'r', STkUCTUkAL
STkENGTH AND MiHOk ABILITY (ik)wTH CUkVES (JF BOYS 9-15
YEAkS JF AC;E. KES. blUAkT., 33: 26, 1962.
53 CLAkKE, H.H., Ai\JD SCH)t'F, T.G.: CJ.\lSTkUCTIJN ,JF A
1'.1 USCUL Ak STkE,'JGTH TEST F:H< BOY S II'J GKADES 4, 5.. AND 6.
RES. blUAkT., 33: 515.. 1962.
54 CLAkKE, H.H., AND DEGUTIS.. E.W.: kELATIONSHII-'S BETwEEN
STANDING BkOAD JU:vJ1-' AND VAklJUS ,"1AIUKATIi:)NAL, ANTHkOI-'I)-
METklC AND Snm\JGTH TESTS OF 12 YEAi-< OLD BJ'(S. HES. loJUAI\T.,
35: 258, 19 64.
55 CLARKE.. H.H.: STKENGTH AND ENDURANCE IN MAN.
ENGLEwOOD CLI FFS, N.J· ... t'kENTI CE-HALL, 1966.
56 CLOSE, J.k., AND KI DD, C.C.: THE FU,'JCTIONS DF THE MUSCLES ,)F THE
T,HUMB, THE INDEX, A·'JD LO.'JG FINGEKS. J. HONE JOINT SUKG.,
5 1- A: 1 6 kl1 , 19 69 •
57 COL GATE, J. A.: A/'(i'1 STkE;'JGTH kELATI VE TO AKi"1 St'EED.
RES. UUAkT., 37: 14, 1966.
58 Ci)i)NEY, w,.t'., A'JD CnAJ, E.Y.: BIO,VJECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF
STATIC FORCES IN THE THU'1B DUkING HA'JD FU\jCTION. J. BONE
J')lNT SUkG... 59:27, 1977.
59 COUSINS, F.G.: EFFECT iJFTkAI'\JED AND UNTkAI:\JED TESTEI\S
UI-'Q\J THE AD:vJINISTkATIO\j OF GkII-' STkENGTH TEST::'.
KES. blUAkT., 26:273, 1955.
6kl DANIELS, L., AND w,JKTHINGHA,"1, C.: MUSCLE TECHNIblUES
OF MANUAL EXA,VJINATllm. SAU.\IDEkS, 1972.
61 DAkCUS.. H.D.: A STkAIN DYNAMOMETEk FOh MEASURING
THE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND FQK kE-
EDUCAT! NG ''''1USCLE5. ANN. ,'-1ED.,· 1: 163, 1953.
62 DAkCUS, H.[J.: THE MAAIIVJUM DEVELOl-'ED IN r'KONATlJI\)
AND OF THE kIGHT HAND. J. LONDON,
VOL. 8 5, 19 5 1 •
63 DE:'1t'STEk.. w.T., SHEkk, L.A., AND I-'kIE.sT, J.G•.: CUI'JVEKSIO:\J
SCALES FOk ESTlMATI\lG I-W"1EkAL AND LENGTH,s
JF FUNCTI
1
1NAL SEGMENTS IN L1I'1B,s OF A'.'1EKICAN
CAUCASOID MALES. HUMA,'J BI')LOCi'r', 36:246,1964.
259
64 DEMt-'STEk, w.T., AND GAUGrl,t<A,\j, G.: 'JF 800Y
SEG''1Ei'JTS 8ASED ),'J SItE AND wEIGKT. M1Eh. J. A,'JAT.,
121:J: 33, 1967.
65 01 CO< SD,\j, k. A., ET AL: A DEVI CE FJ 1\ MEASUkI NG
TrlE Fi)kCE ,)F TKE DIGITS OF THE '"lAND. I:Hu\'1ED. E,'JGIN.,
1972.
66 Inss, w.s., AND /"'.1,1.: A C')I'1I"'AkISON
') F Ci)NCENTkI C, 'ECCENTKI C, AND I '::;'),'1ETkI C STkENGTrl QFELHJ w
FL[I\JkS. J. AI-'I-'L. hiYSI,JL .. 21:1:351, 1965.
67 DOwNEK, A.H.:STkENGTrl)F TrlE ELH)w FLEAQk MUSCLES.
t-'HYS. TKEk. kEV., 33:68, 1953.
68 DkUkY, E!.J.: MUSCLES U-I ACTI'JN. NATIONAL I-'kESS, 1962.
69 EL'<INS, E.C., LEDEN, U.M., AND wA'<IM, ><.G.:. Ol:lJECTIVE
kECQkDING OF TrlE ::>TkENGTH ')F ,"1U.':lCLES. AkCK. I"'ril'S.
,"lED., 32:639, 1951.
7k:l ESrENSCHADE, A.S.: MJTI)k l-'EkFOk,'1ANCE IN AD'JLESCENCE,
INCLUDING TKE STUDI' OF kELATIONSHII-'S wITH l"1EASUKES OF
t-'riYSICAL Gk,)wTK AND l'1ATUkIT'(. M'JNOGKAt-'rl SOC.
kES. CHILD DEVELOI-'., VOL.5, :\JO. I, 1951:1.
71 EVEkETT, I"'.w., AND SILLS, F.: THE kELATIONSrill-' OF GhIt-'
STl<E'\lGTH TO STATUkE, Si)MATOT'(j-'E CLlM/-"JNENTS AND A·\jTrlkO-
/-,OI"1ETKIC OF TKE KA,\JD. KES. blUAkT., VuL. 23,
1952.
72 FlSHEk, M.B., AND l:lIkkE,\j, J.E.: AGE AND STkENGTrl. J. Al-'l-'L.
t-' SY Crl ., 3 1: .49 I:J.. 19 47'.
73 FLINT, ,'1.M.: kELATIONSrlII"' OF THE GhAVITY LINE TEST TJ
l-'OSTUKE.. TkUNK STkENGTH.. ANlJ HI/-,-TKUNK FLEAI 13ILI TT' OF
ELEMENTAkY SCrl,JOL GIKLS. kES. l>iUAt<T ... 35: 141, 1964.
7.4 FOWLER, W.:-1.: blUANTITATIVE STkENGTrl i'1EASUkEMENTS Ii'J
MUSCULAr< DYSTkOhi'(. AkCrl. t-'rlYS. ,"lED... 48:629 .. 1967.
75 GAkDNEk, v.'.[) ... A·:.JDJS8UkN, w.A.: STkUCTUkE I)F TrlE
HU'1AN 81)[)I'. SAUNDEkS, 1973.
76 .. A.: THE DEVEL()/-','1E'\JT AND VALlDATIONJF A 3-DIM-
ENSIJNAL HAND FakCE CAl-'ABILIT,( MaDEL. MASTEK'S
THESIS.. UNIVEkSITY rJF MIHIGAN, 1961"' ... 1973.
260
Reproduced \rom
best available coPY·
77 GAkkETT.. J.h.:CLEAkANCE A,\J[) I-'EkF:)kMANCE VALUES Far: THE
BAkE-'i ANDED MoJO TH E PkESSUkE- GLO VED Ol-'EKATOk. AMkL - Tk- 68 - 24..
WkIGHT-I-'ATTEkSO;\j Alk FOkCE BASE.. 1968.
78 GAUGHRAN. G.k ... AND DEMj-'STEk.. iI.T •. : FOkCE ANAL'(SES
"OF H)kltONTAL HiO-HANDED j-'USHE::l AND PULL:S li'J THE SAGI TTAL
PLANE. HUMAN BII)L ... 28: 67 .. 1956.
79GEOkGE.. A.S... AND GEOKGE.. c.: INFLUENCE OF T'),\lIC NEC'<
POSTURE UI-'I)i\J GRIP STkENGTH OF .INSTITUTIONALItED ME,'HAL
kETAkDES. kES.bJUAkT ... 46: 17.. 1975.
80 GE')kGE.. C.: FACILITATIVE AND INHIBITOk'( EFFECTSQF THE
TONI C NECK REFLEX UPON GkI I-' STRENGTH OF kI GrlT- AND LEFT-
HANDEDCHILDkEN. RES. blUAkT ... 43: 157.. 1972.
81 GEOkGE.. C. D.: EFFECTS OF THE AS'(,"1METkI CAL TJNI C NECK
POSTURE UPON GkII-' STkE,\IGTH ,I)F NOki'1AL CrlILDkEN. kES.
bI UAk T ... 41: 361 I. 19 7 ~ •.
82 GESER.. L.R.: SKINFOLD MEASUr:E5 'JF TWELVE-YEAk OLD BO'(S AS
kELATED TO VARIOUS MATUkI T'r' .. l-'H,( 51 blUE.. STkENGTH.. AND ,'10T,)(\
MEASUkES. I-'H.D. IN I-'H'(SICALEDUCATION. 1 4 L ~ 1-' ... U,\IIVEkSIT'(
OF DkEGON.. 1965.
83 GLINES.. D.: kELATIOi\lSHIl-'S OF kEACTION.. :'1iJVL"1ENT.. AND
COMPLETION TIMES TO CEkTAIN MOTOK .. STkENGTH ..
ANTHkOPOMETRIC AND MATUkiTY MEASURES. UNPUBLISHED
DO CTOkAL 01 SSEkTAT! 01\1.. UNI VEkSI TY OF OkEGON.. 196L,:l.
E:SiI GOODING.. l-'.J.:. THE. EFFECTS iJF HiO STkICTL'( CONTKOLLED
MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIbJUES ON THE GKIl-' STKENGTH OF MALE :SUb-
JECTS. MASTEk'S THESIS IN I-'H'(SICAL.EDUCATION.. UNIVERSITY OF
MASS ... 1967.
85 GkIFFITTS.. C.H.: THE INADEblUAC'( OF STkEi\lGTH i'JOKMS. kES.
bJUAkT., 6:117.. 1935.
66 HAFFAJ EE.. D... 1"10RI Te, U... AND SVANTESSQN.. G.: I SOl'1ETKI C
KNEE EX TENSI Ji'J STkENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF JOINT ANGLE..
MUSCL E L E"JGTH .. AND MOTOR UNI T ACT! \II T'r'. ACTA.
Ok1H,)I-'. SCANOINAV ... 43: 1 3 ~ 1 1972.
87 HALLI D.M.: ,"10TOt< FITNESS TESTS FOK FAkiv1 BO'(S. kES.
bJUAkT.,13:Lt32.. 19042.
8!j HALL.. D.M.: ENDUKANCE TESTS FOt< i1-H CL UB ,"1EI."lBEkS. I'<ES.
bJUART.1 22:37.. 1951.
261
H9 D."1.: SELECTIi)'II AND STANDAkDltATION OF STKEI\lGTH
FOk iI-H CL UB ME,\/)bEkS." kES. blUAkT. 27: 28 1956.
9VJ J.C.: THE CJ,\lSTkUCTlQN 'JF CA8LE-TENSIOt\l
STkENGTH TESTS NoJkMS Far. HJY S NI TWEL AND
FI FTEEN YEAkS i) F AGE. S. I'll ..-HY 51 CAL EDUCAT!
UNI VEkSI T'( DF OkEG,)N." 1958".
91 HEATr-lEkINGTON.Y1.k.: EFFECT OF ISOMETkIC TRAINING ON THE
EL 1:-1) V. FL EX I IN F')hCE TOkblUE I) F GkADE FI VE 80'1' S. RES.
blUAkT •• il7:il1. 1976.
92 A STUDY OF STATIC STRENGTH AND
ITS kELATIJi\lSHIl-' TO SELECTED I NDI CE::> OF GkOwTH AND DEVELOI-'-
:"1ENT. l-'H.D. DISSEkTATION.Ut\lIV. OF ,MICHIGAN. 1961.
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....v-.
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_
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195 SINGH, "1.: DYNAI"!OMETEk FOr, ISOTONIC AND ISOMETz-.;IC ,STkENGTH
,"1EASUkEMENT. AkCH. J-iriY S. MED. REHAB ... 53: 049 1.. 1972.
196 SINGH.. "1 ... AND BUCK .. T.M.: LEG-LI FT STl-<ENGTH TEST loll TH
ELECTI<OGONIOMETkiC ANALYSIS 'JF KNEE ANGLE. AkCri. J-iHYS. l"1ED.
REHAB... 56: 261.. 1975.
(
197 SINGH.. "1 ... AND KARJ-iQVITCH .. P.V.: STRENGTH OF
FOREARM FLEXORS AND EXTENSORS IN MEN AND wOME\J.
J. APJ-iL. J-iHYSIOL ... 25:177.. 1968.
198 SMITH.. J.A.: RELATION OF CEkTAI.N t-HYSICAL TRAITS
AND ABILITIES TO MOTOk LEARNING IN ELEMENTAKY SCHOOL
CHILDkEN. RES. biUART ... 27:22k:l.. 1956.
199 SMITH.. L.E... AND k:JYCE.. J.': MUSCULAk ,STKENGTH IN
RELATION TO BODY Ci)\"1J-iOSI TION. ANI'J. N.'(. ACAD. SCI ...
110:809 .. 1963.
200 SMITH.. L.E.: SPECIFICITY OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
OF RELATIONSHIP BETwEEN FOREARM STkENGTHS AND SPEED
OF FOkEAkM FLEXIO,N. kES.61UAkT., 040: 191 .. 1969.
201 SNYDER.. R.G., CHAFFIN, D.B... AND SCHUTl .. R.K.: LINK SYSTE:"1
OF THE HU,\1AN TORSO. FINAL REI-',)RT.. kEI-'. NO. AMkL-Tk-71-
Bfj .. 273 J-i ... ANN Al<BOk.. MI CHI GMIi .. 1972.
2 ~ 2 SNYDEk, R.G ... SI-'ENCE)·<, M.L ... IHHNGS.. C.L ... A,\JD SCHNEIDER..
L. w.: PHY SI CAL CHARACTEkl STI CS OF eril L m<E.NAS KELATED TO
DEATH AND INJURY FOr< CO':'JSUI'1Ek I-'r<ODUCT DESI GN AND USE.
FINAL REPQkT.. kEJ-i. NO. UM-HSkI-BI-75-5.. 20411-'.,
ANN AkElQk.. MICHIGA,\) .. 1975.
270
2"13 SNYDER.. R.G ... CHAFFIN.. D.B... .. L.w... FOUST.. O.k ...
B')wMAN.. B.I"1 ... ABDELNQUk.. ·T.A... AND BAUi"1.. J.K.: BASIC
BIO:-lECHANI CAL PkOr-EkTI ES OF THE HUI'>1AN NECK kELATED TO
LATEkAL HYPEkFLEXION. FINAL kEI"ORT.. kEP. NO.
.. 3"17 t-' ... AN'\! AkBOk.. l"1ICHIGAN, 1975.
2104 SNYDER, R.G., CHAFFIN, D.B., ANDSCrlUTt, k.I<.:LINK SYSTD-l
OF THE TOkSO, AMRL TECHNICALkEf'JRT..
AMf<L-Tk-71-88, 1972.
205 SNYDER, k.G ... L.w., OloJPIlGS, C.L., REYNOLDS, ...
GOLOMB, H.D... A:'JD SCrlQkK, :"1.A.: A,\JTHROt-'OMETkY OF II\JFANTS..
CHILDkEN, AND YOUTHS TO AGE 18 FOR PRODUCT SAFETY
DESIGN. FINAL kEI"'JRT, REP. NO. U,'1-HSkI-77-17, 628 t-'.,
ANN ARBOR, 1'>11 CHI GAN, 1977.
206 STACK, rl.G.: '>1USCLE FW,JCTION IN THE FINGERS. J. BONE JOINT.
SURG., 4 4 -B: 8 9 9 , 19 62.
207 STUART, H.C.: STANDARDS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT FOR
REFERENCE IN CLINICAL At-'I"RAISEMENT. J. PEDIATk., 5: 194..
1934.
2kJ8 TANNER, J.M.: GROwTH AT ADOLESCENCE. BLACKv,ELL SCIENTIFIC r'UBL!-
CATIONS, 1962.
209 THISTLE, H.G., HISLOP, H.J ... MOFFkOID, i"l ... £T AL:
I SDKI NETI C CONTkACTIOt-J: NE\o.' CONCEPT OF RESI STI VE EX Eto;CI SEe
Ato; CH. PHY S. MED. I-( EH ABI L ., 48: 279 .. 19 6 7 •
210 TINKLE, w.F ... AND MJNTOYE, RELATIOI'J;>HIP BETWEEN GkIP
STRENGTH AND ACHI EVEMENT IN PHY SI CAL EDUCATION AMut-JG 'COLLEGE
MEN. RES. GUAkT., 32:238 .. 1961.
211 THO.'1AS.. D.H ... LONG.. C... AND LANDS,VJEER.. J.':vJ.F.: BIOMECHMHCAL
CJNSIDEkATIONS OF LU,"1BRI CALI S BEHAVIOR IN THE HU'-'lAN FINGER.
J. BI I) MECH • .. 1: 1 0 7 .. 19 68 •
212 THOMPSON.. · C.w.: MANUAL OF STkUCTURAL KII\1ESIOLOG.....
MOSBY .. 1973.
213 THOMPSON.. C.W., AND KkAN;e .. L.G.: ''1ANUAL OF STi":'UCTUkAL
KINESIOLOGY. 1\10SBY, 1969.
214 TOf"lARAS.. W.A.: kELATI')NSi-{lp OF AI"JTHkOPOMETkIC
AND STkENGTH MEASURES OF JUNIOk HIGH SCHOOL BOYS
TO VARIOUS AhM STkENGTH Ckl.TEkIA. UNPUBLI SHED DOCTOkAL
DISSEkTATION.. UNIVERSITY OF OkEGON.. 1959.
215 TOMBERLIN.. J.: ISOMETkIC FOkCE OF HIP MUSCLE
GkOUPS. UNPUBLISHED MASTEk'S THESIS, PALO ALTO,
CALIF., STANFI)kD UI\1IVEkSITY, 1960.
216 TONER, S.B., AND BROW;\!, W.C.: DEVELOPMENT OF INSTI-(U:>1ENTATION
FOk MEASUREMENT OF THE I"USH AND PULL STRENGTHS
OF I-'RE- SCHOOL CHI L DkEi'll. PkELHlI NAkY REPDkT TO TH E
BUREAU OF PRODUCT SAFETY, FOOD AND DkUG ADMINISTkATION..
MAY, 1971.
t. 271
'-' _ ..... _-
217 TROUP, J.D., A.E.: THE STHENGTH OF THE
FLEl\.Ok AND EXTENSOR MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK. J.
2: 1969.
218 AND C.w.: kELATION
. OF MAXIMUM GI<II-' STRENGTH TO GRIJ-' STI-olENGTH
ENDURANCE. J. APt-'L. PHY SI OLe 2: 1950.
219 \o;.v.
,
., C.D., AND J.V.: hELATION
OF MAXIMUM BACK AND LEG STkENGTH ENDURANCE.
RES. QUART., 1955.
220 USAMRL: THE EFFECT OF THE SPATI AL POSI nON OF A. CONTROL
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NO • 41 1, 19 59 •
221 USAI''1RL: THE EFFECT OF FOOT-kEST 1-'051 TION ON THE STRENGTH OF
HORItONTAL PULL BY THE HAND. kEf-'OkT NO. 1960.
222 VAN ECK, P.J., BAU,"'l, J.K.,
AND SNY.DEk, k.G.: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WHIPLASH AND
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223 WAKIM, K.G., ET AL: OBJECT1VE kECOkDING OF MUSCLE STKENGTH.
ARCH. PHYS.
224 I-'.Y.: GROWTH i)F GkIl-' STkENGTH OF cHEJIANG CHILDkEN.
ACTA. PSY CHOLO G. 51 NI CA, 24: 239 1963.
225 D.E., T., D.V., AND F.:
AN INSTkUMENT FOR TESTING ISOMETRIC STRENGTH AND
ENDURANCE. NIO SH (ABSTRACT), CI NCI NNATI OHI
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226 M.W., AND FLATT, A.E.: A t'ILOT STUDY OF 198
NORMAL CHILDREN - PINCH STRENGTH AND HAND SItE IN
THE GROWING HAND. AMEk. J. OCCUI-'. THER., 25: 1971.
227 WESSEL, J.A., AND R.C.: kELATIONSHIP BETWE.EN GRIP
STRENGTH AND ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AMONG
OJLLEGE WOMEN. RES.' 1961.
228 D.E., AND G.C.: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP
OF VARIOUS STRENGTH AND ANTHkQlJOMETkI C l'1EASUkES
AS RELATED TO SELECTED TRUNK AND LEG STkENGTHS
CRI TEki A. UNPUBL I SH ED MASTER'S TH E5I S,
UNI VERSI TY OF OkEGON, .1955.
272
T,

229 1i.'H I TL EY. J. D.. A'\j 0 TM. L. 1::.: VELa CI TV CUk VE S
AND STATlC-ACTlCJ'l 5Tf'.ENt:'Trl IN kELATlON
TO THE MASS MOVED BY THE AkM. RES. UUART •• 34: 379, 1963.
230 WHITLEY, J.D., AND SMITH. L.E.: MEASUkP1ENT ()F
STRENGTH ADDUCTION 0F THE AkM VAkiOUS
POSITIONS. I-'HYS. MED •• ,lj5:326. 196,lj.
231 \dLL:.IA,"1S. 1'1 •• At\lO STUTtMAN, L.: STkENGTH
THE kANC.;E ;JF J)lNT '''1
I
JTION. t'HYS. TrlEk.
k F: V., 3'): l 45, 1'} 59 •
232 WILLlAi'1S. M.J •• E.T AU OF SCHOOL
CHILDkEN. J. AMEk. l-'HYS. THER. ASSOC •• .£15:539, 1965.
233 C.: BASES 'JF NQKMS Fur< CAE:lLE-TENSI'JN STRENGTH
TESTS' FIJI- UIJI-'Ek ELEMENTAl.;)', JUNIOk HI GH, AND
SENIOk KI GH SCH')QL GIRLS. 1"1. ED. IN l-'HY 51 CAL
EDUCATION. UNI VE"SI TY IJF)i,EGON, 1965.
i\KlTE: FOR USE IN THIS BIBLlOGkAl-Wr', JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN
ASSOCIATl0N F')i-\ HEALTH, r'HYSICAL EDUCATION,
AND kECkEATI'lN IS I-IEFEkkED TO AS RESEARCH l:.IUAkTEkLY
(kES. (,JUA"T.).
*
273

~IBLIOGRAPHIC

DATA

11. Report No.

SHEET
4. Tide and Subtitle

r2.

I FeRi~~)'s~ri)s~
5. Report D,ate

~.
.-/

Gripping Strength Measurements of Children for Product Safety Design
7. Author(s)

September 1977
6.

n -

C.L. Owings,M.D. ,Ph.D., R.H. Norcutt ,M. S., R.G. Snyder, Ph.D. D.H.Golomb M.S. K.Y. Llovd B.S.

8. Perfotming Organization Rept. No.

O14926-F O14926-F

9. Petformmg Organization Name and Address

10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 1 1. Contract/Grant No.

The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109
12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address

CPSC-C-76-0119
13. Type of Report & Period
Covered

Consumer Product Safety Commission 5401 Westbard Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20207
15. SupplementatY Notes

Final Reoort
14.

CPSC-C-7 6-0 11 g

16. Abstracts

The report describes anthropometric and isometric strength measurements of the hand and upper extremity function obtained of a group of children, age two through ten. Measurements were taken in the following areas (1) Linkage measurements with concentration on the hand, (2) Grip strength in the three-point pinch, fivepoint pinch, and squeeze or power grip positions corresponding to exertions on objects between two and nine centimeters size, (3) Torque capability around the elbow both for flexion and extension was measured at joint angles between 67.5 and 180 degees. Results (males and females combined) are presented with a picture brief description of the measurement, data table and a scatter plot as a function of age. Cumulative results are also given at the end of the three sections.

17. Key Words'and Document Analysis.

170. Descriptors

Children Grip Strength Elbow-Shoulder Movement Hand Dimensions Hand, Hand Force

17b. Identifiers/Open-Ended Terms

17c. COSATl Field/Group 1B. Availability Statement 19. Security Class (This 21. 'No. of Pages

Re~~~Tt),

A

20. Security Class (This Page UNCLASSIFIED
"OR'" NTIS-3S (REV. '073)

22. Price

~~I /'CAI3

mFA-oI
U5COMM- DC B28S- P 74 '

ENDORSED BY ANSI AND UNESCO.

THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED

CONTRACT CPSC-C-76-0119

FINAL REPORT SEPTEMBER 77

GRIPPING STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF CHILDREN, FOR PRODUCT SAFETY DESIGN

CLYDE L,. OWINGS, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering RICHARD H. NORCUTT, M.S. (Bioengineering) Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases RICHARD G. SNYDER, Ph.D. Biomedical Department, Highway Safety Research Institute Department of Anthropology D. HENRY GOLOMB, M.S. Highway Safety 'Research Institute KATHIE Y. LLOYD, B.S. Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases

THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109

Prepared for: The Consumer Product Safety Commission 5401 West Bard Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20207

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

d_

I

i Preceding
.\
\

1_,_ _ - - - , - - - - - - , _ 1

page blank il

" .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A large number of individuals have contributed long hours of hard work to this mUltidisciplinary study. We very much appreciate the encouragement guidance and supervision of Dr. Van Houten who served as technical monitors for this project. Esch and Mr. Donald T. i I' Preceding page blank-: -----_~-l . we are very grateful for the dedication and effort of the children and their parents who made this study possible. Finally. Albert F.

3 Data .1 Design of the Study 2..0 ii . ..... .•... .. ... ... .. .0 . 218 3.... ...••.................2 Data ......•.•..... . .•. ..•. ...2.... .. ..... .... . . 214 3.. ..•..6 Calibration of equipment 2.. . METHODS AND TECHNIQUE . .1 Interpretation of ~trength Data .. .•.... • ... .5 3...Strength YS..... . .1. .... .•... Span ~. .• 3.. . Age 219 3..Strength vs.4 Statistical Tables ... . 1........ ... ........ .. ...... . 3.. ....3...... Age .. . .. ... ..••............••..•...................•.. 3.1 Background. ...2 Principle of Grip Transducer Operation BIBLIOGRAPHy 5...2 Linkage Measurements ..... . 248 249 252 255 APPENDICIES 4.6 4.. ...•.•.....•....•..4 Statistical Tables .. .....4.. 2. ..•. 127 3.... ... .. .8 T~sting Procedure •••. .9 Data Reduction . ... ....... 240 Discussion 243 Sample Strength Calculations ... .•.••.3. .. ... . ..3...7 Data Acquisition and Display . . ...2 Elbow Transducer .2 Objectives and Scope 1 2 7 8 8 9 16 27 29 29 32 32 38 40 41 49 49 51 2.•..•••.2 Data -Strength vs..•... 2........ iii 1...3 Statistical Tables ..•.. 2..•... . .. ...200 3... Other Variables 232 3.3 3........ ...... ... ii LIST OF FIGURES .... .0 INTRODUCTION..•.4 3.....3. ...•.1 Index of Data . 1.. ...2 Data 3. ... ..1 Static Analysis of Limb Fixture 4...0 RESULTS 3. .•....0 3...•... 131 3... i TABLE OF CONTENTS.Strength YS.....1 Description of Data Presentation .. .... ll9 Hand S~rength •••. .5 Strength Criteria ... ~ 2.2..• 3......~ 203 Elbow Strength •. .1 Index of Data ... .......•. .•....2.4. 3. ... . . ...••..4 Anthropometer . ...... . ...•..••. 2...•••.. ..... : .. .........1 Index of Data 129 3.. 2... • ..4.•.3 Data ...3 Giip Transducer 2... ........4... .TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....•••.•...

.. 16. . .. .. . • .27 Force Diagra~. and 9 em Grip: Squeeze Grip: Grip: . 15. ' . . 7.. . Automated Anthropometer Automated Anthropometer (Internal Construction).. 18. . . . • . . . .. . . 14. . 4.. . . 13.. .. . - Force Diagram . .. 8... Table A - Selection Guide for Handle Sets Child Performing a Squeeze . 3 Point Pinch 5 Point Pinch - Force Diagram ... . . 5.. . . II. Axes. . 17. . 9. . . 9 10 11 12 14 15 17 17 18' 20 3. 6... 5.. Title Complete Measurement System Side View of Cha..•. 21 22 24 19 . . .. 20·..LIST OF FIGURES· Figure No. 12. . .. . . 19. and Directions iii . . . .. . . ... .ir Front View· of Chair Chair Adjusted For 9 Year Old Child in Standard Test Position Diagram of Arm Fixture Grip Transducer with Three Handle Sets Grip Transducer with Pinch Handle Set Pinch Transducer at 2.. 10. Page . . . . lo 2. 28 31 36 37 48 Attachment of Calibration Weights Questionaire Consent Form Anatomical Planes.

.

of elbow strength were done on 104 boys and girls. for the most part.000. Studies 1 . Over three hundred fifty children between the ages of two and eleven served as subjects for hand measurements. five-point pinch.0 INTRODUCTION This report describes isometric strength measurements of hand and upper extremity function obtained on a group of children. age two through ten. The torque capability around the elbow both for flexion and extension was measured at joint angles between 67. The group was chosen. and squeeze or power grip were measured at different degrees of hand closure.5° and 180°. from children who had participated in a nationwide anthropometric study of over 8. Three-point pinch.1. corresponding to exertions on objects between two and nine centimeters size.

The torque values were obtained at a specified anatomic position. Also force capabilities for squeeze. Extensive measurements of hand dimensions were included in order to investigate the relationship between 2 . A computer based model for the prediction of strength from these data was developed. Rather complete anthropometry was obtained on the subjects of this investigation. The age range studied was between two and eleven years. A new measurement system was developed and validated for obtaining isometric strength measurements.1 Background An investigation of the strength characteristics of u. two point pinch. This report represents a continuation of the measurement techniques described above and an expansion of the quantitative strength data in two areas: 1) the elbow at different angles for flexion and extension 2) the hand at different degrees df hand closure for squeeze.1.s. three point pinch. three point pinch. and five point pinch. children for product safety design was reported in 1975 (162). five point pinch. and lateral pinch were measured with each at a single degree of hand closure. and over five hundred children were measured. but only a single position was used for most measurements. Both contain new data that relate strength and the position of measurement. expressed as torques. at the major joint centers for children.

The hand. 115.hand size and strength. The data was only reported Perhaps hand strength according to hand size. 160). The situation is even more difficult to characterize children who have different size hands at different ages. to 6. ments of gripping strength fail to specify the size of the surfaces being gripped to secure a strength valrie (74. 206). Only one study (151) was found that evaluated the optimum setting of an adjustable dynamometer (Stoelting). the Jamar dynamometer. with its opposable thumb. Indeed.5 em. is a mechanically complex region of the body that is responsible for fine control movements and. can supply considerable power. but there is nQ single test that cdmpletely describes hand strength. Many tests of manual dexterity have been developed to evaluate hand movements in adults (117." Subjects ranged in age between 4 and 52 years but the distance between gripping surfaces ranged from 4. Many methods have been used to measure hand strength. In this study. 3 . can be adjusted to vary the spacing between the gripping surfaces. and not age. many measurements have been obtained with Most measure- little attention devoted to the size of the hand. on occasion.25 em. for As Very a child grows his hand becomes both larger and stronger. also in adults. little information is available on how this growth affects strength. 134". One of the most popular instruments for gripping strength measurements. through the use of an adjustable grip dynamometer. Montoye and Faulkner concluded "a slight advantage is gained particularly for subjects with large or small hand size.

but should one the same strength capability from both? The size of a test fixture and the size of the hand it measures interact in several ways. a growing ten year old boy might have the same hand breadth and hand length as a small fifty year old female. Many studies have reported strength measurements about the elbow. Thi~ study measured 82% of the eligible age range in an entire community. For a large hand. For all of these reasons. an adult would have much more difficulty climbing a 1/8" diameter vertical rod than a 2" diameter vertical rod. The force measured for large hands is reduced 0= as the gripping span is decreased in Montoye's and Faulkner's study (151). a rod becomes more Closure of the difficult to grasp as its size becomes smaller. For example. as well as including a measure of arm strength. The most comprehensive measurement of gripping strength contains data on 6000 males and ·females but only between the ages of 10 years and 69 years (152). together with the compressibility tissue.but most were obtained at a single position. Obviously.a small hand may ~xpect not be large enough to grasp a large object. interferes with the ability to transmit force to an object. but the converse also causes problems. The loading forces on tissue become more important for smaller objects since the force per unit area increases. fingers around an object.depends upon more than just hand size. The measurement methods used have been previously discussed (162) 4 .

Since no precise data was available for children. In an earlier study Williams and Stutzman measured strength variation through the range of joint motion with a cable tensiometer (231). The force transmitted to an object may be suffi- cient to move the object but not large enough to allow for com5 . The results were reported for "college men" and are interesting mainly for the shape of the curves. The poor dynamic response of measurements using a cable tensiometer make it difficult to evaluate the effect of "explosive" strength. The instrument used a large electric motor which moved the arm through its range of motion. These data are needed to improve the prediction process for strength in a variety of positions.but suffer from several defects. The safety implications of strength are numerous. This is especially true for children who may not be aware of their own limitations. Singh and Karpovitch (197) measured college students and reported the torque generated about the elbow joint for both flexion and extension. as "an electrogoniometer measured the joint angle. this study was undertaken to measure the variation of strength about the elbow at different joint angles for both flexion and extension. The effect of experimenter expectation (183) has been mentioned and is an uncontrolled variable in many studies. The subjective nature of numeric evaluation from chart records introduces an additional variable in the few studies that use strain gages. This technique more nearly approximates isotonic strength rather than isometric strength.

is more likely to result in injury to the individual. A child who lifts a floor lamp may not be As loss of control strong enough to prevent it from toppling. 6 . grasping force is important in estimating the haz~rd for injury of a situation.fortable control.

and 9 cm. and 180° 5) (full extension). Five point pinch at one centimeter increments between 2 cm. Squeeze at one centimeter increments between 2 em. include: a) b) c) 4) Three point pinch at one centimeter increments between 2 ern. To analyze and statistically reduce the data in such a manner as to be convenient for product safety design. 2) To develop data acquisition programs that control the operation of both the new device strength chair.5°.on 9treQgth and elbow extension strength on a.2 Objectives and Scope The objectives of this study were: 1) To design and construct a device for the measurement of hand strength in children between the age of three and ten years. 3) To obtain gripping strength measurements on 350 children ranging in age from two to ten years.flexi. 7 . The strengths are measured at the following angles of elbow flexion: 157. and 9 cm. and squeeze at different degrees of hand closure. and 7 cm. sub-population of 100 children. The device would have the capacity to measure three point pinch. five point pinch.1. To ~nd the existing To obtain measurements of elbow.

~cting Strength maybe considered as a force . are used in this report. The measurements of elbow flexion and elbow extension are most conveniently expressed as the torque about the elbow center of rotation. An alternate way to present the same information uses the rotational equivalent. All forces are expressed in (Kgf) Kilogram force. The immense mechanical complexity o·f the hand with a large number of joints would require that the position of each joint be known in order to express the measurements as torques.1 METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Design of the Study There are several ways to measure and report the results of a strength test.' The direction of the force is reported as the angle formed with the centerline of the grip transducer.0 2. at a distance so that a complete descr~ption must in~lude the magnitude of the force and the direction and location at which it was measured.·I 2. port (162~ Both methods of reporting strength This' is the same method used in the previous re- All· torques are expressed in (Kgf-cm) Kilogram force- centimeters. 8 . For gripping strength measurements it is more appropriate to report the force magnitude and direction since the transducer is adjustable to represent standard size objects between 2 and 9 centimeters. or torque. around a joint center of rotation.

All the electrical signals are amplified and fed via a 12 bit A/D converter to a Nova 1220 digital compu~er where special programs control data a~q~isition (Fig. 4).2 Elbow Transducer: Design and Function j. the child's weight can be measured by 'load cells. (Fig. Figure 1 Complete Measurement system . Also while in the chair.2. limbs rest on padded metal bars whose articulated lengths are adjustable to fit any size child in the 2 to 10 year age range.3). The child's trunk and limbs are snugly strapped to supporting bars where their strength can be measured by strain gages. The chair fits the child sitting in it like an The upper and lower exoskeleton for the right half of the body. 1). The transducer used to measure isometric elbow flexion/ extension at different elbow angular positions was part of a versatile "strength chair" pr~vi6usly designed and used to make similiar child strength measurements at other body joints. (Figs~ 2.

. ..FIXTURE ~-"~- ~~ ~oo o . . \ ~ .111111111111I1111 a I-' 1II1111111111111111111111111111ll1111111~ FEMORAL FIXTURE TIBIAL FIXTURE ANKLE FIXTURE ANKLE STRAP FOOT STRAP l Figure 2 Side View of Chair : WEIGHT PLATFORM .BACK FIXTURE SHOULDER FIXTURE HUMERAL FIXTURE ELBOW FIXTURE PELVIC STRAP HIP FIXTURE ~ . ./ - CHEST STRAP ARM STRAP WRIST STRAP HANDLE RADIAL FIXTURE KNEE STRAP . KNEE .

...""... ~ 11I11I I \\ KNEE STRAP PELVIS IMMOBILIZER I TIBIAL FIXTURE .. .."" 111I1 J WEIGHT PLATFORM Figure 3 Front View of Chair . r". HUMERAL FIXTURE "3.ANKLE STRAP FOOT STRAP ANKLE FI XTURE '... I • BACK FIXTURE " I LEFT SHOULDER IMMOBILIZER ARM STRAP~ WRIST STRAP RADIAL FIXTURE IELBOW FIXTURE .. ---l I ~ LEFT FOOT SUPPORT : 11111I .. ~ KNEE STRAP KNEE FIXTURE II .'-" SHOULDER FIXTURE CHEST STRAP.. .

12 .

The elbow joint may be pivoted and locked to 67~5°. the upper extremity portion of the chair was used in this study (Figs. Transduction of the elbow torque is accomplished by resistance strain gages mounted on the metal fixture. th~ A change in voltage drop across strain gages thus corresponds directly to the instantaneous torque about the joint and is fed into the computer for further analysis._ the mechanical strain measured by the gages. 90°. thus flexes the fixture as well.5°. The electrical resistance of a strain gage changes in proportion t6 the mechanical strain of the supporting-fixtu~e.Specifically. Along with the elbow flexion/extension gages. is proportional to the torque about the subject's elbow joint. 112. since the axis of rotation of the elbow follows closely with that of the arm fixture. 5. and 180°.6). 13 . page 214) the fixture with the Child's arm secured causes negligible motion between the arm and the arm fixture.-4. . The child climbs into the chair and his wrist and arm straps. 135°. The child is allowed to grip a handle mounted at the end of the radial. any of six possible elbow positions: 157. Another strap are secured to the fixtures with Velcro is used across the chest to stabilize the child in the chair. The upper extremity fixture bends and locks at the elbow and shoulder _anatomical joint centers.5°. aligned with the J Flexing the elbow effective elbow:axis.fixture. ~oving (See Section 3.F6r the upper extremity fiittir~. similiar gages are positioned to measure torque about the wrist and shoulder. Adjustable fixture lengths correspond to the radial and humeral len~thi.

I " Figure 5 Child in standard te-st position I ! • 14 .

x Figure 6 Diagram of Limb and Limb Fixture ..-··]i~~-) B I y I I I . STRAIN GAUGE SET B LIMB B STRAP B DISTAL END OF LIMB It 1-' ~." " " " I STRAIN GAUGE SET A JOINT CENTER A LIMB A STRAP A JOINT CENTER B " / . IA ~~ d1 +~r£ /..

because of his hand size is unable to pinch a larger dimension. two additional channels were recorded from the arm along with the elbow flexion/extension channel: abduction. 2. The distance between two parallel rigi~ surfaces can be adjusted in one centimeter increments so as to mimic the squeezing or pinching of different size objects and to obtain measurements at different positions of hand closure. study. Figure nine shows the measurement of 5 poiht pinch at three different positions." ~or the elbow tests of this. 8). The tips of the fingers are positioned on Notice that the lower picture shows a pinch of The subject. . an' additional channel in order to evaluate reaction forces occuring at this joint. In this study. 9 centimeters. shoulder flexion/extension and wrist adduction/ These motions occur in the same spatial plane as"the Hip flexion/extension was recorded on elbow flexion/extension.Since they are independent measurements. the shoulder was always positioned in a 0° flexed position and abducted ~o. For each 16 . The operation of the transducer can be described by considering a squeeze strength as shown in Figures 10 and 14. several torques may be recorded simultaneously. The wrist was maintained in a mid pronation-supination position and otherwise anatomically neutral.3 Grip Transducer: Design and Function The grip transducer has several removable parts that serve to adapt the basic transducer mechanism to measure squeeze (Fig. 7) or to measure 3 point pinch and 5 point pinch (Fig. the transducer.

. ~-:..~~ -....:._.. " iiJI" .~..~:!~ ..-"""'''...:...-:-.~ .--~::::. ... Figure 7 Grip trans~ucer with three handle sets Figure 8 Grip Transducer with pinch handle set 17 .-...

i~ ' ." " I.. 18 . 5. and 9 cm.. IJ Fi~ilre 9 Pinch Transducer at 2.

a shear force. A second component. This resultant force lies in thegeornetric par~llel plane formed by the two norm~l handle halve~~ The component (Fn) has been or perpendicular to the handle surface~ classically measured in previous studies and is the greatest in magnitude..handle is mea. Diagrams of the two force components for..\<' • sured and recorded. which is parallel (Fs) was also measured by the transducer to the handle surfaces to: 1) determine the shear effect of the hand on the handle during a squeezing or pinching exertion. :magnitude.! . 2) better identify the ultimate 3-dimensional character of forces generated in gripping. 19 .'/ Figure 14 Child performing a squeeze grip span. and 3) study the variation of force direction throughout the course of a five second exertion ~nd from subject to subject. the 2-dimensional direction. 3 point pinch anc pinch are given in Figures 11 and 12. and location of the resultant force exerted by the ha~nd on the .

GRIP: SQUEEZE FORCE DIAGRAM Distal Handle Proximal Handle +F s I~ S . F F n :::: Total resultant squeeze force· Normal component of squeeze force surface) Shear component of squeeze force (perpendicular to handle s Position (vector) of resultant force on distal handle surface (measured from centerline between second and third finger) Angle of resultant force (F) with respect to handle centerline Handle span Figure 10 20 r ....

..GRIP: 3 POINT PINCH FORCE DIAGRAM Distal Handle Proximal Handle +F s I~ S . F F F n = = = = s F Total resultant squeeze force Normal component of squeeze force surface) Shear component of squeeze force (perpendicular to handle L ~ = = 5 Position (vector) of resultant force on distal handle surface (measured from centerline between second and third finger) Angle of resultant force (F) with respect to handle centerline Handle span Figure 11 21 .

GRIP: 5 POINT PINCH FORCE DIAGRAM Distal Handle Proximal Handle +F s F-s F F n = = = = F s F Total resultant squeeze force Normal component of squeeze force surface) Shear component of squeeze force (perpendicular to handle L ~ = = S Position (vector) of resultant force on distal handle surface (measured from centerline between second and third finger) Angle of resultant force (F) with respect to handle centerline Handle span Figure 12 22 .

. The electrical output of the-gages is fed into the computer and processed in a manner similiar to the elbow strain gage signals. Also. was not measured. five sets of resistance strain gages are mounted. The basic transducer consists of a thin U-shaped aluminum· bar onto which two handle halves may be mounted. Three electrical channels of output from these gages uniquely determine two components of the resultant force and its location. On the ~nner surface of the bar frame. with the handle span and force angle known. 13). This brace serves as a centerline of the transducer and thus the zero reference point for measuring LF. plane of the handle was measured relative to a thin center brace (Fig. Four different pairs of handles are used on the transducer and are described in Table A (Fig. 10). the_ resultant force position may be determined on the proximal handle surface. All handles are color- 23 . The distance (LF) when compared with the anthropometric measurement of finger breadth gives the resultant force position on a finger surface.The third force component.See the appendix for a description of the principles of the grip strength transducer. intervals of grip span. one stationary and one adjustable at I em. that perpendicular to the plane of the handle. The location (LF) of the resultant force in the. Its magnitude is felt to be much smaller than the normal and shear components and an insignificant factor in determining significant gripping characteristics. During gripping or pinch- ing the hand is positioned so that as many fingers are on one side of the centerline as on the other side.

1 L Figure 13 Selection guide for handle sets .l ot> REMARKS: 1.0 cm MAXIMUM SPAN TESTED 1.0 ern 2.9.6.0 . Handle radii chosen to fit average length of middle phalange of the second finger for each hand size catagory.5 L Squeeze span = 1.0 . Maximum span tested is limited to: Pinch span = 1.0 .0 ern 2.0 ern 2. 2.1 L (ern) lolL (cm) 1.7.5L (ern) Large Radius (9 rom) Flat 3 pt/5 pt Pinch All l'-.TABLE A FINGER LENGTH L ( 5 5 ( L <6 L> 6 HANDLE GEOMETRY Small Radius (5 mm) Medium Radius (7 rom) TEST Squeeze Squeeze Squeeze HANDLE S·PAN (1 ern increments) 2. 3.15.0 .1 L (ern) 1. Middle finger measurement (L) is taken from tip of the second finger to its palmar skinfold.

25 . span. the distal handle con- tact is restricted to the middle phalange of the fingers. inWhere necessary. 8) while the other three pairs are used for small. and large hand sizes in squeeze tests The possible span range for pinch tests is 2-15 cm. the greatest possible handle surface area over which to distribute gripping pressure. Handle widths were limited to 2 times the radius to accomodate full flexion of the fingers in the 2 em. phalanx III) in the pinch tests and 1. 7). Radii on the three ~queeze handle sets were also empirically derived to provide an average child. Such a broad smooth grip surface prevents the limitation of exertion due to the pain of gripping too small an object. medium. These limits were empirically determined to define the maximum span at which a child could form a practical grip on the handles. In the squeeze or power grip. Positioning of the hand is controlled vertically along the distal handle by the inter-finger center brace separating two or four fingers used in the tests. maximum span actually tested on a given child was limited to 1. Transverse positioning during pinch tests is restricted to only distal phalange contact at the handles. squeeze tests is 2-9 em.5 times the middle finger length (MP joint to tip. of a specified hand size range. (Fig. the' crements with a minimum spacing of 2 em. One pair is used for all hand sizes in measuring 3 and 5 point pinch (Fig. and for All spans are adjustable in I em.1 times the middle finger length in the squeeze tests.coded and coated with 2 rom thick hard rubber to distribute hand pressure.

In the application of the instrument for pinch and squeeze measurements.1 Kgf. these Fn extremes are either not encountered ( Fs>25 usually) or not used for maximum strength determinations ( Fn> 1 Kgf usually). respectively. Prox- imal handle contact extends from the hypothenar eminance to the finger web between the thumb and first finger. for forces" on the handle regions used to determine the force location from the three channels of information. Flexion of the metacarpal and interphalangeal joint positions in all test positions is allowed to vary. however. Fn and Fs.Placement of the thenar eminance vertically along the proximal handle is allowed to vary to suit the subject's comfort. independently. Each component is measured Determination of the lqcation of the resultant force is accurate within ~ .8 mm. the measurement error for force location tends to approximately double when either the normal force component (Fri) falls below 0. are accurate within .1 Kgf or the ratio ~~«l. 26 . Measurement of normal and shear forces.

4 Anthropometer: Design and Function An automated anthropometer was constructed to minimize the possibility of anthropometric linkage measurement error and recording error and to increase the efficiency of the measuring process. The potentiometer was wired to the computer through the switch mounted" on the potentiometer box. and to the sliding blade of the caliper external to its shaft. A conventional anthropometer was modified by the ad- dition of a switch. As shown in Figures 15 and 16. and spring-cable assembly. A double pulley locked onto its shaft was fastened both to a cable-spring recoil mechanism lying within the anthropometer shaft. the potentiometer was mounted on the end of the caliper and protected by a box. potentiometers.2. Figure 15 Automated anthropometer 27 .

Depressing the switch allows the compu- ter to record the voltage output of the potentiometer in proportion to the anthropometric opening. Adding anthropometer shaft extensions allows measure- ments up to 120 em. accurate to + 3 mm. For measurements under 30 ern. - ~~"OIr1\~~SPRING POSITION SIGNAL Figure 16 Automated Anthropometer (internal construction) 28 .Sliding the caliper blade to a linkage dimension thus rotates the potentiometer proportionally.. + 1 mm. while the spring maintains proper cable tension. the anthropometer is accurate to.

when a single number is assigned to "strength". The average torque (or force) generated over a This period of one second was chosen to represent strength. and has the advantage of not requiring human judgement and intervention for its proper operation. This algorithm has been implemented in the computer programs. Thus "strength" is represented by an average over one second or 20 data points.strength must occur over ~ Assessment of tim~ long enough period of to eliminate effects due to "explosive" strength and yet must be over a short enough duration to eliminate decreases in strength due to fatigue. A variety of algorithms were investigated in the previous study (162). In this report.in considerable disa- greement as to the best measurement of strength.2. 2. duration is long enough to minimize the effect of a single errOneously high value produced by dynamic inertial effects'but short enough to minimize the effect of fatigue and loss of motivation.6 Calibration of Equipment Calibration of the elbow transducer was accomplished using a method devised to simultaneously calibrate all the upper extremity transducers of the strength chair. The arm of the chair 29 . it is obtained by selecting the average value over one second of contiguous data that has the greatest value of all possible contiguous one second intervals in the five second exertion. .5 Strength Criteria Human strength researchers have been.

A. Periodically during the study. Finally. the difference ~n the gage outputs was ex- pressed as a calibration factor. The fixed position of the weight also provided information to calculate a calibration factor for a force. the calibration of the system was verified. Anthropometer calibration was easily accomplished by first obtaining a zero (closed) reading and then moving to a predetermined measurement (read from the scale on its shaft) for a second reading.V no load input torque All instruments in a data acquisition channel are thus calibrated in a single step. The difference in voltage readings divided by the cali- per span was used as a calibration factor for the instrument. Calibration factor = V load . providing known components of torque to all gages of the extremity. the channels were again sampled to obtain baseline readings. a weight of 4. computer program automatically sampled the output from each gage set in this loaded configuration and after the weight was removed.47 Kg. 30 . 17) while locked in the position.was abducted 45° and flexed 22. was suspended at a standard location on the hand fixture. The grip t~ansducer was calibrated similiarly with a weight suspended from the transducer handle to provide known force components perpendicular and parallel to the handle surface.5° with the elbow in a 90° position (Fig.

