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Speech Usually ...... Acquired in L1 by everyone Speaker and listener share same time/place Speaker and listener can see one another – meaning may be carried by gesture, facial expression Takes place in a shared context May contain deictic references to outside world (over there / this one) Speaker and listener may know one another already Speaker and listener may interact and change roles Immediate feedback (verbal or nonverbal) expected and given What is spoken is temporary and transient Not planned in advance Utterances may contain strings of clauses with little subordination Grammatically incomplete or inaccurate utterances accepted Contains hesitations, paused, fillers, repetition Contractions used Boundaries of utterances marked by intonation, pauses Prosodic features –volume, pace, stress, rhythm- communicate meaning as well as words May show marked regional variation Changes more quickly Basic unit phonemes Writing Usually ...... Learned in L1 – not necessary by everyone Reader and writer separated in time /space Reader and writer can’t see one another – all meaning must be conveyed by text Has to create its own context References must be built into the text Reader and writer may not know one another No immediate interaction or exchange of roles between reader and writer No immediate feedback possible What is written is permanent and retrievable May be planned and edited More subordination and complex sentence structure High degree of accuracy expected
Full form used Grammatical boundaries of sentences marked by punctuation, layout Capitalisation, font variation, underlining etc used to stressitems. Attitude may also be conveyed via punctuation! Little regional variation Changes more slowly Basic unit morphemes