Innovative Marketing, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2008
Shanthi Venkatesh (India)
Analysis of gaps in telecommunication services – a study with respect to service gaps in fixed-line segment
With liberalization and subsequent demonopolization in the fixed-line telephone service segment in India, the market scenario changed from that of single-player to multi-players. As the number of players increased, the level of expectations of the users has also increased, since in a competitive environment, the consumers not only have luxuries of choice but also have enough freedom to exert their preferences and thus enjoy a higher bargaining power. To match the expectations of the consumers, the Indian telcos have started providing them with a plethora of value additions, apart from the basic service offerings. At this juncture it is important to analyze the behavior of the service users, in the context of their expectations pertaining to fixed-line services versus their satisfaction levels of the same. This will provide enough insights on the gaps based on which suggestions can be provided to the players to sketch out new strategies, based on the demands of the hour. The paper examines the expectations and satisfaction levels of the service users, using fixed-line telephone services, and identifies the service gaps. It also provides the recommendations to the service providers to gain an edge in the highly competitive telecom market of India. Keywords: gap analysis in services, user behavioral research, analysis of fixed-line services, competition in telecom service segment, Indian telecom policy, growth of telecommunication services in India.
Introduction32 Telecommunications is one of the prime support services needed for the rapid growth of any developing country. Telecommunications is one of the fastest developing sectors in India, growing at an average annual rate of 140-150%. The world began to witness the changing phase of the telecom industry in the country since 1994, when the Indian Government initiated the New Telecom Policy (NTP), with a broad objective to enable availability of affordable means of communication for the citizens of the country. One of the important objectives of NTP 1999, was to separate the service providing and regulatory functions of Department of Telecommunications (DoT). Subsequently, exclusive telecom service providers were floated to deploy the restructuring strategies in the sector, complying with the objectives laid down by NTP-1999. The policy separated the service providing function and the policymaking & licensing function of the DoT. Subsequent to the announcement made in NTP 1999, the government started issuing licenses to multiple private service providers to provide services in each telecom circle. Consequently, the private service providers kick-started their operations in fixed-line segment in 2000. Though entry of private players in the cellular segment can be stated as the initiating force that led to the transformation of the telecom industry of India, it was the private player’s entry in the fixed-line segment that actually collapsed the monopoly re© Shanthi Venkatesh, 2008.
gime in the telecom sector. With liberalization and subsequent demonopolization in the fixed-line segment, the scene changed from single-player market to multiple-player market. The private players not only disturbed the monopoly position of the government owned service provider, but also stole a big share of their market. While the private players are building their strengths on the value-added services to capitalize on the existing situation, the government owned service provider, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) is pulling up its sleeve to fight the competition. As the number of players increased in the fixed line segment, the level of expectations of the users has also increased, since in a competitive environment, the consumers not only have the luxuries to exert their preferences, but also possess a better bargaining power. To match the expectations of the consumers, the players have started providing them with a plethora of value additions, apart from the basic service offerings. This is acting as one of the major differentiators in the process of service delivery that promises a competitive edge to the service providers. At this juncture it is important to analyze the behavior of the service users, so as to suggest strategies to the players to sketch out new strategies, based on the demands of the hour. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the expectations and satisfaction levels of the users on the services delivered to them, which is attempted by the researcher and the methodology and findings are presented in detail in the following sections.
Szymanski and David H. Henard (2001) said that the growing number of academic studies on customer satisfaction and the mixed findings they report complicate efforts among managers and academics to identify the antecedents to. businesses having more versus less-satisfied customers. Implications for managers and scholars were also discussed. They documented that equity and disconfirmation are most strongly related to customer satisfaction on average. Firms are not well informed. (1998) said that many companies are considering investments in complaint handling as means of increasing customer commitment and building customer loyalty. to a limited extent. However. They argued that superior quality is vital to sustaining success. The model was applied to residential customers' assessments of local telephone service. overall service quality. Stephen S. excellent service-system design and efficient use of information and technology are crucial for achieving superior service quality and service marketing.Innovative Marketing. The model was estimated with a two-stage least squares procedure through survey data. Bepko (2000) says that among the areas which need to be addressed in service quality research is the nature of consumer expectations across the range of intangibility. The research presented a number of conceptualizations of customer satisfaction and service quality based on disconfirmation. To this end. alternative perceived quality models that address the problems of the traditional framework were developed and empirically tested. Parasuraman (1991) showed that inspired leadership. a positive association was found between year-to-year changes in the levels of customer satisfaction and price tolerance. Volume 4. however. The empirical analysis indicated a negative association between the level of customer satisfaction provided by the firm and the degree of price tolerance exhibited by its customers. Ruth M. but different groups of subjects were evaluated for each different service. and service value. a customer-minded corporate culture. Issue 1. over a ten week period. Bolton and James H. However. repeated measures design where subjects were each asked to evaluate three services. and suggestions for future conceptualization and measurement of the constructs were provided. on how to deal successfully with service failures or the impact of complaint handling strategies.