Figure 17 Attachment of Calibration Weights 31 .

birthdate. The children ranged in age between 2 1/2 years and 10 1/2 years. Children Parents were contacted by phone and appointments set up convenient for the child and parent. with adjustable gain were used to amplify the strain gage signals to a value of + 5 volts for the 12 bit analog to digital .converter. name. 2. sisted of a 16 bit Data General Nova 1220 computer with 16K words of memory. were tested during a six month period. as well as the sequencing of anthropometric and strength measurements (approximately 63 measurements). The programs control the This system allows a signal resolution of 1 part in acquisition of descriptive information such as age. tap~ system.2. a 24 channel analog to digital converter.the mornin9 and early afternoon hours of the day. 4096.S. The data acquisition programs were written in an expanded version of the Basic (R) language. and a Tektronix 4010 Twenty-four instrumentation amplifiers. The younger children were usually tested during . Mott Children's Hospital. a dual Linc tape magnetic graphics terminal. while the older children came in 32 .7 Data Acquisition and Display The data acquisition system used for this project con- .8 Testing Procedure All testing in the Strength Study was done at the Child Strength Laboratory at C.

An automatic anthropometer was used to enter the measurements directly into the computer.· During this wait. Race and sex were carefully considered in the recrui- ting. ments had been obtained.after school. Each child was tested in a single session. linkaqe ncasurcncnts wcre obtaincr. This decoration on the walls helped make a friendly environment for the children. ~n( ~tnn~inq heiq~t and weight were measured with the child's shoes removed. address. 19) and to fill out a questionaire containing general information. First. The body weight was obtained with the child When all linkage measure- seated on the back of the strength chair. Each testing session. 33 . lasted about 30 to 40 minutes. such as the child's date of birth. which was later. the results were displayed on the graphics terminal for evaluation. (Fig. the child could draw a picture. lab l A small play area was used in one part of the where oqe or more children could play while another was being tested.2. including the anthropometric measurements.put on the wall of the lab. 18). Parents were required to sign a consent form which gave permission for the child to be tested (Fig. Many of the children who participated in the study came with a sibling or a friend. in order that the sample be a fair representation of the population. with the exception of those children who performed both the elbow and the grip tests. Parents were encouraged to remain in the lab for the testing session. described in section 3. etc. and most did so.

time was displayed on the computer terminal. genera- ted by the computer program. Then the child was seated in the R strength chair and the velcrd ) straps were carefully placed over the necessary limbs as a means of maintaining a known position during each test. depending on the child's If a sig- nificant amount of time elapsed in which there was little or no exertion by the child. Immediately after each test. Simple instructions. or if the directions were not followed properly. This "picture" allowed the child to see the results of his strength after each of the tests. Later in the sequence the Because of the repetition in using 34 . delete. omitted tests were performed. This was done by the computer measuring the initial voltage produced on each of the strain gages of the empty chair. The child was encouraged to fasten some of the straps himself to relieve any apprehensions which he might have. the chair was adjusted according to the child's size. were given each child before the testing session. a graph of the torque-force vs. At the end of this time an audible tone.Using the linkage measurements. signaled the end of the test. which explained the test procedure. Then. The tester could decide whether to accept. was then taken before the session began. or performance~ repeat the test. then the test was deleted and repeated. before each of the tests specific directions and a demonstration helped the child understand exactly how to perform the test. The child was asked to sustain each movement as hard as he could for a time interval of five seconds. In this way each child could sit comA "zero weight" fortably in the chair during the testing session.

Following the test session. The child could see his "picture" of his strength right This instant "f~edback" after each test. school teacher with extensive experience with children and parents. which allowed the child to view the results immediately after each test.udy remained much the same as those used in the previous study (162). To' 35 . was also an. Verbal encouragement during the actual test worked as the most important motivational technique. the child was given a snack. Her techniques with the children helped determine the outcome of the session. important factor in motivation.00 per visit. The graphics display on the computer terminal. some of the children this fee served as a type of motivation. To compensate for parking and travel costs. If there was any doubt of the child being able to. all the children. perform the test properly. which was to obtain the best possible results from each child during each test.certain muscle groups of the arm and hand. the child was given adequate rest between each test. Important in the testing session was the interaction between The tester was a certified elementary the child and the tester. Parents and children were very cooperative during the study and there were very few times when-the tester did not receive the desirable results. or their parents. gave the child the in- centive to perform his best each time. received reimbursement of $5. it was omitted and the next test done. Motivational techniques for this st. Children were tested on a volunteer basis and no child was tested that didn't want to be. Thus each t~st was hoped to be an accurate display of the child's strength.

. Father's Education: 8 years or under Completed COllegeo (16 yrs. Has this child been under treatment for any serious illness? .. etc.. -----------Y10re than 12 yrs. D o Number of brothers ...CHILD ~TRENGTH STUDY University of Michigan Department of Pediatrics Ann Arbor...elation to brothers and sisters? -----------1 ....-Number of sisters .) 8 years or under More than 16 y r s .If so . Michigan 48104 Name of School Child's Name Address Name of Teacher -------- --------------------------------Birt~ -~-------------------------------...oldest.. Completed· College 0 More than 16 yrs.What is the birth order of this child in r. o 9-12 yrs..Male Female 0 0 Child's Race Mother's Father's How long --------------Occupation ----------------------------Occupation ---------'-------------------have you lived In this community? --------------Blackc===J Other Oriental Mother's Race: 0 0 White c===J Please specifyOriental Father's Race: Black Other 0 0 0 0 -----------White Please specify 9-12 yrs.--- Child's Date of ------------'--.. please explain --------------- Figure 18 36 ... For example: 2 ..second oldest.. o o Mother's Education: I 0 More than 12 yrs.

I have been informed that there will be no health hazards or discomfort to my child associated with this. I further understand that all. I am aware that these measurements will enable collection of information about the physical strength of children at different age levels and use of this information in constructing guidelines for the safer design of children's products. it is necessary for the child to remove shoes only. Child's Name Signature of Parent Figure 19 37 . and that participation is voluntary. of the data is confidential and I agree to allow publication of any or all of the data collected on my chi"ld if presented in a c.oded form. understand that the purpose of this study is to take some strength measurements of my child.CHILD STRENGTH STUDY Consent Form I. the undersigned. In order to take measurements with accuracy.

a comprehensive set of statistical analysis programs developed by the Statistical Research Laboratory of the University of Michigan. represents a permanent "time" record.5). The first reduction prDgram condensed each data file into a more compact and. For the purpose of 38 . analyzable form. making it possible to analyze the data via any method desired.9 Data Reduction and Analysis Description of the data acquisition program has already been presented (Sec. one-second-moving~ Reduced files were then transmitted to the University of Michigan's AMDAHL 470 computer for further processing and statistical analysis. coding the suject's background information and replacing the 400 data points for each test with four calculated strength values. Data was then analyzed statistically using the Michigan Interactive Data Analysis System (MIDAS). Ages were computed by subtracting the birthdate from the date of the subject's most recent testing session. based on the point-average technique (Sec. This program was used to generate 84 magneEach file tic tapes filled with data files on each subject tested.of a subject's tests. Ages were represented internally in days and were computed using the approximation of 365 days to the year and 30 days to the month. a series of processing and reducing programs was written and utilized. 2. Ages computed in this fashion are never more than seven days in error.2. which was sufficient resolution for the purposes of this study.7). For quantitative and statistical analysis of the data. 2.

and maximum value.5 to 10. mean (X). Both sexes were combined to The insure sufficient sample size for statistical analysis. Graphicai presentation of the data use scatter plots for an exact representation of the data and to avoid any bias which might be introduced by curve fitting. median. 39 . results of these analyses are reported in tabular form at the end of each data section.analysis. reflecting the limited grip spans capability of small strength vs body size ~and~~ All graphs of include a first order regression line Graphs drawn through the scatter plot to indicate the trend. Ages were rounded to the nearest whole year so that altogether an age range of 2. The amount of grouping The scales is readily apparent along with the actual sample size. minimum x value. Note that sample size decreases for large grip spans. (Body weight was included here as a linkage measurement. from 3 to 10 years. have been expanded to provide the best resolution of points. Each of the strength and linkage measurements were analyzed by age for the following quantities: number of subjects (N). Standard Deviation (S ).5 years was represented. of strength vs position show the means for pooled age groups plotted and connected via straight lines.)· The exact percentile reported was dependent on sample size. 5th or 15th percentile. subjects were grouped into 8 yearly age groups. Where (N) was small «20) 15th and 85th percentiles were more meaningful.

40 . A ~tatiscal summary of-the data for one year age intervals together with a graphical presentation of the data are given for combined sexes. Items 3 and 4 are then sequentially repeated for the same test in a different test position (span. the standard deviation (5 ). the minimum. and maximum values. and instructions to the subject. 85th or 95th percentile. for the 33 linkage measurements. 3) A statistical tabulation of the data including the sample size (N). The data are presented for linkage measurements in a similiar format.and in many cases.1 RESULTS Description of Data Presentation The following sections present a summary of the data. consists of: 1) A description of the test. and elbow flexion/ extension strength tests at different joint positions. . adjustment of the equipment. 3 hand strength tests at different spans. angle). tabulated by one year intervals. the anthropometric measurements taken.0 3.3.a drawing which illustrates the movement is included for clarity. 4) Scatter plot of the data. with both sexes combined. x median. 5th or 15th percentile. the mean (X). 2) A photograph of the subject performing the test. The data section is arranged in modules Each module corresponding to a general test or measurement. Infor- mation on the interpretation of the strength data is contained in the next section. The thirty three two-page modules contain a definition of how the measurement was taken along with a photograph or illustration of the measurement.

(Kgf-cm) A kilogram force-centimeter is defined to be the magnitude of torque generated about an axis of rotation due to the action of a force of 1 kilogram force occuring 1 centimeter away at right angles to the axis.1 Interpretation of Strength Data 3.1.3. the strength data are presented in the torque units of kilogram force-centimeter or force I uni ts of kilogram force' (squeeze and pinch tests).80 M/sec ) m TORQUE T = (F) (D) T F o = torque in (Kgf-cm) force in (Kgf) perpendicular distance from force to axis of rotation (ern) 41 .1 Physical Relationships and Units: In the follow- ing tables and graphs.1.1. in terms of Kiloponds: F = (l/g) (m) (a) F = force (Kp or Kgf) mass (Kg) 2 a acceleration (M/sec ) . 1 kilogram at 1 g (acceleration due to gravity).g acceleration due to gravity at the Eart2's surface (9. ponds (Kp) or kilogram force (Kgf) Kilo- is defined to be the magnitude of force required to accelerate a mass of. These two general relation- ships may be summarized along with metric units used in the study as follows: FORCE From Newton's Second Law F = (m) (a) Where: F = force (Newtons) m mass (Kg) 2 a acceleration (M/sec ) or.

806 N 1 Kgf 3. an elbow flexion strength of 300 Kp-cm implies that the forearm can generate an upward force of 10 Kp at 30 cm away from the elbow.1. The following conver- sions may prove useful: 1 Kgf-cm = 1 .UNITS The elbow strength data is presented in the torgue unit of kilogram force-centimeters (Kgf-cm).1.806 N-cm = 0. For example. it may be calculated by dividing the strength value by the distance to the force from the joint center. It is worthwhile to note that these are identical units to kilopond-centiI meters (Kp-cm) since 1 Kgf = 1 Kp. units for the grip strenqth data are in Kiloqram f6rce Conversion to Newtons 1 Kgf =.9. Each strength value is presented as equivaWhen a force or force lent to a force times a distance. = 2.806 in-lbf Notice 1 Kgf-cm is only slightly less than 1 in-lbf which is useful for estimaiing data in English units.09806 N-M 1 Kgf-cm = 0. 30 Kp at 42 . 15 Kp at 20 em.2 or pound force is thus: (Kqf) . component acting at right angles to the limb at a particular point must be known.205 Ibf Torgue: Data expressed in torque units may be in- terpreted via the definition of mechanical torque previously mentioned.Kp-cm 9.

5 describes the criteria in more detail. 3.2 to make an estimate of force capability for a particular age child.1.2 of this report. For example. 2.3 Motivation: Each strength value represents a maximum voluntary effort obtainable through verbal encouragement.second exertion.10 ern.1. lations see Section 4. Also. An estimate of the linkage length can be obtained from'Section 3. exceeding the torque loading capability of a proximal joint may result in a limitation of the strength capability. that strict mathmatical interpretation of torque may be erroneous for extremes of force and distance.1. and so on. the data indicate. In such cases a limitation of capability may be imposed by considerations other than absolute muscle strength.4 Strength Criteria: Each strength value is the interv~l.1. Section 2. It must be recognized that the child is capable of stronger efforts than. average torque measured over a one second This one second is selected as the one second interval which has the greatest average value of all possible contiguous one second intervals in a five . especially in an excited psychological state. very high loading press~re on the soft tissue can cause pain and thereby limit the strength capability. Section 43 . 3. however. For sample calcuIt must be kept in mind.8 of this report des- cribes in detail motivation used in this study.

Figure 20 shows a sub- ject in the anatomic position with illustration of the sagittal.3.5 Photograph of Test: A photograph of a child performing the test is presented to illustrate both the position of the child and the relevant straps on the fixture.7 Test position: The body position is described with respect to the anatomic position and joint angles are defined as zero in the anatomic position but with the wrists pronated so that the palms face the thighs. All joint angles are defined to be zero when the subject assumes the anatomic position and rotates his wrist so that the palms face the thighs.1.1. coronal.6 Description of the Tests: A precise anatomic definition.1.1. 3. 44 .8 Anthropometric Measurement: These measurements are obtained in order to adjust ~he size of the strength chair. only relevant joint positions for that limb are given.1. 3.1. 3. The photographs are not intended to have any im- plications of the subject's motivation.2.1. Grip and pinch tests are obtained with the right upper extremity unrestrained. These measurements are described in detail in Section 3. The rest of the body remains in the standard test position as shown in Figures 4 and 5. and transverse planes together with their axes: Figure 21 contains definitions of terms used. For a series / of tests pertaining to one limb. of the strengths being measured is given with respect to the anatomic position.1.

was plotted against age.clariThe topic fy the description of the test by illustrating.1.1. This section contains a condensed and stylized version of these instructions and does not reflect attempts to motivate the child.1.9 Adjustment of Equipment: The adjustment procedure necessary to fit the strength chair to is given.10 Instructions to the Subject: The specific test instructions are given to the subject depending upon his or her level of comprehension. 3.8. and forearm length appear in Section 3.1.1. The data are represented by age groups from 2 1/2 to 10 1/2 years. The 15th and 85th percentiles . weight.1. with some exaggeration. against height.were reported since the sample size in some age groups was insufficient to obtain a 5th or 95th percentile. 3.as is conveniently done.11 Sketch of Test: A drawing is presented to.12 Statistical Data: The page heading consists of a test name and a joint angle position as shown in the index.4.1. 3.1. of motivation is discussed in Section 2. a particular child This is intended to help describe the system of body restraints provided by the strength chair.1. The scales are expandea to preserve the resolution 45 .3. 3.1.3. the motion attempted in perfnrming the test.13 Graphs: The data is presented also as scatter Elbow strength Plots plots of the individual strength values.

the location of force. . Grip strength.between individual points and therefore care must be taken when comparing graphs.14 Multiple Positions: tables and plots of larger elbow angles. Also included in this section is elbow flexion and extension strength plotted against elbow joint angle. 3 em.2. However.3. Note that both elbow flexion and extension were measured in all positions except 180 0 where only flexion was measured. These plots appear in Section 3. weight. 3.. graphs at various pooled age groups are summarized across elbow position in Section 3.. Other Variables: Included in this section are plots of elbow flexion and extension vs. The purpose is meant to b~ for convenience and not to { imply a first order fit is the best for the data. body weight.1.3.15 Strength vs. Subsequent pages contain Means from these 3.1.since this is a commom lever arm in work performed by the hand. subject height.4. in addition to the individual data points. and the sum of the radial and carpal linkages. scatter plots are used similiarto previous sections. and forearm linkage. This line 46 . is labeled "Trend" on the graphs. and the angle formed by the force vector with the center-lin~ of the trans- ducer are plotted against age for each setting of the transducer (2 em.1. a linear regression line has been calculated and drawn in to fit the data. ).1. In the graphs involving height.

47 .

ILONGITUDINAL lAXIS ~ -------- SAGITTAL AXIS ~QR_O~~L AXIS ol>o co CORONAL PLANE SAGITTAL PLANE TRANSVERSE PLANE ANTERIOR POSTERIOR MEDIAL LATERAl INFERIOR Figure 20 Anatomic Planes. . Axes. and Directions :.

. . . . . . . . . . 5. 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 ~ Standing Height .. . .. . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .""'-. . . . . . . 20. . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . 4. . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 24. . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . .r' - LINKAGE MEASUREMENTS Index of Linkage Measurements Page 51 53 55 57 59 .-. . • . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 109 111 113 115 117 Outside Proximal Phalangeal Outside Middle Phalangeal Outside Distal Phalangeal Outside Gr ip Diameter Inside Grip Diameter 49 . . . . . . . . 21. . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . 13. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . Hand Breadth at Thumb Finger Breadth at Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Finger Breadth at Distal Interphalangeal Joint Hand Leng th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. .1 Measurement 1. . 34. . . . . . . . .2. . 101 103 Distal Phalangeal • . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. Carpal Radial Humeral Sacral Cervical F emo r a 1 Tibial Tarsal Clavical Pelvic Wrist Breadth Hand Breadth Thoracolumbar. 61 63 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Middle Finger Length Wrist Thickness . . . . . . Metacarpal Phalangeal Joint Thickness Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Thickness Distal Interphalangeal Joint Thickness Third Phalanx Proximal Phalangeal Middle Phalangeal Outside Carpal 17. . . . . . . • . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .~. . .. . . . . .~ Body Weight . 18. . . . . . . . . . . 6.3. . . . . 15. . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . 14. . .. . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7. . . .. . . . . . . 22. . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CERVICAL HUMERAL HEIGHT o Ul ~ CLAVICAL t PELVIC THORACOLUMBAR RADIAL CARPAL SACRAL fTpEMORAL BODY WEIGHT IJ61t I "\' '{ ~"fI .

. I ...)~ .. .) ~j ~.~ .- .... . ... . t ~: ~ ~g 50 b _ _ L.

.

~-- page blank 1 ._. 51 ! Preceding .TION: Measure the perpendicular distance from the floor to the vertex with the child standing in bare feet or socks.STANDING HEIGHT DESCRIP.

3 102. . . ..6 7.1 118. 4 1qa. II I. I.5-5.. :.5 s.2 Iii n Fl8.:) z 120.. ..5-6.5 5. ~ '. ' ..th 104." . .1 93. .' • . .4 127.'" ' .9 110. 80...5 5.2 95. ' . L&J ~ I.. .00 .. .6 102. :.00 .' . 4. .0 124.0 139.d.0 H5. .00' 90. I' ....0 113. .:'.2 132. \ I . .5 31 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 97..5 9. '. . 1/ ..8 122.9 1'2. .. . 2 3' S 6 7 B 9 10 1 AGE (YEARS) 52 . .0 124. :' ..5 4. ~ . . :. .. .0 117. I I c z a: U) ~ 100.5.5 1013. ' .8 1.1 .2 102.00 " • • • " ..00 . 1 111. ..5-q. '.00 150. : " ~ ...' .5 9. " 'I .8 50th 96.1 5. . . .:) ~ ~ 130.STANDING HEIG'flT (elR) (!'1ales and Females) Age (yrs) N ~ean 2...' ..3 94. .7 104.... . .. B 121. ."':: . ' •• ' <..3....: -. :1_..'.4 125. " .9. 5 121 • 3 126... I' '1:" ..00 .5.7 5. " " . .2 151...1 140... : :.33.4 114.3 4...8 6.9 158.6 5th 89.. .2 13 1.3 12 1. 1"0. .5. 7 111..: . • ' ' ' <. . : .4 114." .. . ..j 7.5 13 8...5-10. 9 136. . ..7. ...3 126. ..00 110.0 125.6 103.. a 133.5-8. 6 l"I ax 104.3 99.6 101..5 4..:.. ... ...0 180.00 " ' ~ ..5 6.5 3.

The difference between the two readings. 53 .BODY WETGHT DESCRIPTION: Seat subject on back side of chair with shoes off. the child's weight. Computer records voltage output from all four load cells supporting the chair.the subject from chair. is displayed on the graphics terminal and is stored. Remove. Computer similarily records empty chair weight.

..00+----+---~--_+--- 5 8 7 RGE (YERRS) .5 q.5 19. ..6 ')Oth 15.4 16......9 1 ().2 2 0...5-6.6 19...5 9...5...6 so....6 42...OO ..5 .. -... _ .0 4.1 .0 33..2 16.2 19...5-8...3 2'). ..... 8 CD o • • 28..9 16... 00 IQ. ...... .. .00 •• -I' ..1 34. . . • 0 • ~ ._ 1 8 9 10 11 54 ..9 24.0 2. 0" ....2 26._ _ f . . ) . . ." --:. : .... .. ...5 3..2 30.3 14....4 3. " ." )- 0 . . o • 0 .5-4. :: .. o 'I. 10.. ... 2 -. 6 2.. . ....8 23._ _ _ l t _ _ .00 . ..7 21...5 22.2 1. ~ .5 18.. ~...6 9')tb 17.5 39.5-10...3 30..5 28.. :.. " -.. b Age (yrs) N !'lean 2. .5 6. I ...00 18..2 13. ._ .1 41.. • . .. I' . ... ..7 26. . 5..BODY WEIGHT (''I a (kg) les and Fellales) lIIin 11...7 30.: .. ... . ...8 1. 15.. .. .5-1 :"5 7.5 31 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 s... .. .7 23. .1 25....... . .7 5th 11. ••: •••: .5 /1... _. ...4 37...5..o .. ..0 15. .. .2 15. . 5....3 16.9. .d. ..9 !'lax 18. .eJ I ~ .._ + _ . .. . .6 44. ' " ..8 20.0 24.. .5-3...3 25.4 15.•..2 20.4 4. . .0 31.. 0: C) ~ 31&...4 29..... . ...0 19.. -.. .~..

CARPAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the wrist (radiocarpal joint center) to the third knuckle (third carpophalangeal joint center) . 0 1 55 .

8 4.. ... .4 4.4 8.0 6..CARPAL LINKAGE (cm) (!'Iales and Females) Age (yrs) N 2.d.4 95th 4.7 5th 3...6 5.7 0...0 7.7 3..5 :fa 45 44 49 46 52 42 Pilea n 4•1 s.0 6.3 4.9..5. .7 6.9 4. . . ..8 3. ..8 7.8 6..5 C. .. " u .2 0..8 5.5 6.5 4.. . . 1 4.6 4.. .9 7.00 a: ~ Q..00 2. .. . .5 0.5 0. .0 Max 6.0 5.8 3.5 45 6. ..5 5.0 5...4 4. 00 3.5 9. '..5 0..5 9.A 5.5-6.5 3. 5.... .0 7....J . .9 2. .3 6.:) 6..6 50th 3.2 7.5-7... . 5. 5-8:"5 8.. .00+---_+--~~--+_--_+--___1l__--+_--_+_-.3.5 3. . _ .00 .00 7.J ~ "" t.5 0. .. .2 4.. . . 1 5.0 0.8 4.5-10.8 8.8 4. -.. . . .0 3.. . . a: .5-5..5-..~1__-­ 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 AGE (YEARS) 56 ..5-4.1 4.00 8.. . ~in 4..6 0....00 . .. . .2 5. .8 5..6 6 •..2 5.4 4. - .

RADIAL L"INKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the elbow joint thurnero-ulnar joint center}' to the wrist (radiocarpal joint center). II 57 .

. ' .. .J . . . ... II" a: a: 16. .. . '..... . a: o .:.' \ ... . . 10... ': \ • :.'.. " ~ ' I. ':'. I ::. . I •• . ' ..J ~ z ~ 19.....25.. 13.. = .1. ... " 58 .. ... . .. ... I. .' . .. ..00 L&J ..... II II..... .. I. .' • I . . . . .00 22. II . .00 " .00 .....00 .' ..'.: ': . .'-:•• " "... • I' .00 +----+----+-----il----+----+----+---+---t-----of 8 3 5 6 7 2 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) ....

HUMERAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint center) to the elbow joint (humero-ulnar joint center) . I I ) \ ) U \ 59 .

61 .. I ..~0 9.33 :...1 "..•• ~ a: a:: z: :::> r L&J .J a: Co:) L&J 23. .9 30.7 21.7 1.00 3.2 19. ..' . I .1 25.0 21.6 16.8 1. .. 1 15.3 1 q.67 z .d..2 11.5-6...5-8. .4 22.5-10.5 49 6. .6 1. I ..5 16. .5 3. .80 5.7 24.. ') 52 A.8 ".33 .. g.5 42 9.' -. .5 19. .. : .GE (em) (l1ales and Felllales) Age (yrs) N t'lean s.2 15. (. ..2 15.'".60 7...0 CJ5th 16.4 22. . . 1 22. ' . • .HU!'IERAL L! NU..9 2.. .6 17.3 24...'.:: .7 20.7 21.20 11.0 17..00 " • • II '.. ..5 18. 1.. . ":l 11.4 1 B.e..5 45 31 45 44 14.3 1. : ..'.5 )46 7.5 5. 9 "lax . .5-4. I ".. .6 ' 111.3 50th 14...3 13. .1 21. '. 3 21.8 5th 11 • 3 12.7 18.' 16.6 1.5-5.. :.2 17...2 19. I. • •• " ..2 14.. !'lin 13.J .. ..-.4 1q.'-:-----::-t:::-----::-t:-------+----:---t-------l 2.. 1 17. 10. .. ".' ." • . I .. .5." " .4 25. . 13. ..9.00 26..2 19..2 1.'.7. ' .00 t. . 5. 20.7 22..5 4. ':. 1 14.5 1... " I ' ":. .5-].".00 AGE (YEARS) 60 .. • '. .5 25..

SACRAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the hip joint (femoral head) "hip top (crest of ilium). to the J\ J~ ------- 61 .

.5-6.00 a: .5 4..J cr x z <.6 6..2 5.9 5th 4.. 1..5 9.3 8.00 l.0 7.0 50th 4.qe (yrs) N Mean 2.3 9.3 5.00 a:: u a: (f) 8.6 .8 1.' : It.7 95th 6..SACRAL LINUGE {c.8 .00 +----+---+----+---t----+-----lr----t-----I---.6 4.2 8.4 6..5 6. Max 7. ' .3 6.'j 6.2 5.. !'lin A.5.6 4.0 3.6 8. 00 2.2 .6 q. .5 1•1 1.5 5.- .5 7.9 5.4 5.. .5.3 4.9 0.8 9.8 4.. !' . ...5 1.3 1.5 7.3 1.5 7.5-4. .5-7.9 8. " - . •1 7.0 3.5-5.1 9.. ) ("liil €s and Fe Dla les) s.' .9 10. 1..4 7. .d..8.1 5.&J 10.5 'j..5-10..5 f3. " ..:) 8.0 4.' .0 .S-Q.9 10...00 12.6 1.00 .J '.4 5..7 6. 13.4 9.3 111..5 31 qq 44 49 4£ 52 42 45 5.5 7. .3 4.2 7..3.1 11. 2 3 II 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 62 .

..--. .. -1". -." j' ~~~ '.'\ ! ~' -- .. '.. /' . .~ \1'I~ .\.. 'p. 63 . 'l\'" . ...THORACOLUMBAR LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the hip top (crest of the ilium) to the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint center) .' ..".~ 1 : .: - .~ "r.~ .

B 22. " . .5.9 20..8 20...00 : .00 90.5-4.. •••• " .5-7. .4 19.' .8 32.'.0 2..5-9.... II \.4 20.5 N ~ean s.5 24.5 4.5 21.r1. " " .0 24. ..4 27..00 .2 35. I) 6.8 26.8 27. " I' •• ' • .3 22.5-5.5 211. : . .3.5 3. l1in 31 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 18.4 29.9 26. 25.. I.4 20.3 2.4 Max 26. . .5 8.6 19..00 10.5 5.7 18..9 20.5.7 2..6 2. . . " '.3 26. . .8 25. ..7 21.1 2.6.. .' ..2 31.1.9 95th 21. ~ II ••• : • .5 9.7 50th 19.6 28.4 16. .00 ' -' . 2.TRORACOLU"B~R lIlfHGE (CIII) (!'Iales and Females) Age (yrs) 2.' 15. . . ' -' " a: a: m ~ 20.5. .2 24.0 29. .9 22.3 20.3 27.3 33.9 22.: I" •• " Z :lIC a: '" LLI " . :. .1 14. : '.1 25.5-8.00 +----+----+---t----+----+----+---t----+----i 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE CYEARS) 64 .0 23. .' . : " . 7.3 16..8 2.4 14.:.1 . • "" .9 16.8 2 O.2 2. . 5 5th 14. .2 26.5-10.0 30.3 16. : .

65 .CERVICAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint center) to the ear canal (external auditory meatus).

9 9. .00 .J .CERVICAL tI NUGE ~ge (ell) ( "ales and Females) (yrs) 2.6 15.3 13. .1 9. . 00 . .8 13. .0 14.5 3.7 15.00 20. 5 13.5-8.2 10.4 13. .5.5 !!in 9. . 8.7 14.. 5. .6 12.7 1.8 19. . .9 13.3 17.0 19..5 7.5. 1. .3 16. 1 "9.6 10.00 w > W a: a: lLJ .00 lLJ . 10.3 1.8 15. .4 17.. '.0 9. 12.\ .4 QSth 13. .' .. " .7 '.. .00 I .3 5th 9.7 12.'.d. .6 Max 13.. " . " " .9 14. ' . ." " ..J a: ~ z ~ 16.0 18. .. Ill.5-7.. . .4 22. 5 9.9 13.5 4. ' . ...3 17. ~ " 18. 1 13.9.4 111.6 16.8 16.1 18.5 16. : . .5-6.4 1•q 1.5 17.0 9.3.4 12. .11.] 13.. .3 50th 1 1.00 : ..3 31 45 44 49 {~ 42 45 s.3 10.5-5.9 1 • "] 1.5 20.5 N Mean 11.5 6.5 B.1 20.5 5.00 2 -" 3 5 6 7 e 9 10 1 AGE (YEARS) 66 .6 19.5-10.2 19.

FEMORAL LINKAGE ~ESCRIPTION: Measure from the hip joint to the knee joint (femorotibial joint center). 67 .

68 .4 2.7 27.5-6. I..6 s.J . 1 \ ..2 22.1 30. 1 ' II .5 46 7.- ..8 l'Iax 2?O 34.4 31.2 31. • ..9 32.3 30. .5. B 19.3 22.3 35. I' 0.1 35. :- . 21. " #.1 28.5 44 5..00 o .5 22.0 24. 27....5 25... I •••' 't . ' . • •• ••1 • • I.9 1.1 31.5 45 4.00 I. .5 45 21..7 21t.5..5 23.. " " 15. .00 .8 2." . o . '" • • .5-10.. . '. .0 21.6 32. • .) ("'ales and Females) (yrs) N l'Iean 2. ' • '.1 19.8 39...3 29. • I" " .5 49 6. OO+----+---~I--'---+---_+--~I__'_--+_--_+--__il__'_-__i 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) . .7 27.5 31 3..9 95th 23.1 "'in 11.4 26.B 1.'.4 1&5.2 2.PE!OlUL LlIUr:AGE Age (c.LJ lL. I.4 37.5 25.' . • : .5-3.5 5th 11.9 25. I' . .1 26..LJ " z . .7 28.2 25.6 25. ::.J ~ c.5 50th 21. .5.3 30. ~ . ..5 33. 1.9 1.2 22.B.9 26. " • .' • " " .:l 33.5-4. a: a:: I. .~ : . 5 42 9.5. . \ .4 30.5 33.7..3 25.:. 5 "'52 8.00 ". ' . I' • •• f : '" .5.8 24.(). • II.00 39.d.8 2.5 29...

TIBIAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the ankle joint (tibiotarsal joint center) to the knee joint (femorotibial joint center). 69 .

' ..7 23. 3 21 . ..5-6. .6 1.....6 28.2 s.5 31 45 44 49 46 i "'5 2 42 QS 32. " .. .. . .. ..5 23.8 24.5 32..00 ~ z .9 16.5 37. . .9 28.0 31.. . .1 " ':. '. .0 20.4 26. :.1 2.: : .2 24..9 2.00 .. .0 30. .5-1..5.1 1. . -.6 !'lax 23... -. .5 1 • 5 .2 21.2 25.1 18.2 110..5 IHn 16. UJ -1 ex: 30.. ' " '::..5 5..00 +----+----t---t---+----+-------lf----+----+-----f 2 6 7 5 e 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 70 -- .5 21. . ~ . 15.9 25..5 30..0 24..0 21. 5-4. " .9 27.8 36." • to . :. . I.5 30. .00 .. " " " .8 21...ge (yrs) N Plean 20. 2.. . . . " " . 23..1 95th 23. ..1) 6..6 29.': . . .' . :...0 2.9 27. " ..2 18.TIBIAL LIRUGE (ell ) (Males and Fellales) f>. .5 J. t.6 33.7 24..5.:" .5-3.t. .4 31. " ..B• S IL5-9. 30. .2 2.5 :>6. ex: -1 CD 25.9 1. ': ~ .' .d..5 28..1 26.4 23.5 9.9 ~4.00 35.00 " a .7 26. . .5 4.4 23. '.8 5th '50th 19. 20.2 1....: I. . ".: ' . .. . 1 24. ' I..5-10.

~I 71 .TARSAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the ball of the foot (first tarsophalangeal joint center) to ankle joint (tibiotarsal joint center).

. " • II .5 6. .OO " ..] 10.' . '\ .' " ' •• ' " 't '.0 9. • ... "'in 6.5 46 7. . .1 8.0 12.••.5 "'52 8.' \ " • II • II.6 31 2. . ..9\'.9 11..8 11.9 9..' • I' • I. .5-4. •0 0.5 45 7.1 6.'. .6 9.2 6.5 49 5.' . .00 • .8 8. '. •• .00+----+----+----+----+---+---+----+-----lf---8 2 3 5 9 10 1 72 . .9 8. "' . 1 1..0 1.5 3. . • I I ...9 8. II': . I.5-9. I'':.00 17.-..5-6.'... .9 1.8.2 50th 1. . " .0 10.2 20.8 7.5.'f! TAR SA L LINU.1 15.'.4 1.8 8.5 45 44 4. . 11.GE (ell ) 5th 6. .0 1.4 13. I .2..5 42 9.5 10.:. :: I" : 1..5.4 12.9 . • I.: ...3 10.5.'.4 9...6 14.d.00 II .2 10.. 0..7. " .5. .6 11. .' 8.00 1~. 1 13.6 !'lax 9. . ••••••• • • t- ~ II • •• " .5 9.8 7.9 8.7 10.0 12. 7 11 ..4 9.. I .4 8.6 8.. " 5.4 14.6 (I''1ales and Fellales) Age (yrs) N "'ean s. . ' I. • '. .3.2 11..5-10.8 7. " .6 7.5 95th 9. • . . . • I' • I.' I.4 11.5. . . " .6 11.5 10." . '.

73 .CLAVICLE LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the left shoulder joint (left glenohumeral joint) to the right shoulder joint (right glenohumeral joint center). Subject standing.

....5 1.1 . . . '. . .9 14.5. ..5 46 7. II '. :e..8 20.7 12.' .._..d..1 16.2 21.00 . •• u u a: ~ 18.5.6 '9.7 s.6 1.I . 1 16.5 12.'.1 21. 1 1 ... II 11£.9 15..J .3 14. ..5 45 4.' • ..5 44 5...7 17. II II .. II..8 17. II . II • II' ': . '.2 17.. ..OO+2-----I----+----iSI----·+6----f7---e+----+9---1+-O----i1: AGE (YEARS) 74 .00 z .9· 14.5-10.2 20....'. 1 .5 45 Mean 14. . • .5 42 9. • •••• II II • • .0 !'lin 5th 1 1.8 fA... :'\ • :.. '.. ' .5 .... . I' " .5-8._1 ..5 50th 14.6 18. • .3 15.. : .5 16..2 15.2 15.. II II 11'1 II • II II II II II II .. . .... ••••• II 10.9 12..: • 0' .9 25. .0 22.7 21.2 11. II .2 20. II :..00 II -I " ~ ..4 16. • • .00 .3.3 19.: • '. 1 19.5-6. . . :.52 8. .1 .5.3 1~6 1.5 17.7 r'lax so..6 22...3 19. ".0 • II I I ' . ':..5 21.7 24...4 20..8 17. I . . • ' .. II' .7 15.1 19. II' II _.5 23..4 95th H.7 2. o .-' ~ II II '.." I.. . .5 49 6...8 22. .5-4.J C) I. ~. . .5 31 3..CLAVICAL LINKAGE (em) (~ales and Females) Age (yrs) N 2. ...iJ a: x 22... 00 26.3 17.0 1.B n. ' . .5-9..6 2. .5-1.. .

...::::~-::. : . . ': ..." . ·4 .•. ~I 75 .PELVIC LINKAGE· DESCRIPTION: Measure from the left hip joint (left femoral head) to the right hip joint (right femoral head)..:::::::: " . . . . Subject standing . .... : :.

5 23.. . o • 10.5.0 11...1 14.9 22.5-6.7 2.0 18. ".2 17... .5-10. . . :. .2 2..4 13.J U LLf z > ~ 20. I. ..8 16. . .2 CiOth 13.. 1 14.00 25..4 15.5 6. • ..8 17. . ~ .5 7..3 18.6 19. 0 • o " '.6 15.7 13. 0 0 ...5 9.: '0 00 o o.. • . . o . " . '.2 15.5-3.3 14." . " . Min 10.5 2. o o.8 18..2 17...PELVIC LINKAGE (em) (I'Iales and Fellales) Age (yrs) N ~ean s. . '.0 17. . .:: o I" ' o " '" " ". • .5 '3.2 14..9 14.7 5th 10. '". .5 3.8 1...1 25.' .5 4.4 21.00 o '" .9 11. ' • • ' "1 .3 11. .9." : "': .' " '0 "I • .' o I 0 •0 • a.4 2. . ·0 " .. " .' .5 31 45 44 119 ..0 15..0 10...9 23.7 11.8 1.1 !'lax 17.5 16.~' • o• 00 ".' ":. ".5-8.".4 19. -. II '.5-11.4 15.1 1.3 12.1 24...1 2. ..9 18..'c' .5-7.00 5.5 5.:-" . .00 . o " " •• : " . .8 22. 0 ".Q 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 76 .1 12.7 1.9 18. 15..00 o .2 10. .. ".3 13.d.2 19. .oot---""!---+---+---+---+---+---+---+--~ 2 3 . 46 52 42 _5 13. ".7 30.8 95th 15..5-5.

WRIST BREADTH DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum width of the wrist across the radius and ulna at the distal end of the radius and ulna. 77 .

4 4.9 4.6 ..5 3.6 .5 _45 5. ..8. ...2 3.. 3.5 5..3 4.5 3.. J "in 3.5 .1 3..1 5.5 6.3 4. . 0.2 3. .oo .3 0..5 42 45 9..5 3...5 3.5.4 4.0 0.5.00 ~ ii en a:: :z: L&J cz: ~.5.5.3 3.9 4.5-10... 31 45 ijij 49 52 6.2 !'lax 4.d.9.50 ~.-.00 +---+---+----+----+----+----+----+-.:.IIIIS'! BIH'ADTH (em) (P'lales and Females) Age (rrs) 2.50 ..7 0.8 50th 3.. 3.. ..6.3 4.50 c ~ z: 5.5-1.8 4.1 4.5 4.5 7..1 4. .2 5.2 4.1 3.9 4.2 0.7 3.6 3.1 5th 3.00 5.5 3.5 0.8 3..3 3.--+-----1 2 3 8 5 9 10 78 .5 4.5 5. 1 4.5-5.2 4. 3.6 3..2 4. 1 4.6 3.3 4. O.4 95th 3. •.6 5.9 0.2 3.2 4. .8 4.5 ~.5 N Mean s. 3.4.3. 1 4.

79 . adducted.HAND BREADTH AT THUMB DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum width of the hand at the second knuckle of the thumb (metacarpal-phalangeal joint of phalanx I) with the thumb fully .

6 50th 5.. . ..5-3.5 3.4 7. 1 8.. ...... •• '1" . .5 5..7 7.4 5...5 5.5 7. . . 1 8.00 ~ a: ~ : I . ..4 10. ... ._ . .HAND Age BRF~DTB-THUPIB (ell) (I'lales and Fellales) (yrs) N !'lean s. 1..1 7. .00 . ..1 4.2 7.d. . I '•• 1 I.4 5.. ..3 95th 6.5 0..8 6. _ •• o 00 • • 0 .00 8. .1 6. ..5 0.4 7.00 :c ttt0 a3 ~ ~ 7.. ....00 8.. .. . -..... II... ..oo 3.. 0 .9 10 11 RGE (YERRS) 80 . :'. ......0 7....5 6. " . 6. . ..: .. .' ...4 1.1 7.5 4. 1 5. . .6 3..3 5... '::......00 2.. •• .6 0.. II.3 7..6 7.8 6. . lfi z %: 0 5.6 5....I.5-6.....1 6..5 0.5..5-8..5 6......5 0...00 2 3 6 7 8 . !'lin 2..7 8...0 7. . . o 00 0 0 • • 0 o a: 'l..3 6. .....0 6.._ .5-4.46 51 42 45 5..9... .. .. .5 9.. .2 6..5... a: w . .6 6.. .5 5..8 6... . I' ... .. ..7 !'lax 6. .5 31 45 44 49 . .6 8.I.1 6.6 9.4 0.5-7..5 0.00 6.. I II _ .3 8.5 9.. .6 5th 4. ..5-10..4 0.0 . .9 5. .5.5 5...9 6.. . .. ...5 7..5 5. .

.~'lr~~' 81 . :..HAND BREADTH DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum width of the hand at the third knuckle of the first finger (metacarpal phalangeal joint center of phalanx II).

7 6.5 45 4.00 +----t----+----+----+----+-..3 6.5 5.5 44 5.5-9.9 4.4 0.5-6.3 0. .3 5...50 .5 42 9.5-3.3 0.2 5.6 5.10.2 4.4... 5.6 6.4 5.2 6~5 7...9 6.5.4 7.9 4.4 5..5 4..) (!!ales and Felllales) N Age (yrs) . 0.HilI: Ell! H'TR cc.7 5.5 6.5 .0 6.8 95th 5.4 0. 52 8. .5 5.5-5.9 4.. ~.5 45 Mean 4..00 7.3 6.8 6.5.5 6.00 5.0 7.5 5.2 PI ax 5.1 8.5 5th 4.9 s.0 5.2 5.00 6..8 5.' ~ ::z::: .50 '...5 5.8 7. 2.0 6.3 4.9 5.4 0." c ~ ::z::: L4J CD a: a:::: c 8.5 49 6. . ' .5-7.5 46 7.1 5.0 5. .3 6...8.4 Min 4.00 '. .3 0.B 4.4 0..9 6.6 5.2 4.5 31 3. .--+----+----+-----l 7 8 2 S 5 6 10 11 9 AGE CYEARS) 82 .d.50 7.6 50th 4.

FINGER BREADTH AT PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT DESCRIPTION: Measure . 83 .the maximum width of the second finger at the second knuckle (proximal interphalangeal joint center of phalanx III).

..6 1.5-3.4 1.... Max 1.5 45 .....3 1..80 ••• I" • ..5-4. 1 • • • _.5-7..6 ".0 1.5 '"52 1:\.00 1..1 O..2 1.2 1.2 1.....9 1.....0 1.2 0.5-6. e l- ::I: ~ m a::: a::: 0.0 1.~O 1.4 1...3 1.5-5. • 1 1..00 ...~O z ~ ~ u..4 1...4 1.0 1...FIHGFR-BREADTB-PROXI~AL (~ales a~nd IRTEBPHALANGEAL JOINT Females) P1in 0..... • • - • _ I •• ....5 1. ..3 1..2 1.00 2 3 5 6 7 AGE (YEARS) e 9 10 11 "- 84 .5 45 44 4. z 0 Q.0 .20 0..4 95th 1. 0.. Q.2 1. d..5 31 3...3 1..1 1.80 0....5-10. _..2 1.7 1. 1 0.......1 O.9 1.N f'Iean 1...2 50th 1...5 46 "'.2 5th 0. 1 0.80 I- ...7 2.2 1.20 1.. 2 1.5 48 6. 0.4 1.... • ••• ••••• • I- a:: a:: 1.3 1..6 1." O.. b Age (yrs) .7 1.9.1 1..1 2.5 42 9.4 '1.5..5 1•5 1• 5 1. 3 0.3 1.80 O.8.. ..5 5.0 1• 1 1..~ s.5.._ . 1..

FINGER BREADTH AT DISTAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum width of the second finger at the first knuckle (distal interphalangeal joint center of phalanx III). 85 .

3 1.1 O.2 1. 1 1.5.2 .0 5th 0.1 1...5 31 45 44 49 46 "'51 1.5-7.1 1.0 0..5 1.4 1..0 1. . 1. .0 1• .. 95th 1. II 1..1..5. 5-10.4 1 .5-3. 0.2 1.0 1.9 1... 5 q..3 1.. 1 0..q . 1 1...0 1..5-8.4 !'lax 1.5 8.5 .8 0.8 0.1 0.0 0..1 0.4 1.9 O. 2 1.0 '.5 4. •5 . .3 1.2 s.5-6.5 3.... _ . .d. 5 5.8 0.5 7.2 1.. .9. 1.5 6.3 1.9 1.3 1.5-4.TEBPH HANG EAL JOINT (l'Iales and Felllales) Age (yrs) N !'lean 2..1 1.. .2 1.50th 1.1 o.5.9 1...5 1.11 .. • __ _ _ •• _ to . .1 0..2 42 f15 '... 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 86 .0 1.0 0. 1 l'Ilin 0.... _--_.3 1.. .FINGEF BR U DTH-DI STAL IN. ..

' \ \~'''.HAND LENGTH DESCRIPTION: Measure from the wrist (radiocarpal joint center) to the tip of the second finger (phalanx III). .' \: M . v'.. \..'''' ' .._.. ..: •• 87 . 1... All fingers and thumb are fully adducted and extended.-.. ' (·_ .

5-5.. 5.00 16.. .00+----+-. . . ..1 9.5 42 9.5 15.8 0. 1 l"Iin 8.2 14.00 12.6 12.5 ..4 1]. . .HA RD L!RG'fH LIUAG! (c.. .8 0...5-1. q' 10.3 12.. ..0 14.5 11.3.1 !'lax 12.. '.4 14.5 45 10. ..9 15..-j~--+_--_+_--_+--__+---t_-__t 2 S 5 6 7 e 9 10 11 AGE CYEARS) 88 .5 31 ].9 13... . .I •• o 0' " \. I:. • ~ • • ' ••••••• .. •.. .2 14.9 11..2 12. e 12.. .9 5th B.5 i 1..' :. 2. . ... II ..6 15..9 0.2 12.00 .4 11 • 1 12.2 14. . .5. 1 12.9 13.:.1 O.: ~. . : '.9 11.9 13. .2 13.7 9. . ..5 14...5 46 7.9 10. ... . .. . -.1 11.7 0.. ..d. .4 12. .52 ~. .5-10.. .5 44 5.4 10... .. ::.8 1. .0 50th 10. . .8.00 8..4 11." ...6 12.5-9.5 49 6. .5 18..6 0. .5-6..4 16.0 13. ...5-4.5 45 4.9 10.1 • • ' 10.) (!'Ial es and Felllales) hge (yrs) N !'lean s. . .0 14.. o • • 0 ..--+--..0 12. .5 95th 11..8 11.q 0. . " ...9 13.

..'-. 89 .:'. ~. . ' .. ---'''''~~ '.' '~. i . ". -.'. ~.MIDDLE FINGER LENGTH DESCRIPTION: Measure from the palmer skinfold of the second finger (phalanx III) to the tip of the second finger (phalanx III)..". ~ ". (. . .' . "~ ~ . .:~.

..9 7.00 6.. ..8 6.5..4 0. .til DOLE FINGER LENGTH (em) ("!ales and Females) Age (yrs) N ~ean s.9 5.4 0.5-q.5 6.5 8.5-10. . II • .00 3...O 9.4 B.. ..· . . ..8 4.R 4... ..3 0.4 6.4 q.6 5th 3.2 5..9. .q 5.1 5.1 6..3 6.3 2.00 5... .. .7 5. /'lin 3..5 3. .5..4 0.... · .5 9..2 6. . 5. 4.4 0.00+----+-. • . • II · ._ II' II II 1£.9 5... .00 7. • II •• • • • II II •• • I' ••• I II II • II •• • II II II II II . .3.4 0. I..5 0.. II • II • II II II .1 4..00 8..3 6.I-----+---.7 5... .5 7. • II .2 5. 1 5 •..4 50th 4.8 6 • .5-6..3 4.6 5. . ..5 5. •• II II II II' 'I' • • II II II II' II •• •• .1 6.' 5.7 5.1 5.4 4.---+----+-----+---+--~_t 2 3 5 8 9 10 11 90 .4 4.5-1.4 Max 6..3 5. .5 5.. 1 5..8 4. ...7 7. 5 4.5-5..5 4.8 6...4 0.2 95th 5.d.5 31 45 43 49 46 52 1f2 45 q. .3 4.00 • .0 s. .. . 5-q.6 6..

c'~ . . r. :" .~. ".. .-.. .~.~.>~. .- ':.~-.- '~-. . ":~. '. 91 . ..:.WRIST THICKNESS DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum thickness of the wrist (radiocarpal joint center) at the distal end of the radius.. .

00 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) .3 9.5-10. _- 92 .5 . .4 2. 1 3.3 2.8 0.8 50th 2.2 0...00 ~.50 LU en en U .00 . • II..3 3.2 roIax 3.. 5th 2.11 3.3 5) 42 45 0..ii RIST THICKNESS (c III) ( f'lales and Females) Age (yrs) 2.. .7 3.00 • • •• • II .5 8..OO 3. ..9 3.6 2.5 5..50 ~.3 0.5-7.. _.0 3. •• .4 2...5-A. ..5.3 2.1 2..8 3. 2. a= :% 0.d.. 0. .50 2...2 5.2 0.3.5 2.4 2. . . en .8 2. • • ._ .0 3.5..2 30 45 44 49 45 "in 2.5-6.4 3.5 N Mean 2.5 2.2 3..9 3.5 6. .3 s.3 2..4 2.3 3.8 2.00 1.5 3.5 1.5 2.5 11..5-4.2 3.6 2.50 0. 1 3.4 3..7 2.9 2.7 2...6 2.9.. .9 3..50 1.5-5.2 0..2 3. . 7: ~ ~ :lIC z 3.4 2.. ..5 7. 1 3....7 3.. .0 95th 3. .2 0.7 3..2 3.

