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Ophthalmic Preparation sterile solutions that are compounded and packaged for instillation into the eye. b. Isosmotic Having the same total osmotic pressure or osmolality as another fluid (ordinarily intracellular fluid); such a fluid is not isotonic if it includes solutes that freely permeate cell membranes. c. Isotonic a solution that has the same salt concentration as the normal cells of the body and the blood. d. Hypotonic a solution with a lower salt concentration than in normal cells of the body and blood. e. Hypertonic a solution with a higher salt concentration than in normal cells of the body and the blood. f. Crenation shrinking of a cell due to immersion in a hypertonic solution. g. Hemolysis bursting of a cell due to immersion in a hypotonic solution. 2. List the 5 factors which must be considered in preparing an ophthalmic preparation. Antimicrobial Preservatives, Isotonicity, Buffering, Viscosity, Packaging. 3. List the 3 key conditions necessary for steam sterilization. Temperature (121 C), Pressure (15 psig), Time (15-20 minutes). 4. List 6 preservatives and their usual concentration which are suitable for inclusion in an ophthalmic preparation. Benzalkonium Chloride (0.012%), Benzethonium Chloride (0.01%), Chlorobutanol (0.5%), Phenyl Mercuric Acetate (0.004%), Phenyl Mercuric Nitrate (0.004%), Thiomersal (0.01%) 5. Perform calculation to determine the: a. Freezing point of a solution of non-electrolyte 1.86 MW 0.52 X GM. b. Freezing point of a solution of an electrolyte c. Isotonic solution concentration of either an electrolyte or non-electrolyte given its freezing point depression (0.52)(MW) X Gm. Solute (1.86)(i) 1000 Gm Solution d. Sodium Chloride Equivalent for either an electrolyte or non-electrolyte E = MW (NaCl) x CX _ C(NaCl) MWx e. Dissociation constant for an electrolyte f. Quantity of a substance which should be added to an ophthalmic prescription in order to make it isotonic 1. Convert all conc. to weight.
List 4 agents which are frequently used as thickening agents for ophthalmic preparations. 1 = (p1)(t1) 2 (p2)(t2) = unknown viscosity 2 = viscosity of the standard 1 = density of the unknown liquid 2 = density of the standard t1 = flow time of the unknown t2 = flow time of the standard 1 9. 3. and control therapeutic activity of the drug 7. 4.1) VT = Total volume of water required to prepare an isotonic solution W = weight of substance E = Sodium Chloride Equivalent for the substance 6. Convert Sodium Chloride required to any other tonicity adjusting agent used (divide #5 (gm) by the substances Sodium Chloride equivalent). 6. List the 5 types of products designated as a parenteral. Identify the Ostwald Equation and each of the symbols used within the equation. Multiply quantity of each ingredient by its Sodium Chloride equivalent. Methyl cellulose 25 cps (1%).)(111. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (variable with product).2. Give the elementary equation for kinematic viscosity. List 3 reasons for buffering an ophthalmic solution. Calculate the viscosity of an unknown solution given the finite parameters for the Ostwald Equation. biological products 2 . Methyl cellulose 400 cps (0.9%) 5. Small volume. Polyvinyl alcohol (variable with product). Kinematic Viscosity = Dynamic Viscosity Density 8. ensure drug stability. dialysis solutions. Determine the quantity of Sodium Chloride alone needed to prepare isotonic solution (0. Subtract 3 from 4. Volume of purified water needed to prepare an isotonic solution utilizing the WhiteVincent Method VT(H2O) = (Weight)(NaCl Eq. g. Reduce patient discomfort. Sum the quantity of Sodium Chloride equivalent contributed by all. Parenteral Products 1. 10.25%). large volume. irrigating solutions.