Eugene W. the authors conducted a meta-analysis of the reported findings on customer satisfaction. and outcomes of. varying in their degree of intangibility. there is a lack of consensus on whether the two are separate constructs and how they should be measured. The paper used a controlled. Kenneth Teas (1993) examined conceptual and operational issues associated with the "perceptionsminus-expectations" (P-E) perceived service quality model. The problem with using different subjects for each service is that the subject’s demographic characteristics may be responsible for the significant differences in expectations of quality. David M. Drew (1991). perceived performance levels also were found to have an important direct effect on quality and value assessments. Consequently. However. Pratibha A. and (3) measurement validity of the expectation (E) and revised expectation (E*) measures specified in the published service quality literature. a transactional versus global view and the inclusion of cognitive and/or affective factors. Anderson (1996) investigated the association between customer satisfaction and willingness-to-pay or price tolerance. Possible antecedents and consequences of both constructs were examined. Tax et al. on the effects of poor complaint handling. These mixed findings and the growing emphasis by managers on having satisfied customers point to the value of empirically synthesizing the evidence on customer satisfaction to assess current knowledge. Insights from literature review Leonard L. The examination indicated that the P-E framework was of questionable validity because of a number of conceptual and definitional problems involving the (1) conceptual definition of expectations. They also found that measurement and method factors that characterize the 65
. They insisted that customer satisfaction through integration of service quality throughout the system must be the focus of any company. developed a model of how customers with prior experiences and expectations assess service performance levels. 2008
1. Results indicated that residential customers' assessments of quality and value are primarily a function of disconfirmation arising from discrepancies between anticipated and perceived performance levels. Dabholkar (1993) iterated that customer satisfaction and service quality are both important tools for creating competitive advantage. The results of the paper supported a quasi “brand equity” perspective-whereas satisfaction with complaint handling had a direct impact on trust and commitment. Berry and A. Previous research had compared consumers’ service quality expectations across services. The goal was not only to determine whether the association between customer satisfaction and price tolerance is positive or negative but also to gauge the degree of association. (2) theoretical justification of the expectations component of the P-E framework.
to allow a qualitative insight for understanding the structure and methodology of churn management in the Indian telecom sector. (2004) studied the consumer perceptions about fixed telephone lines in Chennai. respondents’ willingness to part with information. The study on a sample of 550 telephone users indicated that some problems exist that deserve the attention of the company. service quality and labor productivity. Where comprehensive reform – including privatization. Airtel provides wired-line services only. and establish strong independent regulators. there are significantly higher levels of main line availability. 2008
research often moderated relationship strength between satisfaction and its antecedents and outcomes. taken through convenient sampling method. resources required to complete the survey. The sampling for the final study was based on Convenience Sampling Method. taking into account the operational difficulties associated in the process of data capturing. by going through this method of sampling it was ensured that all units of the population were adequately represented. The final sample size is 468 (32 questionnaires were found incomplete). The fixed-line telephone service providers in Chennai during the study period were as follows: BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited). And to conclude. In the scenario of falling prices. 2. and also discusses the level of applicability of such models in the Indian context. Tata Indicom. before administering the questionnaire for the final data collection. They found that despite the move away from traditional public monopolies. Airtel. BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited) is the Government owned service provider and the others are private players. From each category. of respondents 275 225 500
In determining the sample size the following factors were taken into consideration: dispersion of the population. The company needs to bridge the gap between the services promised and services offered. India. Volume 4. Carsten Fink et al. and (2) to measure customer perception and satisfaction as regards the service provided. The pilot study was administered on 50 samples. The literature reviewed above indicates major inadequacies in the areas like 1. The objectives of the study was (1) to find the most influencing factor in selection of service provider. 66
The study aims to bridge the research gaps identified as above.
. eliminate limits on private and foreign ownership. with a view to identify the elements of good policy and examine how it can be promoted through multilateral negotiations. Distribution of the sample
Service provider BSNL Private Total No. hyper-competition and increasing attrition rates and the author says that identifying possible churn before it actually happens enables telcos detect and control churn. The author provides a predictive churn model for telecom segment. However. Maran et al. The adequacy. most Asian governments are still unwilling to allow unrestricted entry. Issue 1. (2001) examined the liberalization of the basic telecommunications sector in Asian countries in their research paper for World Bank.Innovative Marketing. “Delivering service without measuring the impact on the customer is like driving a car without a windshield”. time taken by the respondents to complete the questionnaire. Identifying the difference in the expectation and satisfaction levels of users of different telephone lines with respect to India. The reliability of the interview schedule was ensured by means of Cronbach’s Alpha Test of Reliability. samples were randomly selected to arrive at a total sample size of 500. Identifying the expectation-satisfaction gaps in the telephone services provided in Indian Telecommunication industry. 2. Presently Reliance Infocomm is also in the foray. Shanthi (2005) throws light on the telecommunications market of India – post privatization. competition and regulation – has been implemented. While BSNL and Tata Indicom provide both fixed wired and fixed wireless (WLL) services. The authors discussed the implications surrounding these effects and offered several directions for future research. The distribution of the samples between the various categories of users is as follows: Table 1. Research methodology The study was administered in Chennai (formerly known as Madras) – the capital city of Tamil Nadu State. accuracy and appropriateness of the data collection tool were ensured after incorporating necessary corrections.