METACARPAL PHALANGEAL JOINT THICKNESS DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum thickness of. 93 .the third knuckle of the second finger (metacarpal phalangeal joint of phalanx III).

7 1.8 '. .00 3.1 s.5-3.5 49 6..2 0.5 46 7. 5.5 '.2 5th 1.. 1 95th 2.2 0. •4 1.5-5.5-10.8.7 11.4 2.2 1.5 31 3. I •• • • It •• 1.9 2. 2.5-1..3 1.2 0.4 1.0 2. 0.4 2.9 2.8 1... 1 2. .9 1.8 2. a: a: u a: ~ w ~ .8 50th 1.8 1.8 1.00 0.q.50 2..3 1.3 1..50 ~ .5-6.50 3.d.2 0.5.5 "'52 ~.5 45 !'lean 1..2 2.J a: Q.4 1.50 0.8 2.2 2. 5 42 9.6 2.00 ~ ~ z u en en w 2.00 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 94 .2 "'in 1.6 2.2 0.4 2.8 1.1 1.00 1.4 1.4 1.1 2.7 1.6 2..0 2.5 1.9 2.3 0.3 .5-4. 1 2.6 1.5 .5 45 4.2 0..2 !"lax 2.4 1.5 42 5.P!ETACARPAL THICKNESS (ca) (!'Iales and 'ellales) Age Cyrs) N 2.

PROXIMAL. 95 . INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT THICKNESS DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximum thickness of the second knuckle of the second finger (proximal inter~ phalangeal joint of phalanx III).

2 0.5-9.7 1.5-8.00 0.4 0..3 1.6 1.2 50th 1.8 2.PRnXIM..3 1.80 . d •. ..5 3.0 1.B 0. 1 0. .6 1.50 7.. 1 1.1 O. ...2 0..80 0 Cl.U I NTERPHAL ANGE~L JOINT THICKNESS ( "'ales and Females) (em) Age (yrs) N !'!ean s.0 1. LLJ en en Z ~ 1.5-7.1 1. _...00 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 96 .1 O.3 1. -. 1 1.9 1. 1 5th O.6 1...5-ij.2 1.0 1. 1 1.20 0.B 0. 2 1.-.0 1. . -- ... .0 1. 4 95th 1.5 4. z ~ 1.0 1.9 0.20 II •• .80 0.. Cl.- .9 0. _.5 5..1 O..5-10.5 1..9 1. 8. _.ij 1.5 9.1iI.6 ~a..5 31 45 ij4 48 45 51 42 44 1 .. "fin 2.2 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.5-5.1 O.7 1."0 0..0 1... .7 1. . u ~ ~ .2 1.5-3. - -.~ •• •• _. 1 1.3 1.3 1.5-6.2 1.3 1. 0.80 1...4 1..ij 1 • ij 1. 1 0.00 1..x 1 .. ..5 6.

DISTAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT THICKNESS DESCRIPTION: Measure the maximurnthickness of the first knuckle of the second finger (distal interphalangeal joint of phalanx 1111. 97 .

. O.8 50th ..1 0.. .20 1..60 O. .8 0. 1 !'lin 0._.00 2 ·s 8 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 98 ...- _ ." .3 'lax 1.. 1 O.' 0. •1 s.80 1..2 1..3 1.8 0...8 0.5 3.5-6. .00 0.9 0. ~ Z :lC ~ u :z: 1.8 0.. 95th 1.5-1.0 1.9 0. . - CI 0.20 0. . .0 1.- -. 5-9.5-10. .3 1. . .8 0.9 5th 0.--'~ -_ ...5.9 1. .5 44 5.5 45 .0.. 1 0..9 9..2 1.8 O.5 .. O.•5 1...2 1. 43 7.8 0.9 0.~O .80 VI VI I. 5 42 "lean 0.9 0.2 1 ..0 1.5-8.5.1 0.d. 1 0.~O 0.9 0.0 '. z 0 -. .9 0.8 0.DISTU INTERPHAl~NGEAL JOINT THICKNESS (em) ("ales and Females) Age (yrs) N 31 2. Q. 1 1.0 .5 49 6. .-4..0 1. " ' .9 '..8 0..80 -_ -.5-3. .00 1. B 0... ..0 1.5 uS 4..5 52 B. 1 1• 1 1.2 1.8 0.6 2..2 1.q ." ..'.LJ I.1 0.3 '..

THIRD PHALANX DESCRIPTION: Measure from the third knuckle (third carpophalangeal joint center) to the finger tip (distal end of the third phalanx). 99 .

... .6 7..8 6.7 7.5 .5 6.les and le.4 0.1 5th 4.OO±---t---t---.5 0. 1 7.d.. . 1: .5 5.5 31 3.6 7.2 7....4 5. ••• .5 7. ..•• ...5 45 114 4. .5 0. Min !J.. .7 5. . ..8 2. . .5-6. .9 tL .5 5. o • i c z a: 7.8 7.5-4. 1 10.00 x 8..7 6.. . ...0 6.t-----t---+----+---+----+----'-235 6 7 8 9 10 AGE (YEARS) 100 ..8 8. . .7 6.8 7. '£. ..5 7.5 46 7.7 8...5-7.._.5 5.2 50th 5. 9.'.ales) I\ge (yrs) N Mean s.5-8:"5 52 8.0 7.00 .2 6. ..6 7.. .5-9. .5-3.2 7. 1 6..5 49 6.8 !'!ax 8.THIBD PHALlIl LIIUGl (c. 5-H). .) ("a. • • • I" 5..7.00 ..5 6.q ".. . a:: ~ 8.00 .....1 6.. ..00 0- . .. . .8 5.2 0.0 7.. ..00 9.5 6. . .5-5.5 0..6 5.5 0... .42 9.6 0.2 7..5 0. 1 95th 6..0 9. ..9 7.3 7.3 .7 6..7 Q.4 8. 5 45 5..

101 .PROXIMAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the tip of the second finger (phalanx III) to the third knuckle of the second finger (metacarpal~phalangeal joint center of phalanx III) with the finger fully extended.

9 4.00 0...2 3.. 0 00 00 o' -l -l a: t:) W a: -l a: z: Q.50 3.3 0. 0 .00 2.6 3.. .7 3.5.3 0..9..3 0.4 0.5 45 2.6 2.5 42 9.9 2.52 8.9 3..5 3 • 5.9 r'lax 3.5 2.4 0.50 0..7.7 0. .. 0 .7 2.0 1. .1 2.8 • 5 .9 4.5-10.1 3.0 ..3 3.3 95th 2.5.4 3.0 4.3 0.. SO :lE:: w a: t:) 11.5 2..5 3.2 3.00 1.3 0.50 a: 0 ~ -I x a::: Q. Z .~ 3.5 46 7 • 5. 1 3.0 2.5 43 5.50 0.6 2.5 49 6.d.4 2.3 2.. 2. ..9 2.7 4. 3. .4 2.00 2 5 6 7 B 9 10 AGE (YEARS) 102 .0 3. !'lin 31 45 4. 1.9 50th 2. o.Ll 2.9 3.8 5.8 2. .8 2.00 00 ...4 3.. 3 4.. o.5 3.1 2.. 0 z 3. .. •• 0 00 .6 2.5 3.. ..9 2.5 2. .00 II..3.8 3.Ll 5th 2.5.. .5-5. .Ll • 5 2.PRon MAL PHHANGEAL LINK AGE ("'ales and Females) Age (y rs) N (em) r'lean s.5-6.

103 . Measure from the first knuckle of the second finger (distal interphalangeal joint center of phalanx III) to the second knuckle of the second finger (proximal interphalangeal joint center of phalanx III) with the finger fully extended ..MIDDLE PHALANGEAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: .

9 2.5-7.3 2.9 2.5-Q.7 1.2 1.5-10.50 1.2 0.2 0.3 1.2 1.00 0. 1.8.5.1 2.5-5.1 2.8 1.4 1.3 1.5 7..5 6. ~ z .8 3.6 .5 4.00 -J -J lIJ a: a: -J a: Q.S"'42 9.3 1.3 0. 1.0 2. 0.2 1.1.0 1£.00 2.6 1.50 2.0 2.5 ").4 2. 1 95th 2~0 2.5-3.5 2.2 s. ') N 31 45 43 49 415 52 411 8.3 1.3 2.5 3.7 1. \.3 IUn 1.00 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 104 .0 2. 1.3 0.3 0.00 3.5 r!ean 1.6 Max 2.2 0.d.2 2.3 2.4 2.50 0.6 1.0 3.6.MIDDLE PHALANGE~L LINKAGE (era ) (l'Iales and Pemales) Age (y rs) 2.5 1.7 1. 1 2.6 1.8.5-4.6 1.4 5th 1.3 1.5. 1 2.3 0.5 50th 1.50 UJ :lI:: z a: ~ 3.5 2. X ::E: lIJ -J C C 1. 1 1.

DISTAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the tip of the second finger (phalanx III) to the first knuckle of the second finger (distal interphalangeal joint center 'of phalanx III) with the finger fully extended~ 105 .

00 a..5 45 s.4 50th '.9 1. _I . •1 1.67 0...33 2.5-7..0 2.0 1• 1 1.J a: z ~ a: ..6 '. 106 .. .00 1.4 1. .2 0.67 2.5 1.1 1.67 .9. II 1.5 1.-.6 '.. I .00 0.J 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 AGE [YEARS) · . ..0 2.3 0.5 44 11.1 1.0 2.4 5th 0.U lINKAGE (em) (PlalEs aod Females) Age (yrs) N Plean 1.00 2. •6 1.4 2.2 1..5-6.0 1. 0.2 0..5 1.4 3.d.2 '. .5-4.0 . .2 1.J a: a: ~ Z ~ L&J . .0 2..5 142 9.33 1. .0 1.5-6. ..6 1.2 !'lin 0.3 1..8 1..6 1..8 1• 9 2..5 52 F3.5-3.0 1.5 31 3..DISTAL PllALA NGF.8 1.2 0.2 0..7 1.33 0.8 Max . 1.2 0. .4 1..3 1.3 2. 0 a: ten ..5-5.1 1. - L&J x: .9 2.9 . 1 2.5 44 5... 5.5 "'IUi 7.J .8 q5th 1.4 1..7 1.5-10. .5 49 6...2 0.

-.. .". 107 . .".-----" ._.. ~. ..."- -''...OUTSIDE CARPAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the outside of the third knuckle of the second finger (~etacarpal phalangeal joint of phalanx III) to the wrist (radiocarp joint center) with the hand held in a fist and the wrist fully flexed. l". ..: _.' -..~ . ~._'­ 'L··f'~ . ' .z:.

' .. C.6 5.2 8..6 5. .. ...5 5tu 3. .5 119 6.3 6.·.8 5.5-1I. .. 1 3..7 7.6 5. . .5 0....2 95th 5.. . ..7 8. . .... .4 4... 3 5 6 1 8 9 10 1 AGE (.0 6. .EARS) 108.5 45 11.6 5. .8 0.. ..5-10.8 4.1 0.7 1. · .7 1.2 3. . 1 III ax 5. .5 5. · . .5. .5..2 6.5-8. .. .. 1 !'lin 3.50 8.6 8.2 4.6 4.8 6.3 5.4 4..0 9..·..5.2 5.2 7.5 5. . .6.5 Li3 7. .3 7.S 50th 4.. .5 l.. .0 3. ...5-q. ...7 11. . .1 li.5 6. .2 8. .5 4. .8 7.5 44 ~ean s. .2 11.....5 43 5. .. .d. ..3 4. ...... . . ... ... ..1 0. .7 4.. . ::. . . ·..5. .3 6. .. : .5 40 9. ... .8 .3 4.9 4.. . · . .7 0. ..9 6.5 .5-3... ... ..1 0. . ..OUTSIDE CARPAL LI NKAGE (em) (Males and Pemales) Age eyrS) N 31 2.7. ... . " ..6 5. ..

OUTSIDE PROXIMAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the outside of the second knuckle of the second finger (proximal interphalangeal joint of phalanx Ill) to the outside of the third knuckle of the second finger (metacarpal phalangeal joint of phalanx III) with the hand held in a fist. 109 .

.2 4.0 4... ..5 . I.' . . . ..5 51 8. .5 3.. I _ .1 4..00 7. . .5 45 4.. .... . .9 5. . . . .3 0...3. . .5-10.d...3 4.5 45 3..3 5. ...0 5. .9 5.00 en l=> 0 2...6 4...9 /lax 4. .... 5. .5 6. .2 5th 2. ..9 4. .5 31 3. x a: 0 ..0 4.9 3. ~ 0 LLJ ll. . 1 95th 4.4 2. ... ....• 2 5...5. .8 4.. I . .. ....2 0..-. ..3 4. .. .5 4. .q . 3. I. ~in 2. ..5-6.7 3.7 3. .6 3....5-8.... .00 0.3 5.. . ...3 0. .5 ... . .OUTSIDE PROII PlAt PRAUNGFAL LIN~AGE (ern) ("'ales and Females) Age (yrs) N Mean s. .. I .2 4.7 5. II.9.6 50th 3..2 4. ..5. .0 3... " ..00 1..9 4.7 4.....9 4. .8 3. .. ....4 4.. .-: ':-... .. .. .. ""..00 CL... .. I ' • . . ....00 ~ z: ~ -l 8. _..0 5. .. ..' •• .5 4.00 2 3 5 8 7 AGE (YEARS) 8 9 10 11 110 .. .3 0. ..5 4.8 5.5-7. ... .. 46 7.6 4. .1 8... 44 5._.. .5 3.. . ..2 0. -...3 0.0 4. """ ••• . .3 0..3 0... ..00 1£..5 49 6..9 4. . _ . . ..q 4..5 42 9.1 4.. ..6 4...00 -J LLJ a::: -J z a::: ~ 5.5-5.. .'. .. .

II:. :.OUTSIDE MIDDLE PHALANGEAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the outside of the first knuckle of the second finger (distal interphalangeal joint of phalanx III) to the outside of the second knuckle of the second finger (proximal interphalangeal joint of phalanx III) with the hand held in a fist.:. til" 111 .

..J l&J .5 2.8 2...7 5th 1. ..3 2.....4 3.2 0. .3 0...7 2. .5-7. .4 2.50 :r:: 11.3 0..3 s.4 2..5 44 49 5. . . . . .50 0... .....2 95th 2..9 3. IJJ ~ 0 en ..3 Plin 1...3 2..7 2. B 1..50 2.5 4.2 3....-' ....3 2. 46 1. .3 0..5.5..1 3.. 1 3..9 2.5:.J ~ ~ cE :r:: Q. a: ~ z a: 0 .4 3.0 3. ::J 0 1. .2 2.00 2 "S 5 6 7 8 9 10 1] AGE (YEARS) 112 .1 3.8 2.0 2.00 3. 5 45 16..q. .. .8 3. .6 2. .5 3.8 1'1 ax 3.5-8.7 2.4 2.3 0.5 2.0 2..4 2.5 52 8. ..5-5. d..8 2..2 3. . ..00 0..2 0.. .5 42 44 q... . . .3.8 2. 1 3. 5. .7 2.9 5. .5-9.5 3. 1 3.. .00 11. ..50 3.2 2.6..9 '3.OUTSIDE: 1''11 DOLE PHAl1\NGEAL L IliK1\GE (em) (!'lales and pemales) Age (rrs) N /'lean 31 2.3 0. 1 2.5 .00 2. ..10. . ..2 3.. . .5 6...5 2.00 lisa . 0. ... .7 50th 2. .3 2..

<~... ~~-"" .~'~~"" " . :~.. 113 . I .. ::...~:::~:..\1~':'. ' " ~'0.OUTSIDE DISTAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE DESCRIPTION: Measure from the tip of the second finger (phalanx III) to the first knuckle of the second finger (distal interphalangeal j~int) with the finger fully flexed..

5 1.9 1.0 2.5 11..1 0..9 1. .3 5th 1.5 1 .) N 2.7 1.1 2.6 1.4 I'! ax 2. .0 2.0 95th 1.00 .4 1.50 ..50 0.8 1.2 0. C Z ~ ..3 0.0 1.2 2.2 1.LJ c..5-3.8 1.4 1 •. 0.5 4. .5 3.:) ~ .5 7.9 2.3 1.3 'Un 0.5 3.5 5.....J 3.d. 1.0 2.5.5-9.5-B.1 1.9 2.J .B 1. ".LJ C ( f) ..OUTSIDE D1STAL PHALANGEAL LINKAGE (ell ) OIales Age (y ['5) I nd Fe •• le.2 2.5-6..6 1.8 1.3 0.__. 8 1.5. 5 1.----4 2 . 4 1.50 . •0 1.5 9.5 31 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 !'lean 1.5 6..7 1..I 2.3 0.' 2. ..3 2.00 I.6 50th 1.00 3.50 :::J 1.I.~ c.7· 2.!r 8.5.4 2.4 1.5-7.(f) ~ a..5 0. 1 s.2 1.00+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+----.5-4.00 o 0.2 0.0 2.2 2.6 1.:) .9 2.5 2.0 . 5 8 9 10 11 114 .3 0.

. :t···· 115 . touching the thumb tip to the second finger tip .joint of phalanx I) as the hand encircles a cylindrical object (measuring cone). :.. Measure from the outside of the second knuck-1e of the second finger ~roximal interphalangeal joint of phalanx III) to the outside of the second knuckle of the thumb (metacarpal-phalangeal .OUTSIDE GRIP DIAMETER DESCRIPTION.~ ....

• • II II 5. • .6 6...5 44 5.. • . B 6.5 45 5... II • II .0 7. .5 6. 5 ~..6 P1i n 4..5 .OUTSIDE GRIP DB I5ETEIl (l'Iales and Pemales) Age eyrs) N (em) (liJean 2. .B B. .5 6..0 7.2 6. II II II II II •• II II . ..g. .8.. .2 6..8 7. II II ..00 9. II .4 6.. • • II II.4 7......1 1.."'S2 q.... I ".4 5.:J LlJ :E .1 5.1 5. II II •• II •• ••• • II • II .4 7.4 0.7 5.9 8...5.. • . .2 '7.3. .3 0.4 6.5 0. . " .d.. II II II • .0 6. . " ..1 6. a= 7. ..00 ..7 1.1 B.. • .00 II 5 LlJ C •• en . . .3 8. .. c <.7 5.oo 2 s AGE (YEARS) e 7 8 9 10 11 116 .. II II II .5-10.6 0. .5 0.1 6. . 5.1 l1ax 6.5 49 6.3 7.. .7 s..5 46 7. . . .6 5. 5 42 9..8 50th 5.. a= 8..4 6.5 45 4.2 7.00 .. .. 0.. .. ...5-1. .3 6. • Q. .5 31 1. .8 7. .3 6.B 10. ...7 6..5 5.7 5th 4. 01' II II II II .3 5.5..B 7.6 95th 6.5-6...4 0.4 9.. II •••• II II II.00 LlJ a: ..... .5.4 0. ... .5. . . ••• • • II 8...00 .5-4.5 5..9 6._..

'..' 117 .INSIDE GRIP DIAMETER DESCRIPTION:· Measure the diameter of the cylindrical object (measuring cone) at the point where the hand encircles it touching the thumb tip to the second finger tip.

.3 3...5 3..... .3 9.6 5th 2.3 0. .2 3.. .5 l=\. I.. .0 ].. .8 2. .8 3. ..3 0.5. .2 0.5 6.5. . . . .5 3. .8 ~. 6 7 8 2 5 9 ----1----10 AGE (YEARS) 118 . .oo :z: C Q.00 a:: ~ L&J L&J ct: Il.6 2.7 50th 2.6 1. .9 ~.5 3. .0 ij.. . .5.. .5-4. .9 3.6 2. . 2.8 2.. • ..5-6.3 r'lin 2.. . . 1 4. .00 5. .00+----+---+----+---+-----+------1----.00 1.7 2.7 3. . 1 3. 3. . .0 LJ. 1'. .1 2..1 3... .9 0. ...1 0.2 3..5 ij. ..5 31 4.5-8.3 2..5 3.3...d..00 0.3 2.. ~ en .. .9. I' . .7 Max 3.9 4.. ..6 3. .INSIDE GRIP DI ~ge ~IHT'E:R (em) (Males and Females) (y rs) N ~ean s. .... ..5 5... . . . . .8 5. 3.6 3.2 3. I.0 4. • II • . .8 6.._ • ••• •• oM . 1 3. 5.00 f5 z .7 3... .. .8 3. . ...5 45 43 49 46 52 ~2 2. I" _ 2.2 0... .")-10.3 0.... •.. • I'''' ... .4 3. ••• 1 • ... 1 3.2 0. .1. . ..9 4..' •• • •. .5-"?5 7.3 4.2 95th 3.5 45 4. .

0 21. 9 23.0 2.5S (em) PIP "hickness (em) MP Thickness (em) wrist Thickness (e m) Grip OD (em) Grip In (em) 31 31 31 30 31 31 Jl 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 ]1 31 31 31 31 31 31 3.5 5.3 3.9 6.6 104.6 5.3 15.9 1.2 0.B .8 1.0 2.8 1.!'I P (em) Hand Breadt~-Thumb (em) Wrist flreadth (em) DIP Thiekne.3 1.3 J. q 21. 1 16.9 2. 1 2.7 17.4 4.5 4.9 6. 1 '1.0 20.6 12.0 5.5 4.2 4.9 21.9 1.0 12.5 18.2 1. 1 0.g 2~5 0~3 2.8 0.2 23.8 0. 2 1.4 0.6 1 1.5 Il.9 3.5 0.2 1.lJ 5.3 9.5 '.2 2.7 12.2 0.3 15.8 5.2 2.R· O.0 0. 1 14.2 1.8 3.1 5.6 4.4 11. 1 0.9 1.5 0.5 years) Measurement N I-' I-' \0 Height (c m) Weight ( kq) Finger Linkage (em) Carpal Linkage (em) Radial linkage (em) Humeral Lenyth (ell ) Sacral Linkage (em) Lumbar linkage (c !1l) cervical Linkage (em) Femoral Linkage (em) 'l'ibial Linkage (em) Tarsal Linkage (em) Clavical Linkage (em) Pelvic Linkaqe (em) Distal Phal Linkage (e m) Middle Phal Linkage (em) proximal phal Link (elll) OD Distal Phal link (c m) OD l1iddle Phal link (c III) 00 Pr 0 x ph a l i ink ( em) Od carpal Fhal link (e m) Fingerfold Linkage (em) Hand Length Link ( em) DIP finger Breadth (em) PIP Finger Breadth (em) Han d R r ea dt h . 1 16.2 9.2 1.5 13.7 5. 1 2.4 11.8 4.0 4.1 4.5 1. 1& 1.B 4.3 5 •.6 2.3 4. 1 11.5 5.8 1• 1 1.6 1.7 0.0 13 .2 23.3 2.8 1• 3 1.2 1.6 0.q 0.3 1. <] 14.6 6.4 3.5 2.0 111. 3.3 1.3 0.5 104.9 19.1 '9 •.2 '1. 2 1.0 :3.8 1.2 3.LJ 6.5 G.4 2.1 14.8 11.1 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 30 31 31 D€scriptive Statistics Mean 5.5 0.0 1. 5th 50th 95th l1in Max 97.6 13.3 3.3 1.4 6.8 21.4 4.1 0.8 5.2 8.1 0.0 10.5 0.4 3.3 2.9 B.2 1.1 0.7 ].7 10.8 3.2 14. 1 2.0 4.3 1q.2 1 • 1 O.1 89.0 3.3 11.2 1.6 1.1 0.3 3. .9 0.1 10.0 4.1 7.0 2. 4 1.9 . ] 16.0 0.B 0.3 2.4 0. 1 3.3 1.5 .5 3.6 2.LJ 1.1 4.1 10. 1 11.2 0.3 19. 1 6.3 15.5 3.9 0.Anthropometry statistics (2.1 1.2 4.2 q.2 O.2 1.1 6.8 10. 3 88.9 0.4 5.2 9.4 1l.0 4. 1. ) 1.6 9. 1 .3 ) •1 2.1 1.1 7.3 2. 1 4.8 2.3.] 5.9 1"7.1 0.9 O.3 1 . 1 11. 1.8 6.9 7.6 13.5 22.0 12.2 2.2 :3. d.5 13.9 2. "7 1.B q. 1 16.7 17.1 0. 1 2.8 5.8 11.4 C.Q 3.9 6 lB. 1 0. 5.9 0.8 2. .3 96.6 0.

4 B.B 2. ] 6.5 10.6 13.5 3.6 0.2 1. I) 0.3 B.2 5.6 0.2 1.0 O.8 '10. II 1.2 18.4 1.2 3.7 11.4 2.9 13.3 5. •3 O. ] 15.5 3..0 9.1 13.0 6.9 11. .8 6.9 1.9 24.1 2.0 0.8 19. :I 11.9 13.9 5.3 6. .5 5. 3 14.4 1.3 23.3 5.8 0. 1.3 4.3 3.7 3. B 0.B 14.5 15.8 6.2 1 11.4 2.1 2. B 1.7 2.2 9.. 3 2.8 0. 1 3.3 20.8 5.g 1• 4 1 • 1 O.5 20.4 2.1 2.5 2.0 20.9 O.9 0~2 2.0 22.8 ~.6 2.6 12.3 0.7 108.3 13.7 . 1 4. 12.6 7.4 11.4 5.7 2!J.1 2.6 19. .9 4.2 1.6 9.0 1. 1 1.IJ 5.3 1.7 20.5 6.0 2.5 0.2 3.2 0.5 11.0 10.8 3.2 5.6 2.2 0.3 3. 1 0. 1 1. 9 19.9 15. 1 4.6 1.6 18.1 5.6 15.11 3.4 3. 1 93.2 1..9> 11.7 0.2 2.6 0.6 94.5 years) Measurement Height (e m) Weight (kg) pinger Linkage (em) Carpal Linkage (em) Fadi'1l Linkage (em) Humera 1 Lengt h (em) Sacra 1 Linkage (em) Lumbar Linkage (em) cervieal Linkage (e m) Femoral Linkage (e III) Tibial Linkage (em) Tarsal Linkage (elll) Clavieal Linkage (e m) Pel vie Linkage (em) Distal Phal T.5 . .9 17.6 0.3 1.5 5.5 4. 1 25. 1 17.4 5.9 12.5 1.4 5.4.6 1.5 0.6 J.8 1.2 O.4 2.6 1.1 1.0 4.B 5.11 2.6 .6 4.' 6" 8 0.r' I Anthropometry Statistics (3.5 10.0 LJ.9 2. 1• 1 1•1 1..11 1.9 22.4 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 101.5 4.1 6.2 1.0 12.3 J.0 3.d.2 3.0 1.4 14.8 11.2 18.CJ .3 25.9 4. l1i n 5th 50th Q5th MalC .1 0.9 2.0 16.3 3.1 5.1 26.1 . It 1.6 5. 1 O.9 16.8 2.0 1.1 4•1 3.8 -2.1 4. "3 1.9 1.1 1.1 45 45 45 45 45 45 DeseriFtiv€ Statistics s.9 3.0 1.6 2.1 7.5 1. 1 5. 16.3 15.1 0.1 0. 1 14.8 21.0 1.2 5.11 5. .e 10.0 1.0 1.5 21.1 II.3 0. 1.1 1.9 0.3 11.4 9.5 5. .0 1.1 0.inkage (e m) Middle Phal Linkage (em) Proximal Phal link (em) 00 Distal Phal link (e Ill) 00 Middle Phal Link (e 1\1) 00 Pro x phal tink (em) Od Carpal Phal Link (em) Fingerfold Linkage (e m) Hand Length tick (em) DIn Finqer Breadth (c m) PIP Fingec Areadth (em) Hand Breadth-I'IP (em) Hand Breadth-Thumb (em) wrist Breadth (e II) DI!J Thickness (em) PIP Thiekness (em) MP Thiekness lel1') wrist Thickness (c rn) Grip 00 (em) Grip If) (e m) N 45 45 45 45 115 45 411 45 45 115 45 45 45 45 114 45 115 45 45 115 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 I-' N 0 Mean 102.6 18.0 6.6 12.3 1. 3 15.

9 14.8 21.~ 2.B 1.2 2.2 2.3 3.9 26.1 28. (cm) Humeral Length (em) Sacral Linkage (em) Lumbar linkage (em) Cervical Linkage (c Ill) P'el1lo["i!1 I.3 125.9 1.4 17.4 19 ~ 6 6.8 3.1 4.9 16.11 19.2 0.8 10.9 6.1 5.0 3.B 0.4 16.5 25.2 4.6 12.0 0.3 13 .5 7.2 0.2 15.0 122.3 11.2 5.0 1.1 1.9 0.8 13.3 2.6 1 .• 0 6.4 23.5 6.7 7.9 0.3 1.q L8 0.9 1.5 11.1 1.2 1.9 26.3 5.1 111.2 1.9 6.5 25.5 3.9 1.5 2.1 O.1 O.3 16.inkage (e m) Tibial linkage (cm) Ta["sal Linkage (em) Clavical linkage (em) Pelv ie Linkage (em) Distal phal Linkage (e m) !!iddle phal linkage (e m) Proximal phal Link (cm) 00 Distal Phal link (e 18) 00 !!iddle Phal link (en) 00 Prox Pha I Link (em) ad carpal Phal link (em) Finge~fold Linkage ( em) Hand Length Link (e Ill) DIP Finger Breadth (em) PIP Finqer Breadth (e m) Hand Br eadt h-~ P (c m) Rand l3r-eadth-Thumb (em) Wrist Breadth (e III) DIP Thickness (em) PIP Thickness (em) MP Thickness ( em) wr-ist Thickness (e m) Grip OD (em) Gdp 10 (em) 44 I-' I-' '" 44 44 44 44 44 44 1J4 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 43 44 44 44 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 42 44 44 43 !!ean 111.9 4.9 lf1.2 2.2 5. 1 1.3 3.2 21.7 4.2 5.9 0.6 1. 3 O. 1 1.5 2.2 6.2 1.A~th~opometry Statistics (11.3 6.3 8.6 5.5 5.4 5.8 1.4 5.4 1.11 4. d.2 21.2 5.0 1.4 2. 1 1.8 3.2 6.5 22.3 1A.8 1. 1 3.1 1.6 4.1 4.8 1.9 7.8 3.2 14.·6 17.5 6.3 1.7 2. 1 1 .5 4.0 2.1 0.1 11.6 9.9 O.5 3.3 1.9 1 .2 1.0 5.7 5.2 13.6 0.7 1. 1'1 in !!ax 102.1 23.6 3.4 13.9 14.4 1.8 9.1 12.2 211·1 26.0 12.7 3.1 0.5 30.9 4.4 1.9 17.7 2.6 . 1 0.4 1.B 0.4 4.9 9.1 11.8 2.6 22 .5 2.9 7.3 102. 1 2.1 4.2 12.6 3.2 O.2 2.3 0. 3 1.0 3.2 21.3 3. 1 11.2 0.9 1. 1 15.4 6.5 years) N Measurement Height (em) We ight (kCJ) Finger linkage (cm) Carpal linkage (cm) Radial linkage.5.11 1. 1 0.9 10.0 0.2 1.4 1.3 15.4 10.0 21.-3 1.2 3.q 0.3 2.4 0.5 .5 5.2 -2.3 2.8 2.8 3.7 0.3 0.0 19.q 2.3 1.6 17 .8 13.4 6.3 4.4 25. 1 7.2 1.2 4.4 16~1 21.0 4.8 1.8 2.9 14.9 11. 1 O.1 1.7 6.2 1.7 2. 1 0. 1 1.4 5.0 6.2 6.9 0.8 11.5 22.6 7.3 4.5 20.1 15.3 3.~ 9.2 Descriptive Statistics 5th 50th 95th s.2 0.1 5.5 1.4 10.5 5.

7 10.9 9.6 17.1 .8 1.8 6.7 0..6 1.0 .2 16.2 5.5 7. 1 1.5 29.7 25.8 99.acHal Linkage (em) Humer'll Length (em) saccal linkage (em) Lil mba r Linkage (em) cc-rvieal I.6 18.6 2 (). 1 .0 0.11 16.9 20.3 2. 5 21.2 2.2 15.2 124.5 4.5 6.5 years) "!easurem~nt N I-' N N Height (e m) weig ht (kq) "'inqf'r Linkage (e m) Car pa 1 tin).2 2.0 1.8 0.5 1.0 0. 1 5.2 1.1.8 2.5 .0 26.7 9.11 4. 1 1.4 '21.2 1.5 49 49 48 49 49 49 49 tescriptive Statistics 5th 50th 95th s.8 5.9 4.4 2.7 0. 1 1.2 4.4 1.5 .8 2.8 0.l 5.4 2.5 0.5 4.4 4.0 23.4 5.9 1. 2" 1 13.9 22.0 .6 104.2 0.1 5. 4 3.2 5.5 3.9 0.8 121.age (em) Q.1 2.4 9.4 2.7 29.7 3.1 30.6 n.0 1.2 1.5 15.a 3. 1 1• 1 1.1 3.3 6.5 29.2 13.5 6. 1 21.7 17.2 16.6 0.8 0.3 4.» '!'hickness (em) PIP Thickness (em) MP Thickness ( em) Wrist Thickness (c m) Grip OD (em) Gri P 1D (c m) 49 49 119 49 49 119 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 119 49 49 49 49 119 4l) 49 49 48 49 119 "ean 1 H.2 2.4 2.4 1. J 13.3 11. 1 24.9 113.5 1.8 2.6 1.7 1'l.2 17.~ 1.7 1.8 3.B 0.5 26.0 1~ 6 13.9 1. •1 1.4 6.0 1.8 3.3 2.B 5.0 O. :2 1.4 0.1 26. 4 14.9 6.7 8.5 1. 1.2 10.4 1.2 1.5 18.1 15.2 o.7 24. 1 7.3 5.3 1.~ 4.3 O.2 17.6.6 7.3 3. S 0.6 5.4 2.~ 4. 0.1 6. .5 5.3 1.4 7. 1 1.7 4.9 ij.5 6.3 2.0 6.7 13.7 12.0 7. ') 3.d.9 4.8 0.2 1. ] 2.3 1.5 ~.5 1.5 20.'.4 1.2 14.inkage (em) Femorill Linkage (em) Tibial Linkage (em) 'l"ilcsa 1 l.11 0.7 3.5 9.O 6.inkage (em) Clavieal Linkage ( em) Pelvie linkage (em) Distal phal Linkage (e m) !'liddle phal Linkage (em) Proximal Phal link (em) 00 Distal Phal Link (em) 00 ~iddle Phal Link (em) 00 ProK Phal link (em) Od Carpal phal Link (em) Fingerfold Linkage (em) Hand Length fink (e mJ DIP Finger Breadth (em J PIP Finger Breadth (em) Hand Br eadt h-P1P (em) Hand Breadth-Thumb (em) Wrist Bre" d t h (c m) DI!.3 1 .2 0.2 13.4 19.2 3.8 22.2 16.5 11 .0 11. Anthropometry Statistics (5. 1 1.4 5. 1 6.9 0.5 19.2 O.7 Li.6 Jog J. 1 0. 1 1• 3 1.6 1. 1 13.5 ~.2 3.9 15. 1 7.5 5.4 5.6 7.0 1.5 5.4 21.0 2.3 2.2 3.2 2. Min !'lax 4.2 4.8 . 1 1. J 1.0 2.8 2.9 16.0 1.4 2.9 12.8 1.4 4.3 5.2 15.2 1 • II 0.2 20.1 21.5 21.9 6.2 O.4 22.0 1.

3 0.3 2.6 11.8 4.6 4.8 1. 19.2 16.2 15.0 23.0 3.0 B.4 30.0 12.1 9.6 3.2 46 14.2 1.0 1.6 45 3.9 2.1.3 46 26.6 6•1 7.2 12.5 46 3.? 46 24.d.3 3.4 4.5 5.3 4.6 4t .3 2.5 .3 1.9 0.4 1. 2 1.1 4.2 46 1.1 46 6. B 2.6 15.0 19.3 12.7 46 1.6 46 18.0 23.8 14.5 7. B 2.4 22.9 1.5 6.8 2.2 1.4 2.2 0.7 10. 4 1.9 0. Grip OD (cm) Grip ID (cm) Descriptive Statistic~ s.0 1.6 ·6.5 3.5 1.6 29.8 0. 1 1.3 A.2 46 4. 1 21.2 2.0 O.~.9 1.5 4.9 0.0 46 19.3 2.0 0.3 19.1 3.5 46 1.2 ' 6.6 6.1 N .4 7.5 11.0 6.7 6.1 25.3 1.2 15.3 46 1.0 2•1 19.6 30.6 0.2 1.Anthropometry statistics (6..9 46 5.7 116 3.5 years) ~easur-ement I-' w tv Height (c m) Weight (kg) Finger linkage (em) carpal Linkage (em) Radial linkage (em) Humeral Length (em) Sacral Linkage (ell) Lumbar.7 1 .4 4.8 0. B 11.5 103.2 0.1 '8.3 1.6 7.3 1.0 17.3 5.1 116 5.5 46 1 .2 21.5 46 23.4 26.2 1.0 121. 9 2.0 5.& 6.6 43 1.B 0.9 23.q 2.4 5.q 4.3 1.linkage (em) Cervical Linkage ( em) Femoral Linkage (e m) Tibial linkage (em) Tarsal Linkage (cm) Clavical Linkage (em) Pelvic Linkage (em) Distal Phal Linkage (e m) Middle Phal Linkage (c [II) Proximal Phal Link (cm) OD Distal Phal link (e 11)O~ ~iddle Phal link (em) 00 Prox Phal Link (cm) Od Carpal Phal Link (e Ill) Fingerfold Linkage (em) Hand Length Link ( em) DIP Finger Br€adth (cm) PIP Finger Breadth (em) Kand Bre"ldth-MP (e m) Kand Breadth-Thumb (em) wrist flreadth (e.6 o.5 45 O. !'1in 5th 50th 95th JIIa x 46 121.3 2.2 1.1 3.3 23.5 6.5 4.6 1~.7 4.1 1.4 1.1 5.5 46 1.1 11.6 .9 6. 12.2 15.3 6.9 10. 3 2.0 131.0 43 5. 7 14.3 28.1 7.B O.8 .' 30.9 0.5 46 6.2 0.9 132.1 "'7.9 5.8 12.0 4.2 1.5 32.2 2.6 5.4 112.~ean .2 3.1 24.] 1.5 4. 1 45 11.8 11.9 0.4 1.0 46 11.2 1.8 0.9 46 5.3 1.3 5.5 21.9 20.3 8.7 q.5 46 10.5 3.6 1.3 1.0 1.5 4.9 14.0 1.3 2.2 1.8 46 16.9 1 .2 '.6 0.5 0.11 3. 7 1. q 16.2 2. 1 O.0 0.5 46 2.6 46 27.7 22.1.3 E.3 13.9 5.5 4.2 0.1 0.3 5.4 6.6 4.0 .5.3 3.3 13.1 0.0 46 1.7 2A.5 21.m) DIP Thickness (em) PIP Thickness (c m) ~p Thickness (em) wrist '!'hickness (e m) .1 18.4 3. 3.0 1. 1 46 1.5 15.4 1.7 9.2 1.6 0.2 31.

5 0. 1 7.•3 0. 1 0. 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 51 50 52 52 51 52 5? 51 52 Meiln 126.0 0.1 24.1.0 6.3 1.8 1. 1 19.2 8.6 I-' IV ". 1 1.4 1. 1 1.5 25.6 1• 1 7.1 2.- JL 52 52 .0 1• 7 1.B. B 19.3 2.6 6.6 1.6 30.4 2.8 28.r~ Anthropometry Statistics (1.2 5.1 12.8 ]0.0 3.B 6.9 10.9 2.1 1.3 0.12.4 0. 3 0.9 1.0 138.11 O.5 10.5 2.0 57 51 <.6 5.2 .0 1.6 8.8 26.5 2.6 12.5 22.7 14.7 Descriptive Statistics 5th 50th 95th l'1in s.5 14.0 7.7 1\.2 16. . 3 22.7 111.2 5.4 n.0 4.6 19.0 2.9 1.8 17. Height.6 0.3 3. ") 1.. 1 1.2 ]1.3 4.3 4.2 5.7 4.9 0.0 0.5 1.8 6.3 5.6 1.6 8.6 2.6 2.1 1.0 1.9 19.1 8.0 1.0 1•3 5.0 2.3 1.2 12.5 24.0 3.6 1. (em) Weight (kg) Pinger linkage (em) Carpal Linkage (em) Radial linkage (em) Humeral Length (em) Sa era I Lin kage (em) Lumbar linkage (e m) Cervical Linkage ( em) . 3.0 4.2 24.1 5.0 4.0 1.4 0.1 7.4 11.3 1.9 C.0 2.2 2.5 .2 33.2 1. 1 '.d.2 39.6 5.9 1.6 13.6 16.9 7.4 1.7 1.4 20.8 0.4 5. 4 1.S O.7 28.5 5.0 7.4 6.4 1.9 6.0 19.5 1.6 2.7 6.9 15.5 4.5 years) Measureme n t N I best availableIrom Reproduced copy. 1 1.1 4.8 ]1.3 1.:::_/ .8 2.4 7.4 1.1 1.7 19.0 B.8 136.0 3.0 3.0 5.4 0.3 2.9 3.2 1.6 7.7 5.5 4.8 0. ij 4.9 13 .3 17.4 3.5 2.2 20.9 15.4 1.4 11.9 IL7 6. 9 1 .2 11.3 6.6 2.9 l.1 3.0 5.4 24.6 3.6 24.ij Q.7 4. Max llij. '3 2.0 8.9 23. 1 7.2 3.6 3.4 13.3 2. 1 17.8 1 1. 1 1 II.3 .2 21.3 1.0 2.7 7. Femoral T.4 5. 3 1.6 5.8 2.2 2.5 6.4 28.7 19.2 O.6 24.A 35.0 125.6 4.3 20.2 0.4 0.1 5.7 0.1 16. i nkage (em) Tibial linkage (em) Tarsal Linkage (em) Clavieal linkage (e m) pelv ie Lin kc'ge ( em) Distal Phal Linkage (e m) Middle Pha 1 l i rkiqe (em) Proximal Phal Link (em) aD Distal Phal Tink (e m) OD Middle Phal Tink (c lit) 00 Prox phal Link ( em) ad Carpal Ph~l link (e m) Fingerfold Linkage (em) Hand Length Link (e m) DIP Finger Hreadth (e ro) PID Finger Breadth (ern) Hand Breadth-MP (e m) Hand Breadth-Thumb (em) Wr ist Rreadt h (em) nIP Thickness (em) PI!' Thickness (c m) MP Thickness (c fIl) wrist 'l'hiekness (c: m) Grip 0D (em) Grip 10 (e m) '.8 0.2 2ij.3 3.5 14.b 16.4 4.9 15. '3 2.1.9 0.9 14.8 25.5 18.0 1• .2 ] 4.2 19.5 2.3 0.9 8.

1 2. 5th 50th 95th Min t"Iax 5.7 5.9 0.4 3.5 4.4 1.8 7.5 6.4 1• 7 1.3 q. 2.0 7.2 148. 1 2.0 6.6 16.0 33.7 13.q 7.3 1." .3 1.1 25.5 0. N U1 Height (em) Weight (kg) Finger linkage (em) Carpal Linkage (em) Badial linkage (em) Humera 1 Lengt h (em) Saeral Linkage (em) lumbar linkage (em) Cervieal Linkage (em) Femoral Linkage (em) Tibial Linkage (em) Tarsal Linkage (em) Clavieal linkage (em) Pelvic Linkage (em) Distal Phal Linkage (e m) rtiddle Pha 1 Li lIkage (em) Proximal Phal link (em) 00 Distal ~hal link (em) 00 l1idd Ie pha I Li nk (em) 00 Prox ~hal Link ( em) Od Carpal Phal Link (em) Fingerf~ld Linkage (em) Hand Length Link (em) DIP Finger Breadth (em) PIP Finqer Bre~dth (em) Hand Rreadth-"ln (em) Hand sreadth-Thumb (e m) wrist Breadth (e 0:) DIP Thiekness (em) PIP Thiekness (em) PIP Thiekness (em) wrist Thiekness (em) Grip on (em) Grip ID (em) 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 4-2 42 42 42 ltD 42 lt2 lt2 42 lt2 42 42 42 U2 42 f'lean 1 3 J.2 15.6 118.0 O.2 2.2 24.6 6.9 7.1 0.5 2. 7 30.3 124.4 1.7 19.1 31.3 13.3 31.5 22. 5.0 37.4 0.3 5.6 5.65.6 15.2 0.9 5.0 9.7 17.5 4.2 0..5 2.7 2.8 19..3 2.4 15.ft O.6 8.3 B.4 15.1 1..0 1.3 1.5 4.3 12.5 6.3 q.8 1.0 145.9 14.7 18.5 .3 19.3 1.2 2.7 22.0 1.2 1. 2 '13.0 0.8 22.2 0.2 17.4 11.1 ft.9 1.8 1.1 14. 9.7 0.8 20.3 3.3 0.0 8.3 2.6 2.7 1.3 26.6 6.4 5.8 30.9 34.5 3.9 3.B 19. .8 30..2 4.0 17.4 24.q 0.9 lJ. 1 2.4 1.5 7.O 2. 1 6.1 3.8 A.2 1.1 It.7 11.B ]q.8 16.q. 1 1.4 20.1 7. 1 6.4 5.4 35. 1 14. 1 O.5 1.9 5.9 1.5 0.9 2.2 8.6 11.o 11.0 0.2 6.4 8.3 2.0 3.3 6.0 20. 1 5.1 25.5 19.3 3.6 10.0 6.9 0.6 30.9 26.5 7.1 0.2 0.4 4. 1 C.7 5. :2 1 .6 1.8 2.0 21.B 42 42 lt2 Descriptive Statisties s. 1 15.5 q.0 44.9 1. 1 1. 1 1.9 2.6 2. 2 1.2 7.4 3. 1 0.5 8. 1 7.5 7.7 2.5 lJ.5 14.9 25.3 0. 1 "1.2 1.1 1.9 0.0 ].2 1.Anthropometry Statistics (8.9 .8 6. d.0 33.5 1.3 4.6 6..5 6. 1 3.8 12.2 2.3 1.2 1.4 1.4 5.1 1 .4 1.0 1.4 1 .3 6.1 30.4 1.9 3.0 .ft 16.5 J.8 4.4 0.5 2. B 4.4 133. 1 1.4 16.4 3.5 25.5 years) rtea sure ment N .7 7. 1 3.4 25.ft 3.11 8.9 18.6 1.2 22.0 21.B 7.7 ~.

7 2.8 ? 1 2.2 O.7 0.1 13.6 1.2 11.Q 3.6 If.5 6.2 11. 1 4. 3 1. .0 1 .0 '7.fl 1. • '7 1.5 /~ .3 5. . .6 41.6 158.6 5.5 20.0 2. 1 0.2 11.9 1.2 2.7 Q.1 4.6 '''.2 0.2 6.6 20.2 17.4 1.2 0. 3 4. 1 1.7 15.5 27.6 9.3 1.I Anthropometry Statistics (9.10.0 1. 1 0.3 3.4 O.5 16.2 8.2 7.j t h (em) r nIP Thickness (em) PIP 1'hiekness (em) l'IP Thickness (e m) Wrist Thickness (em) Grip OD (em) Grip 11) (em) r.4 1.5 5.7 /J.7 4.4 2.4 27.B 6.8 32.4 21.4 25.8 4.7 25.3 1.9 31.9 24.6 37.0 4.5 16.0 R.3 5.8 B.7 11.. 1 18.8 8.5 29.6 16.9 1.5 .1 18.5 33.2 1.0 14.4 14.7 1.6 6.5 7.7 1.8 2B.4 23.7 21.4 1.5 .7 3.4 2.R 7. 1 1 • 1 O.2 126.3 17. ] 2.2 1.6 7.5 2.6 B.2 1.0 1.3 0.0 8.9 6. ') 1.8 4.9 6.4 2.4 O.1 9.8 4.3 2.4 2.ink ( em) DIll Finger Rreadth ( em) PI~ Finge~ Breadth (em) Hand Breadth-!'tP (em) Hand Breadth-Thumh (em) W is t Brea .8 25. 1.7 1.2 151. 1 1.0 '.6 2.4 4.6 l.6 25. 0. 1 1• 1 6.4 1.6 3.7 2.5 LIS "lean 140.8 6.9 32.2 1.2 8.2 1.8 22.5 31.0 2.2 14.4 0.2 13. 1.5 45 45 45 45 Ll5 r. 1 7.2.1 24.2 20.6 3.5 .8 3.2 9.1} 8.3 B.4 19.6 5.5 19. 8 2.6 1.9 29.7 3.2 0.8 4.4 1.8 26.6 1.5 years) Measurement N f-' N CJ'l Height (e m) Weight (kg) Finger Linkage (em) carpal Linkage (em) padial Lin kage (em) Humeral Length (e m) Sacral Linkage (em) Lumbar Linkage (em) Cervical linkage (e m) Femoral Linkage (em) Tihial Linkage (em) Tarsal Linkage (em) Clavieal Linkage (em) Pelvic Linkaye (em) Distal Phal Linkage (e m) Middle phal Lir.9 39.7 .5 .£ 3.3 14.1 1.6 2.3 1.4 6.8 0.3 0.8 23.7 19 • 1 2.6 127.4 20.7 0.4 5.2 8~0 1. 1 9.5 21. .3 42.6 6.9 1.8 6.f\ 1. 1 5.9 0.5 4. 5 36.5 13.9 1~. !'lin 5th 50th 95th /'lax 7.5 1.6 0.2 O.l 32.4 11.2 1.2 5.8 3 • .9 3.7 2.S 5. 1 5. Ii 1.6 7.45 45 45 45 115 45 45 44 45 45 44 45 44 45 45 45 ij5 45 45 45 45 44 45 45 45 45 reseriptive Statistics s.7 26.5 13.5 1.7 12.7 17 .e 16.4 33.3 2.3 2.2 9.4 23.d.2 0.6 6.0 2.6 6.9 4.2 31.6 4.8 1'39.~age ( em) Proximal Phal link (c m) aD Distal Phal Link (em) aD Middle Phal Link (e m) aD Prox Phal Link (em) ad carpal Dhal Link (em) Fingerfold Li~kage (em) Hand Length l.8 1.8 6.9 0.2 18.5 0.