nerve damage resulting in paralysis. sloughing of tissue. d. Intradermal administered by injecting directly into or in-between layers of the skin. immunization 7. antitoxins) h. Pyrogen free glass container. b. List 3 possible problems caused by the SQ injection of irritating thick drug suspensions. unconscious patients. Differentiate between the following solvents and vehicles used for injection: a. List 3 reasons for using the ID route of injection. abscesses. (vaccines. Emergency situations. Parenteral injectable route of administration. Subcutaneous administered by injecting directly into the layer under the skin. Biological pharmaceutical products administered by injection for the diagnosis. stored in sterile. may not contain antimicrobial agents. cysts. Water for injection Pyrogen free. emboli 6. buttocks 8. intended for use as a solvent. Hematoma. Pyrogen fever producing organic substances. thigh. or diluent for sterile prepackaged drugs. skin sloughing. Sterile water for injection water for injection that has been sterilized. Ampul uni-bodied glass containers which are sealed by fusion under aseptic conditions after filling and once opened cannot be resealed. c. must be Pyrogen free. used in the preparation of injectable or other products which will be sterilized after preparation. patient unable to accept or tolerate medication via the oral route. Intravenous administered by injecting directly into a vein. b. List 7 possible patient injuries which may be caused by an IM injection. Diagnostic tests. e. packaged in single dose containers >1000ml. forearm. uncooperative patients. desensitization injections. Tissues of the arm. deltoid muscle. must be used within 24 hours following production and collections. 3 . 3. drug is ineffective or unabsorbable by any other route 4. or neoplastic infiltration). vehicle. c. f. abscess formation (all produce pain at site) 9. Define: a. label and state the names of antimicrobials used. scar formation. Induration (hardening of an area of the body as a reaction to inflammation. packaged in container >30 ml. treatment or prevention of disease. mid-lateral muscle of the thigh 5. Bacteriostatic water for injection sterile water for injection containing 1 or more antimicrobial agents. List the 5 reasons why the parenteral route of drug administration is used. Gluteus maximus. which are responsible for patient febrile reactions following intravenous injections. Intramuscular administered by injecting directly within a muscle g. hyperemia. used as a sterile vehicle for small volume injections. List the 3 sites which are used for IM injections. List 4 common sites used for SQ injections. from microbial biochemistry.2.
blood derivatives. NaCl (600mg). List the 6 physical characteristics which may permit non-aqueous vehicle use in a parenteral product. non-irritating. 10. List the 3 categories of non-aqueous vehicles and 2 examples of each category. This is usually delivered by injection. used as sterile vehicle for preparing parentally admin drugs. List the 7 types of products included under the definition of biological. b. sterilization by filtration. immune serums 15.9%) in water for injection containing 1 or more antimicrobials. Fixed vegetable oils sesame or peanut ii. usually a few weeks or months. Steam. List the 5 general methods which are used for the sterilization of pharmaceutical products. e. Vaccines. low vapor pressure to avoid problems arising during heat sterilization. f. Active Immunity the production of antibodies against a specific agent by the immune system. d. Immunity resistance of an organism to infection. miscibility with body fluids. antitoxins. Non-toxic. diagnostic aids. dry heat. Water immiscible ethyl Oleate. packaged in >30 ml. c. Ringers Injection sterile solution of NaCl (860mg). Vaccine microbial preparation of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate an immune response in the body to prevent future infection with similar microorganisms. Define the following terms: a. toxoids. disease. or other unwanted invasion. Water miscible alcohol or glycerin iii.is a sterile. Acquired Immunity immunity acquired by infection or vaccination or by the transfer of the antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor. non-therapeutic itself 11. It is usually permanent so you are protected the rest of your life. Can be acquired by either contracting an infectious disease or by receiving a vaccination. It is administered by intravenous infusion. and sodium lactate. sodium lactate anhydrous (310mg). List 4 characteristics of a non-aqueous vehicle which may be chosen as a parenteral vehicle. This diminishes in a relatively short time. sufficiently high boiling point to permit heat sterilization. i. Reasonable viscosity to allow for the ease of injection. ease of purification and standardization in order to obtain a constant purity 12. CaCl2 (33mg). Natural/Native Immunity immunity that is naturally present and not due to prior sensitization to an antigen. Isopropyl Myristate 13. non-sensitizing. used as a fluid and electrolyte replenisher and system alkalinizier. g. fluidity over a wide temperature range. Lactated Ringers Injection . toxins. Passive Immunity immunity produced by the transfer to one person of antibodies that were produced by another person. KCl (30mg). 4 . nonpyrogenic solution containing isotonic concentrations of electrolytes in water for injection. KCl (30mg). and CaCl2 dihydrate (20mg). sterilization by ionizing radiation 14. e.d. gas. Bacteriostatic Sodium Chloride for injection a sterile isotonic solution of NaCl (0. Sodium Chloride injection sterile isotonic solution of NaCl in water for injection. contains no antimicrobials. f.
