Category – Closed Game Opening Move Sequence – 1 d4 d5, 2 c4 ECO Codes – D06 and D69 Queens' Gambit has a long

history. It is mentioned in a German manuscript in 1490 and Luis Ramirez Lucena mentioned it in 1497. However it was not popular in nineteenth century but became so after a tournament held in Vienna in 1873. It then became the dominant opening is early part of twentieth century. However, since then Black players have tended to select the Indian openings instead more symmetrical Queen's Gambit. It is still a popular opening even now and is frequently met in all levels of chess. Queen's Gambit falls under the category of Closed Game openings that begin with 1 d4 d5. Its ECO codes range from D06 and D69. Because there is a huge number of Queen’s Gambit variations this article will look at the main categories of variations falling under it.

Moves and Variations
1 d4 d5 2 c4 c4 advance of White is a threat to Black's central d pawn and When d pawn is taken away White aims to take control of center with e4. Though it is called a gambit Black cannot hold on to the pawn. Black should be wary of a trap if he tries to hold on to the pawn; 1 d4 d5, 2 c4 dxc4, 3 e3 b5? (Instead Black should move on with his development), 4 a4 c6?, 5 axb5 cxb5??, 6.Qf3!, Black will lose a piece and has a weak Queen-side. The opening variations in Queens' Gambit are divided into two main categories Queen's Gambit Accepted or QGA and Queen's Gambit Declined or QGD. In QGA variations the 2 ... dxc4 is played. Though Black is losing the center, the effect will only be temporary, since he will be able to develop pieces more easily as a result of that move. In some QGD variations by holding the central d5 Black gets a more restricted position since pieces cannot be developed easily. However Black will try for more space by c5 and e5 moves. Although any variation starting with a move other than 2 ... dxc4 can be termed Queen's Gambit Declined some of them have developed into in depth systems and there are so many variations after 2 ... e6 that usually only the variations branching under 2 ... e6 are called Queen's Gambit Declined. Thus main variations under Queens' Gambit can be categorized according to Black's second move. 2 ... dxc4 is the start of Queen’s Gambit Accepted (QGA) variations 2 ... e6 is the start of Queen's Gambit Declined (QGD) variations 2 ... c6 starts the Slav Defense. This leads to a solid position with tactical possibilities. When Black plays c6 and e6 the opening is called Semi-Slav Defense

and can be reached from Orthodox Defense variation under QGD as well. 2 ... Nc6 leads to the rather unusual looking Chigorin Defense but is considered a sound opening. 2 ... e5 leads to Albin Countergambit, where Black tries to be more proactive and launch attacks. It is no longer frequent in master play now, but is a good opening at lower levels of chess play. 2 ... c5 is called Symmetrical Defense and is rare because it is considered to favor White though that is not definitely proven. 2 ... Bf5 is Baltic Defense is also unusual but is still a sound variation. 2 ... Nf6 is Marshall Defense, which is considered weak play for Black.

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