...." l:l< . lJ") c 1.c: u e U 1.....U E u e co co .." t=J. ."..j.c: u .l c: ." 0 ." 0 p.j. . ~ c: . .0 lJ") ... E u 1 12'1 -_ e u M N .0 lJ") .".l c: U e ...

e () Cl N 0' U) :::J Cl Cl E () 11") .

••. 8 centimeters Force· (Kgf) ••.•. ..••••••..1 Measurement 1.........••. .•..... . • .. ..••••. • .. ....•. ...••.•....••••..•...•.. . .••... 136 Angle (De.. Index of Grip Strength Data Pag~ Three Point Pinch 2 centimeters Force (Kgf) •.••... ..•••... • ...•. .. . ...•... ..• '.•..•••. • • .••. • ..•..... .• Location of Force Vector (em) .....•.•....•. 142 Angle (Degrees) ••.•.•. ...•...• Location of Force Vector (em) ..•..•. .•••••.••••..••••••••.•.....•••••.... • .. Angle (Degrees) •••..••.....•••. • . Angle (Degrees) 0 • • • • • • '.•••..•...•. • ..•..•••......••••.....•. .•. 139 Angle (Degrees) ......•.. ...••..•.•....... ...... 140 5 centimeters Force (Kgf) ..•. 0' • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • •• Location of Force Vector (em) ••••••••••••... Five Point Pinch 2 centimeters Force (Kgf) •. '. ...•..•.• ..••••• Angle (Degrees) ••.. .... .•••. • • • • • •• .... . • .. • • . Angle (Degrees) .. ..•.•.. . ....•.••.. 4 centimeters Force (Kgf) ..•••••••.•.•.. ..•...•.••.. .. 4 centimeters Force (Kgf) . ....... ..... .•.•.5Jrees) .....•. . . ....•......•. 134 3 centimeters Force (Kgf) .. ..•..••.. 146 7 centimeters Force (Kgf) .....•.•. ....••..••.. ...••.. • .. Angle (Degrees) .. .. ..••... .. 138 Location of Force Vector (em) •.• Location of Force Vector (em) . ..•. ... .•.•. . ....•.••.... • .. 137 . 141 Location of Force Vector (em) .•• Angle (Degrees) .•.... ..... •' 132 Location of Force Vector (em) .....•.•..•. . . • . .. ....••... • ... .•••...' ••••..•. •• •• • •• • • • • • •• • • • • •• • • • • • • •• 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 9 centimeters Force (Kgf) •••••••.••....•.. .. ..•.. ·o~ • • • • • • •• Location of Force Vector (em) ••. ~29 0...•.. .... .••••••••••••. .•••••••••••. 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 .....•..3..•••.•......• . ..•. .•..•.. .•. ...• 3 centimeters Force (Kgf) • • • • • . .•... . .. 2. .•.. • • •. . .•.•.•.. . .•....... .. 143 6 centimeters Force (Kgf) •.•. • .•. . . • • •• ....•. • 133 Angle (Degrees) •...........•••..•. .....•. ...•••• Location of Force Vector (em) ..•...•...•... • . ...•. .. 145 Angle (Degrees) ••••••.•.•......3..... .... .....•.. .... • ..••..•.... ... ..•... . 144 Location of Force Vector (em) .•' ........... ..••••...... '. ...•.• 135 Loca tion of Force Vector (em) .....••..•.•..••. .••..•...••..••. .•.•...•..

. 196 7 centimeters Force (Kgf) ••••••••••••••••••••••••• '•••.. .. 174 Locati~n 8 centimeters Force (Kgf) ••••.. . .•••••••••••• 183 Angle (Degrees) . Span .••••••••••.•. • .. . 202 175 176 177 178 179 180 3.. • ...•.•. • • • ..••..••.•....•••••••. 201 Squeeze Strength vs..•....•••.•••••••••.•.•..•.•• 167 Angle (Degrees) •••. • .•••'.•..•.•••.••. Span .•.•••••••.....•.. ...•.. 189 Angle (Degrees) . 192 Angle (Degrees) ••••••.•. • .••••.•. 184 3 centimeters Force (Kgf) .••• . ..•.. . ..•..•••••.•••••••••. .•.. . .••••..•.••••••••• Location of Force Vector ••..•••••••.••••••...•.....••.•• 9 centimeters Force (Kgf) •••.•••••...•..••••••••••••• 190 5 centimeters Force (Kgf) ••.•. .•.•.••.••••••••.••••••••.•••. ..•. .. 194 Location of Force Vector (em) . 130 . • • • • .••••••.••. .. 6.••••••••. .•••••••..••• '•••••• 197 Location of Force Vector (em) ...•. 188 Location of Force Vector (em) •••••••.•.•. .••. . .•••••...• Angle (Degrees) •....••••..!-1casurement 5 centimeters Force (Kgf) ••••.. .•••••••••••••••••••••••• 187 4 centimeters Force (Kgf) . . Three Point Pineh Strength vs.•.....••••••.••.••. .• Location of Force Vector (em) • • • • • • • • .... . ..•.•..•..•••••••. • . 173 Angle (Degrees) ••... 185 Location of Force Vector (em) • • • • • ..•... Squeeze 2 centimeters Force (Kgf) •••••••••..•••.•... • .••.••• 172 of Force Vector (em) .•••••.. .•••••••.•. .••..•. .•..••.. .••••••••. Span .•..•. 5.•••..•• 168 6 centimeters Force (Kgf) " .••..•..•..•.•••••••••...••••••.•••.••••••••••. 198 Angle (Degrees) •••.••..••..••.••..••••••••••••. ..•••••••••......•.. • • • •• • • • ..•••..•.••••••.. ..•... 171 7 centimeters Force (Kgf) ••••. .•• 170 Angle (Degrees) ••..•••••••••..••••••..•••••.••••••• 166 Location of Force Vector (em) ... .... • • • • • • • • ..••••..•....•. . .•.•.. ..••.••.••. .. ..•••••• 200 Five Point Pinch Strength vs.......••••••.•.•••••. . . • • . . ..•. • • .. . ..••••••••. • • • ..••••.••••••••.•......•• 199 4.•.•.•. 195 Angle (Degrees) .•••••••••• 191 Location of Force Vector (em) • •• • • ... . .•••••••••..•. • . • • • • •...••••••.••••••. .•...••• Angl~ (Degrees) •.•••••••..••••••.•.. 182 Location of Force Vector (em) ••••••. ....••. . 169 Location of Force Vector (em) .••••••.. ..•. .. 186 Angle (Degrees) •••••..••.••••••. .• 193 6 centimeters Force (Kgf) ••••.•••.•.

The remaining two fingers are flexed in the same plane into a tight fist.GRIP: THREE POINT PINCH DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The anterior surface of the first two fingers (distal end of phalanges #2 and #3) are pressed in opposition to the anterior surface of the thumb tip (distal end of phalanx #1). The handle span (S) is adjusted to the proper test position. ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The pinch handle set is inserted into the transducer. INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child makes a fist and pinches the two plates together using his thumb and first two fingers. TEST POSITION: The thumb and first two fingers are flexed in the sagittal plane so that the thumb tip is opposite the first "'and second finger tips and one finger lies on each side of the distal handle brace. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT:· The length of the third phalanx is measured with an anthropometer. Dietal Handle Proximal Handle 131 .

2 3.5 44 4.: .2 2.5 46 7.. . • .5-10..3 4.00 8.' ..~ :.. "..0 5.. .. . . . '. ..9 1.1 95th 2. .00 2 3 5 8 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 132 .5 2....8 3.2 2.0 "'in 1.5-3.7 r1ax 3.8 0.6 3.' ..: :"" ..6 2.. .. . .. ". :. ....~'.5 49 6.00 '. . ~ 0 z • 5. .2 4.5 1.4 0. '.00 2: U C\I ~ 8. .7 7.7 10..'I" " .00 7....0 3... .6 3. . .5 52 8. '.5-7. 1 2. .00 3.. 'I" • . . .. . • ' ". .7 50th 2. d. . ..7 4. .5 44 2.4 6.5 6.3 5.... • " .8 3..5-8.. ! .3 6..5-9.7 4." ..' . .3 1.3 porn liean PI NCH. . .6 4. ' Z 0 Q.3 9.5 ... 1 2.00 . 42 9.. .7 4.2 s...'.1 3.4.2 5..6 0.. • It· . \ I ' ..'': ..3 6.0 4.4 1.. I ..9 2. 0.0 5. force at 2 ca (!"Iales and Pemales) (Kgf) Age (y rs) N 2.. :'. '" .._ •• ' .. " • I...0 0. . .7 1.....00 oil .. cr> 2. ...1 3. .4 5th 1.4 5.....0 3..5-5. .".~.00 8.9 1..5-6.9 6.:'" ' " . .' t .5 28 3..1 .5.5 0. . : . "r'... ~ ..00 ~ LU U ~ !5 .." . . .5 44 5. " ": ~. ..... .0 4. 1. . " .6 3. .. ." . 1 2.

. " " ... • ... . . • . J 0... .4 0.. . 0.00 . ... • .3 1.0 0.. .: . • . .. '0 .5-5.p. 1 0. • .... • • • • .4 0.... .6 0.7 1.5-~. -0 is z ~ o l"') • 1. s..5 3.1 0. • .7 1.3 0.6 '. . o • ... •'..00 '. . .B 0. ..6 0. . N ~ean force locat ion at 2 cm (Males and PelDa les) llge (yrs) 2. CL . . •.2 1.• .t ' • 0' .1 0. .6 0. • • .. .5 7. .. . • ' .0 ..8 0..0 5th 0..1 1.. .# .5 28 44 44 48 j6 52 42 44 1.8 0.. .1 2. 1 1.2 1. ..5-7. .4 0. • ... • • . 0 ..0 50th 0. o 0..' .4 0..2 2.' ..4 0.. .' 0 . • .0 . . • • •• ..•.. . .:..7 0. .' • •• ..3.5-9.50 •• -- . - ~o . -•.S-~. 3 0.5.60 . .0 1. . .11 Min O.' • .2 -0..5 6. ... .6 0.2 1.- " CL 0. 6 1~ 9 1.---+---+----t----l~--t------t 2 5 8 '7 AGE (YEARS) e 8 10 1t 133 .1 .. . . . • ...50~---+----+---.5 5.1 0. . '. . .0.5 4.50 • 1.2 0.. .5 9.9 1. •• . • .0.6.9 1. . -o.-~ POINT PINCH.7 95th Mal: 1.. d.8 0. /. . . .5-10.. .8 O. • • . ..9 0.5 '.5.2 0..2 -0.3 0. .5 B...5 0. • ..4 0.

5-10.5-5.8 -10.3 .4 3.9 0.2 -5.5-B.9 -14.7 3.1 -7.6 4.3 -2.3 -8.5 95th .2 2.5 6.7 1.4 -13.5 -10.5 7.2 -4.5 3.0 -4.d.8.8 -12.2 -6.2 s.58.5 ·5. (P'Ja les and Females) (Degrees) Age (yrs) 2.0 3.5-3.DO 134 .3.3 -9.4 0. angle at 2 c.4 -~.3 5th 50th ~in -17. J -11 . 4.5 8.8 -2.6 2.4 5.5-7.1 -17.8 -2.1 -16.6 2.4 -3.2 -2.5 9.1 4.6 4.0 3.2 4.5-9.3 -5.2 2.3 -8.6 -5.5-4.4 5.5 N !1ean 28 44 44 4q 46 52 42 44 -10.9 -'8.7 1.8 4.5-6.3 -2.5 -8.2 -7.3 POI NT PINCH.5 4.1 ~ax -1. 0 -15.9 -10.1 3.

.• . 3.6 5.9 Min 1.' o • • w.0 0..5 N 29 45 44 49 46 5C P1ean. . ..• ..4 4. .5-4.9 3. s. 5 3.00 ~ ~ .5 6.'1.. .2 4.7 2.. .00 1. 0: • • . ' ..2 4. a. f • '. .9 3.. 00 z o 0.. • o~ .0 5.5 7.: :..7 3. .5 2.5". I w... • . . ..5 4.e.J POIK'I' PINCH.7 16.00 ' 0 .00 2 3 fl 5 I 7 8 I 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 135 .00 7.8 5.1 0.-. . "'.5-'3.0 8. . . ~. . ....5 3. ..7 6.9 2.5-9. 5. .. .1 2. .5-5.0 2..6 0.7 5.4 4.5 3.9 95th 2. " •. .' ...8 2.9 0.0 42 liS 9. ..00 8.5-6. .3 6.6 2. .1 fI. .6 5... S-J..4 2.7 0.. 4 1.9 50th 2. . • ..00 (I") 2.00 0 0 0 . " w.2 0.2 4. .9 3. 0 •• o • • ~l • • o • I.5 0. force at 3 ca (PIa les and FeBales) (Kgf) Age (yrs) 2. d..5 5. ...5 0.' . . • : .O 4.7 3.0 . . .5-10. . '. 2.9 3.. . .' .-5 8. o • • . 1.3 6. • '.. e"--.. t- fl. .2 6.0 5. •• . 0" .8 2. • e ••• • • ' .~ •• • I • 0 ..4 8.0 4..5 1.. . .9 1..6 5th 1.4 2. o' • • :.5 2. .6 Kax 3.

3 1.. '..5 1. • . . .00 -0.4 0.0 -0.3 '0. a: ..5 -0.8 0. " f " \ • 0.5 3... .5-7.50 . . ..7 0. ... . ..1 0. .7 0.4 0... ...1 5th -0..7 0. 0.. ...5.4. ' . ..2 O..00 +----+----+--"""""4~--+_--_+_--_+--__+---~-___t 2 S S. . ..." . 1 8 9 10 1 AGE O'EAAS) 136 .0...4 0. 8 1. . .. . . .. . .5-5.. .. ..6 1. 1 1... .5 29 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 0.1 0.' - .' ..5 95th 1.1 Max 1. . .. . ..7 0. " ' .-...00 tI. .5 0.'•.. . • • .4 0.. fOt"ce locat ion at (/'fales and Pemales) 3 em Age (y rs) N l1ean s. .b.5. . g.6 0. .2 1. e. d. 0 CL. .. . ' ' . .50 -1. .:.00 .. ..5 4.. : " .. .'.3 /'fin 2.7 0.. ..5.5 1. 9 1.0.13 1. 5 6.5-3.. 5-10.3 1. •• " " .' 1. ... .. .. .5 5. .. .2 1.2 O.5 7.0 0. .50 lj (I') ~ . .5 1. .5 8. 1 0.8 1. .. . .4 0..1 50th 0.3 .8 0.7 1..1 0.9 1. (I') 0 Z 0.. .3 0. 1 e· . .". .8 0. 1 0.5 0..5. .J .0 0. .. ... !Z A..4 2.9.1 .. ..." .6 0..8.3 POiNT PI NCH. . . 1.4 0.8 1. .0 0..

. Q. .1 -". . .0 2.. .. . 9. d. l&J i ~ • -4. .1 1." .. . . '"..9 -11. . .3. . . . . • \ • • .. N Plean 29 -11.' . .5-4..7 3. •• . ".4 0.. . 8 -21. .. .1 '.. '..2 45 .6 .3 POINT PIRes.4 -9.S-a..5 . . .7 -10.5 3. ...0 .5 5. " -18.q 49 -5. • ' " # . .... . . .6 -17. 7 -B...6 4..5-7..00+---000+--"""""t~--+--.. • .' ' .. • ..5 4. 0 ... .... " .5.5. .6 s.8 4.'• . .5 502 .6 !'!in -18.& -3." .6 -10.5-10..7 -1. • .. .2 -20.5 8. .8 -9.2 3. ..9 -8.5 9.. ~ z -11.. ... . . ..0.00 " . .3 -6." .3 6. ..00 1&.... .' •" . ".9 46 -5. " ' . angle at 3 ell (I'lales and Fella 1es) (Degrees) Age (yrs) 2. " . .5 5. ... . ..3 -12.6 -15.00 . .5 0.1 -2. . .8 95th -4.. . .7 -19. .3 3." . .4 -11.. .5-3.. .."..5 3.' .. . • • " ' . "" J . . .5-9.6 3. :.0 '..7 3. .5-5.5 7.00 Q.' .5 Plax -3..9 9.6. . 0 z . ". . .7 -B.8 -5.5 -6.00 ~ C") ~ ~ • -1. .. . 5 6.1 -10. • .8. " C") . . 5th 50th -17. 2 'l 5 ----t---"""'---+---+----I 7 8 9 10 11 RGE O'ERRSJ 137 .. -3.. . 2 42 -4.3 -10.2 -18.0 4. ..2 tiS -3.00 • • ...

.. .9 4.5 4.. .. .2 4.. . .1 1.9 0. .7 5.• ..00 . . . 0 .5.0 7./4 3. ' .5 3.8 95th 3... ... 5 42 9. .00 1.5 6. .00 3. .4 rlax 3.7 3.9 5th 1.0 5.8 0.5-6. .3 3.0 4.4 4. ." 2 . .9 3.4 (Kgf) Age (yrs) 2. . ." 2.5 3..2 3.6 0. .3 2..5-5.4 2. .I . o • • • " 0 .. " ':.' .3 2.00 .0 3.8 4.0 ..4 6.. 1 3..4. . 0 .5-7.0 6." • . .8 1. ' " . . ···A .' • " . .9. .8.' . 52 a.3 2.3 2. . 1 ~in 28 45 44 5. (f) .6 4. .00 ..5 N Me"an s. .. . . .00 8..0 8.4 1. .5 3.... . ..6 4. 5. =' ~ a: ~ z is 0 ~• 5. . .0 4. .7 0.00 !Z ~ a. ".5-10. .2 '.5 . . 5 • 0 8 7 1I AGE (YEARS) s 10 138 ..2 3.00 8. .3 2. 0' .4 2.9 6.5 46 7.5 49 6.9 1...0 0.5-3.5 4. ." 0 . . . ..4 1... 50th 2.8 1.. '0 . ~ . o .6 0.5.. . . e.0 5. force at 4 (I!ales and Fellales) c." • .8 3.5 45 2. 0...00 U E 1.2 2..d.3 POI NT PI HeM. ..6 5.

t- u ~ . • •g • 0.. . I .3 POINT PI NCH w force: location at 4 cm ([lJales and Females) ftge (yrs) N ".5 28 45 44 49 52~ 46 0.. • .2 -0.4 2.00 . ...7 0.4 .' ..9.. .5-7. . ...6 1.1 0.5-4. -0.. d. .5 3.00 1.3 1. .4 1...1 -0. ..5-3.. ... .6 -0..5 0. . • ..7 0.earl 0.. '5 B.50 2..5....'. .----+-~~~--+_--~--_+_--_+--__4 2 3 " 5 8 7 8 AGE (YEARS) 139 .. '.50. . '5. .... C") .1 -0..9 0. : .. .... • . .5-6..4 0. . ' .2 0~3 50th 0.. . 0. .5 1.. ... .1 '.1 0. ..'. .. .50 . ..5 1.0 '. .3 0.. ..5-10. ...'·....6 1. .0 0....' .5 1.. . .•• . .4 .3 5th -0..4 1.7 s..5-5.· .6 0. 8 10 11 -o..... . 0.0. .---+---.• . . . .5 2.5 4.....2 2. .. . o o • • :. ... ..3 -0.-.8 0... 1 1. .4 1.6 0..5 6..3 0..50 -z 0. .0...2 0.• • .8 0.1' 0.. . . .. .. ..7 0.9 95th 1... 1.1 1.0. ttl : • . ".4 !tin -0.5 9...5 42 115 o ~'3 0. ..2 O.. .1 1.6 0.B.5 5. .8 1.....:. .1 . ... .4 !tax 0. • •. '..6 1.00 Z o 0..: .0 .0 0. . . . ...

.. r ..00 .5 5th 50th "in -17.8 -7. .00 .'..9 -4.5.1..7 3..' . .2 -12. ' '.7 -13. ...3 0. ..11 -16. ..5 1. . ...5 3. . ' " . .. " ' o' .0 !'lax -0..8 -1.'.. .5 -4. 5 28 1j5 44 '19 46 52 42 45 Mean -10.5 1.5-6.5-7..J Co:) Z a: . .9 -16.9 -10..00 :I: -9.. •••• ~ L&. . " .8 -6.2 .3.0 2.. 4.6 . . ' . .3 1. .6 -11.1 -6.3.I .5 5.2 2. .00 -15.00 . .5 -3.0 -0.. " t- Z 0 0.6 3.8 -11. ..8 -15.9 -12. . (Y') -12. '..4 -4.6 -8.6 95th -1&.9. .3 -3. 2 s.: ..5-3.5.5.DO -3.2 4. .. o· . ..6 3. .'\' 0 .2 4. • 0. . 6 2. ..5. 0 10 .. pi " .9 3.3 POINT PINCH. d. . .6 -1.8 2. " .00 ~ :::J' . " .0 -1. .\. 1 3.B 6. • 0 " . ..' . 0 ..1 O.5.2 5. angle at 4 em (Degrees) ("ales and Females) Age (y rs) N 2.6 -13.. " U Z • -8.5-4...8 -15. 0 O.6 -12.0 -13.... 0 " .9 3.00 3.8.5 -13..9 -11. ... . ' ' ' . 2 3 5 AGE 6 7 8 9 10 (YEARS) 140 .00 -18.5 9.6 -7. ~ 8..5 -5..3 2. '.2 0.5 6. . .5 3.3 -6.

0 4.8 4. o 1.2 95th ftax 3..5 6.00 2 5 .0 0 .00 o . 5 4!.1 0..2 1. o 0 • 0 •• • • fI" • . . .. ... 141 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) ..l... o. .7 0. 0 00 2. •• ..9 4.6 4.1 1.B 49 46 . 1 4.7 3.4 2. 0 0 0 ... 5..6 14.0 Min 1.3 2.5-9.: o . ...6 8. \ 0 0 0 It..00 o 0 o o • o ..9 3.3 s.5 9.' . .5-.l 5.2 4.00 o o 6.0 4. I 1'.' 0 0 0 o 0 0\ ••- • . . .9 3.1 6.7 3.' . • 0 ..5 5.3 5th 1.4 J..3 POINT PI HCH. .5 3.5 q.. o • • : 'I " 1-'" .5 N Mean 26 43 44 2..1 5. ' '.: '..1 0. I o' 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 • 0 0 o 0 0 " ..5.7 O. ~4..00 .4 3.'.9 2.00 o . .. d..7 2.6 0..9 5. force at 5 ell ("ales and Fellales) (Kgf) Age (yrs) 2..o.5 1. 3 2.4 4. .· • o .6 4. o 0 0 3.00 o 0 0 o.00 • 7.1 3.5-7.. 1 1.5' 50th 2. 5-5..5 8.3 .3 5.5-6.3 1.0 3. 1 1.7 5.• • • · .2 3.. ..9 3..00 8. 0 o •' • • (I") o • o • 0 t • 0 • ..0 8. .6 1..8.6 6.5-10. 2... • • " • • 0 ..5 1. . . z ~ ". . 0.B 1..\ 00 I 0 0 "\ 0 .0 4. 1.e2 42 115 5. .3..0 o '0 0 ~ o z ~ .

. \ . 50 +---+---+---+---+---t---.7 0.1 5th -0.5 46 7.1 -:' 0.00 Q. . is z • 1. .7 95th 1.3 peINT PINCH...5--42 9. . .00 . . • . .8 0.4..0. " ". .' .50 "(\') .5. " " .5-10.9 0.. . J 1. .5.4 0. • . . .11 -0. . .8 0. .5 26 3.4 0. ...3 0. '".8 0.8 0. . '". .. . .9 0.4 0. 1 -0.5-8.3 "in ..1 0..8 0.6 s. .... .3 . . . '" • •.. . ' • I L&-J ~ z Q.4 0.7 0. .4 0.5 52 8. 1 -0. .1 50th 0.3.. .. ..d...2 -0.0. . .3 1.6 1..5 49 6.' . .. 0. . " ' ~ . . .0 1.5-7. .. 0. ." .5-5. 11.5-9.7 0.1 .: . . . force location at 5 (Males and females) CII Aqe (yrs) N 2..' ..7 0. .4 1. . . .. ..2 0.. .3 0..2 ..t-----tr----t-2 ...2 -0.. 1 "ax 1. . . .1 0.5-6..7 1.8 2.5 44 5.00 U 2: If) ~ ex 1. .. I '..3 1.7 0.1 O. .0.5 1.9 1.... II 1.50 2.. .2 2. . ....5 45 Mean 0. '.-.. -0.... 0. .. .5 43 4. .4 0...4 1.4 1..50 . S 8 7 8 e 10 AGE (YEARS) 142 . 0 0.9 0.. .1 0. ..

1 1.0 -10. . • .0 -11. .. .4 -3.. .00 .3 -11. . .. . .2 509 8. .9-11. o ..7 3.. " .0 -3.00 .6 3. .5 -9.'.8 3.' . ..9 1. ~ -8. ...oo U Z ~ .ales) r'Jean s. " • Q.. . .7 -6.5 ~. (\') -1"..8 2.0 2.2 -3.5-6.5 3.' .. .5 2~ N 26 ~3 44 49 4.00~---t----+-~~+----+----+---""""---t----+---~ 2 3 .o .5. ' ...6 Age (yrs) 5-3.8 3.5 5... .8 -4.. .3 -12.. : .1 -17. .: . angle at 5 (r'Jales and Fe.5 9.] POINT PINCH. ..3 0.0 -15.1 3.7 4. .8 1.. .9 -6.' .9 -12.S-e":S 8.. c. 5-5. ' .5 6. 2 -6. '0 •. . .0 3. . d. 0 ••• " I.5-7.1 5th 50thl1in -18.. . -.3 -11. •. '.8 -3.5 1. .9 -3...4 -13.4 4. ·0 .4 -9.2 5.. .2 -0.0 . • .9 -15.' ..1 !tax -4. . .5-10. .9 3. . .. ~ a: ~ G z a: LU ~. .6 -7.. . . .11.2 -9. II.3 3.00 " . 6 ·-4.4 -18..' o.. 5 7 8 10 8 AGE (YEAAS) e 11 143 . Z o Q. .5-9.. '.2 ..5-4. o • .6 52 42 45 . o " e. li IJ) 1. 0. • .4 -0. . .0. .2 -5. (Degrees) 95th -5.5 7.3 -2.00 -18. .1 -0. .2 -11.

. . (Y") ~.6 0.4 95th •• 4. .. " I . .6 3...tI '3.5-10.9 3.0 5. .5 5.~ 8...' ..00 .: .3 4. ..00 ...8 5. . " " ' .5. .' . .:. .9 1. : \ .. 1. . . ..00 5. .4 3..8 6..5 3. .7 2. .8 0. '.7 7.7 3...4 3..' 'I 0 Q.0 3.1 2... . • .. . !'lin 5th 7~5-8.'.1 3. . ..4 1. .0 1. .2 2.' .. at 6 ca (!'!ales and Females) (Kgf) Age (yrs) 2.0 3. ... '" .1 2.6 9.' II'" II I" I " •• • I. "...:3 POI IT PIICR.00 .8 0..9. .4 2.0 6..7 5.1 7.00 U :E 7.5-3. . .6 0...7 6.2 4.2 4. ' . w u ~ ~ • :c u 8.5 0. d.OO 3.9 •• 50th 2.' . • II' • II • • .5 3. ' .5 5. . .5 N !'lean s. '.7 1. .0 !'lax 4.00 2 3 5 6 .0 5.4 1.' • • .00 8. . ' . '.5-6. .8 4.5 19 42 43 49 46 52 42 45 2. .5-5.9 8. . .5-7.• foc-c. . .7 8 8 10 AGE (YEARS) 144 .5 4.00 2... '" .1 3.9 2.7 4." . .5 6... . :' '. 1 1. z z Q. .1 0.5.4 5. . . .. ' .3 4. .5 9..3 4.9 5.' .5 5. a: CD .4.I I I.

2 1.2 50th 0. o •• .7 95th •• 1... . . force locat ion at 6 em (Males and Females) Age (yrs) 2.5-5.0 o 0 . • : • 0 0 ·0 0. • 0 0 o· o 0 .7 1. : o . • •• o • a.b 0..1 0.9. : . 00 0 .0.1 0.0 •• -0.O.5-4.00 o • 0 o.'.50 o 0 0 co a: -' • ::I: ~ ~ · 1. 0 0" • • o 0 o ..6 1.3 1.2 .5 0. z .2 0..5.. '• • . -0.1 ..5 5.• 0 0 .0.5.6..5 0.5 4. 0 0.4 1. .6 0.1 2.2 0.3 0.7 0.3 19 ~2 43 49 46 9'2 42 1&5 Min -0..4 1. . ..5 3.00 ·0·0 .3 0.3 1.2 O. o a.4 0.5 9.1 0.0 5th 0.7 0.. '" . 5 8.4 0..4 ~ 0.:.' o .5 7.00 u ::z:: 1.50 2. .5-10.. (Y') ~ U Z • o • .801.4 0.5.5 2.2 1.. . . o o • 0 1'.8 0. .5 6.4 1.50 . e-----7. .7 0. ... • 0 0 o o . d. 0 o.7 0.5-7. eo o o . 0. o.: ..7 0.4 Plax 1.8 0.1 1.. 0.9 1.2 0.7 0.8 0.. o z o •• • I o ~ .---t'B----±9------:lt----:l lO 11 AGE (YEARS) 145 .5.5 N liJean 006 0.0 .4 0.50 +2-----i3~--+----+S--~· . ' I • 0 ..3.3 PCINT PI NCH.5 0... o o 0 0 . "1 1..7 s.. .

1 -2..' • It' .9 8.0 -'0.' .00 ..~ ..2 3. :.1 -6.1 -1.5 3. • ' -' ' " It· ' •• • • II.9 8.00 fi co ~ 1. .. . .1 1... d. .:) -3...5-4... .0 3.6 2. an qle at 6 (l'Iales and Feules) If. ~ Q .-. . 00+---__+_-----1__-.5-10..00 5.0 -11. ".3 POI PIIICH.6 2.9.5-8. It .. .. .' :. . .. .1 9. .6 4. c. . ....8 5. Io.. .9 -8.. 50th -9~1I (Degrees) Age (yrs) 2. " . . .' ' " Z 0 -11.4 ·-4..00 -19.5 :"18. 6 -0.5 6. .2 -7. C') -15..5-7..5 -12. ..5 7...5-6.9 10 AGE (YEARS) 146 .5 9.00 ".8 -13. " . . "...9 3..7 .9 -7..2 0. .5 -4.0 -6.5 46 52 42 45 5th I'lin -'11.9 2..--__+_--~1---.5 4.0 -1. .5 .. .. I .9 -3..6 -15. " .1 -7... .~ N 19 42 43 49 I'lean -9.7 •• 95th -1..3 -0..2 -2.. Max . . 0 z • -7.00 ..2 -7.. . 'f ... .5-5. ..8 -8.3 2.. '. I ....6 0.5 -10. : . : .6 3. a: a: Z I&J -J (. . . 7 5 6 8 2 3 ----+----.9 -4... .5-3..00 " .8 -11.6 0.7 -1.0 -4. ...5 *.9 2.3 -7.5 5.-.8 3.--. . .' .5..• ' • ...5-9. -.-." .3.9 s.. Q. 2.

.. . o .4.. . '0 • 0 • o ' ...2 3. " ' " ' " 0 .00 1.5-9. n.5.5 5.: . . en o .. .2 4. 2. 4.5 41 45 4..1 3.. force at 7 (P1ales and Females) CB (Kgf) Age (yrs) N !'lean .0 7." .... . .. 0 z n.6 95th •• 3. 0 .2 4.7 2.5 43 6. 5.00 +2----43---. .7 2.3 4.00 ... . .5 5. . o 0 .. ~ ...5. s...00 1&. .5. '. ..00 .8 0.0 4.1 !'lin 4.5 1 3.7..2 5. .8 *.6 6.2 3.7 4.3 3..00 o o 7..5"8. . .. o z ..o .. .- "'.1 2.3. .. ...7 6. .. . ..... .00 8.9 "ax 4. . l " . • 0 . 8.2 50th 4.5-10.2 4.. .. .2 1....2 5..5 38 5..3 6.. o ' 2.3 1.2 2. 1 4.5 "'52 8.5 25 4.3 3.9 3. .6 9.. o ". 3 2. 0..7 4.5-7.7 8. ...1 5. 9 8..3 POINT PIlfCH. .5-5..8 1. : .5 9.1 1...4 5. ..00 '0 . .8 0.5 46 7.5 5. o . 3. .. .6 0. ... . .1 3..1 •• 2. '.o . d.6...0 3.7 5..1 5th 2.4 5. " "-' . . .8 0.00 o .---+5---+6-----i71----e~--+9-----:t10-----:iU AGE (YEARS) 147 .

3 POI!lT PI NCH, force location at 1 (f'lales and Females)

CII

Age (frs) 2.5- 3.5 3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-7.57.5- 8.5 B. 5- 9. 5 9.5-10.5

N

1 25'

38
113

46 52
tl1

Mean 1.2 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.1

•• C.4

s.d. 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3

0.7
0.1

45

!'lin 1.2 - O. ,1 0.0 - 0.1 - o. 3 0.0 0.1 -0. ,

5th

-0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1

••

50th 1.2 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 O. b 0.7 0.1

95th

*. , .2

1.4 , •3 1.2 1.3 1.1

'.2

f'lax 1.2 1.4 1.9 1.5 1.3 '.6 , .4 1.7

2.00

I .•
:I: U

,....
a:
~

1.29

..
0.83

,

..
o

-J

~

is z
Q..
~

.. .
0.57
o.

'

. ... ....
0

. .....
...
~
00

Q..

Z 0

0.21

(r)

..
0

. , .· ·. · ...' . .
o'
0

-. .

." ..
• 0

: .' ..

. .-..
I
0

.. ... . ... .. .. .. .... . .0
• 0

.. . '. ......
o •
o ,
, 00

o

0

". ..

o

• 00

o

#

.

o

. •

.0

.
o

-0.1"

-o.50+----+----+---~--+_--_+_--ooo4---~--_+_--

2

3

5

8

7

8

9

10

AGE (YEARSJ

148

3 POIlf'! PI!lCH, angle at 7 (!tales and Fe.ales)
Age

c.
50th -7.5 -7.2 -6.1 -4.1 -4.6 - 3.1 -2.2 -1.8

(Degrees)

(yrs)

N

r!ean

s. d.

2.5-3.5 3. 5-~. 5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-7.5 7.5-8:5 8.5-9.5 9.5-10.5

1 25 38

4q.
52 41 115

43

-7.5 -6.8 -6.0 -4.0 -4.6 -3.2 - 2. 1 -1.1

•• 2.9

3.4 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.7 2.1

5th !lIin .. 7.5 -12.5 -12.3 -12.9 -12.2 - 1 2.2 -8.6 -10.6 -9.9 -8.5 -7.1 -7.8 -6.0 -9.3 -6.4

••

95th
~2.1

••

Max
-7.5 ';'2.6 3.2

-0.3 -0.3 -0.7 0.4 1.9 2.3

2.6
0.9 3.2 4.1 3.3

5.00
3.00
o

..
.'

,....
t~

u

~

1.00 -1.00
-3.00

-I

w

a:

z

e,:)

u

~

z

-5.00
-7.00

CL

t-

z

o

0 CL
('I")

·.. .. '" . ... . -. .. • .. . • ", ... . . ". .. . '. ... . .. • . t: .' .. • • ...... . "..... . . .. ..." · .. . . .. ." . .. ,. . -. . • . . . .
o •

.:

-. ..
0

o

•••

"

0

I

I

'1.

I

0

0

0

I

o

-,

~

0

.0

o

I'

.0

.0

0

'

.

,

-9.00 -11.00
0,

-13.00

2

3

5

6

7

RGE (YEARS)

e

9

to

11

149

1 POUT PI NCH.

<"ales

~nd

force at q cm Fe.ales)
/'lin 3.7 4.3 3.4

(Kgf)

Age

eyrS) 3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-7.5 7.5- 8. 5 8.5-9. ~ 9.5-10.5

N

1 4 8 20 29 .34 43

/'lean -3.7 4.6 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.5 6.0

s. d.

•• 0.2

-5th

1.0 1.2 1.1 1. 1

2.5
3.3 3. 1
4.~

•• •• ••
••

3.4

50th 3.7 4.6 4.6 4.7 5.5

95th

•• •• •• 6.9
7.0 8. 1

••

!'lax

'.1

3.2
4.5

5. tl
5.7

.3.7 4.8 6.3 7.9 7.2 7.4 8.8

9.00

8.00
U

:E
./

CD t-

7.00

a:'
8.00

a::
&L.

~

0

tZ

z
U

• %:

.

"

,

.

5.00

a...

...
,

... ..

, ..

'.

'., ',

.. . ..
, ,

"

..
,

.. .
.

c

11.00

Q.

(I")

3.00

2.00 +----t----i----+----+----+---__......---t----+-----I 2 3 567 8 Ii 9 10

AGE (YEARS)

150

3 POTIT PI RCR, force location at 8 cm (!'Iales and Females)

Aye (yrs)
3.5-4.5
4.~5.5

N

Mean

s. d. O.q

5.5-6.5 6.5-7.5

1 4 8 20

7.5-8.5 ,29 . 8. 5~9.5 34 9.5-10.5 "3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6

•• 0.2

rUn

0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3

0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.1 - 0.' -0.0 -0.0

•• •• •• 0.0
0.0 0.1

••

5th

50th 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6

95th

•• •• •• •• 1 1.
1.3 1.0

ftax

0.3 0.6 0.8 1.2 1. 2
,. 8

1.2

2.00

1.81&
U

%:

CD

1.29
v'

,

. . .
"

t-

a:

I.L.

....J
%:

.

0.83

,.

,

.

z
t0
Q..
(I")

Q..

u z

0.57

. .
,

..
,

,

..
0

• , ·, ,

. ·
0 0

. '... .
,

.
0.21

.

.

0

.. . ·.. . ,.
'
0

.
0

..

,

\

-0.1'

-o.50+---~-----+----+--~+----+----~---+------l~--~

2

s

5

S'·

7

8

8

10

11

AGE (YEARS)

151

3 POI NT PI IlCH. angle at 8 ca (!'lales and pe.ales)

(Degrees)

Age (yrs) 3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 (). 5-7.5 7.5-8.58.5- 9.5 9.5-10.5

III

Plean

s.d.

1 4 B 20
~9

34
43

-6.8 -6.0 -J.4 -5.0 - 3. J -2.6 - 1.8

•• 1.5

3.5 3.1 2.7 1.9 2.11

5th I'!in -6.8 ** -7.1 ** -9.6 -12.0 ** -10.9 -10.4 -6.5 -6.1 - 8.4 -11.7

••

50th -6.8 -6.6 -2.7 -4.3 -3.2 -2.7 -2.4

95th

*•

Max
-6.8 -3.8 2.4 - 0.9 2.5 1.2 6.1

••
** **

-0.3 0.2 1.4

8.00

u

~

q.oo

CD

t-

a:
0.00

. .
-IA.OO

"" ~
a:
:E:
U

tZ 0
Q..
('t)

Z
Q..

..

. ., .. .
..

. . ..

.. . . ..

. .. • ·. '" ·. ·.·.·.. . . . · . ... .

• •• 1••

·

.. ..

-8.00

-12.00+---+----+---+---+--""""""'i1----+---+----+----i
2 3 5 6 7
8
9
10

AGE (YEARS)

152
r,

00 o' (7) t- a: I- U ~ lL . Z Q.3 •• 5th •• 16.5-1.. d.8 5.00 I Q.5 6.2 1 1 •• s.0 5. (Kgf) 50th 5.0 1.2 6.1 1.4 6.00 .6 5.00r---"±--~-t---"±----t----+---+-_-:""+----+----1 2 3 5 '6 7 8 '9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 153 .J POIIT PIlCH.2 0..5 ~ N Mean 5.5-6.6 5.5 •• •• •• •• •• •• Max 5.5-8.4 4.6 5.5-9.0 5.3 3.00 3.2 6.2 4.5 7.4 8.' I'HD 5 10 25 ~ •• 1.1 1. force at 9 c. 0 (T) 1£.9 7. 5.6 5.3 6.5 8.5 9.00 u z::: 7.2 1.5-10.1 95th (!'Iales and Females) Age (yrs) 5. J: Z l&J 6.

s.5 1 .5-10 ..3 PCINT PINCH..5 0 . 5 9..20 1.5-8 . . 5-9 .3 0.80 0') ~ .5 . Cl') 0. 0.5 0.. 0 0. force locat ion at 9 cm (Plales and Females) Age (yrs) 5.5 ·0..' ' ... Min 0.* *.5-6.1&0 a.1 0. ...3 0.3 .2 0.20 . 6 0.5-1. 10 11 0..2 0. z a. 5 8 . ~ lL.5 1.1 0. .. z 0 ~ 0..1 0..00 u z:: 0.2 0.2 0. .7 1. ~ u :I: • 0. d.3 0.5 6.4 95th •• ~ax •• *.2 0.60 . .9 1. •• •• 5th 0.. > N 1 1 5 10 25 Mean 0..6 0.00 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 AGE (YEARS) 154 .2 0.1 50th 0.

(T') -5..0 .2 ....00 -7.5 5. ..* •• 2.4 -5~O -4..00 0') .1.5 JO 1 1 5 Hean -4.-3.2 -2.5-1'0.5 -2.5-7....7 2.5 7.. z 0 ~ ~ -3.00 .4.4 -5.5 -2.5-6. .5 B.-+.:J ~ I. d.9.00 +2-----j~--+---~S~--..3 -6.5 6.5 -5..5 3.1 -10 9 11 AGE' (YEARS) 155_ .3 POlliI'l' IlIICB.5 25 1.7 -2. angle at Cj ell (Degrees) 95th Hax -. 0 -2....5 -5. . z ..0 1..5 s. 5 9.5 5th •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 0.5.5.00 3.ales) Age (1 rs) N 5. ~ -J t.LJ Z u ~ • -1.00 .4 -6.4 ("ales and Fe.0.+8----l7~--+e.00 u z: 1.4 . Min -4..9 ..5-8.3 50th -4.

al Proximal Handle Bandle +F. (L) ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The pinch handle set is inserted into the transducer. 156 . INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child brings the tips of the fingers together and pinches the two plates using his thumb and four fingers.GRIP: FIVE POINT PINCH DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The anterior surface of all four finger tips (distal end of phalanges #2-#5) are pressed in opposi tion to the anterior surface of the thumb tip '(distal end of phalanx #1). The handle span (S) is then adjusted to the proper test position. . TEST POSITION: Thumb and four fingers are flexed in the sagittal plane so that the thumb tip is opposite the second and third finger tips and the distal handle brace is between them.. c1u. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The length of the second finger is measured from the tip to its palmar skinfold.

3 2.5 31 1.8 3.7 2.1 4.. 1 5. .8 1.4 5.9 4. .7.5 6... " " . .5 2.8 0. PI NCft . .. .9 95th filial[ 3. '.• .. .00 ' !Z C Q...7 4.: • .. ' . .0 4. ' ...7 6.2 1.5 12.6 6.'. a• • " t...-: .0 8.._. .- • ".• t .52 8.... • 't . 00 • • '...5 49 6.6 . " .5-3. ..00 I§ u l&J Q .5.5 0..3 5.' :.. . ' • •.5. . ttl .... ' .' I..2 5.. .3 5th 1.0 2.9 3.5-.5 ~6 7.4 50th 2..0 5. !'lin 2. . .." o~" '.. . d..9 11• 8 6.00 . " ' .3 2. .'... • ' ." .7 0.5-4..t '.5 45 4.5 44 5..4 1.7 4.0 2...7 2...'.0 2. " " • " I "" " •• _ ~ • '.. .5 4.' . . ~ .8 5.00 2 5 8 7 (YEARS) 8 8 10 11 AGE 157 ... ' t '.00 N ~ .00 10.8. • .8 4. ..6 4..0 6. • "" ... l/) 2..3 3. . . . . .5 POI NT .2 2. . .3 8. I{.• . ' "N .S-Q. ..3 6. '.. . . 1 3. . . . . .' .5 45 2. .9 1.5 .5-10.. • " ". • .2.' . • o z LL. . 8..5-8. .~ 1.0 0. force at 2 ("ales and Fellales) ~ge CII (Kgf) (yrs) N li!ean s.8 8.':" ....0 4. . ..5 8..5-6... .t.5 3. o. 0. .9 0. \'.5 42 9. " "" •.8 3..

5 1.6 1. .00 ~ N ~ ~ I 1.0 O.2 2.4 0..d.2 1. .5 3.5-8. 0 Z .5-10.2 0. 1 0.. . 1 0.50 2..-----l~-~ 2 3 .5 0.3 0.4 1.3 1.0 0.7 1..0 0. 1 .( l'Iale!'i and Females) 'ge (rrs) 2.9 1.4 0.5.3 2.5 POINT PINCH.3 0. 3 0.0 1.2 0..6 1.3 1.3 -0.00 .9 95th 2.00 -o.1 O.. '0 .. 0 .4 0.4 1. .4 1.0 1.6 1..5-6. .8 2.0 0. 1 1..5-7.....3 Min 5th 0.5 46 1. 0.5 N 31 45 44 49 5.5-3.0 0..50 .5.6 50th 1. 0. 52 9.6 1.. s 8 8 10 11 158 . U L %: • 1.5 2.5 . 5-4. 0 L -oJ ~ 0 Q. .6 1.1 0.0 1.50+----+----+----+----+----+---+--.4 1.5 ij5 !'lean s. force location at 2 em ..0 1.ij 1.5 4.0 .5-9.5 6.5 1..50 U) 0.1 .1 0.0 1 .5 0.4 Max 2..o.2 1.5 0.5 42 9.

8 Max 17 • .5-7.00 ~ a.5-6. 2.8 3. .e: ..':1 7. .5 10. . . . 0' I...8 ij. . " • 0 . . 4..9 10.4 1..5 3.6 -5. .5 -2.5 -. .3 -14.' .. . .: e• • ".1 4.8 2. .5 42 45 3. .00 13.0 95th 3. .4 5.0 . • 0 ' ': " '.5-8.2 ·0.5-5.1 . .. . 50th -4. . .. •. .0 -4.2..4 -5.7 (Degrees) "ge (yrs) N Mean s.. ... .8 -7. 3 5 8 7 (YEARS) I 8 10 11 AGE 159 ...0 11_:.0 -5:'1 -5.5-ij....8 0.. .. ..0 6. .5 5.. . 1. '0 " "s" 0 .5 -3.. • . angle at 2 (lIIales and Fe mal es) c. .. . .00 -12. .5 6..2 3.3 4.0 8.5 1.6 -8.1 -0.. " "" " " \. . o . -7.6 7~ 0 6.00 -17. 1 10. .. .11.6 ..00 2 • :r: . . .". .00 3. . . ..3 9.. . . .00 1..6 7.7 9.2 2.2 1..8 1. .5 2.. '0 ••• I •• 0 .2 -7. ~ " " " o 0.0 -5. -. . .8 11.5-10. d. .5 4...8 -10. • ...' .2 1." . : . .9 5th "'in -16.4 3.0 3...6 -2. .. . .6 10.2 3.' .5 31 ij5 44 49 46 5~ -3..: ". . " ". .' .5 7.. ..J) '3. " . .5 POINT PINCH..5-3..5-9. 7 1.

.4 2..5.' ~ .5 POINT PI NCH. .+ ..5 4.Cl 0.':" . II ' • .. .5-3.4 2. '..9 2. •• t • "lit .5 7.5 9.5 28 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 2.5-6. .0 5. ..5 ].5 3.5 2. ...5.2 6.1 8.II' • \ o ~ a.8 95th 3....4 0. " " \ .9 4.4 6...·1~ ."1 3.. .2 4. 1 7.5" R.. 1. II::' . 5.3 7.9 1• 1 1. 3 !'lin 1. . . . ..B 3.5 5. • .7 1. '.7 5.7 1.3 1 0.6 11..1' '..4 6 7 B 10 2 3 9 11 5 AGE (YEARS) 160 '.4 3..6 1. '" . .. .. I.8 /'lax 3.. ..6 0. • .' II \~" II. U Z w u 7.4 .9 2.6 6... .1 . .8 4.8 3. " . U'l 3.9 6. • • ..7 2.0 5.... " '.5 0.+ .')-4.. 0..00 U ::I: 9.0 7..9 5.•. .. force at 3 ('1a1 es and Females) CII (Kgf) Age (yrs) N Mean s..00 (T') ~ a: a: I.00 . . 2 3.9 3. . • ..::. '.5-10.0 3. II. : •• I .8 4.! : . . .00 +----+---1----..5-7. z o a..5 4.4 50th 2.5 6. ":...1 5th 1 • ...8 D.4 4..... . d... ". •. .S-9.7 4.. J: . .. . . ... ..B 5. .5 2.. .5-8.. . .+ .6 5.00 . ..4 5. . " .00 . 2.7 3..L.'.

L.q 1• 8 .'.00 . fl.. .5 0. ' " " . 5-4..6 1. . .7 2. .4 0.5. .5 1...4 0..5-7. . .• '..8 1.9 95th 1. .3 50th 1..9 1.0..2 0. .4 1.3 1.5 1.8 0. z CL. .4 0. ". .2 1. . CL. .5 7.3 0..5 6.5 1. " . . ' : ' .5-3.0 1..50+----+----+----i-----+---+----+----+----l-----i 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 161 .0 0.1 0.2 0. . . If) 0. . .5-5.5 3.5-10.. . • :r:: u 1. a: -J 1.1 0.' ..5 POINT PI NCH...50 2. " . ." .cm (~ales and Females) Age (yrs) 2...' . .1 2.' " . .. . " It .9 O. .5 8. .0 1. force locatioD at 3 . 1 1.0 ' 0.5 1.2 0'. ...5 4.5 N l"Iean s.00 -o.50 I.6 1.. .' .0 0." " . " .1 0.0 0... . . '. d.9 0.. . . .3 O. .SO " . . o O. . . fl.1 0. ' .. . . . ." .. . .1 5th -0. " . . .1 2.3 -0.0 0.LI 0.2 0.2 0.9 0. . . " . !"lin 28 LIS 44 49 46 52 4' 45 1. .5-8.9": 5 9.9 0. . ..2 1. .. . " ..5 5.. " ..00 t5 C1') . .'. . Z . ' . ..2 0.9 0. . . ..7 1.9 1..5-6.. .4 ll!ax 2. .q .