Toxin one of a number of poisons produced by certain plants. The intestines lie in the abdominal cavity. Special treatment of the serum removes various undesirable proteins and infectious viruses.a bacterial toxin whose toxicity has been weakened or suppressed either by a chemical or heat treatment without eliminating its capacity to stimulate the production of antitoxins by the immune system. Colloids do not crystallize. Toxoid . Antiserum human or animal serum containing antibodies that are specific for one or more antigens. 16. Peptization. Define the following terms: a. Provide dialogue as to the contributions of the following scientists to the field of surface chemistry and colloid technology: a. Distinguish between crystalloids and colloids by using both definition and example. Thomas Graham distinguished between crystalloids and colloids. Colloidal and Surface-Chemistry Aspects of Dosage Forms 1. and bacteria. b. A special fluid is then flushed into the abdominal cavity and washes around the intestines. This technique uses the patient's own body tissues inside of the belly (abdominal cavity) to act as a filter. they diffuse very slowly in water but do not pass through a dialysis membrane (gelatin. Irrigation solution solutions which are intended to bathe or wash wounds. Antitoxin an antibody capable of destroying microorganisms including viruses and bacteria. however. k. or body tissues. By using different types of solutions. A plastic tube called a "dialysis catheter" is placed through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity. tannins. Peritoneal Dialysis the removal of biologically toxic substances normally excreted by the kidney via the peritoneal cavity. animals. and saw colloids by the Tindall Effect. 5 . coined the words Sol. Describe the 5 common types of colloidally dispensed particles which exist in nature. Human Immune Serums and Globulins . 3. Prussian blue). i. a sheet or plate-like particle. h. It provides passive immunity. a thread or rod-like particle or filament. Dialysis a process of substance separation using the method of diffusibility through membranes. Gel. thus providing a safe product for intramuscular injection. Crystalloids are substances with high rates of diffusion in water and are readily dialyzed through membranes (salts and sucrose).Human immune serum globulin (HISG) is prepared from human serum. j. Hemodialysis the process of removing toxins from the blood and restoring normal constituents of it. The intestinal walls act as a filter between this fluid and the blood stream. a biological membrane 2. filtering blood through a semi-permeable membrane to remove waste. surgical incisions. d. gums. c.g. and Syneresis. A three-dimensional solid particle or liquid droplet. starch. waste products and excess water can be removed from the body through this process.
