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Primitive Polynomial:

An Irreducible polynomial p(X) of degree m is said to be primitive if the

smaller positive integer n for which p(X) divides Xn + 1 is n = 2m – 1. For

example, p(X) = X4 + X + 1 divides X15 +1 but not divides any Xn +1 for

1 ≤ n < 15.

In Matlab you can easily find the primitive polynomials for any degree

using primpoly(m) function.

Example:

m= 4; Define m = 4 for GF(24)

s = primpoly(m)

Output is:

Primitive polynomial(s) =

D^4+D^1+1

s =

19

representation indicates the coefficients of the polynomial. Note that there

could be more than one primitive polynomial for a particular degree of m.

To demonstrate Galois Field arithmetic we consider following table for

degree m = 4 an primitive polynomial p(X) = 1 + X + X4

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

α α 0 1 0 0

α2 α 2

0 0 1 0

α3 α3 0 0 0 1

α4 1+ α 1 1 0 0

α5 α+α 2

0 1 1 0

α6 2

α +α 3

0 0 1 1

α7 1+ α + α 3

1 1 0 1

α8 1 + α2 1 0 1 0

α9 α+α 3

0 1 0 1

α10 1+ α + α 2

1 1 1 0

α11 α + α2 + α3 0 1 1 1

α12 1 + α + α2 + α3 1 1 1 1

α13 1 + α2 + α3 1 0 1 1

α14 1 + α3 1 0 0 1

a Galois field. That means, you can find the tuple representation of

corresponding power representation by gftuple() function.

Example:

X = gftuple(11,4);

Y= gftuple(14,4);

X =

0 1 1 1

Y =

1 0 0 1

In Matlab you can do any Galois Field arithmetic using gf() function.

Example:

X = gf(6,4) % first argument is integer equivalent of tuple

% representation and 2nd argument is degree m

Y = gf(13,4)

Z = X + Y

Array elements =

Array elements =

13

Z = GF(2^4) array. Primitive polynomial = D^4+D+1 (19 decimal)

Array elements =

11

understand it you may need to convert from tuple representation to power

representation from the table.

Similarly you ca do multiplication, division or subtraction.

Minimal polynomials

are given in following table.

0 X

1 X+1

α, α , α4, α8

2

X4 + X + 1

α3, α6, α9, α12 X4 + X3 + X + 1

α5, α10 X2 + X + 1

α7, α11, α13, α14 X4 + X3 + 1

polynomial for any root. Again using roots() function you can find the

conjugate roots for a particular minimal polynomial.

Example:

m = 4;

e = gf(6,4);

em = minpol(e) %Find minimal polynomial of e. em is in

%GF(2^m)

em = GF(2) array.

Array elements =

0 0 1 1 1

emr = GF(2^4) array. Primitive polynomial = D^4+D+1 (19

decimal)

Array elements =

9

11

13

14

equation as

g(X) = LCM{ Ф1(X), Ф3(X), Ф5(X), Ф7(X)…… Ф2t-1(X)} where Фi(X) are the

minimal polynomials.

Now for m = 4, we can calculate the generator polynomial for (15, 11),

(15, 7) and (15, 5) BCH codes as following:

g1(X) = Ф1(X) for (15, 11) BCH code, t = 1

g2(X) = LCM{ Ф1(X), Ф3(X)} for (15, 7) BCH code, t = 2

g3(X) = LCM{ Ф1(X), Ф3(X), Ф5(X)} for (15, 5) BCH code, t = 3

bchgenpoly() function.

Example:

genpoly1 = bchgenpoly(15,11)

genpoly2 = bchgenpoly(15,7)

Array elements =

1 0 0 1 1

Array elements =

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1

Now you can shift this generator polynomial using circshift() command

to create the generator matrix and encode the message block by block.

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