3.B -9..8 7... o ' I ..1- Z 0 0. 0 000 .5 4..00 .. 0' 0 o o. 0 . o o o o 0 .9 3.4 -5.5-7.O -13.3 -3.4 95th 3. .. " I '.5-5..5-3." ..B 3.5 POI NT PI HCH r angle at 3 ell (!IIales and Fellales) (Degrees) Age (frs) N Mean s.9 -6.OO+----+---t-----+----+---+----+-----1f-----+-----1 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE ClEARS) 162 "'-- .. .0..0 -0.2 .3 -1. .. 3 .1 -9. ... '0 ." 0 ' \ .8 -1. . o o .2 -1.5..4 -5.4 5. '" ... .5 7.5-9... 0 5tb Min -16.6 -1.6 . 0 0 -11.. ': . ('I") I- a: . o 0 o o " .5.5 -11. I o ' ' '.5'" 9.. 0' o . -J (. .5 50th -5.5-6.7 -2. ." 0 0.5· ~. .5 6..5 28 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 .. . . '.9 1. ' u ~ !l.8 -10_ 3 -6.4 5.9 6. .. 0 .. • .4 . o .7 .5 5..1.3.5 3.2 2.6 3.. .0 0.7 3.7 3.00 0 • It 00 . 0 .4 6. .4 5.3 7. o 0 -6.6 3.:J UJ -1.0 o .4 -1 J. 0 a: U Z . • ::I: ...0 8.4 0..5 Max 7. I . 0 -B.00 .7 6.. . 5-8.. d.. .5 0..5-4.3 1. ..0 4.. 2. o o 0 "I .00 . I 00 I 0 .00 -IB. L/) Z 0. 1 3.7 2. . 0 . o " # 0' 0 o • ..0 -14.5-10.5 4.9 9. 6 -4.9 3. I' o 0 o .

' . _.' I' .. .4 5.00 .5 6.9 s.5-4. " • I . -: .7 2. ..0 2.5 3.6 3.S-9.5 1.. 'I " :. I .2 :1.LJ CI: 0 l.•• .2 7.7 0. ". '• . .. '.." . ~ :c u z . It ... .1 3.1 5. .2 50th 2.7 Max 3.9 4.4 0. .00 I. .•. • • I.8 7...6 3.5 5.' .. .. :0 . . .8 5.7 95th "3......:' " o . . ..o.. •• 00 . I' " -.0 5th 1.• B plJin 1.3 2. o I.4 6. 4..9 3.6 4. • ...3..1 5.9 1....8. .00 u :::E: 9.. 'I o o 0 " 't o '" ~. .:. .'. . 1 ).2 2.I. .4 5~7 6.1 5.6 3.5 5. 5. . .0 4. .8 0.5 0. I.5-5. .8 0.5-1.7 5.8 5.5 4. ...2 7.2 4..: ~: • '...0 3.5 3. . "" ..5-10... • '.6 ."". •• -.-.00 :34 ~ a: 7..8 10...L.5 1. I.3 11. '.. : a " " . 0.". u a. . IJ') 3...5-. 6.00 z 0 ll..5 7. . .00+---_+----+---+----+----+-----I~--+_--_+--__i 2 3 5 8 9 10 11 163 .5 F4.5 3.: .9 2. .. II . .5 3.t '. '" '.5 POI NT PI HCR • force at II ["ales and fellales) CII " (Kg f) Age (yrs) 2.t • • . d.5 9. t..5-6. .9 4. " - 1. .' '.5 N 29 45 44 49 46 J)2 42 45 Mean 2.1 2.0 1..5 4.5-3...- .

.' .2 -0..5 0.5 0..1 1.9 1.5 .5-5.9 1.00 -o150+-----+----+---~---+----+-----+---+----4-----I 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 164 ---- . " ..5 N Mean 29 45 44 49 46 52 42 45 1.5 POINT PI leH .5-6. 0.0 0.' . . .50 a: • z: 1.5 3. . .· · .5 0.0 1.7 2..2 1.4 "lin 0.. ..1 -0. ·.5 0... .5-10.8.2 2.8 1.5-3.00 . d. 1 2. I' .0 0. 1 1. '. .0 1 .2 0.9 2....-.3 0. ..2 1.2 0.50 " : .5 2.2 0.8 t'la~ 1. .1 5th 0.3 0. .5.7 1. . . ' 0. u . .0 1 ...I I .5 7..4 1.0 1. . 8.3 50th 1. 1 1.. . . I z Q.3 1. .7 2.. ' . ..6 0. Z ~ . . .0 0.. III' •• . .0 s. .4 2.2 1. . o Q. . .5-7.6 0..' . . .50 2.00 ~ ::JI ~ 1. . ... '.5 0. . . .. force location at II ca (r1a les and Females) Age (yrs) 2. . .. " " . I' . . " IS) '. '.4 0.5 4. . 0.5 5. ..0 1.5-9.1 1.2 0.5-4.1 0. ...0 95tb 1. "7 .2 1. . " .3 -0..2 0.5 6..5 9.9 1.J LL · ..

ii.

5 POINT PI NCH, angle at 4
(!'!ales and Females)

c.
50th -4.4 -3.0 -2.3 -1.9 -1.6 - O. 1 0.6 1.7

(Degrees)

Age

(yrs)

N

"lean
-4.5 -2.9 -1.7 -1.6 - 1• 1 -0.4 0.8 ".7

2.5-3.5 3.5-4.5 4.5- 5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-1.5 1.5-8.5 3.5- 9.5 9.5-10.5

29 45 44 49 4. 52 42 45

s. d. 5.2 4.6 3.8 4.0

5.1 3.2
1.6 3.7

5th ~in -12.6 -12.4 -12.5 -9.8 -18.2 -5.8 ~8.8 -8.1 .-10.0 -9.3 -9.1 -5.8 -6.8 -4.7 -4.8 -4.2

95th 2.4 3.8 3.7 4.9 7.4 3.4 5.4 8.2

!!lax

11. q 9.7 5.5 9.2 13.3 8.2 10.4 10.1

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AGE (YEARS)

165

5 POINT PINCH. force at 5 ("'ales and fe.ales)
~ge

c.
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3.8

(Kgf)

(yrs)

N

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s.d.

lIJin

29 .45 44 49 46 52 ~.5-9.5 42 9.5-10.5 45

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3.8 3.9

0.8 0.9 0.9

1.7 1.6 1.1

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0.8 0.9 1• 1 0.9

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2.9 3.2 3.6

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3.9

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3.8 4.2 4.7 5.3 5.9

95th 4.4 5. 1 5. 1 5.1 5.8 6.5
7. , 7.3

Max 5.0 5.6 5.7 . 6.3 6.7 6.7 8.0 8.6

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AGE (YEARS)

166

5 POINT PI NCH.

for-ce location at 5 cm ("'ales and pema,les)
5.

Age Cyrs)
2.5-3.5

N

3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5
&.5-1.5

29 45
44

Mean 1 .1 1. 1 , .2
1. , 1.3 1. 1

d.

Min
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0.5
0.1 0.3

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1. 2

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1.6 l.q 1.8

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1.9

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42 45

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AGE (YEARS)

167

5 POINT PINCH, angle at. 5 em
(p"~les and
~ge

(Degrees)

Fe.ales)

(yrs)

N

P'lean

s.d.

2.5-3.5 1.5-1J.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-7.5 7.5-8. ~ 9.5- 9.5 9.5-10.5

29 45 41l 49" 46 52 42 45

-2.7 -3.6 -'.2 -0.6 -0.5 O. 1 1.9 1.8

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95th
Il.8

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AGE

(YEARS)

168

5 POINT PI NCB, force at 6 <,'ales and Fe.ales)

Cli

(Kgf)

Age" (rrs)

If

rtean

2.5-3.5 3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5- '7.5
7.5~8.5

22

45 43 49
46·

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4.9

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5.8 5.7

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AGE £YEARS)

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169

• 00 . 1 1. • . .2 1.8 2.4' 1. 1 1.2 1.0 .5 6.6 0.' . . .1 '" .oo 2..3 95th 1. .3 1.2 1. .. .06 -0.3 0.4 0.5 5.. ..5 POINT PI NCH.2 1. ..5. force location at 6 (/'Ia 1es and females) Age (yrs) 2. . 5 3.8 1.3 2..8. 1 2. 0 ". .4 0. .. . . LL.5-6... 0' ' • .5 4.1S u co ~ :I: a: 1.5-1. : o " • '.0 1.50 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 170 .25 .2 0. 3 s.5 0.0 ..52 42 45 'ean 1.6 1.4 5th 0. . 0 " 0 .5-10.0.4 0. 0.8 2. I I.5. .6 0. • J: u .6 0.3 0. 2 1.0..1 0. aLI) 0 0.5 7. . ' o . 0 0 o ' .. .I.4 0. o - o o I .2 2.4 0.1 .5 '1. .'~ • 1IIIt • • o " " .4 0.3 1.2 .'. o o .. .5-5..2 1.5 2.5 N CIII q.81 " . '''. 0.4 !'lin 0._ -" .38 -0.. .9 1'1 ax 1. 0 0 0 : .".6 1. 0.5-4. 1.5 22 45 43 49 46 .89 o .2 s.5 0.. . '• 0 o z 0.9 2. .3 1.3. ..2 1. " ".d.4 50th 1.4 0. .5 0.2 1.56 2...2 1 .4 0.5-9.4 0.• 0' • 0 .2 1. 8 2. -l t- z Q.

' "" .3 0.. •. 2.2 9.9 3. ..3 -3.00 . a: . d... ..3 -3. • \ '\ .' .. . : . . . o a: Z • 2. ..5 3.2 -9.5 3..0 0. .6 5th -13. ' I .00 .. :.8 o.. ' I• .0 -5.' " Q.. .ales) Age (yrs) 111 c.2 3.. I.3 18. " o . . .8 -8.b 2..5 POINT PI NCR..5-3. . ..00 .. 50th -4. .2 10.--+---.5-7.. . " .7 2.5 5. 6 s.0 -7..' . .6 5. '.1 1'1 ax 4. .2 3. .. lAJ . . IJ) .5-11 .. . 1 0 .5-5.00 I. . ~ z Z Q. .10.9 0..6 . ' '" .t .5 -n.--+----+-----4---+----+---------1 8 7 5 8 9 10 11 2 " RGE (YERRS) 171 .2 -1..' • • .. ..... 4 . • " ..7 8. •' • .5 B.. ' . .3 95th . .1. .7 6. . ..5 1. ..3 9.5 -5.2..2 -6.OO +----+--. angle at 6 (Plales and Pe.6 4. .6 -9.5 22 45 43 49 46 42 45 5~ 4.3 !'lin -1. " ".0 8.00 111. ...6 5.'" \ ' " .. • I.4 (Degrees) l'Iean -4. .3 -7.q 3.8. .. .0 -6... . • ' .0 '-3.4 9.00 .8 1. . . -2.00 5 CD ~ 10.8 -5.5-q-:S 9..5-6. . -10. .9 2.0 16.~.' .' .. ..J Co:) 8. .6 . I.5 '3. " ..5-10.. ' II I.. ..3 3..' .00 -tl{.5 6. 1 2. 'I. '-6.9 5.1 5. . \. . I'· ..5 4.5-B.. .1 1....

. .2 3. 0 o . 0 .0 ~in 5th 0..1 1. .3 1t.2 4. 1 ** 2.0 3... 3 5.8 8.4 s.5 3..- o o 00 . ct: u a. ...4 5. 0.0 3.5 38 5. .5 24 4.d. .6 6.8 6.U 0 L&.5 45 !!ean 3.00 2. '0 " o . force at 7 c. I.' .4 2.' 2.00 6.5.3 3.7 1...5 46 7.4 95th "'ax 4..' ..8 4. I .5-6. o .3.6 3.7 5. .3 to.5 __ 42 9..0 9 •.' o • .3 7.5 6...2 3.' 00 o • 0 " " .00 7.5-10.9 9.' .3 3. . 8. .5-4.00 5. til '.5-7. '...5 52 A.4 1..5 43 6.3 5.5 5. r~ ~ I.4 6.9 1.5-8.7 5... .oo 9.' . o '.5 •• 4.9 4.' • • 0 0 " 2 • 6 3 5 7 8 9 AGE (YEARS) to 11 172 ..1 3.' 0 a. ' 0 '1 o .5. . .00 2: u . ~ .' .3 4. (Kfg) 50th 3. 0 . • 0 .0 4.9 6.7 (!!ales and Fe. " :. .0 1. 1 3.5 POI NT PI NCH . I •• ' . .7 6..1 9. :' ...00 3.00 1 .6 3.9 6.00 : .4 2. 5 3.6 0.4 4... "0 • '.5-:9.1 3. .0 3. ~ z 5 z • .ales) Age (yrs) N 4 2.5.. " • .

0 0.. . .2 1.. 1 1.5 24 4.5 POINT PI NCH. rl.5-10. 2 4 2.6 5th 50th 0.9 2..3 1.• " .3 0.SO ' D· .. e: 1. . .2 1.7 .8 1.5 0. 0.9. .4 0.. 2 1.50 2. ..'.90 ( . . ' . a.0 1.. 0.10 . .5 43 6..3 0..3 s.5 3.5-6.. . force location at 1 CII (Piales and Females) Age (yrs) N l1ean 1.5-7.2 1.0.3 1.. .4 0.. U %: .4 Min 0.2 1.d..5 0.J ~ 1.. . 1 1. . t ..... ..1 1• 8 2.9 2. U • :I: .9 1• 1 1.5 42 9. " .. .1 0.8 '.6 1.5 45 •• 0.. . e • •' . .5 2.4 0. 0.5-4.5 38 5.10 -o...6 !'lax 1.5-5.0 1. . 0..5 52 A. 0 .5 0 . I- Z z: c. .50 . 5.7 2. .5 0.' ' In .3 0..0 1.. J '. .. . .3 1.5".. .8 -0_0 0.5=-B.46 7..6 0.8 1• 8 2..4 0. .70 '..0 0. . . . '.SO+----+---~--t__-___1~-__i---__+--__+_--_+--__1 2 5 6 7 e 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 173 . . 1 95th •• 1. • .4 0.5 0..5-3.

1 1.. . . . . '.d.7 -4.0 3.2 -7.5 -7. . . .5. .2 3..7 15. 1• ~ -2.. 1 -0.4 -7. ' ' • II.' . . 1 .5-5.j:J -9. .00 u ~ 10. Z 0... '.5. .4 "in -9.. . " . .5-3. . 1 4.. ' ' \ " ' • -10. 5'" A...1 s.. · • . '.5-4. . . • . " " ' . ..1..00~2--.5 -3. B 7..3 0.5 6. · I.9 .7 4. LI') -5..1 4.2 3...5 -4.S 2...1 8.0 .5 7. :J: U 0. .00 !...3 .00 Z ~ 0 0. . . .B.7 7. .5 2.5 8...5 4. .5 -1.2 3.5 9.· " .9. . '" .. • .' . ..8 -2.5 1. ..3 -0.. .9..5 5.•.. 1 2..jI----+--""---+S----16---7+----+e----+S---l"'O-~"""11 AGE (YEARS) 174 .5-7.. . .6.8 3.7 -6.9 -- 5th 95th .3 -7... . ~ a: l&J ~ -J 5. angle at 7 ("ales and Females) c. . 1 1. : .1 -5. 5.'..6 -0.3 (Degrees) Age (yrs) 2.5-10..0 1. . .5 1. ..5 N 4 24 38 43 46 !'lean -6.5 POIIT PI itCH. . . . . ..8 -5.00 ..9 8.. .. ' ' ..4 -3.. . .1.8 2..' •• 'i .3 -5. ...8 52 42 45 3.7 6. . 50th -6.4 3. .8 5. • • I.* "'ax -4.5 2.00 . . . '.

.3 6. ales) Age (yrs) 3. . Cl \ .B 6.5 3..8 *. 1 1.2 l"IIin 5th 6..3 8. • •• ... 3...2 3.5-10.5 6.3 ** •• •• 3. A 4.4 9.5.9 95th *. . .8 4.5-7. . *.5 4 8 20 29..... ..8.00 CD a: u ~ t- 0 IJ- a:::: Z 0 to-- Z l:L. .00 2. ~.8 5.5-5.9 0..' 1.9 1.8 8.5 7. .1 2..8 1.A 8. .. .. 3.5 ._+_--_+_--__t 6 '7 B 9 10 11 2 S 5 AGE (YEARS) 175 . 5. . .6 5. l:L.8 3. . 4..5 9.. :' . .. .6 10.00 u z::: .1 4.. . :2: 8. .00 7.1 6..-+_-. ** 6. . . ..1 ** 5....3 1.. ".5 ~.5-4.00 5. B. 8. . L/) U .3 ' 1.5 6.00 9.5-9.2 3.5 (Kgf) N 1 5..OO . .2 5.. d... force at B ca ("'ales aDd Fe. ..3 5.6 5.0 50th 3.5 6..8 •• !'lax 3.00 ..5-6... 00 't----t---_+_---fo---i---~.5 POINT PI NCR. .. 34 42 "lean 5'. ..7 7.B 3.

2 1.3 2..3 95th . •• .00 .. • • .4 2. '. 3 1.6 1. .. ..5-9.6 0.~ .0.5 5.. 1.- . 1.00 5 CD ~ . . 1.6 . ..5 0.5 50th t.5 29 34 42 t•. 5-5.5 1.50 IX ~ . :.2 0.3 '0. ** O.* ** •• .50 a.6 2. . !'lean 4 8 20 9 . 5-7.0 1..5 4 . ..5.5 7.4 1. ~ z Q 0..3 1.4 1.3 0. . 1 0..0 2. ' .9 2.8 1.5 POINT PINCH.4 1.5 ** 0. p -J U Z • %: 1. . .2 0. : ... a.5 A. 1 1..l) 0.50 2.6 0.5-8...SO 2 s 5 6 7 8 AGE (YEARS) s 10 11 176 ".1 MiD 5th •• *. 5-10.d.5 1.4 0..3 2...5 6 .6.5-4.1 0.2 0. In 0. .00 -O.4 s. •1 0.. .. force location at '3 cm (f'IIales and Females) Age (yrs) N 3.* f'Iax . . .0 2.

.5 •• .6 4.5.1 -4.5-5..' -2.5 -2.1 -4.J LU 2.3 P1in -2.' -7..5-10.3 5. 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 o.4 1.3.9 34 42 .1.1 -2.0 50th -2.5 Age PO~NT PIltCH.4 6.2 ~. .* 5th -3.00 ..5-7.5 6. . ·..00+----+-----t---+----+----+---+-----+-~--+----1 2 S 567 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 177 . angle at 8 ell ("'ales aDd Fellales) (Degrees) (yrs) N !'lean s.8 0. . *.5 8. 00 • • · 0 0 CL. d.' 0.4 5.00 0 0 CD t~ .6 -3.5 7.1 2.2.2 -6.5 1 4 B 20 2.9 0 •. •• .5 9. 0 0 . .7 *. .2 .• .5 5.5 4. 0 Z Z • -1.5 4. • . LO -4. .4 0. 0 0 t- CL.00 ..00 . •• -3.5-6.5-4. . .4 3.8.8 95th *.* III! ax 3'.4 2. 3.1 -2.8 3.00 0 0 u 2: 5. .& -3.1 -5.2 0.4 2.5-4'. .5 1.1 .2 •• 0.3 1.0' Z ~ ~ .5 8.0 1.2 -1.

o.7 1.2 6.* •• •• 5th 50th 95th 5.2 6. 9. .. Li) 3.00 7.00 2 1£ 5 8 7 AGE (YEARS) e 9 10 1 178 . ~ z • 0 Q.0 11.6 .7 1.4 1.2 0.9 4.00 10.00 1£.0 1.5.00 5.5-8.] 6. 1 •• ~ax 5.5 5. 5 5 10 25 5.5 8.0 •• !'lin 5.00 8. force at q ell (Kgf) (Plales aDd Pe. 5. 1.2 7.ales) ~ge (yrs). 3 6.5-9.5 9.00 u ~ a: 0 U ~ Z Q.5 POI NT PI NCH.5 N 1 "'ean s.00 ~ u 8.6 •• •• 9.2 .5-6.3 5.9 4.d.00 0) ~ ~ L&J 8.1 Q.

1'Iax 3.2. .3 95th .0 •• .. 1 *.00 a: lL..0 5th 50th 1.q 1.5-.00 " a. 0.3 •• 1 • 3 •• •• .6 1..5 0.5 H 1 0 5 .6 2. 0 In .3 O. .10 •• •••••••••• 1.2 0.3 25 '. ••••• '..5 6.00 0 m ~ 2. force location at q cm (!!lales and Fe-llales) Age (frs) 5..5 0.5 8.3 1.J Z :J: U .5-' 0.0 Mean s. • 1. a.5 1.6 !!lin 1.9 0. 1 0.. d. 5 9. ..00 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 179 .5-1.5 POINT PI NCH.5-6...5-8.. ~ z .*••• •• .9 •• 2. •• '..0 0.

1 5 10 2S •• 1.00 .5.1 5th 50th 0. (~ales (Degrees) and Females) "'in 0. ""'.5 8.5-9.7 1..5 POINT PI NCH w angle at 9 c..3.5 . 1 1.0 5.7 6. -2.5 9.00 .7 2.00 ..7 0.2 2.4 1.9 s.9 95th •• •• ~ax •• 4. .9 0. 1 .OO~---+----+---+-~---i---~--~--+----+----11 2 S 5 8 7 AGE (YEARS) e 9 10 180 . . S Age eyrS) 5.7 1.00 5 0) "'. 5 N Mean 0.00 a: -l C) ~ LLJ 2.4 0.0 5. d.7 .1.1 O. .3.4 •• •• •• .O..5-8.5 7.7 1.5-6. 0 0L/) !Z 0- !• 0 Z 0.

P:roximal f1. Dietel Mendl. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The length of the second finger (L) ~s me~sured from the tip to its palmar skinfold. Finger Length (L) (em) <5 Handle Radius (R) (nun) 5-6 =>6 5 7 9 INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child squeezes the handle of the· grip fixture together with his entire hand. ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The handle set is chosen according to the following table and inserted into the transducer.andle +P 5 181 . The wrist is left in neutral position. The thumb tip is allowed to overlap finger tips.GRIP: SQUEEZE DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The anterior surfaces of the second knuckles" (proximal interphalangeal joints) of all four fingers (phalnges #2-#5) are pressed in opposition to the second knuckle of the thumb (phalanx #1). TEST POSITION: The handle brace lies between the second and third fingers. if necessary. The handle span (S) is then adjusted to the proper test position.

9 5.1 l' . • •• . . . • ••1 0.h 2. ' _..-. .2 5. d. . . I •• .' '. •. ~ 3. . .6...80 '. . • • .4 7.: • • .5 10. • • " ' ..5.0 50t.5 1..5 N I'!ean Min 31 45 44 .0 95th 4. force at 2 (I'!a les and Females) s..5 3. •• •••~• • • I I.5 ".0 4.0 !!ax 1.... 8. . ...9..5 6. • • 7. • .. • .7 1. ..0 2.5 3.2 2.2 8.7 11. LI 5.0 2.. .5...20 ..3 2..6 2. 1 14.: · . 1 ." .. .5-5. . .4 9. 5 46 52 42 45 9.' ..' .4 17..'. i. ·.. .. ... .fl 6. . ..4 2.. ' . .5-7. .0 2. .. . '.6 6.. u. .4 4. ...2 9.4 3.5-4.9 J.. .1 3.5 ..9 3. ..1 • •- I•• ' • I .1.. .. .OO 15....80 I Q.1 1. .tw .5-8..5 5..8 4.• : .6 8.0 1. .. · .8 9.00 2 3 .' .3 7. ... 1 5th 1. -. CII (Kgf) Age (yrs) 2.3 7.. .' \ • • ': I.4 13. .1 8. .'.4 5.6 4.9 4.0 2..1 15.9 4 '.':" .7 1. _.2 la. q II. ' .. .•• .6 14..2 5.8 3. I .6 6.5-' o.. ..1 8. ... s 8 7 8 AGE rYEAftSl 8 10 182 ..2 11...5-3..GRIP - SQUEEZl .

.2 0.7 0... ' . .9 0..6 0..4 0.. e' . .2 !'lean s. • • . ".. .5-10.9 0. . .9 0.2 -0.SQUFEZE.8 0..5-6. '. .5 2..50 1. • ..4 1. 0. .' -0.2 -0. .0 0. 5 9. .ales) (!'lales N at 2 em 95th 2.5 3.5 7. " '. ..5 8. .4 -0.4 -0..4.3 1.. ... .5 0... D. ' ' \.. . 'and Fe. • • . ---+s----t1----+----!91----1 :':O--:-----:l e 7 U AGE (YEARS) 183 ....9. . '" .. .". .4 0.. '.. • ~ ".. -0. . .. .· . .8 0.d. .. .3 1. .5-5. ..5 4..00 -o·50+2--~31----+Il-----l51-.5 6.6 'fin O..5.2 D..0.2 -0...7 1. ' 0. .5-1. .6 0..: . .0.6 '.... ':. .3 2.3 0..6 0_ 6 Max 2. • ¥ .0 0. 2.5-5. .1 . ..0 2.8 2.5 0. . .5-3.0 50th 1.1 0.GJUP Age (yrs) force location .5 31 45 44 4q 46 52 42 45 1. ... .. ..8 0.5 o.. .SO .5...00 . B 1.00 • • • 'II .0 0. . .0 1.. • • .. ..3 2... 1. . .5 0..4 5th 0..8 0. ·.. .7 1.2 2.2 '. . . 1 0.5 5.3 . . 1 0..50 2.8 0.

o • ..0.8 6..7 1. .. . d. . ..5-5.1 5. .4 21. " . 5..5-6..7 1..9 s.8 -5.8 20. . .ales) Age (yrs) 2. " '- 0 • 0 . .00 25.5 N 3.1 -3.0 21. -10.: I" ~ .1..9 7.. .0 28.1 -10.2 -12. .00 ..5 ·1..6 16.1 9.. ..9 9.5 31 Ll5 44 49 46 52 .8 50th 1.4 15. .00 18.5 6. . • I. '.00 .4 . • • -. 1 15.9 6.. . 0 ·0 I o " '0 • 0 11. o t. -. . '. 0 ..._ . .'.2 17.5 18.1 -2..9 17.2 5. . . .3 20. .5 9.9 • 5 9. . o. .4 2 45 /'lean 2. . • 0 ...9 7.00 -17.5 -3.5 5.1 . :.1 -5.4 5. :. .5-8.5 8.0 6.0 111.1 32.. '." .9 7. o ..' " o • ... ~ 0 .' .. .12.. ... . 5 4. . . ..7 6. . 1£.2 5th "in -16.00 ...GRIP - SQDEn!. .' '.3 !'lax 21.00 o . .8 -3.5 1.00 . '. .' . '.'..' ' -3.• .---+-----+---~---+---.-+----+8---+----+----l 2 3 5 6 7 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 184 ..1 -3.8 -2.5 11.5-10.1 5. " .9 -8.1 6.. ... . 5-q.1 o ~o .5-3. angle at 2 ell (Degrees) (fIIales and Pe..5-7. -. . 8.. 0\ • • o 0 0 .2 21.6 95th 15..9 9. .4 -11.6 5.6 6.. ..3 31. 0.0 . . .

.1 P'Iax 9.. 13. · .5 N 3.6 10...5 31 45 4Q 49 Mean 5..11 23.6 6. • . .1""• . : .5. • ••••• I .1 9.. • • • • _ •• I.5 8. '. . • .5 4.5-8.0 6.: • •.' ': . • • • • • . . . ~ I ~• 12.• .1 10. . .6 '5.8 9..• • • o. .1 4.:. ".2 15.. .2 3.a les aDd Fe.. •• •• •• . A." ...••. . ' .• ..5 45 5th 2. ·C' • : . 1.• . II 16. 1 11..5-6..5.6 9.8 18...8 4...1 s. • .1 4.. I.'.'I.3 11 ~ 1 12. .9 18. .7 9..5-7.8 9.. •••• • • • • • O.. I.8 10. ~ II..• -•• .••• .. .00 .. II 15.ales) CII (Kgf) Age (yrs) 2.. ·0 .2 21..3 16. .1 2...6 7. • _: •• • • • • 1 • .• • .3 2. '.8 • • • 0 • ~.~9.7 8.3 5. • .5 5.7 13.4 20. • 7 8 10 11 5 AGE [YEARS) • 185 .7 3. • • . 42 2.6 1.5 6.4 13...5-4.• • . ....5· 95th 7. .•.' 0' • .0 13. f3 • I.".1. .00 • 8.. ." • ..3 6..2 4." • I·' .0 3..7 8. .0 P'Iin 10..5-10..7.• • :. • o • rl ' •• ' •• . . I .2 2. ..5-3.. .. •• •• • • I..2 20. • • • • .OO~--"""'---+--"""--""----i~--""'''''''-+---''''''--''''' 2 .GRIP - SQUEEZE" force at 3 ( . .9 10.1 Q6 52 .3 50th 11.. . d.2 5.6 13. •• .5 1.• .5 21.5 7...

3 1. .ge SQUEEZE.. d.. .5 6. . 0. .5-"10.0."~' 0". .5 7. ..5 3.5 O. • ". .. · ..1 -0.5-5. 1 0.50 2. .50 1.. 1...5 9.8 0. . 2----43~--+--~ .. . "·..5 4. .' • I.5-4. 1. 0 -0.. " ...8 0..0.6 ..5 0.. B 2.' " . . .6 0.' . . . .4] 10 1 AGE ClEARS) 186 . ~ 95th 1.. .SO . .. 1 50th 0..00 .3 0.5 0. '..0 2.. .0 1..8 0. . ...0. force location at 3 em (/lales and Females) (yrs) N Mean 0. ..5 0. ..2 o.'.0 1. • .4 1. :2 1 0.4 2.' ... . . .~ 31 45 411 49 4E 52 42 0.6 l1ax 1.. .' '.• • • .6 0.5-7.1 0.9 B.00 ... " ~ .5-6.' . ." . ..3 5th 0.5 0. . .5-B.5 0. .. ...5 45 0.9 0. 1... ....00 0.5 0.. . • I• .7 0. . . . .. ..6 s... .. · .. .. .9. S--~81----+7 ----+8---81----+.1 .0 -0 .GRIP A.3 .7 1• 8 '.1 . . ....1 0.50 0.3 !!in 0. " " I ....5 0.4 1. . 5." .5 0.C. : . . . . ..3 -0. .5 5.t • ..3 0.: . . .5 0.I -o..9 0. ..5-3.' -0..4 0.0 o.. 1 1.

..6 8. 50th . 1 1.8 2.3. • • ' . 0 .' .o.•t· .3 2.1 11. ..'.9 18.. .. '. .9 -1. angle at 3 (I'!ales and Fe.0 9.5. . o .7 3. o . .1 !'!in -9. 0 0 -7.00 .00 -12.6 -1 1.9 4. .- .. .. ' o o ..3 -3. . . d.5 CI.00 • -.4 . 11. .0 -1.5 6. 7 1.1. o o .2 3. ..3 3.6 5th -9.. .0 '0' '0' .3.' . .6 0.6 3. ..GRIP Age Cyrs) 2.. .2 6.7 95th 4...5-1..O 11.7 12. .5 8.2 -5.5 9.3 6.-. . • 0 • ' 0 I..ales) c.5 5...8 -3. • .....3 3. . 5 3.3 3.0 5.7 15.5-6.'..5-6...3 (Degrees) 31 45 44 Cl9 46 . ..5 4.5-4.9 9. ..8 14.8 3.5 07.. . ..1 -1.3 1.0 10.0 -1.3 12.0 .. .00 2 3 5 AGE 8 7 8 (YEARS) e 10 11 187 .0 9..5 5.-.0 5. 0' • -2.. .8 1'1 ax 6..4 4... .9 16.7 4.4 -8.5-9. . • .' .5-5. .:. .' • .4 1.1 17.3 1'.' . ' .. .5-10. : . .'• I. '. I • • 0 0 ..0 -0.3 ~ean !i2 42 1&5 s. • .1 9. o .5 N - SQUEEZE.

GRIP

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N

SQUEEZE.

force lcca tioD at 4 (P1ales and Females) s. d. 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 rHn 0.' 0.0 5th 0.2 o. 1 0.2

CII

2.5- 3.5 3' 3.5-4.5 45 4.5-5.5 44 5.5-6.5 49 6.5-7.5 46 7.5-8.5 ...52 8.5":9.5 42 9.5-10.5 45

Mean 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5

o. ,

0.1 - 0.0 0.0 -0. a 0.1

0.2
0.0 o. 1

0.2
0.2

50th 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6

95th

0.5

1.4 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1. 1

'.4

Max 2.0

,., ,. ,
1.2 1. a 1.2

'.9
'.3

2.00

1.70

1.1A0

1.10

.
"

..
o
0

0.80

.' ... .'.
'

..
• 0

,

o

....'
0

0.50
,0

.. '. .
o'
'

. .. . . ..,,'.... .. .. .'.. . . ....
.'
o '

....... . . ., .
'

e'
o

'" '..
'.

..

o

.. .
5

'.'
,0

••

0.20

..

'0

. .. ,.. ... .' . .. . .. .. . . . .. "..,.0 . . ., . . .. .. , ... :. .. '.' . ••
"
~

.,

o

,0

0

" "

0

~

~

o•

0

"

'0

...

0

. ...

..

0

-iI.l0t---~--+---+---r---I------iI-----l----t-----4

2

3

~

6

7

8

9

10

11

AGE (YEARS)

189

GRIP

SODEEZE, -!'Iales and (

aDClle at 4 ca Peaales) Plin 5th
- 13.4 -13.3 -8.0 -7.0 -6.6 -6.2 -9.6 -2.3 - 3.3 -2.5 0.7 -1.2 0.3 - 1.4 1.1 1.0

(Degrees)

Age (yr s )
2.5-3.5 3.5-11.5 4.5-5.5

N

Mean
- 2.1

31

45 44 5.5-6~S 49 6.5-1.5 ll6 7.5- 8.5- 52 42 8.5-9.5 9.5-10.5 45

0.7
1.2 2.4 3.6

3.6
4.6 4./4

s. d. q.9 3.8 4.2 3.6 J.4 2.2 3.1 2.3

50tb -0.9
0.8 1.4 2.3 3.2 3~ 0 4.3 3.9

95th 3.5 7.2 7.0 7.4 9.2 7.6 9.3 8.3

l1ax
3.9 8.1

7.3
11.9 12.2 9.6 13.4 11.4

1'.00

10.00

is
='
.a: au
..J
t.:)

o

t-

8.00

... .. ......
0

• 0

00

, ,
o
• _.' II It I., •

"

'

o

• I

,
0,

,
'0 I

.
,
o
o
0
0

, , ,
'0'
\' , I

I

,

'0


0

'.
0

It

o

,

o

,0
0

IAJ

N

z a: • au

2.00
,

I' •

..
,

. ..'
o~
• 0 \

" '0

',. I,
I ,

. .
'
,0

,

0' 0

.
,',

'0'

'

,

, 0

'

o

o

• '0

,0,

.

I

.
0

I,

~
I

-2.00
o •

I

5l
Q..

.

~

-8.00

-10.00

-1'.OO+---+---~--+----+-~--+-_-:""""'---+------+---""" 2 3 8 10 s 6

190

GRIP

SQUEEZE. -(ftales and

force at 5 ell lellales)

(Kgf)

Age (yrs)
2.5- 3.5 3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-7.5 7.5J8.'S 8.5-9.5 9.5-10.5

N

e

!'lean

s.d.
0.8 1.8 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.2 2.7

Min
3.0

31 ij1 47 46 ~2 42 45

4.3 6.0 8.5 9.9 12.0 14.2 16.3 19.5

2.4 3.8 5.4 6.0 8.0 10.6 15.0

•• 2.8
4.1 5.6 7.1 9.3 11.0 15.2

Stl:L

50th

95th

3.8
6. 1

•• 8.8

~ax

8.4
9.4 12.0 14.4 16.0 19.2

12.5 13.2 16.4 19.4 22.4 ;l3.9

5.5 9.8 14.0 17. J 16.9 20.6 24. ] 27_8

28.00

2'1.00

20.00

LaJ ""

~ ~ 18.00 "• LaJ
12.00

5
I

W

(f)

Q..

1.00

a:::
~

..'. ..'. ... • . . . • :• •• " •.-. . . . ..... .,. .: .. ,. .. .. .:. ,. . .. . -. .... .... .• .. · . ..... .. - ..' -.- ". . .' · .. .. ,.. . . .. ., . ·..'. .:-., .. : .. . .... . .. .• .. -... .. ... . . .. ..... - . ... . .... .. ... .., . .
• • • •• >

...:, . ....:

.

.

.

~

.

eo.

\

~

\

0.00 2

3

5

8

7
(YEARS)

I

8

10

11

AGE

191

GIUF -

SQUEEZE, force location at 5 ell

("a1E£ and Fellales)
Age

(rrs)

N

2.5-3.5 3.5-4.5 4.5-5.5 5.5-6.5 6.5-7.5 7.5- 8.5 .... 8.5- 9. 5 9.5-10.5

e

I'!ean
0.8 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6

31 41 47 46 52 42 45

s. d. 0.5 0.4

0.3
0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

!lin 0.2 0.2 0.2

5th

•• 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2
O. 1 0.2 0.2

0.2 0.1
0.1

0.2
0.1

50th 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6

95th

•• 1.6
1.2 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9

Mall:

1. 4 1.7

0.2

0.6

1.5 1.6 1.7 , •1 1 .0

'.5

1.80

1.50

'.
..
" .... . . .. .. . , .0 . .. ..
"

1.20

0.80

,

0

:

.. ..

o

,

o

,
, l

..

0.80

'.

.,
"

I

..

,,

.

.'"" ..

.....
,

'.

t,

. .. ... .' . , ...., .. , . ..:. . . . , , .
"
, '
\

...
,

"

"

,

'

0.30

,"

,

.
6

0.00

2

5

AGE

7

(YEARS)

e

9

to

11

192

5'" 8.5-4. .O. .'...4 -4.5-6.' u ~ 6.9 5th -2.. .7 95th •• 4.5 3.1 -1. .00 ..- IJ') ~ a: 2.. . .. angle at S ell (Males and Pe. .2 1.. . " 5 I LLJ . (f) . .6 -1.7 l'Iin -10. ' . .5-9. " . .GRIP Age ry rs) 2. .2 -0. 8 3.00 (...6 -1.2 7.5 7.' ' • . 5.8 .J a: N I..5 -1.4 ]'. -2. . 1 2. . 'I .9 1..5-3.5 -6.9 7.2 9. .0 '0 .0 6.9 4.4 2. . . .~-10.0 10.1 8.:J LLJ .00 -10.5. ..lI 3. 0- a: C) .8 -0.5-5. . . .9 50th -6. .4 4. '0 . . .9 2..3 2.. ' 0 .. 3 1. .5 5. " ! .0 2. I. 2 3 7 8 10 5 11 9 (YEARS) 193 .5 4..< .6 7.9 -0.. • ' . . 1 Max 8. .5 9. .'..5 - SQlJElZE . !:r-8. -6.\ . . " ..5 6. .0 1..1 1. . . .5 6.5 3.0 -7.00 .5-7.1 7.. • I •• ' . . 0.00 +---+-----+------+----t----+----+----+---+-----. I..2 s.1 -5. S.2 . .9 6.1 -1. .R 8.2 5.6 9. ... ..'7 3.LJ LLJ Z .3 6. I o . . d. .2 -1.00 . . . .9 •• -6. .ales) (Degrees) N a 31 41 47 46 52 42 45 Mean -3.

1 6.0 1.2 95th •• •• 13.. force at 6 c.3 1 1. . .B 8. . • .5-8. '0 0 0 .1 "in .9 13..0 3. .2 7.7 10..6 10. 0 .5 6.00 2IL00 ~ CD ~ 20.0 3.8 5.* •• 7.3 2.. .5-10. .5" N !'lean 7 10 2B 40 39 4ij 8. .GRIP - SQUEEZE.8 11 • . . 0 o • .1 28. tj IIJ • 12.6.9.. d.6 10.8 6.5 12." . . .5 2&.. . .6 50th B. :.5 B.5 19.2 3.00 2 3 & 6 7 (YEAftS) 8 8 10 11 AGE 194 . ~ 9..00 0.0 14.5 14. (l!Iales and Peulesl s.7 !'lax 16.5 7. o .9 4. • I • .8 10.5-7..5-5. . .1 5th ·11. Ii ""'00 0.00 a: 18..5 10.. . . 12.9 23. IL ~ I . . 0 . .9 20.0 21. (Kgf) Age (yrs) 4. 0 0 0 0 0 • ." . 5. ' 0 0 0 o 0 ' o # • • 0 o 0 . .5 5.9 10. 0' . 0 ~ LOO 0-.8 15.00 .6 2.5.2 1. .7 ..

..o .q O.J N . .q 0...8.5 7. .6 0. .!) 0." ..1 -*. .4 1.9 D. .. 5th 50th 95th O.5-6.1 1... d. .8 0.1 0.0 9..B 0. . .3 D.80 w =:) a (f') I Q.5-7.3 1.3 D. .1. 0.5 8.00 2 3 5 6 7 6 8 11 AGE (YEARS) 195 . .3 .6 1.5 5.7 0.5 1.5 - 40 39 0.. . • c.b 0. .80 1.5-5. .GRIP - SQUEEZE. • (. 1 0.20 o" W W 0.7 •• *...3 0.50 U 2: a: lA...6 0. . . .0 0. .3 !'!in O. Max ..6 1. • .2 0. .4 0. .. .5-1'(J.3 0.80 a: . '" .. ' . : .5. . 0.8 0.5 6. .7 '.5 7 10 28 If If 1. force location at 6 cm (P'lales aod Females) Age (1r5) N Mean 4. .D.. 10 ..30 . 1. .0 -0..0 1. . .9.:. .~ s. .2 '.. .. 0.0 o..3 1. .5..6 0..

5 en I 2...3.2 1• 1 5.0 1. ...2 4.7 9..00 f---t---~--+---+----'. 'L ' . . ..3.5 28 40 7.8 2.0 5th 95th l1ax 4_5~5..2 O.. 0 -9.5-8. . .. .GRIP Age SQUEI!2I!:. .9 -1.5 8.3 5..3 -1. 3. 1 0.00 " CL..6 2.7 (Degrees) Fellales) !'liD (yrs) N Mean 0.5-7.6 ** ** -7.. ~ .+---+----+-----+------I 2 3 . ' . ~ CD B z a: I&J LLJ LLJ 8. " I . 50th -0. ..4 . . • .00 .'.00 5 1".5 39 9. ~ 44 2.' ' -1&. " '". . . .5.4 s. .'. ...5 .6 2.5 10 6.5-9.5 9.1 3.1 18. -(!'lales and angle at 6 c. . 1 1. . -" ' ..3 -1. .. ...0 1. ' " II. .1 1.1 7.5-1 O.2 -1.7 6..5 9..3 -2. .5 7 5. . . 5 8 7 8 8 10 1 AGE (YEARS) 196 .8 . .5-6.0 20.4 ** -- -2. •.00 N I&J .. . . . •.5 8.. ~ ' ...00 -10.d. .3 -2. . :..5 2.

8 force at 7 CII Fellales) (Kgf) Age (yrs) N 6. IS.6 25.5. "in 9. ("ales and 'ean 9.5 ' 9 9.2 11.5-10.2 •• 16.8 ..5 3 8. 6 " 10.6 .00 fi l"'~ 20. •• 1.2 95th •• •• •• n..5 1. .. ~ ~ 10. . • ~ u LIJ LIJ ~..9.5-8.2 11..d.6 s.9 17.0 3.2 12.3 24. .5 •• •• •• •• 5th 50th q. 00 .00 l§ 5.OO-l----+----+-----~-~+_--_+--_+--__i~--+_--_I 2 S 1& 5 RGE £YEARS) 8 7 8 8 10 11 197 .5 1. O.SQUEEZE.9 Max 9.4 13.5-7.1 12.3 2.00 O. .3 16. I Q.GRIP .00 .

5 B.* s. 0.80 CI.6 1• 1 1.5-8...5-q.4 0.7 ..80 CJ I 0.4 0.7 •• •• *. .00 ~ U') LLI ....6 0.20 0.qO 0. 0. force location (Males and Females) it t "1 ell 50th 0. q 1. 0..5-10.7 D.6 0.\&0 1.5-7.GIl I P - ~?UEEZE. a: -oJ ~ ~ u 1.3 1. 5 N Plean 1 3 9 18 0.d.6 *.' .5 7. r'lax •* O.5 9.1 O.20 z: ..B 0.00 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 AGE (YEARS) 198 .4 0. f5 O.4 Min 0.* *.6 Aqe (yrs) 6. •• 5th 95th 0.B 0.

00 .5 7.3 2......5 3.00 1.9 g . 1 (Degrees) N s.GRIP Age (yrsl 6.. (I'!ales and Mean 1. 1 Fe.00 ....5 ...SQUEEZE.2 2.j 2 3 5 8 7 e 9 10 11 AGE (l'~ARS) 199 . S 9..5 0.. 50th 1.8 4. ... •• •• •• •• 5th 95th •• •• ** •• !II a x '. .~ 3..1 -3.4 9.00 7.00 -3.9 angle at..8 1..5 0..ales) rHn 1....5-10..j~--+----+----t--.00 -1.5-~.5-1...q....3 8.5 18 2.0 c..5 0.0· 1.7 .. 1 3 9 •• 2. d....5 -2.8· -'. ..00 5.5.j~--+----+--.---+--.

1.5 TO 5 YEARS .20 2.eo 3.00 3.2.00 5....1.6.80 ~ ~ ~ -+.5 TO 8 YEARS ~ e YERRS AND UP 5.10 1.110 z Q.1. ~ 0 Q. (1') 1 CENTIMETERS 5 7 9 200 .1. (f) ~ a: UJ a: ~ I u ~ z z Q .80 1.20 1..80 2..

50 3.7.00 ~.50 Z LLI Q.. u ~ t- ~..2.5 T05 YEARS 8 YEARS AND UP 5 TO B YEARS ~ 6.50 1 3 CENTIMETERS 5 7 9 201 .00 5.50 tto=) --+~ ~ --e-.. 0 Ln 3.oo Q.00 6.50 5. ~ ~ a: a: I (f) z Z Q.00 2.

(f) 12.00 • ~ 3... .00 --..5 TO 5 T ~ . 15.5 TO 6 T --e-....18.2.00 +----+----+----+---+----1-----I---~ q 5 1 2 3 6 8 7 CENTIMETERS 202 . ...00 a: C) I N UJ UJ (f) UJ 9.00 :I: C) ~ 6 TEARS UJ ~ z a: Q.00 => C3 6.

B -ij.porce) 31 Squeeze (3 ca-LF. 1 -3.9 5.1I -11. 3 2'.6 1.4 0.8 2.7 8.4 3.El 0.2 1.3 1.4 2.9 1.1 DescriptivE Statistics 5th 50th s.6 0..6 1.b 5.8 4.4 .5 0. 1 4.LP' .1 4.3 1.clI) 8 Squeeze (5 cm) 1\ng le 31 5-Pt Pinch (2 clII-Porce) 31 5-Pt Pinch (2 CID.1 -16.9.2 0.5.4 -14.7 1. pinch (1 CII) lng le 31 Squeeze (2 CII.9 0.7 .cII) pinch (2 em) ~ngle 28 29 Pinch (3 cm-Force) pinch (3 e~LP.0 D.1 0.9 3.0 .4 0.6 -13.0 1.clI) 31 Squeeze (3 CII) Ang 1e 31 Squeeze (4 ca.1 4.8 -16. -4.8 1.2 0.2 1.5 -4.6 3.7 3.9 3. 1 7.7 1.2 1. 1 1. •• •• •• •• •• •• 95th 2. 4 1.5 0.1 9.9 4.5 .0 3.8 .6 1.cm) 1 l-Pt.6 0.O.5 1.4 2.8 0.4 2.9 3.2 -6.5 4.5 0.7 11. 1 1.1 2.8 3.4 0.5 3.2 1.8 0. Plio .Pt Pinch (3 ca.7 0.0 3.0 2.0 .2 5.5 -10.6 1.1 0. B 2.5 203 .1 3.0 7.d.6 -9.CII) )-pt pinch (4 ell) 28 ~ngle )-Pt Pinch (5 cil-Force) 26 26 3-Pt Pinch (5 clI-L P.) )-Pt pioch (6 em) ugle 19 1 3-Pt pinch (7 clI-Force) 3 -£»t pinch (7 cIt-LF.4 4.c.6' 1.9 3.3 0.8 '.B -7.2 .0 1.4 '.4 0.1 -12.9 1.9 1.4 0.3 2.7 2.4 0.5.2 2. cm) 26 l-Pt pinch (5 CII) ~ngle 19 l-Pt Pinch (6 ca-Force) 19 3-Pt piDch (6 cIt-LF.0 -14.B 3 2.5 -0.5 0.4 -18.1 -9.5 -7.0 4.9 -13..2 -11.•9 •• •• *.4 0. 1 1.4 0.1 -5.1 1.Cll) 29 5-pt Pinch (4 cm) Aogle 29 29 5-Pt pinch (5 cil-Force) 29 5-Pt pinch (5 cII-LF . B~ '.2 0.6 -4.9 5.4 1.4 -0.6 0.0 0.2 3.4 2.3 0.2 -7.6 4.1 -0.2 -6.8 2. 2.P.7 -3.5 .1 4.L.9 0.7 0. l -14.1 -0.4 4.3 1.10.6 .4 1.5 1• 1 0.7 -0.5 4.1 1. 1 1.3 0.1 .•1 -3.5 2.9 -2.CII) 29 5-Pt Pinch (5 cm) Angle 22 5-pt !linch (6 clI-Porce) 22 5.3 2.2 -n.0 9.S 1. !'Jean 2. 2.9 -".1 -16.5 1.6 0.28 pinch (4 clI-LP.1 0.8 1.6 1.CII) 22 5-Pt Pinch (6 cm) Aogle 4 5-Pt pinch (1 cll-Force) 4 5-Pt Pinch (7 CIl-tP.5 3.6 2.2 2.8 2.3 1.3.2 . 1 2.0 4.9 -1.1 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 -13.5 .2 0.3.8 1.8 1. cm) 31 Squeeze (2 CII) Ang 1e 31 Squeeze (3 ca.2 2.2 -7.3 0~3 0.3 1.Grip Strength Statistics (2.5 1.6 4.8 -3.7 2.1 5.2 .6 1.3 4.5 5.2 4.9 9'.1 2.6 0.1.0 .7 '.2 2.2 17.9 0. II 0.6 2.7 0.8 .8 0.0 1.4 -0.7 0.4 4.2 -5. 5 •• •• ' •• .LF .1 -2.5 1.5 1.8 6.9 -10.3 2.Porce) 31 Squeeze (2 CII-L F. •9 '.3 -12.8 -0.5 2.Pt Pinch (6 clI-LF.6 -9.5 -4.4 Plax 3~1 1.7 1.5 3.6 0.5 -5 •.7 2.9 2.0 -0.7 .1 0. 2 -0.0 :1.porce) :n Squeeze (4 cm-LPircII) Squeeze (4 cm) Ang le 31 8 Squeeze (5 cm-Force) 8 Squeeze (5 cm.3 -4.3 4.2 -17.7 -10. i 1.1 0.13.6 -12.9 2.3 1.9 0.CII) 31 5-Pt Pinch (2 CII) Angle 28 5-Pt pinch (3 cm-Porce) 28 5.6 4.6 3.9 0.CII) 29 29 Pinch (3 ca) ~ngle 28 Pinch (4 cm-Force) .4 -1.8 -11.0 4. ) 3.5 .4 -16.3 1.8 1.2 -4.8 -0.0 1.8 -17.6 0.6 1.2 4.b 4.8 -10.2 0.4 5.4 0.5 -18.5 ~6.5 •• •• •• •• •• '3.7 2.4 -4.4 .7 -3.2.6 4.4 1.2 1.9 0.3 4.cm) 28 5-Pt Pinch (3 CII) Angle 29 5-Pt Pinch (4 clll-Porce) 'i-Pt pinch (4 cil-LF .4 0." .2 -7.9 8.8 0.2 2. •• •• •• 1.1.1 -18.4 •• •• •• •• •• •• 4.2 -4.5 -0.4 -16.CII)j 4 5-Pt pinch (7 cm) Angle 3-Pt ]-pt 3-Pt ]':'Pt 3-Pt J-Pt ]-Pt l-Pt .6 1.3 3.8 4.2 15.5 1.5 yea rs) Pleasureaent Ii Pinch (2 cII-Foree) 28 28 Pinch' (2 em-LF.