Stoke . 4. Willard Gibb derived an equation to deal with molecules which accumulated in the surface layer and lowered the surface tension. mixing. c. This became known as Stokes' law. torsion (twisting). d. Solids have constant volume & permanent shape. Wolfgang Ostwald published the 1st edition of the Kolloid-Zeitschrift. d. stressing of muscles and deformation of boney structure. filling containers. squeezing a paste from a tube. concentration and temperature. 6. compression. during the process of dissolution and precipitation all systems pass through the colloidal size range. List 2 or more examples of rheology s importance in the following areas: a. h. and are capable of supporting a load b.b. Liquids have variable shape & constant volume at constant temperature at all but very high pressure but support no load. Describe the load or stress in appropriate dimensional form and in unit form. Cannon and Fenske f. J. and colloidal dispersions which occupy an intermediate position. Tension. Gases have neither constant volume nor permanent shape. Identify Hooke s Law and the symbols used in this expression. b. extruding. * cm. compressing and compacting. Langmuir developed an equation to characterize the complete adsorption isotherm. Loads have the dimensions of force per unit area and the units: Dynes = Gm. 6 . g. Freudlich established an equation that relates the concentration of a solute on the surface of an adsorbent to the concentration of the solute in the liquid with which it is in contact. __ 2 2 2 Cm sec * cm cm * sec2 7. c. Physiology blood flow (blood can t be too thick or thin). deformability of rubber stoppers and tubing. bending. Von Weimarn demonstrated that there are no intrinsically colloidal substances. Ubbelohde e. i. spreading of an ointment on the skin. shearing (karate chop) 8. Most substances can be prepared in colloidal state. List the 5 different types of deformation or strain produced by stress. pouring from the bottle. wrote a booklet entitled The World of the Neglected Dimension which pointed out the difference between solutions of small molecules and ions (molecularly disperse systems). j. 5. c. Packaging Materials strength and toughness of bottles and wrapping films. Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic products flow through a hypodermic needle. He presented the Van t Hoff equation to establish this relationship for very dilute solution.His work on fluid motion and viscosity led to his calculating the terminal velocity for a sphere falling in a viscous medium. devoted entire career to colloids. = Gm. coarse dispersions which readily settle. Evaluate the characteristics of the following systems: a. Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Operations stirring. Van t Hoff recognized the relationship between osomotic pressure.
Stress an applied force or system of forces that tends to strain or deform a solid b. Bob = inner cylinder Cup = outer cylinder closed at the bottom 7 . Define the terms: a. The flow of a liquid through a capillary tube and the flow of a liquid between two concentric cylinders 12. Elasticity a characteristic property of solids representing their stiffness or hardness. d._ cm*sec 11. Identify Poiseuille s Law and the symbols used in this equation. List the 2 mechanisms upon which devices operate to measure viscosity. the ability of a solid to return to its original shape after being subjected to strain. Evaluate the various bob and cup viscosimeters as to their efficiency. the symbols used in the equation. 10. Strain deformation due to stress (elongation ect. Identify the equation which represents viscosity. Toughness the energy required per unit volume of material to cause ruptures and is represented by the area between the stress-strain curve and the strain axis.) c.= L/L where is the strain or elongation where E is the Hooke s Law Constant and T is the tensile stress Hooke s Law is T = E * Or F/A = E * ( L/L) 9. = ( R4 P/8L)*(t/V) R = radius of the capillary L = length of the capillary P= pressure difference V/t = rate of flow (cm2/sec) If P = hdG = (liquid column height)(density)(gravity) then: = ( R4havG/8LV)(td) = Ktd And if K is known then the viscosity can be determined Using this equation and comparison to a standard will yield: = (p1)(t1) 1 (p2)(t2) 2 1 = unknown viscosity 2= viscosity of the standard P1 = density of the unknown liquid P2= density of the standard T1 = flow time of the unknown T2= flow time of the standard 13. Viscosity s ( ) unit is poise and is represented by the following: = = T/ (F/A) 1/t = T = shear stress dyne/cm 1/sec = = rate of shear Gm*cm*sec sec2*cm* = Gm. and the units in which viscosity is expressed.
Viscosity the reciprocal slope of the consistency curve.The change in velocity of parallel planes in a flowing fluid separated by unit distance. Diffusion Net transport of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration by random molecular motion. cannot recover its shape g. Haake Viscosimeter and Drage Viscosimeter rate of shear is fixed at a selected value and stress is measured by a torsion spring on the bob shaft Merrill-Brookfield measures stress by a strain gauge on the cup. a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress of extensional stress. its units expressed in seconds-1. measured by the slope of the consistency curve. Hercules Hi-Shear Viscosimeter measures stress by a spring on the cup MacMichael Viscosimeter cup is rotated at one of several fixed speeds and the stress on the bob is measured by the angle of twist on the torsion wire suspending the bob. the physical property of a substance that enables it to flow.). (It differs from "elasticity". they regain their original shape and the strain returns to zero. Identify the equation used by rotational instruments to measure viscosity and the symbols used in this expression.generally means ability to permanently change or deform. List the 2 factors upon which viscosity depends (in Newtonian Liquids?). T = ((4 RcRb)/(Rc Rb))*(h W) T = torque in (dyne-cm) h = bob height Rc = radius of the cup Rb = radius of the bob W = rate of rotation (radius/sec) 15. In general it is the resistance to flow b. Define the terms: a. For example. 17. Elasticity property of solids. c. Shear Stress a form of stress that subjects an object to which force is applied to skew. shear stress on a block of wood would arise by fixing one end and applying force to this other. The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material. Evaluate the effect of temperature on viscosity using equations and dialogue. Fluidity the reciprocal of viscosity. they deform under stress but once the stress is removed.Stormer Viscosimeter measures the rate of shear as a function of the speed of rotation of the bob.303T E = apparent activation energy for viscous flow 8 . The viscosity of liquids decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. tending to cause shear strain. this would tend to change the block's shape from a rectangle to a parallelogram. Rate of Shear . Composition of the liquid and temperature 16. which refers to ability to change temporarily and revert back to original form. e. Plasticity . 14. = Ae E/RT or Log = Log A + ( E)R/2. f. (tangential forces) d.
creams. gels. List the 6 assumptions made for the validity of the Einstein Equation. List the 4 processes which a molecule may flow through a barrier. butter. Identify Einstein s Viscosity Equation and the symbols used in this expression. c. The flow curves are obtained by plotting Rate of Shear versus shear stress (torque) scale divisions or angular deflection. solutions of fine solids in water. salvation of the dissolved polymers. Electroviscous Effect 22. movement through pores or channels between the cells.R = gas constant T = absolute temperature A = constant 18. Polymer chains elongate and offer less resistance to flow. dissolution of the molecule into the bulk membrane. List 4 systems which are capable of providing viscosity. Draw and describe the consistency curve for the following types of viscosity systems: a. Newtonian liquids whose viscosity depends only on the composition of the liquid and temperature. Concentration. Derive Stoke s Law from the expression: Driving Force = Opposing Force. dough. Solutions of polymers. and chain length 20. as intermolecular entanglements decrease the amount of work required to break the remaining entanglements is also reduced. salves. List 8 or more substances which demonstrate yield stresses. Pseudoplastic at extremely low shear rates the systems exhibit Newtonian flow behavior. Pastes. the amount of water trapped within the coils decrease and lowers flow. 21. Plastic d. modeling clay. ointments. List the 3 factors which can determine the viscosity of a polymer solution. and solutions of fine solids in non-polar solvents 19. 24. at extremely big rates of shear the particulate aggregates cannot break up any further and hence cannot decrease the viscosity any further. 25. b. (4/3) R3(dp-d1)g = 6 RV 2 V = terminal velocisty = 2R (dp-d1)g 9 26. Simple molecular permeation. Dilatants f. mayonnaise 23. margarine. Describe the parameters which can reduce the viscosity of a polymer solution. passage through solvent pores of the membrane 9 . at intermediate rates of shear the viscosity is constantly changing as the aggregates are breaking up under higher rates of shear. putties. Thixotropic e. gums.