6 1.1 0.2 2.9 -8.11 6.2 -13.7 11.8 -8.F .4 1. cm) (2 em) Angle (3 cm-Force) (3 clI-Lf.2 3.3 -10. 6 •• •• •• •• 6.0 3.3 0.8 1.5 5.4 -8.5 1.5 1.2 0.ell) cm) Angle (2 ci-Force) (2 CII-L F.9 1.8 3.1 0.2.2 0.0 0.7 0. 1 0.1 0.6 2.CII) (6 cm) Angle (7 cm-Force) (7 cm-L F.0 0.5 2.4 0.2 0.clI) (4 c II) Angle (5 cm-Porce) (5 cII-LP.7 2.9 0.2 1.7 0.0 2.2 3.9 1.8 7.8 5.1 0. 4 -1.3 -7.9 5.2 -0.8 -5.1 Q.7 -15. 1 "--- • 204 .1 3.1 -2. 1 1.0 -0.8 -3.0 0.6 0.B 6.1 2. 1 .1 2.5 2. 7 3.0 4.2 -1.11 -3.6 2. 1 3.2 -2.0 3.5 -11.2 -18.6 .0 1.0 -8.1 1.0 1.6 0.5 3.0 2.0 8.6 0.9 0.9 2.& 3.6 1.7 11.0 4.8 2.9 2.0 1.0 3.6 1.] Descriptive Statistics P1in 5th 50th s.8 1.9 1.CII) CII) ~ngle clI-Porce) ell-LF.6 3.8 0.9 ' 3.6 3.3 1.1 1.7 3.8 2.2 4.2.2 0.0 0.2 1.1 0.cm) (2 CI) Angle (3 cll-force) (3 Cll.3 0.6 1. 3 10.1.9 1.3 1.3 -12.5 3.9 2. 1 1.4 -0. 8 "ax •• •• •• •• •• 4.9 -12.4 0.4 .2 0.LF.7 -15.2 0.9 3.7 1.3 4. 1 2.8 -6. CII) CII) Angle CII.6 2.tl 6.3 1.9 -6.8 -6.9 .6 1.0 2.3 9.1 0.5 -13.2 0.3 -6.1 4.8 -13.2 2 B.7 308 •• .1 -8.2 2.cm) (It CI) ~o9le (5 cll-Force) (5 .7 1.6 -0.7 4.3 .5 4.7 0.0 1.5 .9 0.3 2.5 2. tl 5.6 -:-2.4 1.7 3.6 6.3 0.1 0..CIII) (8 CII) ~n9le ell-Force) cm.6 1.istics (3. ell) (1 cm) Angle (B cll-Force) (8 CIl-LF . d.7 -3.5 1.2 •• •• 2.5 1.8 1.8 -10.7 3.5 4.0 -2.5 years) - !'Jeasurellent N ]-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 1-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch J-pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pioch 3-Pt Pinch ]-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch )-Pt Pinch Squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 squeeze (2 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 5-Pt Pinch c:.4 2.3 -0.O.8 0.Porce) cII-LF. J 1."1 5.5 -7.6 2.8.0 1.2.0 0.7 3.7 1.7 4.7 -17.0 6.2 3.3 0.1 2.3 3.6 3.cm) (5 CI) Angle (6 cm-Force) (6 cm-LF .2 0.6 .cm) (3 c II) ~ogle (4 cm-force) (II c~LF .0.8 -3.8 2.4 1.6 0.4 1.8 0.4 0.CII) (6 Cll) Aogle (7 cm-Force) (7 cm-LF. 1 3.0 -7.0 -0.9 3.6 -0.9 -7.9 1.4 4.8 3.1.6 12.7 6.5.O.8 6.8 0.6 2.1 1.0 0.4 -8.5 -1.1. B •• •• •• •• •• •• 1.4 . b 4.0 2. 1 1.CII) (8 c II) Angle 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 45 45 43 43 43 42 42 42 25 25 25 1 1 1 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 31 31 31 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 4.9 II.5 -7.9 0.8 3.2 3.2 .4 7.2 8.cll-LF. 1 1• 1 1• 1 . 1 1 • 1 0.7 1.0 -2.3 1.2 5.CII) (3 cm) Angle (II cm-Force) (4 cm-LF.4 -2.1 95th 3.5 -1.4 -0.4 -2.B.7 .0 -15.6 -6.7 -2. 1.5 -12.0 17. 7 0.2 4.5 -0.2 9.7 -7.7 -2.2 2.6 -20.9 4. 1 -0.2 8.-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Finch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch (2 cil-Forcel (2 cm-LF .9 0.1 0.4 1 • ij -2.8 3.5 -9.6 1.3 9.7 0.1 0.9 0.5 4.8 1.11 3.8 3. 1 1 • 1 0.3 0 • .8 0.CII) CII) Angle cm-Perce) CII.0 0.7 1.7 1.3 0.6 2.7 6.1 1.7 -11.8 0.2 0.1 -9.2 7. 9 '. 1 4.3 -0.9 3.2 -2.Grip Strengtll Stat.8 2. 9 5. 1.8 3.9 0.1 .5 -9.5 -0.5 -12.9 -9.8 1.5 -11.2 -6. 2 3.6 3.3 1.0 0.1 4.3 -6.6 .0 1.1 -0.7 2.9 1.4 0.6 -7.0 -7.8 3.8 2.8 2.2 4. 1 1.9 4.0 1.2 2.7 O.7 3.7 14.5 45 45 45 Al5 45 115 45 24 24 24 1 1 1 PIe an 2.8 0.1 ~ 6.9 2.8 5.3 4.6 1.1 0..cm) (5 CII) ~n9le (6 cm-porce) (6 em-l.9.clI) (7 ell) ~n9le (B cil-Force) (8 CII-LP .2 4.1 -0.LF .6 1.7 2. 1 0.LF. 2 2. " 1.6 4.5 0.4 0..

Gdp strength Sta tistics (11.5 5.5 years)

-

Pleasurellen t
N

Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt piDCh l-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch )-Pt Pinch 3-pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch Squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Sgueeze (1+ Squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 5-pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 'j-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch
3-~t

n

(2 (2 (2 (3 (3 (4
(4

clII-Force) cm-LP,clI) cm) Angle cll-FOrCe) clI-L F, CII) cm) ADgle
c~Porce)

44 44 44 1111 44
44

clI-LF ,cm) CII) .'ngle cm-Force) clI-LF, CII) cm) Angle cil-Porce) cm-LF, CII) CII) Angle n cm-Force) (7 cII-LF,cII) (1 CII) Angle (B Cit- Force) (8 cm-LF, em) (8 CII) Angle CII- Force) cII-LP,CII) cm) Angle CII- Porce) clI-LF,cm) CII) lingle C8l- Porcel cil-LF ,cm) CII) Angle CII- Force) CII- t F. CII) CII) Angle CII- Perce) C.- LP,cm) CII ) Angle (2 clI-Force) (2 clI-LP,cm) (2 CII) Angle (3 CII- ForCe) (3 CII-LP' ,CII) (3 CII) Angle (4 cl\I-Porce) (4 CID- t P ,CII) (4 em) Angle (5 CII- Porce) (5 cm;"L r: ,CII) (5 CII) Angle (6 cm-Force) (6 CII-L F ,cm) (6 CII) Angle (7 clI-FOrCe) (7 CII-L F,cm) (7 CII) AnglE (B cm-Force) (4 (5 (5 (5 (6 (6 (6

44 44 .44 44 44 44 43 43 43 38 38 38 4 4 4 44 44 44 44 44 44 q4 44 44 41 41 41 7 7
7

44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 43 43 38 38 38 4

Descriptive statistics /tin 5th 50th /tean s.d. 1.9 3.0 2. 1 3.1 0.6 0.0 0.9 0.8 0.4 -0.5 -6.3 . 11.6 -15.11 -13.9 -7.2 2.9 1.9 2.0 3.0 0.7 ~ 0.1 0.8 0.0 O.B 0.4 -8.4 4.7 -19.3 -17.8 -8.5 1.9 2.3 3. 1 3.2 0.6 0.1 0.9 0.8 0.4 - 0.2 -16.8 -15.6 -7.6 -1.8 4.1 1.7 1.9 3.2 3.4 0.7 0.1 0.8 - 0.1 0.8 0.4 -17.9 -11.9 -6.0 -6.2 4.0 3.4 1.7 2.2 3.5 0.8 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.4 -lR.5 -12.0 -6.0 -6.4 3.6 1.7 2.2 3.7 3.7 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.7 0.4 0.0 -12.9 -12.2 -6.1 -6.0 3.4 4.0 4.3 4.6 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.4 . 0.2 -6.6 -1.1 -6.0 1.5 4.9 2.5 2.4 5.0 1.4 0.9 0.9 0.5 - o. 3 0.1 5.7 - 5.1 -3.4 6.9 7.7 4.1 5.2 B.8 9.1 2.3 0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.6 0.5 3.3 3.5 4.3 - 3. 2 -3.0 9. 1 5.1 3.9 9.5 2.9 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.3 1.4 -6.6 -6.2 1.2 4.2 4. 1 8.11 3.8 8.5 2.5 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.3 0.2 -7.1 -6.4 -0.1 -0.3 3.4 8.2. 7.9 8.8 1.3 0.4 0.8 1.0 . 0.4 -0.3 -5.4 0.2 3.2 2.4 3.5 . 3.6 0.9 2.3 , .0 0.5 0.1 1. 1 O.q 0.8 -8.2 -7.6 0.4 4.2 1. q 2.4 3.5 3.5 0.7 1.0 0.3 . 0.5 1.0 0.4 -13.0 -B.O -1.6 -1.8 3.6 , .9 3.4 2.2 3.5 0.8 1.2 0.1 0.2 1.2 0.5 -18.2 -5.8 -2.3 -1.7 3.8 3.8 1.7 2.1 3.B 0.9 0.2 1.2 0.0 1.2 0.4 -18.3 -10.2 -0.9 -1.2 4. , 3.7 2.2 2.2 3.B 0.9, , • 2 0.4 1.2 0.6 -0.3 -10.9 -8.0 -1 ... -1.9 3.5 2.5 3.9 2.1 4.0 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.0 1.0 0.4 -B.3 -7.3 - 1.1 -1.6 3.2 4.0 4.2 4.9 0.6

••

•• •••

95th 4.2 1.2 2.2 4.2 1.3 -2.4 11.11 1.4 -1.0 4.6 1.4 -0.1 5.2 1.4 -1.6 5.1 1.4 -0.3

!!ax

4.3 1.6 3.4 5.3 1.5 6.0 4.5
1.8 2.9

5.1 1.7 O.B 5.1 1.9 0.2 5.1 1. q
3.2

•• •• •• 1.1

•• •• ••

·1.8 21.9 13.0 1.4 11.0 13.9 1.0 7.0 12.5 1. :.1 5.5

".8: 0.6 - 3.8 8.2 2.3 31.2 13.4 '.1 , 5. 1
14.3

•• ••

5.1 1.6 1.0 4.7 1.7
2.6

••

••

5.0 1.9 3.1 5. , 1.8 3.9 5. 1 1.8 2.9 . 5.5 1.7 3. 1

••

1. 1 7.3 ,14.0 , .5 li.9 11.5 1.6 5.1 5.6 1.8 10.6 5.2 1. q . 6.4 5.4 2.0 5.5 5.1 2.1 7.4 6.9 2.2 5.2 6.5 2. 1 4.5 5.1

205

G~ip

(5.5

-

Strenqth Statistics 6.5 years)
N

1'1 easare lie nt

3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt PinCh 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch' 3-Pt Pinch ]-Pl. Pinch l-Pt pinCD 3-Pt Pinch )-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pl. Pinch 3-Pl. Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch Squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Sqaeeze (6 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5- Pl. Pinch 5- Pt Pinch S-pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch

(2 cll-FOrce)

(2 (2 (3 (3
(3

(4 (4 (q (5 (5 (5 (6 (6 CIII~LF,clII) (6 el) A.n9le (1 CII- Force) (1 cil-LP ,cm) (1 ell) Angle (8 clI""'Porce) (8 clII-LP ,CII) (8 cm) Angle (9 clI-Porce) (9 clII-LF,cm) (9 CII) Angle CII- Porce) clII-LF,cm) cm) Angle CID- force) CII- LF, CII) CII) Angle cm-porce) CII-LP,CIII) CII) Angle clI-Force) cm-LP,clI) CII) Ang Ie CII- force) CII-LF,CII) CII) Angle (2 clI-Force) (2 clI-LP ,CII) (2 ell) Angle (3 cm:-Porce) (3 cil-LF ,cm) (3 em) Angle (II cm-Porce) (II CID-L F, ell) (4 CII) Angle (5 clII-Porce) (5 CDl-LF,cm) (5 CII) Angle (6 cm-Force) (6 CIII-LF ,cm) (6 ca) Angle (7 CII- Force)

CII-LF ,CII) CII) Angle cm-Force) CII- LF , CII) cm) Angle c"-Force) clI-L F ,CII) c II) Angle clII-Force) CDI-LF,CII) cm) Angle cm-Force)

q8 1f9 119 1f9 1f9 49 49 q9 49 49 49 49 119 q9 q3 q3 43
8

49

8 8 1 1 1 49 119 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 41 47 47 10 10 10 49 49 49 49 49 . 49 119 49 49 119 49 49 49 119 119. 43

P1ean 3.6 0.8 -5.0 3.5 0.1 -5.9 3.5 0.7 -6.5 3.6 0.1 -5.6 3.8 0.7 -4.5 4.0 0.6 -4.0 4.7 0.5 -3.4 5.6 0.2 -11.4 5.8 0.8 7.1 10. 1 0.6 11.0 11.0 0.6 2.4 9.9 0.1 1• 1 8.9 0.9 -1.0 . 11.0 1.0

Descriptive Statistics 5th 50t.h s. d. "in 0.8 1.9 2.1 3.7 0.8 O. II 0.1 0.2 11.11 -111.8 -12.8 -5.6 0.7 2.4 2.5 3.5 0.5 0.7 - 0~4 -0.2 3.6 -12.2 -11.1 -6.1 0.8 2.3 2.4 3.2 O. , 0.3 0.2 0.7 3.6 -13.2 -12.1 -6.8 0.1 2.3 2.3 3.5 0.4 - o. 3 -0.' 0.7 3.1 -15.3 -11.2 -5.3 0.7 3.7 2.1 2.9 0.3 -0.4 O. 1 0.6 2.8 -10.5 -10.0 -11.9 0.8 4.1 2.1 2.2 0.3 0.5 - 0.1 0.2 -12.2 -8.6 -4.1 2.8 1 .0 3.4 4.6 .* 0.4 -0.2 0.5 ** -2.7 3.5 -9.6 *. 5.6 5.6 .* 0.2 0.2 -4.4 -11.11 1.6 3.4 3.4 5.6 0.5 -0.3 0.0 0.8 1. ij 6.6 -11.5 -3.2 2.2 4.5 5.6 10.3 0.4 0.5 0.1 - 0.3 3.3 -5.8 -1.1 J.7 2.3 5. 1 6.3 11.2 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.2 3.6 -9.6 -2.3 2.3 2.5 5.11 5.6 9.11 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.2 J.3 -5.8 -4.9 1.2 2.6 11.1 7.8 0.3 0.4 0.9 1.1 -3.0 -1.2 0.8 2.0 4.0 2.6 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.' .. 5.8 -5.0 1.2 1.2 3.5 2.5 2.1 3.7 3.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.4 - O. 0 0.2 -13.4 -5.8 -1.3 -1.1 3.2 3.9 3.9 0.7 2.3 2.1 0.2 1.0 - O. 2 1.0 0.5 -8.8 -8.1 -1.9 -1.6 4.0 2.3 2.7 3.6 3.9 0.6 0.3 0.4 1. :2 1. :2 0.4 -11.8 -9.8 O~O -0.6 11.11 2.6 2.9 3.9 4.0 0.6, 1• 1 0.4 0.5 1.2 0.3 -9.2 -7.5 0.0 3.5 0.' 3.0 11.3 3.0 11.3 0.9

95th 4.7 1.5 2.9
4.b

~ax

1.5 0.' 5.0 1.3 -0.2 4.8 '.3 -0.9 4.8 1.2 0.3 5.2 1.3 -0.3

6.2 1.1 5.7 6.0 1.8 1. 1 6.0 '.6 2.2 5.9
1.. II

••

-.

..••

•• *. •• _. •• •• 8.5

1.5 11.1 13.4 1• 1 9.0 14.7 0.·9 7.4
13.2

...

••

••

•• •• •• 5.5
1.6 6.6 5.0 1.5 3.5 4.7 1.7 4.9 5.1 1.8 5.2 5.11 '.i 5.1 5.6

1.0 6.0

1. 1 5.5 '.5 3.2 5.6 '.5 2.6 6.3 0.8 2.11 5.6 0.2 -4.4 9.i 2.0 21.2 13.9 1. e 11.9 15.5 1• , 11.9 17.3 1 .5 '7.2 12.5 1.6 O. 1 6.3 2. 3 11.7 6.4 1.8
~.II

6.4 1• ~ 9.2 6.3 2.0 7.6 6.2 1.9 9.2 6.1

206

Grip Strength Statistics (0.5 7.5 yea rs)

-

Pleasurement
If

3-H Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt piL.=h 3-Pt Pinch )-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pincb 3-Pt Pinch ]-Pt Pinch ]-Pt Pinch ]-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt pinch ]-pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch ]-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch ]-Pt Pinch )-pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch Squeeze (2 squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Sq.ueeze (4 .squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Sqaeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (S sqaeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (7 Squeeze (1 squeeze (7 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch ,;-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch

(2 cII-Porce) (2 CII-L P, cm) (2 CII) Angle (3 cm-Force) (3 clI-LF,CII) (3 011) Angle (4 clI-Porce) (4 cII-LF,cm) (4 CII) Angle (5 cm-Force) (5 cm-LF,cll) (5 CIl) Aogle (6 CD-Force) (6 cm-L F,ca) (6 CII) Angle (1 cm-Force) (7 cm-LF,clD) (1 CII) Angle (8 cD-Force) (8 cm-L F,COl) (8 ca) Angle (q cD-Force) (9 clII-LF ,CID) (9 CII) Angle CII- Force) ell-IF ,CD) Ang le CII) CIII- Force) cm-LF,cm) cm) Angle CD- Porce) CID- LP, ell) cm) Angle CII- Porce) cm- L'f' ,cm) cm) Anqle CID- Porce) cm- LP ,em) cm) . Angle cll-force) cm- LF ,CID) c m) Angle (2 em-force) (2 .cm-LP,CIII) (2 C ID) Angle (3 cm-Porce) (3 cm-LP ,cm) p cm) Angle (1.1 cII-Porce) (4 cD-LF ,CII) (4 cm) Angle (5 cm-Porce) (5 cm-LP,cm) (5 c II) Angle (6 cm-Porce)

46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 20 20 20 1 1 1 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 28 28
28

1 1 1 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46

Descriptive Statistics 5th 50th Plean s.d. "in 4.0 2.8 4.0 0.7 2.2 0.8 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.4 -10.5 ":10.3 -5.2 -4.4 "3".0 3.9 2.4 2.9 3.9 0.6 0.1 O. 1 0.0 0.8 0.4 -5.5 4.2 - 18 • 3 - 10 ~ 3' -6.4 2. ] 2.5 3.8 3.8 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.4 - O. 3 -0.1 -15.1 -13.3 -6.9 -:5.9 3.9 1.1. 1 2.1 2.9 4.0 0.7 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.2 -4.8 3.3 ,-11.0 -10.8 -1.1.9 4.3 2./& 3.0 4.3 0.8 '0.2 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.4 -4.1 3.3 -11.9 -8.1 -4.2 4.2 2.1 3.0 4.2 0.8 0.7 0.0 0.7 0.4 - 0.3 -10.6 -9.9 -4.6 -4.6 2.7 4.7 2.5 4.7 1.2 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.3 -4.3 -12.0 -5.0 3. 1 5.2 5.2 5.2 0.5' 0.5 0.5 -5.0 -5.0 -5.0 4.0 6.4 2.9 6.1 2.0 0.8 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.4 6.5 -12.8 -2.1 6.9 5.9 7.3 7.7 11. 1 11.7 2.7 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.3 - 0.0 3.7 - 3.0 -1.0 4.4 3.6 7.3 8.6 13.1 13.1 2.6 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.3 - 0.0 3.2 -3.3 -2.5 3.6 3./& 7.1 12.0 6.0 12.0 2.7 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.1 O. 3 1. 9 -5.1 -2.2 2.2 2.9 7.1 , 0.9 6.8 10.7 2.0 0.8 0.1 0.8 0.3 0.0 o. 1 -9.5 -7.3 1. 1 5.0 9.2 9.2 9.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 4.4 2.8 4.4 1.0 2.3 1. 1 0.4 0.3 1. 1 0.4 1.2 -1.3 -/&.5 1.5 3.4 4.5 2.4 2.8 4.4 0.9 . 0.9 0.3 0.2 1.0 0.4 -, O. 3 -6.8 -1.4 -0.9 3.7 4.2 2.6 2.5 .4.3 0.8 1• 1 0.2 0.3 1.1 0.4 -10.0 -9.3 -1.6 - 1.1 5.1 3.0 4.2 2.9 4.4 0.8 ,. 1 0.5 0.2 1.2 0.4 - 9.1 -8.3 -0.9 -0.5 4.3 4.5 3.1 2.5 4.6 0.9

95th 4.9 1.3 0.7 5.0 1.3 1.5 4.9 1.4 0.3 4.9 1.3 1.0 5.7 1.4 -0.1 5.7
1.2

!'lax

5.5
1.9

1.6 5.3 1.9
9.0

5.4 1.6 2.6 5.6 1. B 1.2 5.8 2.2 8.6 6.3 1.3

•• .,.
••

•• •• •• •• ••
••

-0.1

10~2

•• ••

•• ••

•• ••

O.q

•• •• ••

•• •• ••

1.7 15.5 15.8 1. 1 9.1 11.0 0.9 9.2 16.4 1.2 6.9 13.1 1.3 9.2

7.9 ,•2 - O. 9 5.2 0.5 -5.0 11.4 2.0
17.3

1 B. 4 1.6 .16. l 18.3 1.3 12.2
H.9

1.6 1.8 14.5
1.4

•• •• •• 6.0

18.5 9.2 0.6 1.5
6.8

1.1 1.0 5.8 1.6 4.6
5.b

2.0
7.9

6.0 1.9 6.4 5.1

1.8 1.4 5.8 1.9 6.7 6.0

i.l

13.3

6.7 2.3 8.2 6.5

207

Grip Strengtb Sta tistics 9.5 years) (8.5

-

fleasu rellen t
N

Pinch Pinch Pinch Pinch Pinch Pinch pinch Pinch pinch ~-Pt Pi. nch )-Pt Pinch 3-Pt I'>inch J-pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch J-pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch J-pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (4 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (S Squeeze (5 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (7 Squeeze (7 Squeeze (7 5-Pt Pinch S-pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt pinch s-Pt piDch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch

)-Pt 3-Pt 3-Pt )-Pt )-Pt 3-Pt )-Pt 3-Pt 3-Pt

(2 cil-Porce) (2 clI-LF ,em) (2 ell) Angle (3 e .... Porce)
(3 e 11-1 P , ell)

Angle cil-Force) CII-LF ,ell) CII) Angle clI-Force) CII-LP ,CII) CII) Angle CII- Porce) CII-LF ,CII) CIII) Angle (7 cm-Porce) (7 CII-LP ,cm) (7 CII) Angle (8 cm-porce) (8 CII-LF ,CII) (A ell) Angle (9 clI-Force) (9 cm-LF ,cm) (q cm) Angle em-Porce) clI-lf,CII) ell) Angle CII- Porce) cII-LF,CII) Cll) Angle cm-Porce) cm-LF,cm) C Ill) Ang Ie cm- Porce) CII-LF ,CII) ell) Anq Ie Cll- Force) ell-Lf,cm) ell) Ang le CII- Force) CII- LP, ell) em) Angle (2 clII-Force) (2 ell- LF, ell) (2 ell) Angle (3 ell-Poree) (3 cm-I. F,Cll) (3 ell) Angle (4 cil-Porce) (4 em-LP ,cm) (4 cm) Angle (5· em-porce) (5 cm-LF,clI) (5 CII) Angle (6 cll-Force)
em)

(3 (4 (4 (4 (5 (5 (5 (6 (6 (6

42 42 42 41 41 41 34 34 34 10 10 10 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 39
39

47

42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42

39 9 9 9
42

42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 4.2 42

Descriptive Statistics 5th 50t.h s.d. "in 5.0 2.8 3.2 0.9 0.1 0.6 0.4 - O. 0 -9.5 -8.3 -2.8 3.7 4.7 3.1 0.7 2.9 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.4 -11 .1 -10.0 - 3.8 3.6 3. ) 3.4 4.7 0.9, -0.0 -0.0 0.6 0.4 -12.9 -10.3 - 3. 8 3.7 4.7 3.2 3.4 1. 1 0.1 - 0.1 0.2 0.3 -13.4 -9.2 - 3. 5 3.6 4.9 1~4 1• 1 3.1 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.3 -8.5 -:-7.1 - J. 1 2.6 3.2 3.7 5. :2 5.4 1.2 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.3 -7.8 -6.0 - 2.2 -2.1 2.7 3.1 3.2 5~ 8 5.5 1. 1 0.5 0.0 -0.0 0.1 0.4 - 6.5 ":6.1 .-2.7 -2.6 1.9 3.4 5.3 5.4 1.2 O. 1 0.3 0.3 0.2 -2.3 -5.4. -2.5 1.7 8.4 3.8 4.2 8.9 2.8 0.6 -0.4 0.1 0.7 0.5 9.9 -10.4 -1.7 9.1 5.5 9. 1 9.9 15.4· 15.3 3.2 0.1 0.5 -0.1 0.5 0.3 -1.4 0.3 5.2 5.3 2.8 11.4 12.2 16.5 17.2 3.3 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.2 - 0.0 4.3 0.3 - 1.4 4.6 3.1 10.6 11.0 16.0 16.3 3.2 o. b 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.2 -1. I) -1.8 3.7 3.4 2.7 10.6 10.6 14.8 15.2 3.0 O.b 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.3 3.0 - 2.9 -2.3 2.8 2.5 12.9 10.6 13.3 2.0 O. B 0.1 0.8 0.4 -1.7 0.2 1.0 2.3 5.7 3.7 3.8 5.8 1..2 0.6 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.3 3.3 - 5. 5 -5.1 3.1 3.El S.6 3.4 ·1.8 5.6 1• 1 0.9 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.4 -5.6 -4.9 0.9 0.9. 3.3 5. 1 3.6 3.6 5.4 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.0 '.1 0.5 0.6 -6.8 -4.7 0.8 3.6 3.7 1.6. 503 5.5 1. 1 1. 3 0.3 0.2 0.5 1~3 1.5 -9.7 -S.6 1.9 4.5 4.0 5.8 .1.7 5.9 1.3 ReaD 5.0 0.7 -2.2 4.7 0.7 -4.2 4.8 0.1 -4.2 11.8 0.1 -3.3 5.0 0.8 - 3. 0

95th 6.3 1. 1
2.6

•• •• ••

14.1 1.4 15.8 20.5 0.9 8.9 22.11
0.9

•• •• ••

5.7 1.2 2.3 6.1 1.4 0.5 6.7 1.3 3.7 6.1 1.3 0.9 7.3 1.2 1.9 7.0 1.3 0.2

7.3 2.2 5. 1 6.0 1.8
3.7

"ax

•• ••
••

9.3 22.4 1.0 1.1 20.9 1.0 6.1

7.0 1.6 2.2 8.3 1.4 4.2 fl.1 1.4 4.8 6.5 1.4 4.1 7.4 1.8 1.2 7. , 0.7 -0.5 15.4 2.3 20.0 23.2 1.3 111.0 25.6 1.0 13.4 211.]
1. 1

•• .* 8.0
1.6 9.0 7.1 1.6 ·6.4 7.2 2.0 5.4 7.1 2.0 9.8 8.1

••

9.2 21.5 1.3 8.1 16.1 1.4 4. 3 8.9 1.6 10. , 8.3 2.0 7.8 7.B 2.4 10.4 8.0 2.3 10.5 9.5

209

3 Ilall: 9.5 0.3 0.6 17.5 3.1 10. 1 19.0 0.4 5.0 211.1 0.9.2 16.6 -8.8 7.0 9.1 0.2 1.9 2. 1 3.3 1.CII) (6 CII) Angle (7 cm-Force) (7 cDl-Ll".3 16.3 3.-l F.2 l'Iean 5.6 5.8 1.CIII) (7 cm) Angle (8 cm-FOrCe) (8 cII-LF. 1 1.2.5 1.3 1.5 7.5 17.1 8.6 0.2 1.4 2. 1 0.4 3.9.7 4.8 3.11 0.7 7.4 5.4 1.4 .3 O.7 1.3.cm) CI) Angle CID.7 0.8 -3.2 0.8 3.1 -0.7 16.4 1.4 -4.6 -2.5 2.4 2.0 1.5 2.1 0.* •• .1 0.2 -11.0 1. 1 4.1 -7.8 1.1 0. 0 13.1 0.0 0.5 0.8 10.5 -2.6 3. 1 21.0 3.1 1.7 2.7 7.5 -3. 1 0.4 5.2 ~3.CIII) (5 CII) Angle (6 ell-ForCe) (6 cII-lP .2 O.2 0.2.9 -0.9 5.1 0.. 1 3. 1 -2.4 21.Poree) (5 clII-LF. B 3.cm) (9 CIII) Angle CII.0 2.7 -2. 1 1.4 -6.9 0.11 -1.4 0.5 .6 0.8 -4.8 . 6 1.4 27.1 0.9 4.1 0.5 0.7 3.3 .6 .CII) (2 cm) Anqle (3 cil-Porce) (3 CII-LF .O.7 3.2 0.7 1.1.tI 7.1 0.1 1.3 -8.4 7.8 1.7 -1.9 10.6.7 2.6 7.1 0.4 5.2 0.2 1.0 8. 1 8.6 1.0 0. 6 3.4 -4.4 4.8 25.8 1.2 II.9 2.CII) (4 CII) Angle (5 CDl.?- 5.2 0.B 1.6 10.6 0.9 1.5 5.5 0.9 Q.0 0.8 1.9 1• 1 3.3 0.8 3.9 7. 1 -0. 1 5.0 0.4 4.1 10.0 3.6 1.7 1.6 0.1 0.LF.6 .5 17.2 5. 5 -'.2 7.8 2.clI) (3 ell) Angle (4 cll-Force) (4 clI-L F.8 210 .9 4.9 1.1 0. 3 -6.0 1.6 1.5 111.7 2.3 7.7 0.5 1.3 4.9 0.5 4.3 11 • 8 1.0 19.5 - !'Ieasure.5 0.5 1.6 1.7 O.CII) (3 CIII) Angie (4 cil-Force) (4 clI-LP.ars) (9.8.3.0 1.0 26.2 4.5 0.7 15.6 -0.6 0.7 4.3 4.0 4.9 5.7 3.9 1.5 '9.ent II 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pioch 3-Pt pinch ::l-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch l-Pt pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-Pt pinch 3-pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch 3-Pt Pinch squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (2 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Squeeze (3 Sq lJeeze (4 Squeeze (II Squeeze (4 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (5 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (6 Squeeze (7 Squeeze (1 Squeeze (7 S-nt Pinch 5-Pt.8 6. em) CII) Angle (2 cm-porce) (2 cm-LF .1 6.2 6. cm) CII) Anqle Clll.3.0 10.8 '1.1 -2.9 0.0 5.0 3.7 6.3 -7.6 1.8 4.9 1• 1 2.9 19. 2 5.cm) (II cm) Angle (5 cil-Porce) (5 clI-LF.7 5.O. 3 ~.0 9.5 6.7 3.7 6.0 3.0.5 8.em) (5 CII) Angle (6 cm-Force) 44 44 44 45 115 45 45 45 45 45 115 115 45 115 115 45 115 115 43 43 143 25 25 25 45 45 45 45 115 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 44 411 411 18 18 18 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 DescriptiYe Statistics s.9 .0 -10.2 -2.11 0.5 0.3 1.5 0.0 1.3 .3 1.0 0.5 95th 6.0 4.5 1.6 5.5 7.5 1. Ilin 5th 50th 1.3 0.2 1.• 8 16.2 .0 1. 1 1.clIl) cm) Ang le cm.3 -3. 0 0.9 10.3 2.3 1 1.9 8.Porce) CIll-L'P.3 3.3 0.4 1.9 9.7 0.9 5.2 11.5 4.7 .3 .7 0.5 0.2 3.5 8.CII) (8 cm) Angle (9 clI-Porce) (9 ell-iP.0 0.6 -9.6 1.0 10.7 6.1 4.1 B.1 2.Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch (2 cm-FOrce) (2 clI-LP. 1 3.2 ** 0.0 1. 1 5. 1 4.11 B.7 3.9 21.11 0.5 .3 0.9 5.5 11.8 9. 1 -9. 1 3.5 5.3 8.1 0.3 .4 0.2 -9.4 1.Force) cm-LF.1 0.0 3.7 6.6 0.7 1.6 0.3 -1.5 10.5 6.4 -0.3 8. Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt flinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5-Pt Pinch 5.0 1.6 1. 1 1• 1 0.ll 0.3 23.6 21.1 1.2 0.CIII) (2 elll) Angle (3 cm-Force) (3 cm-LF.3 6.2 19.0 23.0 -1.Po rce) cm-LP.* •• •• 8.3 1.3 1.0 0. 7 -6.0 .6 1.0 9.7 1.. d.Grip Strenqth Statistics 10.cm) CIII) Ang le ClD.0.2 1.2 0.5 .5 5.9 7.5 9.0 1• 1 3.CII) CII) Ang le clI-Force) em.7 .2 0.3 -0.3 O. 1 8.3 8.0 15.9 5.0 2.Force) clI-LF.6 3. 1 0.0 4.2 0.5 -5.1 0.2 0.1 1.6 2.9 1.6 -1.2 0.5 1.9 0.9 0.6 0. 2 5.1 -4.6 4.3 1.3 3.3 1.6 17.0.force) c.4 6.9 0.

5855 .5848 .2314 .6480 .7024 .8074 '..6372 .5738 .2972 .7861 .7460 .5509 .1351 .7415 .6122 .5844 .1909 .6480 .3734 .7568 .3654 .7397 .6531 .7764 .6870 .4244 .2106 .7712 .2234 .7717 .7796 .6674 .6881 .5470 .4646 .6772 .7184 . ZERO ORDER CORRELATIONS Grip Outside Diameter Height 3 Point Pinch l'J I-' I-' Weight Finger Linkage Cervical Linkage Hand Length Hand Breadth 2 ern 3 ern 4 ern 5 ern 6 ern 7 ern 8 ern 9 ern I .6278 .7968 .6~01 .7438 .2919 I I I I .7219 .6862 .7260 .7751 .7109 .7291 .1964 .7558 .2498 .3804 .7355 .7692 .7060 .3958 .

6874 .6154 .7578 .8367 .7809 .7967 .6240 .4609..6425 . 7286 .6765 .7396 .7271 .6950 .7047 .8188 .8205 .6780 .r.6321 3 ern 4 ern 5 ern 6 ern 7 ern tv I .6265 . ZERO ORDER CORRELATIONS Height.6311 .8030 .5953 .6136 .5752 . .8187 .8609 .8359 .8665 . .8107 . Squeeze Weight Finger Linka.6246 .6258 .7323 .6278 .8211 .3805 .5929 .5057 .ge Cervical Linkage Hand Length Hand Breadth Grip Outside Diameter 2 ern tv t-' .7647 .6303 .3750 .6846 .

7645 .6819 ..6539 .7011 ..7451 .6917 .7521 .7047 .5840 . w IV Weight 2 em 3 ern 4 em 5 ern 6 ern 7 crn 8 em 9 ern I .7348 .7309 .7877 .7661 .0914 .7297 .1539 .6381 .7978 .0234 .6830 .3580 .4403 ..8047 .6068 .8021 .5004 .ZERO ORDER CORRELATIONS Finger Linkage Cervical Linkage Hand Length Hand Breadth Grip Outside Diameter Height 5 Point Pinch .8078 .7321 .4387 ..5970 ~ .2257 .3299 .6348 .6954 .7149 ..7808 .7979 .7319 .8028 .1605 .7670 .6483 .6171 .7452 .3175 2787· I .0517 .8059 .0285 .8269 .7502 .7765 .7332 .4029 .8278 .6450 .

- ..ON EXTENSION EXTENSION 112. .5° EXTENSION 214 _ ..4 ELBOW STRENGTH EXTENSION EXTENSION 15l5° FLEXJ....3.

67.5 0 67.5 0 215 .

5° 112 .112.. 5° 216 .

.'/' 217 ..'.-:/-.

. 218 .5° vs... ..•••.. . ..... .. ... . .. . . . . ... .•. . .. . . Height . .•••.5° . . 157.. . 180° . . . . Elbow Extension at 112.. .. .. . .•••••••••.••. .. . . . .. . ... . Joint Angle .•. . . . . .. • . ...4. Weight ••. .. . . . . • ...... . . • .. • .. . . . • . . . . .. • .... .. .•. . .. Elbow Extension 67. . . . ...5° ....5° •.. . ... . Forearm Linkage ... . . . ....3. Elbow Flexion at 112..••••...•.5° .••. .••.. .•... .5 ° vs. .. ..•. .. . • . 3. ... ... .. . .. .••. . 8. . . / Elbow Flexion at 112..... .. • . . ..5° vs. . . . ... . · 135° . . . . Elbow Extension vs. 2. . ... Elbow Flexion vs.. .. 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 112.1 Measurement 1. . . .... . ..5° . . . ... . 9. .. . . Forearm Linkage Elbow Extension at 112. . . . .. . .. . Index of Elbow S~rength Data Page Elbow Flexion 67. e . . .. ..•. .. . .. ... 112.. .. .. ~ .5° vs... . ... 157.. ..•. 6. ....•••.. . .. . . . .. .5° 90 0 • • • .. . ..... Weight •.. . 10. 4. . .. . .•..... ..... .. . Height Elbow Extension at 112.. .•••.5° vs. . 5. . . .. 135 0 . . ..... • . .... . . . 7. . .••••• ~ 220 221 222 223 224 225 ••••••••••••.... . . . .. . ... . . . . . . .. .. 900: •••.. . Joint Angle •. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. .. .. Elbow Flexion at 112...•. .5° vs.. .

ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The carpal. ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The chair back fixture is set to the sacral plus thoracolumbar length. The chair arm fixtures are set to the humeral and radial plus carpal lengths. The right hand grasps a 2. elbow flexed to the test position.ELBOW FLEXION DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The radius and ulna are rotated anteriorly at the elbow joint (humero-ulnar joint center) in the sagittal plane. humeral. The shoulder abduction angle is locked at 5° and elbow flexion at test position. chair. TEST POSITION: The shoulder is abducted 5°. sacral. Thin rubber pads are placed under the arm as needed to maintain these alignments. The wrist and arm straps are then secured snugly around the arm and the chest strap around the chest and left upper arm. radial. aligning the shoulder joint center with that of the chair. 219 . The distal edge of the wrist support is adjusted to align with the wrist joint center. the left forearm (distal to the humero-ulnar joint center) is unrestrained.5 cm diameter handle. His left forearm is' placed in his lap. INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child pulls his wrist (and hand) up and his elbow down. and wristnuetral at 0°. and thoracolumbar linkages are measured with an anthropometer. aligning the elbow joint center and center of grip with those of the . The subject's right hand is placed to grasp the handle on the chair.

.. .2 10.3 1~. • ~ 100.0 39.5 1 E1 .: LD Oiol FLEXICN (61. S 90.3 56. 5~.0 33.19.~ 3." 14 8 9.8.7 145.5. •• • • .• ..5. •. 7 208. 'I')th ~ax 8 5.1 230. Min q..9 42.13 15th 10.00 ~ • roCD In .lJ fl6.1 31 • 1 54.5 ~ 76.." 131.5 5.5 11.2 188.7 1 9 5.9 143.5 123.6 180.5 36.'3.1 ~l2. .1 1 O~. 5 7.5-4. .5 >3 • 1: 23 1) 40.2 3 25. ') 2.5 2 q.5 300.2 76.00 50.5-5.1 .": 129.00 Co:) • 200.8 100. 3 8~..00 • .~ 88. .S-~. .00 250. j 61. 3 SOth :I ~. •• It ~ • ~ 1&0.5 DEG) (/tales and Females) (Kgf-crn) 'je (y rs) t' 'lean s. 1 63. .8 32. ..g 22q. - .0 42.. •. • • ~ t5 .5 21. • •• .6 100.00 0. • .5-10. J 22 6.. .1 94. q 29.:! .5 28.~ 13'1. 2.4 101.5 1. .5...1.5 1 9 3." 4.') 6. .c!.6 51.5 175.4 59.5 10B. S.00 2 3 5 8 7 AGE (YEARS) e 9 to 11 220 . • .

.5 .. O..9 12 a. .5 ~. is.00 300..ELBOW FLEXION (gO DEG) (Males and Females) A.4 189. ..q. 5 48.8 1.7 Mean Min 23.3 97. 1 219.6 197.00 C) ~ • 2SO.ge (Kgf-cm) (yr-s) N 2..0 67.8 76. 200..5 5.8 165. 8 39. . 1 113. 1 157.9 68. 54.'4 Ma x 50th R5th 47.6 7S. 5.5 6.00 I&J -J ~ tao. 00 • 50.1 ..5 36. ISO.9 127.9 28. S AGE • 7 (YEARS) 8 8 10 u 221 . DO • 0 z• l :j :z ~. 37.6 8.5 4. .7 149.7 184. .0 71.5-8.6 9S.2 237.2 83..7 265.5-4. 1 79..00 2 .·6 135. \ •• 0..6 149.3 57.3 275.00 • • • . A 198. 115. 5 9.5 7 9 15 ~3 13 15 14 8 s. . • ~ 141.2 34.5 305.DO g . .. .9 84.2 l1l.8 284.5-10. 3 118 5 195.5 A. ..5 7.1 66.7 219.5-3..6 40 15th 24.. 5. • .6 24..5.17.1 350. • ~ .3 79.9 172 ..5 08.5.. 1 29.. .0 .2 103..8 215.6. d.

..6 188 •. : . .00 t:) • ~ ~ 0 X • N • Z U) 300.2 146.3 213.." " " " 5 6 7 (YEARS) 8 AGE 9 10 u 222 .1 56.6 214. 1 91.00 200. ~ q.~ 112... .7 137. ". . 5 3 " 5.00 2 .5 9.00 250..3 216.0 209.3 15 23 13 15 14 8 2 <1. .4 ~j4.5. 0 33~O 1 ~R.lJ 415.3 116.7 ~6.5 209.5 7... N 7 'd :'lean s.i::l.00 .5 ~.7 153.0 134. 3 .tj.8 72.5 6.5 72.9.0 108" 3 25.4. " .00 350.L 6"7. '150. 5.7.BOtoi fLEXlCN (11'. . 26G.00 150. 50th 73. 4 51.7 154.fl 2'J 1.3 23. 1 10 1. 7 27.d." " "" " " so. 00 0. 5-:>. J 91.4 • ') 4.9 57.: . 3 72.b 243..7 19.8 "'0.5-10.: 165.6 'lb. .1 16b.". .7 ~63.00 100. .2 q"lth 91. 5.3 220.. " "" i! CD Ed " .5 ~in ~tG) (Kgf-cm) (Males and ~gf> Female!') bth (y ['s) 5. S 5.2 13' . " . .6.b 115.8 74.J. ~.0 95. 1 1 ] 1.8 203. .j :1 a x 102.5 104.b 149..2 33H.00 . " • .5 386.

•. 1 s..00 • so..5 15 23 13 15 14 8 Mean 6<1. 1 199.G) (.5 1.7 72..00 ..5-3.8.&J o 100.3 318.6 15.5-4. .3 1 58..7 8u.2 163.5 5. 2 3 .3 50th 56.3 36.6 303.9 156.5.00 tD . .4 40.A 1J4..5.Kgf-cm) (l'1alES and Pelrales) ~qe (y LS) N 2.4 301.9 249..00 Co:) IIJ o (") Z . 1 342. . • 5 AGE 8 7 e 8 to 11 (YEARS) 223 .5 :3.5-7... .9 17 2.J I.6 ~ 90. .0 70.7 71. . : '. .3 128.1 111.d. 23. .3 180.b. 00 0.7 56..8 62. .3 1 B1.4 1a 1 • 1 220.5-5.9 120.00 • o 200.. ..7 Min 41.0 157.' 9 157.ti 121.00 0 X I.4 Max 96. 5 ').J ~ l/) 250.1 319.:}.5 164.. •..2 H5th g4..1 34.5.5 'lOG. .ELBOW HE nON (135 DI:.4 104.6 52.2 190.7 15th -42.&J :E 1SO.9 191.7 105.0 107.6 62. S 6.00 . • 300.~ 7 9 7.5-10.0 218.5 4.6 131. ~ .0 73. . .2 69.00 350.3 ~7.1 87.7 295.4 383.

5 B5th ~ax J ** tJS.. 3 132.87."7 1 02 • 1 17 2. 3 130.0 51 .5. 0 108. (yrs) 5. "7 78..0 256.00 .4 lH7.5 1.5 l\ 0 Mean 61.8 50th 5~.4 91.7 48. 0 0 . .. 0 0 . .2 fil. *.00 2 3 5 AGE 8 . . 5~ 5.d.0 134.9 '286. 1 Hi 1.5 6. 0 0 "'" >< &.00 50.6.5-10..7.3 58.9 ]U 7.8.3 123. 1 26.. DO ~ II) ~ · 300..oo SSG.00 i 0 .1 1 g 2.5 DEG) "lin (Kgf-cm) and Females) A<]c ~. 'J 19 8.~ fl 1. 5 9.00 ~ 100. # 0 ~ 150. .eLBOW FIEXION (l'Ii\l~s (157.5 5. '5th Ii 15 2j n 15 14 8 25.'3 12 q. 0 .2 143.. • ~ 200. • . 5 3.0 99.5 4.5.. ... 1 216.9 1 16.3 59.4.4 101.1. .6 7.0 33. 81. 7 J16.8 268.. 9 1 ~ J.3 94.4 83. o • 0 . .1 s.3 150.6 78.b 27 J. 2'<: 5. .5 d.5.. .3 62..00 .1 34. (YEARS) 8 9 10 11 224 .4 15.. .0 0. . 0 0 .. 63.00 • 250.6 ..9 50.4 uo.0 1J6.J 142.5. 1 105. :.8 H4. 5-Y.