_ _= (RT/V) + B*C C C = Concentration in Gm. fluoresce. Adsorption the accumulation of a substance at a surface or interface (membrane.¨ L and = (2. Define the following terms: a. or Scattered 31. List the 4 effects which can occur when light passes through a medium. or are colored 33. List the 3 negative attributes of a material which prohibits its use with light scattering techniques. Refracted. Identify the equation which defines turbidity as well as the symbols used in this equation. blood) c. where A2 is the second real coefficient which expresses deviation from real behavior 30./cm of solute B = TRA2. Solubility of the drug in the membrane. Absorbed. Identify the van t Hoff Equation and the symbols used in this expression. Transmitted. Identify the Freudlich Equation and the symbols used in this expression. and size and shape of the pores and channels 28. sponge-like (tissues. organs. enzyme.27.303/L)*(Log I/I0) I0 = Intensity of incident light I = Intensity of transmitted light L = length of the optical path of the cell = Turbidity 32. List the 3 factors upon which the diffusional process is dependent. cell wall) b. Absorption the accumulation and distribution of a substance throughout a phase. List the 2 disadvantages when using the Freundlich Equation. I/I0 = e. size and shape of the molecules. (x/m) = Kcm and Log (x/m) = Log K + (1/n)Logc (sorbate/adsorbant) 35. Identify the Modified van t Hoff Equation and the symbols used in this expression. Adsorbent the solid d. Absorb or reflect light. 10 . V = nRT = Osmotic Pressure V = Volume of Soltuion n = number of molecules of solute R = Gas constant T = Absolute Temperature 29. Adsorbate the substance being adsorbed 34.
37. SA = SL + LA cos SA = solid/air interfacial tension SL = solid/liquid interfacial tension LA = liquid/air interfacial tension = contact angle 42. 40. 36. This yields an intercept of (1/(x/m)mono b) and has a slope of (1/(x/m)mono). Identify the Gibbs Adsorption Equation and the symbols used in this expression. (x/m) = (x/m)mono b*c 1 + bc B = a constant related to the heat of adsorption (x/m)/(x/mmono) = the degree of coverage of the adsorbent by the sorbate C = the concentration of drug 38. The plot of Log(x/m) versus Log (c) gives us the Log-Log relationship which is linear and easily handled. Identify the Langmuir Equation and the symbols used in this expression. Cos = 1 + b( c LA) B = a constant c= the critical surface tension 43. It is plotted as the dependent variable y = c/(x/m) and the indepenedent variable x = c. the symbols used in this expression and the units of surface tension. Draw and label the axis of a theoretical Langmuir Isotherm and describe the limitations of this plot. 11 . Identify the Young-Dupre Equation and the symbols used in this expression. Surface free = = (W/ A) or W = ( )*( A) W = work required to increase surface area per cm3 A = the increase in surface area observed 41. Draw and label the axis of a theoretical Freundlich Isotherm and describe the limitation of this plot. (c)_ = 1 = c___ (x/m) (x/m)mono b (x/m)mono 39.303RT)*(d /dLogC) 44. = (C/RT)*(d /dC) = (1/2.The dimensional value of K depends upon the value of (x). Identify the equation which describes surface free energy. Draw and label the axis of a theoretical Gibbs Isotherm and describe the 3 types of curves . Identify the Critical Surface Tension Equation and the symbols used in this expression. Identify the linear form of the Langmuir Equation. and the equation does not account for the possibility of (x/m) increasing indefinitely with (c).
Evaluate the electric charge effect. List the 4 methods which can be used to prepare a lyophobic colloidal system. Occurs in two steps: Nucleation (seeding of the solution) and particle growth Conditions necessary to produce the colloid: concentrated solution with high supersaturation where small particles form due to the large number which forms. theses dispersions have low relative viscosities even at high concentrations (because of low salvation of the particles. these systems produce high light scattering and strong Tyndall beams. and high repulsion). the total attractive forces between colloidal particles is the sum of the energies of attraction of each atom or ion. and viscosity of the medium 51. once prepared they must be stabilized by special additives. thickness of the double layer. as it is used to stabilize a colloidal system. List the 3 factors upon which the velocity of migration of a colloidal particle in an electric filed depends. These systems are solvent-hating dispersions which are intrinsically unstable. and dilute systems with low supersaturation where large particles form due to few nuclei and low concentrations 48. Ultrasonics. Evaluate the properties of a Lyophobic Colloidal System which characterize these systems. Condensation and Precipitaion 47. 50. Evaluate the process of particle attraction as it is used to stabilize a colloidal system. low attraction between particles. with the aid of appropriate graphs. Electric arcs inside the liquid. Particle attract due to Van der Waal forces operating over short distances. Identify the Smoluchowski Equation and the symbols used in this expression. = (4 / ) * (L/E) * v = 13 v * (L/E) = viscosity = dielectric constant of the dispersion medium E = voltage L = distance between electrodes (in cm) V = velocity of migration (microns/sec) 13 = constant for water at 25 C when is in millivolts 12 . Density of the surface charge (surface potential).45. suspended particles may stick together when their interparticle distance comes within close range and causes them to coagulate into coarse flocs or grains 49. energy falls off only at the 2nd or 3rd power of interparticle distance. and at high concentration Lyophobic systems become pastes. 46. Describe the process of condensation and precipitation as well as the conditions necessary to produce the colloid. Comminution on Dispersion Mills.