2 119. . 40. () 20.I • . O.00 l5 0 -J ~ ~ 0 • ISO.8 ·5"7.0 235..2 206.3 98.6 l.0 11 J. 85th Md x :3 O.5 81. • .5 :.5.5 (Kgf-cm) N 4. AGE 225 7 (YEARS) 8· 8 10 11 .6 22.7 53. 5-4.5 5.6 118.8 150. d.A 29. . ~ 210. CI) • 200.5 114.5 1.1 64.1 300.. 6.9 153.1 Min 14.5 9.5 61. C. .6 126.5.0 54. • .S ·75.5 6~5-7.2 94. 9.5 3.5-10.5 SOtl.5 1 9 15 23 13 15 14 8 ~ean s. 5 .5 112..5 ~6.6 20. .OO " . .6 53.00 .6 254.j6.5 16.5-8.0 63.5-3.6 RO.9 74.4 53.0 27.0 138..OO . 38.. . .5 8.t:i 202.6 134. 1 96.. q 90.9 119.DO 2 ." • e••• <tI SO. 1 286.3· 45.7 111.7 79. 9 140.5-9. . 13 220.00 c:J ~.•• .4 '16 4.ELBOW flEXICN (1 B0 DEG) (Males and Fl:!lIlaf€s) Age (y rs) 2. '.6 92. . ' ~ 100.q 15th 14. d 59.. .5.00 250.3 45.

radial. sacral. Thin rubber pads are placed under the arm as needed to maintain these alignments. The shoulder abduction angle is locked at 5° and elbow flexion at the test position. The subject's right hand is placed to grasp the handle on the chair. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT: The carpal. and wrist neutral at 0°. and thoracolumbar linkages are measured with an anthropometer. The wrist and arm straps are then secured snugly around the arm and the chest strap around the chest and left upper arm. The right hand grasps a 2. TEST POSITION: The shoulder is abducted 5°. His left forearm is placed in his lap. aligning the elbow joint center and center of grip with those of the chair. 226 . elbow flexed to test position. the left forearm (distal to the humero-ulnar joint center) is unrestrained.5 cm diameter handle. INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECT: The child pushes his' wrist (and hand) down and his elbow up. The distal edge of the wrist support is adjusted to align with the wrist joint center. aligning the shoulder joint to the humeral and radial plus carpal lengths. ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT: The chair back fixture is set to the sacral plus thoracolumbar length.ELBOW EXTENSION DESCRIPTION OF TEST: The radius and ulna are rotated posteriorly at the elbow joint (hurnero-ulnar joint center) in the sagittal plane. humeral.

. · . tSO.3 82.5-7.• • • .'1 • S N '1ean Min 42. • .q 79.5-10.3 62. .00 8 rd ~ ffi .• • .NSIO"l .2 137.5..OO • • . 7 37..7 145.00 2 s 8 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEARS) 227 . .5.9 37 . .• • . 91.8 7q.5.• . (Kgf-cm) fl!ax 85th 79.5 7.7 29.4 95.7 102.8. •• • • ~ :E 100. .1 15.3 Age (yrs) 2. • • • 0.6 6~. .5 15th 50th 7 q 72 • .1 63.5.d.7 1) O. •. . 1 97. ~ 130.4 93.7 31 .:) • 200.3 42.9 q3.5 4301 158.0 300.0 b 1~O. 5-~.7 42.ELrWW EX'IP..2 223. .3.9 165.b 181.4 12CJ.3 49.5. • .0 'l2.3..5 5.4 61.00 <.3 93.6 46. 50.6 140. •.8 49.1.( L1..3 90.3 76 '-9 72.3 5 '}.8 123.3 172.0 208.8 15 23 13 1S 1~ II 9.00 • .6 27A.5 ' 8 • 5.13 .3 114. ') 6.6. 5 82.00 250.00 W C • rCD LI) ~ (f) • . 5 4.5 DEG) (Males and Females) s.5 1.5 72.2 "5.6 lS4.0 18..~ 21.

. ~ 14 U 9." . 4 99.) (!"Iales an d Females) ~in (Kgf-cm) SOtl! ~I'J ..d.? r.00 100.8 169.. 1 51.5-10.J.g. 1 '00. . ..1 96.6 14'" • 1 ':is. ::.:3 )40..10.OO 0.2 80. 3 7'i.~1 Mea r s. -. b '14. 5..ELBOW ::XTENSION (91l 1)~".00 C» • 300.6 114. . 5.5 5 O.5 121.0 106.6 • 5 6.3 3':i' .00 .1 215. . •.4 45. 7 276. 2 .1 47. J 17 ='.4 13 S. .5-4.. 3 5 AGE 8 .5. 5. (YEARS) 8 • 10 11 228 .1 100.'1 271.6 AO. . .5-d.2 1~q. • . • .2 39.2 34..2 2.00 • ~ 200.6 1'11..00 c1 CD . 7"'1.2 .5 10 0. C J ~. 2 41.3 lln. 1 '19. . • .0 49 • . ..00 ~ 0 i:5 ~ 1&0.c 39.7 18.00 ~ ffi 0') en 250..c7.4 64. .5.> (yrs) N i 2.9 95.5 67.5 7. 5 1.5 ')..0 13 Q ..6 17 u.5 'loo. : I• .oo 350. .5 ~. 1 1:'R. 1 15th 85th ~d>C 9 1~ 23 1j 1') B.0 9 ~. . '3 15. SO. 85.8 141.-j 59. .2 7~.] . 4 1 ~4.1 50.."? J.5 1 15.

"7.5 163. 5.00 .5 7 9 3.5 15 14 8 "1.8. 1 14£..5. S.4 2~ 1 • 2 17 5.3 144..5 5.2 48.6 1 1 q. .1+ 134.0 68. 5.' 5 8 .d.5 .3.6 '254.7 33 O. 1 le9.00 il ~ ::z • 1DO.U lIOO.7 21.n 13 7. . • ..5 8. S lOU. .7 57. 1 92.5 144.<J.7 64.3 31 e.3 88.00 200.2 58.3 208. 4~.6. • .5 DEG) ('/''1 a l€s and Female~) . 0 2b7.6 1.0 15th 72.5-:+.6 184.7 N !\lean s.8 110.DO 50.7 2.2 133.4 28. .EL130W FX'IENSION (112. .6 107.3 15 .OO 350..3 81~.. 5 9. 6 20C:l.5-10. . 2 2jl. ') 4. . .3 5"7. 2.2 295..5.1 55. ..4 314.I\ge (y ["S) (Kgf-cm) '35th ~ a x: 133.6 130.8 Min 71. 7 13 1. .00 fB c N • 300...5 147. . AGE n'EFlASl • I 10 11 229 .~ 335.00 •• 8 150. 2 132 • .4 271. . 2 q7..7 163.3 1.5 6.00 ~ ffi f I') - • 1I1 250. ..6 245.'0.2 43. 1 176 • .1 6~.5.0 75.2 50th lJ3.5..

5 7 r.3 60. 1 ? 72.0 126.1 0 &I) (I) • ~ 350.5 23 1 . 1 2..5 4. 1 ':1 4.5 1.00 so. 1 500. . 1 ' 20.9 46. .U. .7 128.7 68.. b 214.0 121.5 7..5.7 488.'" 7B. • . S 309.1:'.2 261. n s. . I (''Iales and Females) Age (y (Kgf-crn) 50th R'jtb ~:n:: rs) 2.1 25 j . 1 75.E:LBOW EX'IENSION (135 lJ£'... :) 188.00 • •00 UO. . .8 2Q. .1 276. (YEARS) 8 8 10 11 .9 17 S.' 3 .2 66.. .0 17S.7. 7 54. 7 332.':1 41B.0 160..1 1 3'1.0 3l:Jl.' . 1 2il7. 8 52. ~ 5. 5.8 110.5.5-10.7 28.9136.:" 104.8 1 1 R. 5 • AGE 230 .5-9. •. .5 9.9 81. 13 3.5-4.:>. .OO 1&.d.7 125.0 193.2 lS 7. 00 0. ~in 15 tb b1 .3. 6 R.9 60.. .. b 122.00 ~ 200.2 47.00 Ed 100. . • . '" 'Iei'!. U 119.3 67.00 - 300. .00 ~ ~ ~ • ~ en 250.7 18. ~ 7 • ~ 15'. 5. (l 100.l 247.5-6. 1 A5.'. . 1 .3 1S 1 Lj I:l QO..00 :% 0 CD 150..1...5 6. '.2 S5.4 15 5.00 2 . . .

2 ~ 1 0.ti "lax (yrs) N 2.2 79..' .5 32...00 • .5 278.8 85.5 3.00 .5 29.' 6 7 8 9 10 11 AGE (YEAftSl 231 .8 83.9 145. .. 5 162.•.. 00 ~ 150. 1 83..5-'3.0 13. . 9 7.5 201. .. .0 335.5 6. 2 19 g.7 106. zoo.0 77.00 300.8 37 ~ 1 31.0 34.5 DEG) (l'Ia 1 es and Fe'lIIales) Age (Kgf-cm) 50th 66. 5.5 'i.9 500.' . 1 205.0 277. .4 65. .00 'dO.b 82.LBOW E X'IENSION (157.3 53. •• .5-5.• • 250.5 15 23 13 15 14 8 s.0 63.5 44.3.7 35. •• ..5. 75. 00 0.0 14 J.4 37.5 194..4 65. .5 ~.P..5-1.5 '33. .0 110..00 W Q II) ! en z w II) .6..5-4.• . .3 206.8 110..0 51.OO 350.4 90.4 R'it h 94.7 4l8..5 80.5 128 .8 Mean ~in 1 jth 58.00 • .1 32.5-10.' ..• . i:j CD .~ 9.."7 92. . .8 99..d.6 246. 5 .7 ** ** 00.5-g.5 4.7 297.5149. q 462.5 38.00 so.5 6. 00 C) • UO.0 72. • 2 ~ 100.

0 --e-.C 202.0 157. 0 +---'f----t---~I__-~--__+--__+--_f ~.2.5 180.5 DEGREES Of fLEXION 232 .0 so.5 135.5 TO 5 YEARS ..0 112.0 90.0 ffi a::: m ~ b L 170.0 I- o ~ 130.5 90.O 87.250.5 TO 8 YEA ~ 8 YEARS AN UP 210..

.5 180.0 z: LLI ~ tJ') z t!) ~ a: -' LLI CD ~ ~.0 233 ...0 112.0 .0 230.5 DEGREES Of EXTENSION 80.0 170.0 110.O 87.2.0 70.0 190.5 135...0 80.0 130...5 TO 5 YEARS ~ ~ 5 TO 8 YEARS 8 YEARS RND UP 210.250.0 157..0 150.

~50.LJ SO.00 130.00 :x -J CD 0 I.00 - TREND 0 ( f) z z ~oo.00 110. 250.00 160.00 ~ x w ~ w SOD.00 120.00 HEIGHT (eM) 234 .OO+----+----+---+----+----+----+----f 80.00 a: 200.00 11l0.00 CI: ~ z lS0. 00 c N ~ In .00 100.OO O.00 w ~ ~ x: en 100.oo w 350.00 150.

00 100.00 m 0 HEIGHT (eM) 235 .00 1110..TREND 0 z 1100.~.00 ::I: C) ~ ~ a:: ffi 150.00 N 11) • 250.00 350.--+-------lI----+-----1 90. 00 0..00 150.00 en % ~ ci so.00 180...oo ---.00 120.00 100.00 ~ C) X l£J w c 300.00 a: 200.00 130.00 110.00 +----f----+----+--.

00 0. (.:) 0 X z 1100.. ..00 25.00 100.00 35.. a: 200.oo - TREND LU -oJ I.00 N ~ .00 I en m IA1 :% 0 ..00 LU In c 300..00 . so.00 50.00 20.:) LU ~ a: z 150.00 WEIGHT 30. 250.00 350.t&SO..00 J: ~ (.00 10.00 (KG) "0.00 1&5.00 15.00 236 .L..

00 a:: 100.00 25.OO 1£5.00 WEIGHT (KG) 237 .00 200.00 ~ a: %: C) ~ LLJ (f) ~ z 150.00 3 C rd m 50.1&50.00 - TREND c z IAOO.OO 35.00 ~O.00 C l/) N • 250.00 15.00 ~ z .OO en L&J 350.J< LLJ C) LLJ 300.00 0.00 SO.00 +--__i~-_+--_+_--+_-__i~-_+--_+_-___t 10.00 50.00 20.

.00 150.50 30. . en ~ ~ 50.00 .1&50.- w· o 300.00 100..50 20.. o <.00 238 _ ..00 ..00 X ~ 350.00 15. ~ z L&J ...:) L/) z 1100.00 27.00 (eM) 32.lREND .00 ..00 17.00 r- CL: :::I: ~ 250..50 25.. '" a: ..00 • 200...50 35.00 0.00 RADIAL+CARPAL LINKAGE 22...

50 30. 00 0. 250.00+-----4---+---+-----4---+---+-----+---4 15.00 150.00 27.C\I 1.50 35.50 20.oo -TREND ffi ~ z c 1&00.00 so.00 350.~o.00 17.00 RADIAL+CARPAL LINKAGE (eM) 239 .00 LLJ LLJ X Cl 300.00 C .00 100.50 25.00' 32.1) .00 22.

7 111.8 29.6 43.5 90. 90 deg 9 76.0 103.1 16.2 Elbow Flexien.5 75.5 deg 5 91.3 80.2 68. P1in Elbow Extension.5 deg 9 53.0 12.8 94.Elbow Strength Statistics (2.1 21.5 .ij 90.9 68.4 Pleasurement 15th 50th t.5 14.7 ~7.1 Elbow Flerion.0 27.7 92.6 29.2 132.9 139.5 years) De sc rip t i ve Sta tist ics N Plean S.5 Elbow Flexion.• 8 Elbow ExtensioD.5 deg 15 108.0 181 • 1 112. 61.6 27.8 59.5 15 le6. 135 deg 7 SO.7 90. 135 deg 94.3 53.8 Elbow Extension.3 14_ II 28.0 50th 79.3 "35. 6 24.7 94.5 69. 157.8 29.1 61. d. 135 dEg 81. 146. !'lin N Elbow Extension..8 153.5 32.6 83.8 Elbow Flexion.1 79.8 120.8 128. 135 deg 87.3 121.5 76.7 19. 71.8 52.2 63.3 100.5 Pleasurement 15th 48.9 123. Strength Statistics (4.5 50th 85th 65.5 deg 1~ 46.2 64.1 95. 1 66.9 85th 114.0 93.3 102.5 21.1 72.7 90.5 years) DescriptivE Statistics ~in PleaD s.2 67.4 93.7 91.3 9 72.1 Elbow Extension.9 22]. ExtensicD.5 d 15 15 29.3 Elbow Flexion. 90 deg 67.5 deg 9 96.0 Elbow Flexion.4 6 26. 157.2 £lboII'.6 -- -- •• •• !'lax 145.3 133.3 25.0 9 62.2 156.2 Elbow Flexion.5 deg 7 73.7 511.8 22.9 46. 112.5 47.5 29.4 Elbow Extensio D.1 46.7 54. 1 7 .5 .6 30.1 66.6 42.1 24.2 113.3 15 19.5 deg 15 38. 157. 67.8 59.1 75. 112.3 99.7 Elbow Extension.7 68. 90 deg 57.5 deg 6 75.6 45.6 137. 112. 112.3.Q 60.0 35.5 years) Descriptive Statistics Plean s.3 33. 151.6 8. 180 deg 9 54.6 131.7 7 Elbow Flexion. 28. 90 deg 77.6 Elbcw Flexion. 67.8 32.8 36.3 23.0 150.9 59. 157.4 10 ~ ] 34.9 81.8 "ax 165.3 15.6 Elbow Flexion.5 104.2 96.5 deg 84.2 84.4 122.5 deg 61.5 76.0 131.] Elbow Extension.3 1!: Elbow Flexion.d.5 llCJ.6 Elba .3 50.9 74.4 25.6 Elbow Flexion.0 80.0 119.5 deg 9 112.5 deg 7 108.1 73.5 deg 83.3 141.3 Elbow Extension.7 68.1.1 31.5 d 15 133. 112. 90 deg 9 67.4 157.9 71.1 162.1 12.7 1S. 1 23.0 52.5th 42.8 Elbow Flexion.0 91.0 13.3 9 Elbow Extension.3 62.4 85.0 6].2 241.4 28.2 72. 151.0 39.5 . 180 deg 7 '10.1 66.5 1311.1 38..2 64.2 72.6 74.6 41.2 Elbow Elttension.1 47.5 dEg 9 37. S 33.8 105.5 Elbow Flexion.7 .C:.0 18.0 67. 1 1011.6 5.d.1 65.1 Elbow Flexion.3 59.4 102.0 58.7 31.5.6 lln.0 56.3 15.6 Max 97.6 20.3 72.4 31.S deg 7 42.1 94.7 47.0 75.5 240 . 1 61.5 Elbcw Strengtb Statistics (3.2 98.7 83.1 Elbow Flexion.7 19. 61.2 37.0 241. 180 deg Keas ure me nt 15th 61.5 deg 7 40.9 149.9 97.6 72.0 88.0 106.6 ij2.9 15.9 49. 67.7 Elbow Extension.3 15.3 Elbow Extensicn. 67.'1.8 Elbow Fle:xion. N 116. 112.7 37.3 Elbow ExtensioD. 135 d€g 15 125.8 nbow Flexion. 135 deg 69.7 14.1 15 120.8 94.7 11 0. 90 deg 7 23.9 ~4. b "5.

0 23 0.2 86.4 85th 150.S 58.5 195. 157.5 deg~3 138.9 Extension.9 Elbow Flexion.5 46.5 deq 15 172.4 Flezion. Elba.8 Eztensioll.4 21.0 61.7 154.6 128.5 deg 15 123. 160 deq 13 96.4 115.5 59.8 !!ax 172.9 284.6 Extension. 90 deg 13 135. 135 deg 15 14S. 112.3 57.1 254.7 76.8 15 145.3 225.5 deg 13 93.1 23 45.9 110.4 E5.5 deg 104.6 21'. Pfin Extension.9 93. 135 deg 23 135.1 Extension.5 141.5 165.3 174.8 100.6 180.9 161. 1 86.8 15 193.2 Flesion" 67.5 deg ~3 131. 2 Elbow Extension..2 51.7 287.6 184. J 85. 67.5 deg 13 158. 1 149.8 131.Elbow Strength Statistics (5.1 29.3 134.1 220.2 39.6 147.3 128.1 58.3 Extension.6 241 .6 Elbow Flexion.5 Extension.5 deglJ 130.9 34.1 146. 151.6.5 210.5 yea [s) Descriptive Statistics N P1in 15th Sean s.1 199. 132. 135 deg 13 158. B 70. 135 deg 2.4 2Q4. 90 deg 15 149.6 154.7 Elboll Extension.3 Elbow EJ:tension.3 149.1 51.5 ft ax 154.5 Elbow Strength sta tistics (6.2 133.0 28. 67.0 Flexion.2 157. 8 143.3 142.0 34. 135 deg 13 160.5 deg13 176.0 33. deg 1~ 134.6 Elbow Strength Statistics (7. a 53.0 95.4 248.2 .C 91.0 172. 90 deg 13 121. 112.5 135.3 62. Extension.7' 64.2 97. 5 Elbow f'lell:ion.5 deg 23 116.0 277.2 '13.9 129.2 123.1 57.9 330. S4.2 Flexion.3 108.5 44.8 100.9 111. 157.8 5'. '80 deg r!easu['ement 50th 115.6 Plexion.5 deg 13 108.d. .8 Extension.8 267.5 d 110. 157.7.8 Flexion.5 d 84.7 198.6 30'.7 54.0 138. 112.9 114.0 50th 82.3 287. 135 deg 164.2 34.3 48.01.6 266.3 25.3 49.8 1.8 15 119.9 209.5 deg 44.w Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Ubow Elbow Elbow Elbow Descriptive Statistics 15th N Pfean s.1 101.1 194.5 .0 55.3 83.3 105.0 140.8 34~7 107.0 Max 130.1 Flexion.3 40.6 309.5 246.ent Elbow Elbow Elbo.3 Elbow Flexion. 112.4 256. 8B. 112.5 109.3 82.5 yea rs) Measure.5 .3 32. C 20.6 232.12.7 2~3.0 1.5 53.7 188.3 56.6 198. 157.8 63.1 134. 67. 15th Pfin Extension. 90 deq 15 203.3 Extension.8 165.3 53.2 '3145 1!S 181.0 89. 67.0 80.0 103.8 33.4 81. 180 deg 50th 85th 79.2 30.5 deg23 99.0 219.3 45.d.9 163.5 deg 29.9 95.9 19.9 Flexion.5 151.7 188.7 ·102.1 303.1 219.1 .9 38.1 1t8.6 76.4 363.7 100.8 63. 112.5 141.8 100..4 Elboll Eztension.6 81.4 126.1 Elbow Flexion.7 68 •.0 169.4 15 101.5 272.~ 31.9 41.7 29.4 70.5 64. 90 deg 23 108.8. 61.0 35.9 164.8 El2.5 3C.6 172.3 60.3 98.6 Flexion.1 210.2 179.6 109.3 Flexion.3 157.8 214.1 Flexion.4 135. 90 deg 23 57.6 1113.3 127.5 Flexion.6 80. a 175.6 157.4 51.5.5 .7 78.9 85th 130.b 175.0 23 e2..0 56~8 67. 151.5 118. d.7 1~ 2Ce.2 131.7 nbow FleXion.2 34. .5 deg 23 37.0 63.7 30.1 56.5 years) !!easurellent Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow nbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Cescriptive Statistics N Mean s.2 249.

2 206.5 305.4 286.5 deg 8 158.Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Descriptive Stati!:tics !! in 15th N Mean s.8 74.9136.6 78.3 62.~ 112.7 195.2 119.6 Extension. 112.3 213.2 Extension.8 50th 85th Max 351.3 332. 90 dt:!g Flexion.& 197.5 92.7.51115. 112.5 years) Plea sure lien t . 1 182.8 335.1 S2.5 deg14 2:: 1.5 387.7 FleXion.u 273.9 229.7 201.1 5].3 a 191.0 319.8 8 312.7 14 187.5 deg 118.5 1 15.2 271.0 190.6 Flexion.1 11.3 143. 91.5 deg 14 220. 90 deq 116.Elbow Strength Sta.5 149.1 q9.5 Extension.14 8 237.8 39.1 242 .5 123.2 66 .5 208.3 Flexion.7 8 115. 135 deg 123.8 79.2 130.2 342.2 90.5 318.8 216. 157.5 291. 1 8 276.6 118. 90 deg 144.4 95. 157. 15.11 418.3 290.5 36.9 Flexion.5 /43.6 278.0 150.8 119.0 133. 157. 135 deg 111 263.5 61. 7 276.d. '12.1 77. 13].8 180.7 Extension.0 Ex tension.1 157.5 199.0 191.5 Flexion.7 166.5 deg 195. 1 131.2 80.8 EztensiOIl.xtension.5 291.10.7 215.8 85.5 deg 57.5 374.6 Flex ion. ~ 188.9 318.3 220.9" 418. N 72.5deg 8 278. 90 deg 130.6 14 189. d.2 ExtensioD.9.0 113.6 Max 223.2 Flexion.5 .5 . 67. 180 deg 50th 129.8 128.9 57.2 253.5 years) Measurement Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow Elbow DescriptivE Statistics Min 15th Mean s.3 Flexion.9 F.0 235.1 415. tistics (8.3 219. :2 164.7 Flexion.2 215.9 50.6 52.0 llf 153.6 231.6 ExtensioD. 1 126.1 50. 1 338.0 208. 67.4 75.7 206.5 16].1 209. 67.2 94.1 92.4 286.7 9C.7 143.5 deg 14 140.7 14 161.7 386. 180 deg e 202.5 36.7 316.8 85th 181. 1 55.1 96.1 216.2 Elbolll Strength Statistics (9. 67.9 254.5 deg 8 245.4 383.2 361.5 184.1 Flexion.5 deg 209.6 205. 1 14 169.9 275. 135 deg Extension.4 101.7 488.5 deg14 94.7 335.9 226.5 deg 8 268.6 158.7 2&5.9 11f 218.1 Flexicn.1 462.3 295. 135 deg 8 295.8 234.6 163.2 112.

The number of children performing a three point pinch is progressively less for 7 cm. The location of this force vector passes through the tip of the index finger. and 9 em. This suggests that the index finger is doing a larger portion of the work. Height.for larger values was seen in the previous strength study and has been seen in most reports in the literature. This trend of increased variance . "- . the angle formed by the force vector with the center line of the transducer becomes smaller for older children. The location of the force vector is approximately constant but decreases in magnitude as the span between gripping surfaces is increased. the standard deviation is also larger for older children. 8 em. As children grow.. This is seen on the scatter plots as a Notice that gentle upwards slope towards the right. weight and most physical dimensions also exhibit a similar increase in the standard deviation. 243 . for small spans.5 Discussion In general. This change probably relates to the increased precision with which an older child can control his movements. . larger. For three point pinch.3. the strength value THREE POINT PINCH: obtained for three point pinch increases for older children. at least for smaller spans.

The oldest age group exhibits somewhat greater strength for the smallest dimension of 2 em. The data at each span is pooled into three age groups and a mean value computed for each interval. actual strength value is greater for five point pinch than for the corresponding three point pinch. The angle formed by the force vector with the center line of the transducer may be either positive or negative. for the same reason. but is smaller in average magnitude than for three point pinch. This may be due to the better mechanical advantage afforded by a larger hand size. than for 3-~ cm.3.3. The second graph of section 3.This reduction in numbers is caused by the inability of smaller children to reach the larger spans. The first graph of section 3. The means have been connected with straight lines to show how strength changes for different sized objects. The same reduction in numbers is also seen for five point pinch and squeeze. FIVE POINT PINCH: The results for five point pinch The are very similar to those for three point pinch. but the increase is modest.3 (page 201) 244 .3 (page 200) summarizes the results for three point pinch. The same trends are present for the location of the force vector as were seen with three point pinch.

subdivided into three age groups. The maximum strength is found with larger The maximum grip dimensions for older children. Several trends are evident on these The maximum strength value for each group occurs at a grip separation of three to five centimeters.3. curves.summarizes the results for five point pinch.3 (page 202) summarizes the data for squeeze by subdivision into three age groups. For both of the older age groups. The distribution of points on the scatter plots suggest a more linear change with age than was found for three and five point pinch. but it is apparent that performance falls at both extremes. The largest v~lue for each age group does appear at the largest span tested. and in general. SQUEEZE: The strength value for squeeze also shows an upward trend with age. The signif- icance of the location of the force vector is less clear. The third graph of section 3. is larger than the two types of pinch. but it does indicate the approximate position of the hand on the transducer. 245 . and this was usually the largest size object that a child could successfully pinch. the minimum strength value does not appear at the smallest span of 2 ern. The lines are again constructed to connect the mean value of data. strength occurs on a rather flat region of the curves.

The curves are approx- imately evenly spaced and similarly shaped. CORRELATION: Tables of correlation for pinch and squeeze (pages 211. Accordingly. therefore the number of tests in each age interval is much smaller than for the hand tests.213). show a strong correlation with height for three point pinch. 246 . ELBOW FLEXION AND EXTENSION: The data for elbow flexion and extension were obtained on a subpopulation of approximately one hundred children. The values obtained. As with other strength tests. The main utility of the correl- ation tables is to suggest a relative ordering of physical dimensions in their relationship to strength.212. and squeeze. the number of points seen on the scatter plots is less. The magnitude of the correlation coefficients decrease for the two largest spans. Tne relative ordering seems remarkably constant across the pinch tables. Since this reduction in number always eleminates smaller children who cannot reach the larger spans. but the number of subjects is reduced also.4 Personian correlation coefficients are reported for selected variables.3. The are presented in Section 3. the measured values are larger for the older children.There is a large decrease in strength for small objects such as the two centimeter span. There is an increase in the strength standard deviation as the mean value increases. it alters the distribution by age and all age related variables. five point pinch.

5 0 The maximum value of strength for flexion and for younger children performing extension. 247 . is that smaller children appear to be stronger for elbow extension than for elbow flexion. The statistics grouped by age are also presented. the strength for flexion is greater than extension.' The oldest age group has maximum strength near 135 0 • Scatter plots are presented for elbow flexion and extension against several related variables. a trend line. The data for elbow flexion and extension is summarized in Section 3. Notice that the trend lines are more horizantai for flexion than for extension.One of the more surprising findings in this study. and the average strength value in each age group is plotted against the elbow angle.3 (pages 232-239). . By age ten years. fitted by least square methods'. occurs near 112. is shown with the data.4. so that the mechanical advantage is different. the sUbjects are subdivided into three age groups. In each case. The differences between age groups may be explained on the basis of differing lever arms at different ages. As before.

F = _ Torque Force . F = T D (22.3.~ Kgf-cm) (2. the torque produced by wrist adduction is (See reference 162.2046 LB/Kgf) 12.3 cm.2046 LB/Kgf) 5.9 Kgf-cm for 6 year old child. + 5. radius. 20. The surface is situated at waist level for the child and the knob is large enough to allow easy grasp in the right hane.3 cm.5 cm-LBS (5. circular surface having a 30 cm.) 22.l"cm) = 9.89 pounds force.L' k age ~n For a 50th percentile child the torque is found to be 111. 15.6 Sample of Strength Calculations Suppose it is desired to estimate the force which could be produced by an "average" (50th percentile) 6 year old male who is pulling upward on a knob situated in the center of a horizonal.1 cm 50.6 cm Now consider the torque capability in the desired direction at the wrist. the wrist adduction capacity imposes a limit on the desired force and one would conclude that the desired force on the knob would be 9.2 cm. One can observe that the linkages used correspond to the sum of the radial and carpal lengths and from the table for combined sexes --L Linkage Length L R + LC . That is.1 em.89 LBS Force Thus. consider first the force which would be produced if the waist is held fixed so that the torque of elbow flexion is exerted at a lever arm of 20.9 Kgf-cm) (2.1 LBF 20. .5 Kgf-cm thus F (lll.

1.. The sum of the moments about any point on a body in static equilibrium must equal zero.4.. a free body diagram of the limb fixture can be drawn: 249 .A. NOTE: STATIC ANALYSIS OF STRENGTH CHAIR Refer to ~he limb and limb fixture shown in Figure 4.1.1.. M t.. 1 ~Mz X -FAX 8 t-FAY ~ ~-F8Y Is ~ Summing the moments about joint A: -(-FAX£l) - (-FBY£B) . 1 y IA J EM AZ = 1 ... A free body diagram of the li~b can be drawn showing all the forces acting on the limb (excluding gravitational effects): Note: FAX - force on A in the X direction. etc.M AZ ~ 0 M = FAX£l+ F By 2 B Equation #1 AZ Similarly. AZ Azt.

the simultaneous torque about the more distal joints. the strain gage set at A provides an adequate measure of the torque generated about joint A providing the error terms F Ay d 2 and F Byd 2 are small or can be approximated by either of the following methods: re~pond 1) By design d «£B and the approxiamation may be made FBY£B»FByd2 ~ 0 and Equation #3 becomes Equation #4 2 2) FB~ay b T measured by the gage set at B' where MBZ = MB..Z Equation #3 Since MA.Z is the bending moment to which gage set A will and M AZ is the "strength" about joint A. the hip and shoulder joints.Z £ d B 2 = = output of gage set B known linkage measurement = known constant Method (2) is conveniently used since the secondary channels were sampled specifically to provide the required additional data.Z f B Substituting this relation into Equation #4 gives Equation #5 Where: M .MA'Z o Equation #2 = FAX£l + FBY£B + (FAY + F By )d2 .z exactly and F By = MB.Z MAZ FAX£l + FBY(£B'+ d2) + FAy d 2 .e. 250 . = output of gage set A MB. a cascad~d For error term is generated.FBy d 2 Solving Equations #1 and #2 simultaneously = MA. A 7.Z MA.Summing the moments about point AI: EMA. i.FAy d 2 .

251 . This general example was chosen to exemplify error terms which generally arise only in sagittal plane strength measurements (by chair design) . Finally. it should be noted that these error terms arise only when the axis of rotation does not pass through the gage set used for measurement.Sampling the more distal joints allows for precise calculation of the error terms. It is implied that when a gage set' does not align with the axis in one plane. it does in a perpendicular plane and no error term exists for strength measurement in that perpendicular plane.

B . bend MAl M A2 = -F (D)-F (L -L) n s 3 +F n (L -D)-F (L -L ) 5 s 3 1 (2 ) ( 3) M BI -F (L +D)-F (L -L ) n 4 s 2 1 -F n (L 4 +D) +F s (L l ) -F (L +D) n 4 L3 (4 ) (5) M B2 Me = e : --F -F ~Lli L2 B2 e --F n 1 L4 I B1 All s n ~ I DISTAL/ HANDLE I I F 1 . e and respond to bending moments on the bar at Severing the bar at each gage set and writing static equations of equilibrium of moments moment at gage set AI) At AI: At A : 2 At B : l At B : 2 At (1) for the distal handle: (Note: MAl ~.. B . L5 t s A2 \PROXH1AL HANDLE L- 252 i . The child forces the two handles together where indicated.4. the grip strength transducer may be represented schem?tically as a bar of constant eros section shaped like the letter "G".2 Principle of Operation of Grip Strenoth Transducer In the plane of its handle. Resistance strain gage~ are located at positions A . and 2 2 l l these locations. . respectively. A . . by exerting shear and normal forces F s and F n.

. the difference in strain gage outputs at two different bar locations may be bbtained providing the cross sectional material and geometry at each position is Thus.and rewriting: (10) Therefore..:. _- .the appropriate wheatstone bridge configuration.om equation (). Next. .Subtracting equation (Z) from equation (It: Subtracting equation (4) (7) MBZ-M = FsL BI Z fr... F ' and L (=L +D) by equations (8).. . and (10): F s. substituting equation (8) into (S) . (8) LlM (=FnL ) = MAZ-M AI A S (9) A M = MBZ-M (=F sL ) Z BI B id~ntical: are measured independent quantities requiring Z channels of data. = LIM L2 B -.): In. -- 253 . utilizing a third gage set input Me' one can determine F .. F n s 4 (9).

V(F J 2 + n -1 F (F ) 2 s ¢ tan s Fn Finally. F n is the major force component and no difficulty is encountered. 254 r . it should be noted that determination of LF requires a F n component to generate Me and M . A In power grip configuration. Generally F n » F s ("<20°). a resultant force on the handle may be determined as well as its direction (~J perpendicular to the handle: F == -:.Additionally.

. l>IUAkT •• 32: 311:18. 9 L<J t'.G.iEkSI TY JF 'MI CH IGA. kEI. KES. l:. 21:249. T. 2: 132rl. 1956.E..B. BECHTOL...\J HIGH SCHJ0L GI h. JtCU~ATIONAL AND SAFETY ENGI NEEKI N(~. kES. bUA~T.. AUXTEk. U. Ai\lD MANDEL. HES. 12 255 . 1966.: GkI l"' TEST S1 ADJ USTABLE riAND St-ACI NG. 4 5 6 7 8 BEDFIJKD. 54:424. T.\JGTrl TESTS Fl. w."1 GI kTH S T) HAND GK1 t' STkE\lGTH A~ .MECrlANICAL MODEL lF THE HAND IN ~o~Eh GKIt-'. AKI"1STK()I\JG.)N. w. G. 36:21. 1973. t-'HYS. h. AND bANFIELD. E.\JlI.\J 4iO:44~. C. C.J.J. 7: 1 36. 36-A:821O.L S. 19 36.1969.. BUCHANAN. J. blUAKT.: INVESTlGATIJNJF Tr-IE kELATI~)I\J~rl1t' 'JF rlAND Sl t E AND LJ wEK Ak.. blUAkT. 1937.: kELIAI:HUH IN THE :vIEASUhEi"1ENT ~JF Snm\JGTrl. c.Nl:::lSIk 73-156. J.: wEI GHTED STkE.J •• AND CHAFFIN.. KES. I>iLJAKT.Jk FlkCE A''1JNG \JI)KMAL A\lD t-'OST-h)LIO CHILDkEN.. v. 3 ANDEKS. 19 6 1 • E:lKI)I.19510.. TriE LANCET.. 'BEkGEk."1EASUkED ElY SELECTED HAND DY<\JI)M!JI'1ETEt<S. AKCrl. BEASLEY. kES. T.IUAkT •• 37: 5610. : CHILDkE~: ~KELIMINAkY kE~OKT MED. BOI]K wAL TEk. VlUSCULAK STKENGTrl IN 3N aBJECTI~E STANDAkDS. kEHABIL.c. 1954 USE OF DY\JA~OMETEk wlTri J.·o.ALDEkMAN. t'1(I)JECT 44610142. ~J..i ..C.: II\JFLUENCE OF . D. D. THEk.VlETH1D IN ESTI.: A STUDt' OF STKENGTH CAI-'AblLl I I ES DF CHILDKEI\J AGES HJO THkl)UGI"! SIX.: STKENGTri TESTS: OBSEkvATI:JNS ON THE EFFECTS I)F hOSTUKES ON STkENGTri OF I-'ULL.A. L.JK TrlE I-'kEDI ClIOI'\) :) F ATI"{ EL ETI C ABI Ll H }. A'\lD WAkNEK. T. ~HYS.: STkE:NGTH A."1ATES OF . :2 ALEXAI\JDEk. KES. K. K.\J.. (23 I-'AGES) FI'NAL kEt-'OKT.\JD FLEXlBILITY OF DIFFEkEl\lTlALU DIAGNOSED EDUCABLE MENTALLY kETAkDED 80YS. 37: 455.B.N.: GKI ~ STKENGTri 1\10 hiM S FO k ''1AL ES.N')kMAL KNEE EX TDJS. '} 1~ 11 BOiNEkS.M.: A E:HO. 1966.\JE & JOINT SUkG. BO. ..: LE(~ EXTENSIJI\I FI)KCE AT THKE!:: DIrFEKEI\lT ANGLES.. AI\JD 1010LNAk. ESTI:VJATI'J.. 1973.

ELL. CAkt-'EI\JTrk. J.\J ST/xE·\)(.S.: A ~TU!JY)F TrlE kELATI).:.IGNIFICA. UiUAkT •• 3(. I\E~.162. hES. 1965.JiN FLEX. J. /-I'\JGLE':' lJF I-'ULL. J.\I 'IF A TrlE ~TKE\lGTH 1F ::>1" LI'JEAk. t-'HYS.\1 STkEi\)(.I. 12:5Li7.':>1t\E\J(.K •• Ai\l1J ~.\JSAGI NAw.\JTEI\t-'KETJ-ITI')\1 JF THE SThDJETH DIF'FEhEI\JCE~ A~~')CIATELJ "'IIH vAktll\)(. )~99. ~.rKENGTti AND GKI~ .::. 1971<). Li: 125.\J~I')N. hE:::'. L. 21 22 2J CA. AK. IVJI Cri I GAI\J. H)[)Y '::'fA8ILltATl··HI/ IN TtiE STKENGTrl \JF J. 2 iLl CALOI.INEEKINli t-':::'YCrlJL')Gt.A. HU.':'. 191'>1').1.\JSrllt-' 'JF A("E TJ E\JDUhANCE I~ Ghl~~I\JG.: E"TEN':'!"). ELIA8ILIHH' ISDi\l)ETklC ELb.'1EI\.13 BUk-{E.: HlDY I-'·)':'ITI.\JCE iJF SThE·\IGTrl liAkIATI'l'\) THk')UGei A I\Ai\JGE ·JF JJIi\lT I\I)JTIoJ. I-'Sl'Crl')L.S..:::'.) 2 I iLl.11\J~.SITt )F IJV-. Itl CALD~.:.xlT tJF LEG LIFT... 1'. 196J. 1962.':'..JN 0.. w. (. 1953· 15 D. J. C)NTk0L)~ 19 CALDlAELL.). rl. CA"1h\lE'f.: A STU[)t )F Ai\JGLES 1\1 THE '!'1EPSUI\EI'1E. LJUXTn. "5:773.: .\J FACTQnS. 1\.: THE EFFECT JF FlJT-KEST rJ::>ITI.: TtiE hELATI)'J t)F Gkl~ . J.L.: DECI\E''1E\JT A'\JO KECJVE.h •• AI\JD -<k')LL..E8EK TE':'1. CALOV-.~EA.o. L. 2(.sTht:\JGTrl .507 SCrl')!)L CHI LOkEN I . L.\l' wi Tn KEI-'ElI TI VE "1MI.'1.\I.ELL. E. 1'. Li23. 2~: 5. HLJ"1A..: I-'A!i'J AND . USA'1hL.'1AN FACT.: TrlE EFFECT 'JF Tr-iE ~r'ATIAL t-"JSlTILJ. l:JUAKT •• 9:711. ~TKE. I 9 5 7 • IF Tr-iE ><ki-\U~-II.: TrlE USE IF ANI-ILl':::'I~ JF VAkIANCE IN ESTl'1ATl\lG .'J A\l1J TrlE Sfr. UN~UbLI~rlEO DJCT)KAL [)1. AND II.152. U. TrlEk. L.: Li113. k.Trl.ErlK. 61UAKT.136."1 17 CALf)~. 25 CAhi"1AN. Li: 125. 1'.~. A. L.: EJ<TE.)h::. THE KE~.\JGTrl ILi tJUho{r:. CALf*ELL. A. U':'HM"L.: kELAfIVE ~U.ELL..l J.•• 116: 392. 256 . J.EI\JGTrl A'\lD ENDUkANCE ilF' ''1A\JUAL r'ULL.\JIVEr.o.s~EhTATI'l!\J.'[rl E."1U.ES.HU"1AN FACTJh~. AI-'t'L. /-I. A''1EK.'.E.JUAKT •• If.sU"E""'ENTS :JF 1.HANO MOVEMENT':'..'1 '1USCULAk E)\EkT1.'1r'·\JEY. 1959.ELL.170. Li:155. ASSOC. Li 1: 129. 1'. 2Li !i.K •• AND wErik. 1965. kE~. r.\JOUhA'\JCE T) AGE.TH OF HOkltJi\JTAL t-'ULL !:Jl' TrlE HAI\JD.\I. CAkL~')\I. Lill.CLE LJADING AND ENDUKANCE.: AN I. H. EN(. I-'rll'':'IJL •• vlL.

36 kEHAE:l •• 37 CLAkr<E. J I) U 1'<:\1 AL • I-' • 51. Assr)c.EAk. biUAfn •• TESTI.~. A. AhCH. A.D •• AND AX.: A E:I10MECrlANICAL 1'10DEL FOk ANALYSIS DF S'O-1i'1ETkIC SAGITTAL PLANE LIFTING.'1AN STATIC STkENGTH.C •• MAkTIN.'JI-'UI:lLlSHED DI)CT')KAL DISSEkATIDN.1976. •• AND WAKli... E . AND KU!:3'l'. A. W. CHAFFIN.H.'1. J.: STkENGTH kES.: STl<ENGTH CUI\VES FrJI'I FOUkTEE. MENT. UNt-'UBLI Sri ED :-1ASTEk' S TH ES1 S. 19 7 5..: kELATIr)NSHI t-' I::JETWEE\I I:lrJDY t"'l)SI TO'\I AND THE AI-'I-'LI CAT! ON JF MUSCLE 1-'o)\o. 29 31 CHAFFIN. 2: 16.y]. GkADES..8.. 23: 136.: A kESTUDY OF THE EFFECTIVE~ESS OF FOUt< INSTkUMENT5 FOK kEC!1 kDI NG MUSCL E STKENGTH.. F. 0. ij: 12.: THhEEDIMENSIONAL FOkCE ANALYSIS JF FINGEK JOINTS IN SELECTED ISO''1ETkIC HAND FU.: N)I'-10GKAPH OF THE HAI\lD AND ITS kELATED DH1ENSI'Oi\lS. 0.: A CO"1r-UTEkltED BIO'-1ECrlANICAL .\J JI)lI\lT "-1')VEr'1ENTS. D. A. T.H.: THE MEASU~EMENTS aF GENE~AL MOTuK CAPACITY AND GENEKAL ''10TI)k ABILlT'I' li\l TriE F1KST THkEE GkADES. CAkTEI-<. AMEk.'JG I:'J TriE FI KST 13: 328. CLAkKE. 19ij2. H.B.1957. TriKEE 28 CAkPENTEk. Nf). G.27 CAhPENTEk.jDELDEVELOI-'MENT OF AND USE IN STUDYING GkOSS BODY ACTI'JNS. r-HY. CHA'J.Ek TO '."1IC5 GUIDE FJK THE ASSES5''1ENT OF HU.'10VEMENTS JF THE JOli\lTS.)NS. CLAkKE. JUNDk HIGH AND SENI')K HIGH SCrluOL E:l:JYS.Y •• Ot"'GkANDE. TECH. kES.G. PHYS. 38 . E. 57-198. kES. UNIVEt\SITY OF JKEG'J\I.H •• bAILEY. BlljMECrlS . 1953. 195"-'. ."lED . >(.H •• EL"<INS. Ar\l[) 8~ULEY. H.. -~-- 257 .L •• Ai\lD CLAYTON. J.: !\lEw IJBJECTI VE STkENGTH TESTS OF l"1U5CLE GkOUPS lJ. G. T. 1971ll. 1952.. E. I:HOMECri •• 9:387.1 5. AilE TRANSACTIONS. G.( CAE:lLETE. CriktAN. H ••. : kECONSTkUCTION OF ~E KQGEkS STkENGTH AND t"'HYSICAL f1T\JESS li\lD1CES FOk UI-'I-'Ek E::LE.S."1ENTAK'l'.. G. wkl GHT AI K DEVELtJh"1ENT CENTEk. kEt-'. blUAkT. INDU~TkIAL HYGIENE ASSOC. blUAkT •• 13: ijijij. 31:81. J. !.E. 2: ij29.NSIi)N :'1ETHOD5. J. 19511. 32 33 35 CHlIkCHILL.E •• GIE:lSrJN.8.. 1969. T. 19 ij2.: EkG')NO. CHAFFIN. U.\lCTI. 1958.8 •• A'ND I:lA>(EK. SI-'KINGFIELD COLLEGE. AND TrlOMt"'SON.I""..

\lD Ai\lTrlKJJ-'0'1ETkiC MEASUKES T0 VAkiOUS AKM STKENGTH CKITEKIA.H.1.H •• AND ':'HELLEY.39 CLAHKE.rl .: CONTKAST OF MATUkATIONAL. /\E5. N.i\l .1. 8.H •• 1953.:.\lATHELETES 10 TO 15 YEAk. 1954.HYSICAL EDUCATOK. H. CLAkK E. KES. 12. l-<E~. CLAkKE. H.: ')KEGO\J SL'1t-'LIFlCATIONS 'JF THE STKENGTH AND j-'Hl'SICAL FIT. AND 15 YEAKS IJF AGE AS kELATED TO VAKIOUS STkE. ' CLAkKE. b1UAl\T •• 32: 326. 1~:132. CLAkI<E.\j.H. STkUCTUkAL AI\J D . kES.1H l'1EA~UKES T'J TH E Sr)r"lATOTYPES 'IF 8Dl'S 9 THk'JUG'-l 15 l'EAkS OF AGE. H .STANDING ELE'1.: COkKELATI)N BETwEEN TrlE STkENGTH/i"lASS kATI1 AND TH E St-'EED OF AI\J Ak'1 I"!') VE. biUAKT •• 31 : 57(. B.\JSHIJ-' I)F STI\EI\lGTH A.H •• AND JAl'\MA\l.'1ENT. 25: 13il.. MaT~k ABILITY AND INTELLIGENCE TEST I-'K0FILES DF' ')UT.'1USCLE STkENGTH. kES. CLAkKE. 19 6 (. kES. It'VING.JUAkT •• 25: 398. (.H.: C')I:'1J-'AkIS')N IlF INSTKU"1E'\JT5 FOk kECOKDlNG .. D. biUAKT •• 30: 3.\JGTH AND Gk'J wTrl . l.E.\jTAkl' AND JUNIOk HIGH '::'Crl)')L AT""ELETES . CLAkKE. blUAKT •• 27:263.rl. OF AGE. 1':156.a.: kECENT ADVA~CES IN MEASUKEMENT AND U\JDEkSTANDING QF VOLITIONAL MUSCULAk STkENGTH. G. 1'1. 1961.: A . STkUCTUkAL AND STKENGTH CrlAkACfEKISTICS OF ATrlELETES AND I\Jl.H. H. il3 CLAkKE. 19 61 • CLAk~E.JF STkEI\lGTH AND ANTHkOhlMETKIC :"1EASUkES TL) t'rlYSICAL t-'EkFJk'1ANCES INVOLVING THE TkUN>< AND LEGS. kES.UAkT..: A KELATI').rl. l:. 195il. k. 1959.5TKE.H..H..H. H. blUAKT •• 32: Li 49.. illl) ill 42 KES. 1961. STkENGTH. 1961.. 44' ilS 46 il7 48 Li9 50 H. H.. 258 .: SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVP1ENT ()F 8Jl'S 9.: MATUKIT'r'.iUAkT •• 32: 155.JF 8'Jl'S AS kELATED TO Tt:iEIH i'1ATUr. kES.\J5IJI\J STKE\JGTH TE'::'TS. H. AND rlEATrl. I'(. rl. H. kES.: S()CIAL ~TATUS A\\JD MEI\lTAL rlEALT~ .ITY.: kELATIil'\JSrllJ-'S.'1EASUKES. SThUCTUKE.'1AI\JUAL: CA8LE-TE.: kELATlO:\l OF 1'1ATUKI TY. H. biUAkT •• 32: 163.H • • AND CAKTEk. 1957.H •• AND t-'ETEkSI).H •• A'\JD CLAkKE. 5TUAhT E.H. CLAKKE. H. CLAkKE.\I(. 1961. CLAkKE.'\lESS INDICES. MUhl-'l-{Y CO •• wEST St-'kINGFlELD. blUAKT •• 2t1:223. STkUCTUkAL AND STKEI\JGTH CHAkACTEkI STl GS.

59:27.. HUMA.. AND VO L. blUAkT.'JGTH kELATI VE RES.H.. A. loJUAI\T.: ~USCULAk STKENGTH AND ENDURANCE IN MAN.E. CLAkKE. 35: 258. LONDON. RES. 19 64. A·'JD LO. J.G •.H. CLOSE.'JD wICI<ENS.T.: EFFECT iJFTkAI'\JED AND UNTkAI:\JED TESTEI\S UI-'Q\J THE AD:vJINISTkATIO\j OF GkII-' STkENGTH TEST::'.· 1: 163. DAkCUS. 33: 13. E.. w. KES.'1EKICAN CAUCASOID MALES. bJUAKT. 33: 26. J.A: 1 6 kl1 . HES.D..sT. STkUCTUkAL STkENGTH AND MiHOk ABILITY (ik)wTH CUkVES (JF BOYS 9-15 YEAkS JF AC."1. J·.." . UUAkT.VJINATllm. TO AKi"1 St'EED.: CUI'JVEKSIO:\J SCALES FOk ESTlMATI\lG I-W"1EkAL AND FE'MOi~AL LENGTH. 1962. HONE JOINT SUKG.. KES. J.. A'JD CnAJ. SHEkk. 37: 14. H.G. AND DEGUTIS. 19 69 • COL GATE.dSO'J. CLARKE. ANN.. THE INDEX.JF A 1'. T.C.s OF A'. SAU.ri.k. N..HUMB. THE 55 56 57 58 Ci)i)NEY. kES... 1966. H. DANIELS.'J I-'HYSICAL A:'IlD f"1JT. L.H. A.. L..\lSTkUCTIJN .1962. AND I-'kIE.. H. H. C. blUAkT. t'kENTI CE-HALL..: A/'(i'1 STkE.. H.: A STkAIN GU~GE DYNAMOMETEk FOh MEASURING THE STkENGT~ OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND FQK kEEDUCAT! NG ''''1USCLE5. 1955. 1972.. 1953. COUSINS..1964. H.1 USCUL Ak STkE. 1962.: .)k TKAlT::' BETwEEN BOYS . AND HAK.W.: MUSCLE EXA.)F ADVA. Ai\JD SCH)t'F. CLAkKE. J. !'"HY~.)F T."1AIUKATIi:)NAL.[J..Y. 36:246.51 CLAkI<E.'JG FINGEKS. C.C.. NOk:vJAL AND kETAKDED ..G.VJECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF STATIC FORCES IN THE THU'1B DUkING HA'JD FU\jCTION. J. F.. AND KI DD.s JF FUNCTI 1NAL SEGMENTS IN T~E L1I'1B.. ENGLEwOOD CLI FFS.: CJ. THE MAAIIVJUM TOKbiUE~ DEVELOl-'ED IN r'KONATlJI\) OF THE kIGHT HAND..: DIFFEKENCES I.. ANTHkOI-'I)METklC AND Snm\JGTH TESTS OF 12 YEAi-< OLD BJ'(S. 19 5 1 • 62 SUI-'INATI~N 63 DE:'1t'STEk. 5. blUAkT.. TE~Tl'\JG. 26:273. 33: 515 . 59 6kl TECHNIblUES 61 DAkCUS.t'. 54 CLAkKE. BONE J')lNT SUkG .'-1ED.J· .: kELATIONSHII-'S BETwEEN STANDING BkOAD JU:vJ1-' AND VAklJUS .S. 1977.:vJATUKIT'r'. J. J. 1966.H. E.: 8 5. 52 53 AND 6.. 1 259 . w.JKTHINGHA.'J BI')LOCi'r'.\IDEkS. ANATJ~Y.: THE FU. H.:vJATUKI TY.: BIO.'JCTIONS DF THE MUSCLES .A. .'JGTH TEST F:H< BOY S II'J GKADES 4. 5 1.'JCED. OF MANUAL AND w.

A·:. 48:629 .. 'ECCENTKI C. G. CHILD DEVELOI-'.'. INCLUDING TKE STUDI' OF kELATIONSHII-'S wITH l"1EASUKES OF t-'riYSICAL Gk. I.5. :\JO.C.. 1972.64 DEMt-'STEk. TkUNK STkENGTH . 260 . J. I:Hu\'1ED.. 7k:l 71 72 73 FLINT. kEV. FlSHEk. STkUCTUkE I)F TrlE 76 A.. 1951.)wTK AND l'1ATUkIT'(.. 66 Inss.: A C')I'1I"'AkISON ') F Ci)NCENTkI C. hiYSI.'J SItE AND wEIGKT.1. AkCK. ><. w. Al-'l-'L.M.: blUANTITATIVE STkENGTrl i'1EASUkEMENTS Ii'J MUSCULAr< DYSTkOhi'(. kES.1. 35: 141. U. M1Eh. t-' SY Crl .H...... AND l:lIkkE.)F TKE DIGITS OF THE '"lAND... 121:J: 33.'1E'\JT AND VALlDATIONJF A 3-DIMENSIJNAL HAND FakCE CAl-'ABILIT. w 67 68 69 NATIONAL I-'kESS. blUAkT. .\j.E.. 7:27~)..':lCLES.'JGIN.s. 1973.: kELATIONSrlII"' OF THE GhAVITY LINE TEST TJ l-'OSTUKE. kES. DkUkY.. AND I '::."1U. HU'1AN (~AkG .: MUSCLES U-I ACTI'JN. AND GAUGrl. .\JD. VOL.'1. LEDEN."lED ..S. AND '<AI~t-')VICrl. M'JNOGKAt-'rl SOC. 1965.t<A.4 75 v.A. AND wA'<IM. A. J.. 65 E. FLEAQk MUSCLES.J..: t-'KL)t-'EI~TlES 'JF 800Y SEG''1Ei'JTS 8ASED ). k. Si)MATOT'(j-'E CLlM/-"JNENTS AND A·\jTrlkO/-.: MJTI)k l-'EkFOk. KES. TKEk. 1967. EL'<INS.:STkENGTrl)F TrlE ELH)w t-'HYS.OI"1ETKIC MEASUI~E'1EI\jTS OF TKE KA. FOWLER.'JAT. 1961"' .JDJS8UkN.. w. ANlJ HI/-.. E. 01 CO< SD. t-'rlYS.\j. M. 1951:1.: THE kELATIONSrill-' OF GhIt-' STl<E'\lGTH TO STATUkE. MASTEK'S THESIS . 21:1:351.:.49 I:J.JL . Ol:lJECTIVE kECQkDING OF TrlE ::>TkENGTH ')F NOt~MAL .. J. A.\j..: AGE AND STkENGTrl. w. 19 47'.[) . 1964. ESrENSCHADE. 1952."lED. . ET AL: A DEVI CE FJ 1\ MEASUkI NG TrlE Fi)kCE . /"'. 7. 3 1: .M... E!. AkCrl.'). A. VuL. 81)[)I'.'1ETkI C STkENGTrl QFELHJ FL[I\JkS. I"'ril'S. J. 32:639. DOwNEK.( MaDEL.G. F.: THE DEVEL()/-'. SAUNDEkS. l>iUAt<T . UNIVEkSITY rJF MIHIGAN.w.. GAkDNEk.-TKUNK FLEAI 13ILI TT' OF ELEMENTAkY SCrl. AND SILLS. 23. 1953.'1ANCE IN AD'JLESCENCE. W.. 1967.JOL GIKLS.B.:-1..T. A.. I"'. 33:68.: 1973. 1962. AI-'I-'L.. EVEkETT.

GESER .. 19042.INSTITUTIONALItED ME. U.GLO V ED Ol-'EKATOk. 81 82 83 E:SiI 85 66 HAFFAJ EE.:l.S . UNIVERSITY OF MASS .. EFFECTS iJF HiO STkICTL'( CONTKOLLED MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIbJUES ON THE GKIl-' STKENGTH OF MALE :SUbJECTS... ANTHkOPOMETRIC AND MATUkiTY MEASURES.. kES. 19 7 ~ •.. C.. 43: 157.: SKINFOLD MEASUr:E5 'JF TWELVE-YEAk OLD BO'(S AS kELATED TO VARIOUS MATUkI T'r' .\J[) I-'EkF:)kMANCE VALUES Far: THE BAkE-'i ANDED MoJO TH E PkESSUkE.. RES. MASTEk'S THESIS IN I-'H'(SICAL... G. 80 GE')kGE . 46: 17 . : FOkCE ANAL'(SES "OF H)kltONTAL HiO-HANDED j-'USHE::l AND PULL:S li'J THE SAGI TTAL PLANE. l-'..)I-'..24..M. ACTA.. bJUAkT. i1-H kES.\lIC NEC'< POSTURE UI-'I)i\J GRIP STkENGTH OF .. iI.."1METkI CAL TJNI C NECK POSTURE UPON GkII-' STkE. U . 28: 67 . 1"10RI Te. AMkL . 14L~ 1-' .'HAL kETAkDES. 1951.: I SOl'1ETKI C KNEE EX TENSI Ji'J STkENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF JOINT ANGLE... blUAkT ... GkIFFITTS.: THE INADEblUAC'( OF STkEi\lGTH 6:117 ... D...."10TOt< FITNESS TESTS FOK FAkiv1 BO'(S..R. C.: EFFECTS OF THE AS'(.M.J. HUMAN BII)L ..bJUAkT .. AND SVANTESSQN.. UNI VEkSI TY OF OkEGON.: ENDUKANCE TESTS FOt< bJUART... AND ... i'JOKMS. GAUGHRAN.: INFLUENCE OF T'). THE. bJUAkT. 1965..\j Alk FOkCE BASE ...\IIVEkSIT'( OF DkEGON. bI UA k T .:.. IN I-'H'(SICALEDUCATION..AND LEFTHANDEDCHILDkEN.1 22:37 .T •.. D..H. AND DEMj-'STEk..Tk.."lBEkS. kES. J.)(\ MEASUkES...68 .EDUCATION.. GLINES. 1975. 1972.."1EI.:CLEAkANCE A. 1935. 41: 361 I. A. 261 .. C. AND GEOKGE .I)F NOki'1AL CrlILDkEN. 43: 13~1 1972.h. L. HALLI D..( 51 blUE .. kES.Reproduced \rom best available coPY· 77 GAkkETT .D.. 78 79GEOkGE .. STkENGTH ..13:Lt32 . UNPUBLISHED DO CTOkAL 01 SSEkTAT! 01\1. l-'H. 87 8!j CL UB . AND COMPLETION TIMES TO CEkTAIN MOTOK .. :'1iJVL"1ENT. STkENGTH . 1967..: kELATIOi\lSHIl-'S OF kEACTION .: .k . 1968. D.'10T. GOODING . I'<ES. D. c. I-'H.. GEOkGE ... SCANOINAV . 1956.: FACILITATIVE AND INHIBITOk'( EFFECTSQF THE TONI C NECK REFLEX UPON GkI I-' STRENGTH OF kI GrlT. AND MOTOR UNI T ACT! \II T'r'. WkIGHT-I-'ATTEkSO. Ok1H..\IGTH . G. 196L. MUSCL E L E"JGTH . HALL .

II: il75.)N~ J. TEST~ HAkkIS.v)I)VEMENT. L. .: THE EFFECT 0F LIMB ~OSITION IN SEATED SUBJECTS !)N THElk A8ILITY To] UTILItE THE MMIMU\/) CO'llTRACTILE FOkCE ')F THE LII"1B l'1USCLES. AND 91 HEATr-lEkINGTON. Sl"'hING- 95 HIkSCH.'1ILLEk. blUAkT •• il7:il1.c. HELMS~ ~. DISSEkTATION. 19 2 iI.MB. THOMAS. A. I'll . 1-'. 1961. to::ES.\JAL SOCIETY F')k STUDt OF EDUCATION .H9 HALL~ FOk 9VJ D. HUNSICKER. J.\lSTkUCTlQN 'JF CA8LE-TENSIOt\l STkENGTH TESTS NoJkMS Far. FLEXION. J. 1953.:HITLEY~ J. blUAkT •• 2i1: 33.)N. l-'H. PHYSIOL .: kELATIOt\lSHIl-'S BETwEEN INDI VI DUAL DI FFEkE. D •• PAGE.: AkM STkENGTH AT SELECTED DEGkEES OF ELbO'..-.. KES. 19i17.H •• MJD MILLEK E. HOLLI NG~OkTH.: A STUDY OF STATIC DYNJ~OMETkIC STRENGTH AND ITS kELATIJi\lSHIl-' TO SELECTED I NDI CE::> OF GkOwTH AND DEVELOI-':"1ENT.)F " CHILDkEN wHO TEST AB!)VE 135 Ibl. TwENTY-THIkO VEAk800K OF THE NATlLJ. BLtJr)MINGTON~ ILL •• I-'U8LIC SCtiOOL P U BLI SH I N G CO. G.Ut\lIV.: THE CJ.A.)JECT NO. J. HJY S SEVEN~ NI NE~ TWEL VE~ FI FTEEN Y EAkS i) F AGE. l-'AkT I: TtiE EDUCATII)N OF GIFTED CHILDkEN.K. J." 1958". 197i1.1<. 721i1-71727. blUAkT.: LEG LIFT STkENGTti: A COIMl-'AkI SON OF .w •• AND MATTHEwS. ILL •• 1961." kES.J •• ET AL: EFFECT OF hJ STUkE ON STkENGTti OF TtiE KNEE FLEl\Ok AND EX.TENSOk MUSCLE..k.G. To: I-'HYSIOLOGY FIELD.. 221 .D. WkI GH T PATTEkSO. S •• AND TAYLOk.C. FL EX I IN F')hCE TOkblUE I) F GkADE FI VE 80'1' S.. ~ 27: 28 5~ 1956. SPEED.2 37. OF STkENGTH. 92 93 r-lEi\lkY~ F.: SELECTIi)'II AND STANDAkDltATION OF STKEI\lGTH iI-H CL UB ME. P. AI\lD MASS IN AN AI<I'1 .: EFFECT OF ISOMETkIC TRAINING ON THE EL 1:-1) V.MICHIGAN. PHYSIOL •• 1~5: 332. D •• . 9Li HETTlNGEk. AI-'l-'L. S."1.~. WADC Tk 5i1-5i1d.'JCE5 IN STkENGTH. c. SitE AND STkENGTH . 0. 1957. S. 1976.-HY 51 CAL EDUCAT! ON~ UNI VEkSI T'( DF OkEG. AIk FOkCE /-'k.M •• AND \o. HUBBAkD~ 96 97 9<3 A. biUAkT •• 31:2Li.)NS AND GkOWTH: B2. BIOMECH •• 7: 3i13. RES.\/)bEkS. 99 HUGH-JONES. OF .'ll AI k FOKCE 8ASE~ 1955.: STUDI ES OF t'HY 51 CAL CONOI Tl.Y1.. D •• DU'18LETOt\l.: I:HOI'1ECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE METACAkl-'Ol-'HALANGEAL JJINT OF THE THU. 196kl.D.'1EASUkEMENT METH:JDS. 1\10 262 . HOUTz:. I-'.

'10DIF'l'ING THE EXPkESSION OF HUMAN STkENGTH. AND GkEY. STkUCTUkAL AND MUSCULAk STkENGTH MEASUkES FOk FIVE SOMATOTYPE CATAGOrnES OF BOYS NINE THk'JUGrl FIFTEEN YEAkS OF AGE. t\ES.: A TECHNIl>IUE HI~ fOk OBTAINING MEASUkEMENTS OF FaRCE GENEkATED BY i"1USCLES.. C. 17: 173....10id . 106 JACKSON . 16: 157.....: AI-'l-'LIED KI.. lid9 110 AND JOHNSTON.... C.-_· ..H . blUAkT .JD. 47: 56. 26: 41d8 . JENSEN .... 52:21<:'1 .V10VD1ENTS.. UNIV. E t-' ..UMENTS TO .. TECH. G. UUAkT. 32: 5(.v-..F. k. A. AND FRANKIEwiCt. E..\JES. PHYS.: kES.'JESIOLOGY. l-<ES. 1955. MAS S.: SOI'>1E FACTOkS . AND STEINHOUS..... 1976.. lidS IkVING~ R.. 1957....)NES. NAT TICK..: KELATIVE STkENGTH Of THE HIP kOTATOk MUSCLE GkOUPS. ' UNI V.L. k. H.. PHYS..A. AND FATI GUE FACTOkS TO AkM STkENGTH Ckl TEkI A. KES..:. 107 STkUCTUkE AND FUNCTION IN lid8 JAkVIS. STHENGTrl. H. ANTHkOPOMETkIC . 28: 109. D... I-'. 1952... JEi'JSEN .E •• KOBkICK . JACOB..w . 102 103 IKAI . G.: THE :SEXUAL :V1ATUkiNG OF GIKLS A~ kELATED TO GkQ wTH 1 N STRENGTH. 1961 • 104 11-<1 SH.'1EASUkE STkENGTH. 197 S. k E l-' • NO. . UNl-'UBLI ~HED DOCTORAL DI~SEkTATlO'\J. SMIDT . 1971. 1970. UUAkT . s. kEV ..C. UNPUBLI SHED DOCTOkAL 01 SSEkTATlON .. AND GAYDOS..J...A.UUAKT . HU\JSICKEk . 1959. H.N.. 1970.. A.. 1946. SAUNDEkS. 1958.: ANTHkOl-'O"1ETkIC AND BI()I'1ECHANI CAL CHAHACTEki STI CS ()F THE HA:-.W... JONES..A.L.E.iJ0.'J .L .. 19 58 • JO... E... '1. 263 ... J. 18: 135. l'1ED.: FACTJklAL EXPkESSIONS Of MUSCULAk STkENGTH. OF OkEGO\J. G.: COMPAkISOi'Il'JF MATUkIH .: 46: 21:16 . I-'rlYSIOL . OF OkEGO.. k. HEADUUAtHEK:S UUARTEkMASTEk kESEAkCH AND ENGINEEkING COMMAND..: SK EL ETAL MATUkl TV AS kELATED TO CHILD DEVELOt-'MENT.S . 1947. biUAkT ...K. TrlEk. 112 113 114 J. MAN.A . AND DONNELLY . STUDIES IN HUt'1AN STkEi'JGTH.: Ol-'TlMUM ENDURANCE MEASUKEMEI'JT 'JF ELBOw FLEXOk MUSCLES AND THE RELATIONS OF STkENGTH . ... k.H... JENSEN...: I NSTf. 1161 HUNSI CKEk .k . C.. MCGkAw-H 1 LL.. n. III AkCH. AND FkANCONE .K.: DYNAMOMETEk FOk STATIC AND DYNAMIC MEASUkEMENTS IJF ROTATIONAL . P. J. RES. Ai-'l-'L..._-. AND SCHULTz: ...

I . WILLIAMS AND WILKINS .....: HAND STkENGTrl AND DE'. CUMMI NGS... I-'. KENNEDY . 12: 297 . 25: 178 .: I-'KOI::lLEr"1S IN ASSESSING MUSCLE STkENGTrl.... 1957.EMENT AND I NTEkPkETATl ON :)F DATA. ENDUkANCE . OHIO . B.T.. MEASUr. KIkCHNEk ...E.F.. KkAUS. 195"1.. G....... Ar'I-'L.YJE... 116 JONES. AMEk. KENDALL ... J. AND WAD'sWOkTH ... 126 KkOEMEk ..: MINU.M. ("iUAkT . IVE"SE.. 1971::1. D....: PATTEkNS :)F GkOWTrl IN STkENGTH OF ELEi'1ENTARY SCHOOL BOY S..115 JONES.E .: MEASUkE FINGER (THUMB) STkENGTH. PHYS.. G.. ("iUAkT .. U. BEKI'< EL EY.... Wr-IGHT-I-'ATTEKSIJN All' FOI-.rl. SILl:lEi-<l:lEkG .. AND GLPJES .m"l MUSCULAk FlTNE.. w.. AND HOwAkD. 1963. k. MASTEk' S TH ESI 5. ').AGE BOY S. KkOE"1Ek ... TrlEK .\JAI-'P .'.(CE BASE .. OkEGON ELE. N .'EkS . OCCUr'. I'<. KIkCHNEk . KING . J... SCHOOL CrlILDkEN.M.. i"1. rl.. I'<ELL']K . H. AkCH. K. TESTING AND FU\JCTI)N. 122 123 12"1 125 HAND-HELD DEVICE TQ J.. 1971..J. AND GIE.. !"lED .: MUSCLES... A:"1kL-TK-68-1LjLj ... PHYS. rl."1Ai'J ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. AND SHOv. 28: 16.. 119 121<:1 121 KINTIS.E. 1959..O . SAUNDEkS .H. FkOST . I97L1. 42: 2Lj~. 117 118 KENDALL .r' .: kELI ABILI TY ')F' i"1USCLE STKENGTH TESTI NG UNDEr.H . J....: MOTOk PEKFOkMANCE AND GKOWTH..: HU.\jDITIONS.JG EL EMENTAkY SCH'JOL ....: HUMA.k. 19 Lj9 • CALI FOkNI A. UJ'~I VEKSI TY 'JF WISCONSIN .... VAkYING MATUkATIONAL CO. 1965."1ENTAkY SCHOOL CHILDkEN USING THE KkAUS-WEBEk TEST OF MINIMUM MUSCULAk FITNESS..'>J STkENGTH TEkMINJLI)GY .. DOCTOkAL DI S'sEkTATI Oi'l .\JIVEK5ITY 'JF QkEGO.G .. UNl V EkSI TY 0 F CALI FIJ kNI A PkESS. H Ui"1Ai\J FACTORS.. 127 264 . KkOE:"1Ek . E.. 1970.. PrlYSIOL . TEkI TY. 1962. AND TH Ek . 1953.k ....\JT OF AN ELECTkICAL STkAIN GUAGE DYNOMOMETEK AND A CABLE TEN~QMETEk FOk OBJECTIVE MUSCLE TESTING. k.J. 25: 77 . G.':iS IN KES. Lj6: 793 .: THE CONSTkUCTION OF A BATTEkY OF TESTS DESIGNED TO MEASUkE STRENGTH . 29:526 .\J . F.: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EUGENE ..: THE DEVELOP. -(. kES.\j . 1971.. J . POWEk AND SPEED AMI)... E.

24:842. l"1AGLI SCHO. C.. J. BASES OF NOk. C .. 19 18 • MA}HIN. SPEED AND ACCELEkATIO:\l OF ELBJvl FLEXION.SPOkTS.w.H. BONE JOINT SUkG.: TESTS OF STkENGTH AS MEASUkE.IUAkT.: EDDY C. 13~ LA"1PHIEAk. 48: lil7 . 19 69.. I .D."lAYER.: BIOMECHA. \0.A. E. 1972. W.H.. ...W. MED...\I. [. I-'HYSIDL.. LU. J.. 1938... PHY::>. BkEWER.. 1963.: kELATIVE ISOMETkIC F'JkCE OF THE HIP AI3DUCTOI'. 129 Kk. 19 69 • LONG.kES. k. D.JD NELSOi\J. 1972. L. CH AI-'TEK VI I . kEbJkT TO THE GLASS CONTAINEK' .JLL.)MhJSITION IN kELATION TO l'1USCLE STkENGTr! AND kAI\lGE OF JOINT M. B. I:. _~::IL. J..: MUSCULAk STKENGTr! AI\lD EODY SIlEo HUi"1AN mOL. L. S. Pr{YS~ THEK. AND FUkLEK. P. rl.. C.: l"lEASUHEMENTS OF THE STkENGTH OF THE THUN~ MUSCLES. At-'f'kAI SI NG t-'HY 51 CAL STATUS. 4: 19..' AND CriAFFIN. .46: 67. D. _ .: INTkINSIC-E!'\TkINSIC MUSCLE CONTROL OF THE HAND IN r'Q\o.\JDE . J. 1962. 1970. Ui\lIVEhSITY OF IOwA STUDIES IN CrilLD WELFAkE .. JU\lIOk HIGH AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS.C.L . w. AND ADDUCTOk MUSCLES... LAUBACH.H. 53: 491.'. ["1ED. 5 ((): 2 7 4.. IN CriILDkEN. . ME D.: kELIAE:llLITY OF STkENGTH."1ANUFACTUkEkS I NSTI TUTE. I-'riYS.: AN ANALYSIS OF STKENGTH.. M-JD '10NTOYE.'1S FOk CABLE-TENSIOi'J STKENGTH TESTS FOR UPPER ELEMENTAkY.E.'JICAL CDi'1t'UTEkItED SIMULATI0N OF HU~AN STRENGTH IN SAGITTAL-PLANE ACTIVITIES.: THE MANUAL AND ']kAL STkENGTH OF AMEkI CAN WHITE AND NEGKr] CHILDKEI'Il. A SELECTED .B.: :vJUSCLE STkENGTH AND t"1USCLE SYMMETkY IN HU"1AN BEINGS. kEriAB. MA'r'..'1EA5UkE OF HU"1Ai\J 33: 4HJ. AND GkEEi'JBERG~ B. AIlE TkANSACTIDNS.'1Ek. AkCH.L. J.A. 9: 89. 1976. 131 132 133 134 135 c. A'. 15:611.:v]AkTIN ."1Ai'll. 48:8il5.... 39:595. OJNkAD. I-'.J.. w..w. 1942.. ..YJENTS OF PHY SI CAL STATUS."1. BJNE JOINT SUKG..JTIO.C...128:'<k'][.: 136 137 138 139 1ill!) 265 .'Ek GkIP AND PkECISIO:\l HANDLING."1BEK. SEPTE.. 1968. LAkSON.K. AkCH. 52-A:653.. MCCLOY. 1971. HES. HALL.A.. t>lUAkT. AND GAkCIA.: GRIP STkEI\lGTH 'JF COLLEGE wOMEN.L.

A. 1977. SUf<G. 196.N. 1973. . J.:-1I Crt I GAN: 1899 AND 1964. t-'HYS.: KPll:3Ek-GkA)'-STACKI-'OLE.1:i. l. SICA. MONTOYE. (. L.:HIP ABDUCTQk MUSCLE FOkCE. METH ENY. . NEUkOLOGY. MUSCLE TESTING IN CrlILDkEN: A PILOT STUDY.\1 IOwA CITY wHITE MALES kANGING IN AGE BETWEEN UIkTH AND EI GHTEEN~ YEAkS.'v1EkEDITt-i. A. HES.E. L.: THE Ki-IYTH:--l . 266 . H. E.E .5CHOOL AGE.1:i5 1.: MALES AND FEMALES. H. 1941.1<:i1 MCCOMAS. 3. (.. AND LAMt-'HIEAk.A. MICt-ii GAN.1:i6 1.>l. F.lUAkT. 18: 1-207. 149 15~ 151 MONTOYE.. GRIP AND AkM STKEt-lGTrl IN l. G. SUkGEkY. 153 MONTPETIT. 1971. kES.A. AND PSYCHIATkY" 36: 171. k. k. 1935.. MI CkQ-MEASUkEMENTS.. 19<:i~. 1965.. D. PHY s.. MACMILLAN. l>iUART.OWTrl. l"1ED. AGE 10 TO 69. J. 35: 29. MEkCHANT.: OBJECTIVE.1:i7 145 MILLEk.. kEHABI L. 4tl: 1\!l9. 1973. '\lO.: GHI t-' STRENGTH OF SCHOOL CHILDkEN.:kELIAHILITY JF FI TNESS STRENGTH TESTS. 152 ttE~..: BkEATHI NG CAPACI TY AND GkI I-' STkENGTH OF I-'kESCrl'JOL CHILDkEI\I.J. 36: 289.: THE PkESENT STATUS OF STRENGTH TESTII\lG FOk -CHILDREN OF ELEMENTAkY SCH')OL AND I"RE.'10LNAk. 38:231.. E.: MUSCLE STkENGTK I N BOY 5 ~) F 01 FFEKENT AGES. J.J •• AND FAULKNEH. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. bJNE JOINT 1. l'1ED.1:i.C. kES. 1965. \. AhCH.A. 1967. AND ALEi\ANDEk. SAGI NAw. I I .k. MOLNAR. UNI VEkSI TY !)F IOWA STUDI ES IN CHILD wELFAkE.P. k. AI\lD I'1CCLE:\lNEY.\lCE OF PARAMETEKS OF GkQ WTn.J. TECHNI CAL Ll TEkATU/'(E.~i. Ui\Il VEkSI TY OF IOWA STUDI E::i IN CriILD WELFARE. AND rETITO.'1CGkAw.l:i ..JUAi-n. 12:115. AND LEAVELL. bJUAKT. 1972.E.. A STUDY OF EIGHTEEN ANTHKI)t-")METkiC l'v1EASUKEMENTS 1. MONTAYE.iUAkT. 47: <:i62.. NEUKO- 1<:i2 1.: DETEkMINATION DF THE Qt-'TIMUM SETTING OF AN ADJUSTABLE GkIP D~NAMOMETEK.. J.E.. 54: 224.1:i3 J.lUMHITIVE AkCI1. SI GNI FI CA.C.)F PHYSICAL Gi-. 52:583. H. VOL. !:l. G.. /'(ES. rl. METHENY. AND ALEXANDEK.J •• AND LAEDING. L.: OHJECTIVE MUSCLE STkENGTH I N CHI L DkEN: USEFULN ES5 0 F 1 SOK 1 NET! C DEVI CE..)MULUS.

SNYDEK.. AND SEt'IC.H. b1UART.: TrlE 'I1EASUkEMENT OF THE STkENGTH OF MUSCLE' kELATI VE TOA CkOSS SECTION. k. AND kUBE . AND NORCUTT. SNYDER. 19 65.G. R. OWINGS" C.: COMPUTER CONTROLLED ISOMETklC STkENGTH MEASUkEMENT OF CHIlDkEt\J. FINAL t<EPOkT. AND FAHRNEY. 240 P. MURRAY. II1ED.. THEk. J.W.: FURTHE" STUDIES OF THE INSTRUMENTS AND TESTS FOR MEASURING THE STKENGTH OF MUSCLES INVOLVED IN OkTrlOPEDIC DISABILITIES.. SCHNEIDER. ANN ARBOk" MI CHI GAN" 1975. O~JlNGS.: STkENGTH CHAkACTERI STI CS OF U. AMEk.: kELATlONSrllf-'S BETWEEN SOMATOTYPE COMPONEI\JTS AND '1ATURI TY. B.. CHILD"EN FOR PRODUCT SAFETY DESIGN. 1964.A.. AND BIOL .... 36: 455. R. 1972. ANTHkOP.8. PHYS.. Sot:!. L.. k." AND NORCUTT.A. ARCH. AkCH. i-(ES.. 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 OLSON. 15Ll MOkkIS. SPRINGFIELD COLLEGE. L. .: A NEW DEVICE FOR MEASUklN'G MUSCLE STkENGTH.I. I SOMETRI C A. 16:385. kEHAB. AND HEATH. STRUCTURE. SNYDER.P. RES. R. 19 51 • 267 . CHAFFIN.. UNPUBLI SHED DOCTOkAL DI SSEkTATION..P. 52: 1. I 9 : 29 5 ' I 9 41:) • :-1UNkOE. PhOC.G. AND 810L. CLAkKE.. PHYS... J. C.. STkENGTrl. PHYS.Reproduced \rom besl avaHabl e copy. V. 56: 296.L.. 17: 198 . M. 1975. ENG.. k.. CONTkOLLED ANTHkOt-'OMETkY: A POkTABLE SY STEM FOk USE wI TH INFANTS 'AND CHILDkEN. ENG.H. ANN.: COMPUTER.. 19L19. NWUGA.L. 165 PAGE.) MED. IN MED.B.: MAXIMUM ISOMETklC TOkblUE OF HIP ABDUCTOk AND ADDUCTOk MUSCLES. 30: 23Ll. 11-.: SOMATOTYt'[ METHOD FOk YOUNG BOYS...NDCONCENTkl C CONTRACTIONS OF THE HIP ABDUCTOR MUSCLES. UNPUBLISHED MASTE!\'S THESIS . R. AND SPENCEk. AND GRIP ENUUkANCE IN PrlYSICAL t-'HYS. THER. D. PkOC. R. ET AU THE MAXIMUI"1 TOkblUE GENEkATED BY TliE ECCENTRI C.H. 3kl:195. CONI'. C..l>lUART..C.: GRIP STRENGTH THEkAPY STUDENTS.B. 1975. kl119kl3F.. CONI'. MUNROE.. NEWMAN.• . CHAFFIN . M... H. 1974.. UNI VEkSITY J I' 0 kEGON.ll9.....A': kELATIONSHIP BETwEEN STRENGTH AND SPEED 0 I' EL BO IN FL EX I ON. 19 6tl • NELSON. S. ". OwINGS.H. MED. 0. V. l"1USCULAR ENDURANCE AND MOTOk ABILITY MEASUkES OF TWELVE YEAR OLD BOY S.NO.. PrlYS. k.. 48: 1 327.C.G.B. 162 163 16Ll C. kEt-'. ANN.T .L.

.: A CQ·'1I-'UTEkItED mO. I-'HYS.. 33: 439. G.EIGHT. UNIVEkSIH OF MICHIGAN. 144 P.. DOCTORAL DISSEkTATIDN..". 26: 74. AND SCI ENCE IN SI-'OkTS. v.: AGE.. LiUIGLEY.55. W.JUIGLE'l'. 177 268 ~.: kOENTGENOGkAI-'HIC '1EASUkES OF LEG MUSCLE SIi:E AND ANKLE EXTENSOt\ STRENGTH OF SEVEN-YEAk-OLD CHILDkEN. kES. 1964. 55:975. PHYS. J. 171 172 173 174 175 L. WUAHT. M. APPL. 10:205. AND MOHNS. APPL.: THE EFFECTS OF COMPETITIVE SwIM1'1ING TkAINII\1G I)N GlkLS IN RELATION TO THE SELECTED ANTHROPOMETRIC AND STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS.A. K. 170 PRQVINS. 35: 523. kES. kES. J. t . B. 1955.''1U''1 TOk(.IUART.: EVALLJATIi)NOF THE HIP.: kELATl')NSHIPS AMONG ISOMETRIC . K. No: f-'HY"SICAL MATUf~ITY... E. AND O'CONNELL. K. 19 55..A".. AND I-'IEKAkSKI."1ECHANICAL MO DEL APPLI ED TO ANALY SI S OF SKII NG. AND THOMPSON. MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND MOTOk ~EkFOkMANCE OF YOUNG SCHOOL-AGE I:lOYS. AND 167 168 169 THER. I-'HILLIPS...J. RES.E.'!) SIDES SIMULTANEOUSLY..K.L.IOL. (. J.: EFFECT OF LIMB . PISf. GKOSS... J.\"1ETACAHPOPHALANGEAL JOINT. WUART.H. (.: BIOMECHANICSOF. PATTEkSJN. K. APPL.. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS. 7: 38 7. 3:89. WUAkT. RELATIVE-LOAD ENDURANCE. No: MAX£. 7:393. '1. K. 1956. 27: 321. I-'HYSIOL. 1973. HAf"nCK. 1965. J.k. HEIGHT. 1962.OSITION ON THE FOkCES EXERTED ABOUT THE ELBOW AND SHOULDEk JOINTS ON THE TV. 1971. L. PROVINS.A.: COMPAkISON OF TWO METHODS OF MEASURING STkENGTH OF SELECTED MUSCLE GROUPS IN CHILDKEN. AND CHAFFIN. AND OYSTER. D. IN I-'HYSICAL EDUCATION. B. 1955. 1917.19.SON. MED. 1975."1USCULAk STkENGTH.M. 176 RARICK.M.166 PAGi1wSKI.. I:HOMECK. t'HYSIJL. J. K.lUE EXERTED ABOUT THE ELBOw JI)lNT.: MAXIMUM FORCES EXEi"\TED ABOUT THE ELBOw AND SHOULDEk JOINTS ON EACH SIDE SEI-'AkATELY AND SIMULTANEOUSLY. kAkIC~.B. S. GRIP STRENGTH. AND SELECTED CAkDIOVASCULAR ELECTkOMYOGkAI-'HIC VARIABLES.A. ED. 7:387. PRQVINS. AND SALTER..

lEI T. RES. 1958. kEDD~ 179 1956. J-'ROVINS..'vJAN ANATOMY. 1954.: A."lEN I N THE MOVE.. QUAl-(T .: .~ 25: 328 ... u) 6 un 188 189 1916 SCHANNE . \o.EIGHT AND LENGTH TO SI-'EED OF MOVEMENT. 31: 334..\JTEI< EXI-'ECTAI\)CY SET AND EXJ-lERI MENTER SEX UPON GRI P STkENGTHAND HAND STEADINESS SCOkES.IIlAL STkENGTH OF ..178 RASCH . kES. S... (GERMAN) HOHMEkT. NO. UNI-'UBLI SHED DOCTORAL DISSEkTATlOI\J~ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN .. AND SENIOr< HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS. 269 _.. w.. H... 1960. AND KOLAND. k..J. RESEAkCH kEI-'. UNI VEkSI TY 0 F Or<EGO N. ... D.. (GERMAN) ROLLO. FUr< ANGEW.: THE AHM STHENGTH OF :vIAN STANDING IN VARIOUS BODY POSI nONS.' FLEXION. (WART .: RELATIDNSrlII-' OF ARM STRENGTH .F . DISSEkTATION.P. PHSIOL... I!\) I-'HYSICAL EDUCATION .: EFFECT OF J-'OSITION OF FOREAkM 'ON STRENGTH OF ELBa. THE BLAKISTON co . IB 1 RI CE .: THE EFFECT OF THE DEGREE lF ELB')w FLEXION ON THE l'1AXI'MUM TOK(. 86. R..VJAXI. \0... UNIVEkSITY OF MICHIGAN .: IVJUSCULAf< FATIGUE CUKVES OF BOYS AND GIRLS. 45:416.. LONDON . hASCH .1960.. K..JUES DEVELOPED IN PRDNATION AND SUPINATION OF THE kIGHT HAND.. ..: A THkEE-DIMENSIONAL HAI\lD FOkCE CAPAI:HLITY ...".. ~UAHT. QUART. 98 P • . 1081-' .J.. VOL. E. INTERNAT. 1616.. kES. J..\ ~ .. R. 1942..~ 31: 485 . I-'A ..: FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CABLE-TENSIO. AND DAkCUS. 1974. D. k..: A STUDY OF STATIC D'r'NOMOi"lETEH STRENGTH IN BOYS TEN TO TwELVE YEAkS OF AGE. MQkRIS' HU.T.. RES.J.. HUIIllAN SIOL . J. D.J. SAL TEf< .: PHILADEU'HIA .: STRENGTH AND BODY DIMENSIONS..G. UNPUBLlSHED l-'H.A .. I-'. FDA .. SCHAEFFER. N.'. I-'H.: EFFECTS OF EXI-'EKIME.729 1.D. f'. RIKLI . LANDES VEkLAG~ 1966. CONTKACT NO.. 27: 333 . ANAT.. AND MORTON .."lODEL FOJ-( A SEATED l-'Er<SON.. 1972. 180 J..\! STRENGTH TESTS FOR UI-'I-'Ek ELENlENTAkY~ JUNIOr< HIGH . 18: 175..\J EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY PERFOR""lANCE OF TRICYCLES AND MINIBIKES.. RICH . kOBERTS~ 182 183 lSi! D. 19 72.VJENT OF THE AkMS AND LEGS. 1952..Q. G. 19 59 • ARM 185 ROHMERT.. F.. 1965.

IC .. MED. SNYDEk...N. J-iHYSIOL .. SINGH .: DYNAI"!OMETEk FOr. SMITH .\1AN TORSO. AkCH. J-iriY S.. SILLS.'(.. APJ-iL.TH GRADE CHILDREN... NO. A. J... kEI-'. 1972. J.. 56: 261.E..6. L... AND TOEwS. J. 1970. ( 197 198 SCHOOL 199 SMITH . 1975...NTELUGENCE DIFFEHENCES BETwEEN THlkD AND SIX..K.. SINGH. l-<ES. FI VE. C. FINAL REPQkT . 1969. 20411-'.\JD SCHNEIDER..... CHAFFIN. 1968..AND EVEkETT. FINAL REI-'.. 1961.G . MICHIGA.S.NAS KELATED TO DEATH AND INJURY FOr< CO':'JSUI'1Ek I-'r<ODUCT DESI GN AND USE... AND SIX. ACAD. kES.. 53: 049 1.191 SCHMIDT. PERJ-iETUAL-MOTOk.E . biUART . D.V. 273 J-i . SINGEk. P. UM-HSkI-BI-75-5 . AND I. K. 200 201 2~2 270 .. ARCH..A. SCI .G. kEJ-i. ANN AkElQk . "1 . G. t'HY::I.. 1969... VOL.N t-HYSICAL TRAITS AND ABILITIES TO MOTOk LEARNING IN ELEMENTAKY CHILDkEN..N. kES.. 110:809 .. AND BUCK . UNPUBLI SHED DOCTOkAL DISSERTATION.. 40:tl~3.T.L . SMITH .: LINK SYSTE:"1 OF THE HU.M.... AND k:JYCE .: RELATIONSHH' OF EX TkD1E SOMATCJTY PES TO PEkFOl-<MANCE IN MOTOk AND STKENGTH TEST.: PHY SI CAL CHARACTEkl STI CS OF eril L m<E..': MUSCULAk .: RELATION OF CEkTAI.L .: SPECIFICITY OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES OF RELATIONSHIP BETwEEN FOREARM STkENGTHS AND SPEED OF FOkEAkM FLEXIO.. 51. L. biUAkT . REHAB.STkENGTH . F. MI CHI GMIi .V. P.: LEG-LI FT STl-<ENGTH TEST loll TH ELECTI<OGONIOMETkiC ANALYSIS 'JF KNEE ANGLE.. 25:177 .)RT .. ISOTONIC AND ISOMETz-. J. AkCri. R. AND SCHUTl . 193 1904 195 196 l"1ED.: J-iHYSICAL CHAKACTEkISTICS. T..: GRIP STRENGTH AS . w. 1956. AND KARJ-iQVITCH .. L. SNYDER ... M..STKENGTH IN RELATION TO BODY Ci)\"1J-iOSI TION.. J-iHYS.. 27:22k:l. RES. ANN Al<BOk . REHAB .. SI-'ENCE)·<. T.. NO. UNIVEkSITY OF OREGON.61UAkT.. 1963. AMkL-Tk-71Bfj .\) ..: STRENGTH OF FOREARM FLEXORS AND EXTENSORS IN MEN AND wOME\J.. 040: 191 . 1972..: CONSTkUCTIOIN OF A l'1USCULAR STkENGTH TEST FOr< 80Y S I i'J GRADE FOUR. QUAkT. k. 1975. ANI'J.w."!'J.. R. MED.."!ETEr<."1EASUkEMENT. NO.B .. IHHNGS.... N. "1."!EASUi<ED BY THE JAMAr< DYNO.. 204:223...D. 192 SCHOJ-iF. 1953. SINGH . "1 . R.

SUR G. 1'>11 CHI GAN.: '>1USCLE FW. AMRL TECHNICALkEf'JRT .. . CALIF.: MOSBY . BONE JOINT. k. AND LANDS.G . D. SYSTD-l 2104 205 SNYDER. SNYDER. TOMBERLIN . C.. UNPUBLI SHED DOCTOkAL DISSEkTATION . OloJPIlGS. H... REYNOLDS. A:'JD SCrlQkK. w.B.M... kEP. 628 t-'. MAY.. THO. U..: 1\10SBY. HISLOP.L. W. 1934. CH. 1960.':vJ.F .. J. AND BAUi"1 .... CHILDkEN.ELL SCIENTIFIC r'UBL!CATIONS..'1-HSkI-77-17...: GROwTH AT ADOLESCENCE. H. 1973. ·T. B I I) ME CH • .2"13 SNYDER . 19 68 • THOMPSON ..A. 48: 279 . ''1ANUAL OF STi":'UCTUkAL 214 TOf"lARAS . 1: 1 0 7 . AMf<L-Tk-71-88. PEDIATk. TANNER.: BASIC BIO:-lECHANI CAL PkOr-EkTI ES OF THE HUI'>1AN NECK kELATED TO LATEkAL HYPEkFLEXION. GkOUPS. FINAL kEI"ORT . H~J. :"1.k ..w. GOLOMB.: kELATI')NSi-{lp OF AI"JTHkOPOMETkIC AND STkENGTH MEASURES OF JUNIOk HIGH SCHOOL BOYS TO VARIOUS AhM STkENGTH Ckl.... REP...G . k... LONG .. 1972.. SCrll\JEIDEk~ L.. J. 1977.F.B.. · C.... MANUAL OF STkUCTURAL KII\1ESIOLOG . BLACKv. 4 4 -B: 8 9 9 . PALO ALTO. £T AL: I SDKI NETI C CONTkACTIOt-J: NE\o. 19 62.w.e . 206 207 2kJ8 STUART.. FOOD AND DkUG ADMINISTkATION ..:LINK OF THE HUMA~ TOkSO.B .. 1971. L.\!. GUAkT..G.... D.SCHOOL CHI L DkEi'll...: STANDARDS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT FOR REFERENCE IN CLINICAL At-'I"RAISEMENT...D . rl. NO. RES. 32:238 . CHAFFIN . STACK. t. THOMPSON .G..... R. AND BROW. AND MJNTOYE... J.. ANN ARBOR.: A. C. U. '-' _ . MOFFkOID.. I-( EH A BI L .G..K.: DEVELOPMENT OF INSTI-(U:>1ENTATION FOk MEASUREMENT OF THE I"USH AND PULL STRENGTHS OF I-'RE. KINESIOLOGY.I"1 .. S. NO.... ANDSCrlUTt.'1AS ... 1961.\JTHROt-'OMETkY OF II\JFANTS....: BIOMECHMHCAL CJNSIDEkATIONS OF LU. PkELHlI NAkY REPDkT TO TH E BUREAU OF PRODUCT SAFETY..>HIP BETWEEN GkIP STRENGTH AND ACHI EVEMENT IN PHY SI CAL EDUCATION AMut-JG 'COLLEGE MEN. 209 210 211 212 213 AND KkAN.: ISOMETkIC FOkCE OF HIP f~OTATOt~ MUSCLE UNPUBLISHED MASTEk'S THESIS. 1969. l"1ICHIGAN. 19 6 7 • TINKLE..I<. J.... i"l .. C . H.H ."1-HSkI-HI-75-~ 3"17 t-' . ABDELNQUk . H~M . D. 5: 194....C. 1962..CI SEe A to.G.TEkIA. . ~CrlNEIDER L. W.' CONCEPT OF RESI STI VE EX Eto. 1959.. AN'\! AkBOk .VJEER. MED.. 1975. PH Y S. AND YOUTHS TO AGE 18 FOR PRODUCT SAFETY DESIGN. THISTLE. R. 215 216 TONER. H. B..A. FINAL kEI"'JRT. B')wMAN .J ... J. FOUST . STANFI)kD UI\1IVEkSITY. CHAFFIN. J. UNIVERSITY OF OkEGON ..w .A .C."1BRI CALI S BEHAVIOR IN THE HU'-'lAN FINGER.W...JCTION IN THE FINGERS.: RELATIOI'J. J.. O.. _- 271 .

: kELATIONSHIP BETWE. k..: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WHIPLASH AND CEkVI CAL KI NEMATI C MEASUREMENT.. ~ UNI VEkSI TY OF MICHIGAN~ ANN ArmOk~ MICHIGAN~ 1973. A.W.: 225 WASSERMAN~ D. AND FLATT. AND SALt:ANO~ J. 19 59 • USAI''1RL: THE EFFECT OF FOOT-kEST 1-'051 TION ON THE STRENGTH OF HORItONTAL PULL BY THE HAND.: .D...K. ANDCHAPMAN~ A.C. J. P SY CHOLO G.R...V. 164· P. VAN ECK. kEf-'OkT NO.~ 31:90~1951:J. UNPUBL I SH ED MASTER'S TH E5I S. ACTA.' QUART. GERMANN~ T.G.V."'l.. FOUST~ D.DEk. J. OF MAXIMUM GI<II-' STRENGTH TO GRIJ-' STI-olENGTH ENDURANCE. J. 26:96~ 1955. F. RES.J. NIO SH (ABSTRACT). 24: 239 ~ 1963. hELATION 220 USAMRL: THE EFFECT OF THE SPATI AL POSI nON OF A.E. JANNEY~ C. APt-'L. AMEk. 272 .E. AND NELSQN~ R.Ok AND EXTENSOR MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK. AND LEE~ G.. P. RES.G.: GROWTH i)F GkIl-' STkENGTH OF cHEJIANG CHILDkEN.: A t'ILOT STUDY OF 198 NORMAL CHILDREN . 218 kELATION 219 TUTTLE~ \o. WANG~ 221 222 223 224 I-'. CONTROL ON THE STRENGTH OF SIX LINEAR HAND MOVEMENTS. J. 51 NI CA.: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP VARIOUS STRENGTH AND ANTHkQlJOMETkI C l'1EASUkES RELATED TO SELECTED TRUNK AND LEG STkENGTHS TEki A.B. J.Y.w. PHY SI OLe ~ 2: 663~ 1950.~ BAU. 226 WEISS~ 227 WESSEL.v. J. WAKIM. VERSI TY OF OkEGON..~ 2: 49~ 1969. ARCH.A. OCCUI-'. TUTTLE~ w.PINCH STRENGTH AND HAND SItE IN THE GROWING HAND.: OF MAXIMUM BACK AND LEG STkENGTH ENDURANCE. PHYS. AND SNY..EN GRIP STRENGTH AND ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AMONG OJLLEGE WOMEN.E..: THE STHENGTH OF THE FLEl\.. K.. 25: 10~ 1971. kEJ-'QRT NO • 41 1.D.~ AND THOMlJSON~ C. WHITE~ 228 OF AS CRI UNI D. THER..217 TROUP..~ 32:244~ 1961.w. CI NCI NNATI ~ OHI O~ MAY ~ 1974..~ JANNEY~ C.1955. AND PIl::Z:O~ AN INSTkUMENT FOR TESTING ISOMETRIC STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE. GOULDING~ D.E.C. BIOMECH. . CHAFFIN~D. QUART.. ET AL: OBJECT1VE kECOkDING OF MUSCLE STKENGTH..D. M. MED. 423~ 1960.

IUAkTEkLY (kES. UUART •• 34: 379. L.J •• CHILDkEN. ~' . D.JF J)lNT '''1 I JTION.: VEL a C I TV C Uk VE S AND STATlC-ACTlCJ'l 5Tf'. r'HYSICAL EDUCATION. JUNIOk HI GH. J.: MEASUkP1ENT ()F STRENGTH ~F ADDUCTION 0F THE AkM I~ VAkiOUS POSITIONS. 1'} 59 • WILLlAi'1S. l-'HYS. AND SENIOk KI GH SCH')QL GIRLS. 1::. i\KlTE: FOR USE IN THIS BIBLlOGkAl-Wr'. 233 C. ASSOC •• . * 273 T. J. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATl0N F')i-\ HEALTH.T AU MUSCU~: ~'iJkCE CUi~VE5 OF SCHOOL AMEk. 1965..'H I TL EY. 1'1 •• At\lO STUTtMAN.)'. UNI VE"SI TY IJF)i.: BASES 'JF NQKMS Fur< CAE:lLE-TENSI'JN STRENGTH TESTS' FIJI.D. IN l-'HY 51 CAL EDUCATION. M.E . t'HYS. .£15:539."1S. (.. 1963.ENt:'Trl COI~kI::LATIO"\jS IN kELATlON TO THE MASS MOVED BY THE AkM. 1965. \dLL:. A'\j 0 ~. I-'HYS.EGON. AND kECkEATI'lN IS I-IEFEkkED TO AS RESEARCH l:.JUA"T.229 1i. THER. 196.lj. AND SMITH.lj5:326. MED •• . RES.UIJI-'Ek ELEMENTAl. L.).. J. 1"1.IA. M~CH.. \oiOkDEN~ 230 231 232 E.E. 3'): l 45. WHITLEY."1I TM. k F: V. TrlEk. ED.: STkENGTH VA~IATION THi~DUGH THE kANC. L.