List the 4 mechanisms which can impel particles toward each other. and trivalent counterions should be in the ratio: (1/16) = 1 = 100.0013717 = . c.562.13737 56. Define the terms: a. or functional groups to become excessively wetted. Describes the dependence of the minimum salt concentration for coagulation on the valence of the counter ion. 58. c. stirring. f. Define the following terms: a. swollen or dissolved by solvents. d.52. Brownian motion. Posess high degrees of elasticity and can undergo considerable reversitble deformation. List the 2 properties necessary for gel formation. convection currents. Zero Point of Charge same as Isoelectric point. 53. b. b. e. Lipoplilicity the affinity for solvents of low polarity marterials. and gravitation force 54. Explain the Schultz-Hardy Rule as it applies to dispersion coagulation. 55. Zeta Potential the electrical potential measured at the place of shear (the boundary between the bound and free water) surrounding the particle. di-. Jelly . Lyophilicity the tendency of particles. As the distance (d) decreases between particles then: ds the secondary energy become minimum and can account for deflocculation or peptization possibilities if the value is small and flocculation or aggregation if the value is large. The minimum coagulation concentration for a homologous series of surfactants decreases on ascending the series and parallels the increases in surface activity and Van der Waals attractive forces.01562 = 1. dp the primary energy minimum which corresponds to a very strong attraction between particles and accounts for the process of coagulation. (1/26) = 0. Brownian Motion continuous erratic motion of colloidal particles suspended in a liquid resulting from the continual bombardment by surrounding molecules. Explain the D-L-V-O Theory as it applies to hydrophobic dispersion coagulation. Explain Traube s Rule as it applies to dispersion coagulation. Isoelectric Point exists when the Zeta potential is zero. Magma any crude mixture of mineral or organic matters in the state of a thin paste. surfaces. Evaluate the effects which occur as distance between particles diminishes using the symbols: ds (secondary energy distance): dp (primary energy distance): and db (maximum barrier energy).A soft. Milk 59. Gels formation of a continuous network or scaffolding of the dispersed solid phase throughout the entire liquid which solidifies. Predicts the minimum concentration of salt required for coagulation is the inverse sixth power of the valence of the counter ion and the minimum coagulation concentration of salts with mono-. d. (1/36) = . db the maximum energy barrier which causes electrostatic repulsion of the particles. 13 . 57. solvated. semisolid food substance with a resilient consistency.
List the 2 storage requirements for Milk. and Inorganic Gels and Jellies. 14 . 3. Phase separation of polymers precipitation is caused by temperature fluctuations to produce solidification of the mixture (aqueous gelation solutions). 2. Store in tight containers. Magmas. 5. 61. Describe the 6 techniques which are used to cause gelation and liquefaction. 4. 6. Syneresis elimination of water from the gel causing the structure to shrink. 1. Interparticle attraction occurs with particulate colloids with high surface-tovolume ratios and strong interparticle attractive force.The particles must be extensively solvated. Formation of continuous networks of flocculated particles held together by hydrogen bonding in the areas of contact. and the particles must adhere to each other at the points of contact 60. Polymer precipitation by non-solvent liquids this is caused by the addition of solvents miscible with the polymer solvent but is a non-solvent for the solute itself (addition of ethanol to polyelectrolytes). Chemical reactions forming precipitates. Salting out. and requires a Shake well before using label.