short messaging service (SMS). Exchange Enabled Basic Services (EeBS): These are those services. namely the telephone instrument. the ranks obtained are given in the table below. It was observed that there are two broad categories of services delivered to the users. 3. Instrument Enabled Value Added Services (IeVAS): These are those services. parallel ringing. 1. selectable ring tones. dial-a-service. viz. voice mail box. Table 3.Innovative Marketing. followed by Exchanged enabled Basic Services. auto call back.. 4. digital display. These are either provided at a cost. which are provided by the service provider to achieve the primary objective of the telecommunication system. Issue 1. for each of the service user category.08 15. On further analysis done based on data reduction method. Analysis and interpretation To identify the generic expectation patterns of the users. The following are the Value Added Services offered by the service providers on the instruments provided to the users: data storage. Instrument Enabled Basic Services (IeBS): Those services that are embedded as programs in the telephone product. 2008
3.95 Ranks 2 4 1 3
. Data Reduction Method was used to group the variables based on their unique characteristic features. billing accuracy. online information. Satisfaction levels of the users of BSNL telephone lines
Satisfactions Satisfaction – IeBS Satisfaction – IeVAS Satisfaction – EeBS Satisfaction – EeVAS Mean 10. These services are provided to all the users of the telephone lines. but need to be enabled by the service provider or they are provided on request. when compared to product related features. wireless option.02 27. it was seen that service related variables have obtained better satisfaction. Based on this classification. conferencing. Some of these services are also paid services. From the analysis of the satisfaction levels. multiple subscriber numbers. voice clarity. call forwarding. namely the instrument to enhance convenience of usage. BASIC and VALUE ADDED. INSTRUMENT ENABLED SERVICES and EXCHANGE ENABLED SERVICES. Exchange Enabled Value Added Services (EeVAS): These are services that are provided as additions to the users. The following are the Instrument Enabled Basic Services offered by the service providers: caller identification (CLIP). Instrument enabled Basic Services and Exchange enabled Value Added Services.. complaint redressal. 24*7 customer care. apart from the basic services. viz. built-in-speaker. which are also embedded programs in the telephone instrument. there are two broad spectrums of services that are offered to the users. The following are the basic services delivered to the users: exchange services. touch dial. Since Telephone service is not a pure service and derives its utility only through product. tariff options. which is available to all the users of the telephone.03 38. remote telephony management. installation. namely the voice trans-
mission service. Table 2. or on special requests or universally to all the users as a value addition.59 4. Expectation levels of the users of BSNL telephone lines
Expectations Expectation – IeBS Expectation – IeVAS Expectation – EeBS Expectation – EeVAS Mean 29. 2. The measures of Expectation and Satisfaction for individual variables are provided in Appendix A. dynamic locking. four groups were obtained for the purpose of data reduction. call alert.31 34. call wait. Volume 4. internet access services. product demonstration.19 Ranks 3 1 2 4
The table shows that the BSNL user expectations are the highest for Instrument enabled Value Added Services. While the tables below give grouped measures and supportive interpretations show the results of the analysis post the data reduction method. silent mode.42 3.
34. The following tables show the expectation-satisfaction gaps in the service delivery with respect to individual services and grouped service variables. 2008
The Mean Satisfaction of Instrument enabled Value Added Services shows zero since most of the value added services were not available to the BSNL users.95 3. From the above figure it can be clearly seen that the expectations for all the four types of services provided are higher than the satisfaction levels of the users. 3. Expectation-satisfaction gaps in service delivery
Paired differences PAIRS Mean 18.1.2876 6.68210 Std.Innovative Marketing.25538 . But the satisfaction levels of the BSNL users is the highest in the case of Exchange enabled Basic Services.7908 6.59
15. Gap analysis for BSNL telephone
Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4
Expectation IeBSSatisfaction IeBS Expectation IeVASSatisfaction IeVAS Expectation EeBSSatisfaction EeBS Expectation EeVASSatisfaction EeVAS
38.3524 35.23075 2.02 IleBS IeVAS EeBS EeVAS
Fig.0721 9.21491 . The gaps. H0: There is no significant difference between the expectation levels and satisfaction levels of the users of BSNL telephone lines.8829 Upper 19. It was observed from the gap analysis.4956 10.365 0 0 0 0 t (df=225) Sig.5885 35.5861 47.83916 3.225 57.38763 .17841 95% C.179 30. if any between the expectations from a telephone service and the satisfaction derived from the use of BSNL telephone service were ascertained by testing the following hypotheses. IeVAS.03
27. The analysis of the gaps identified in service delivered is diagrammatically represented in Figure 1. Volume 4.82742 3. that there is a significant difference in the expectation and satisfaction levels of the users with regard to all the service variables and as such the null hypothesis is rejected. With respect to the grouped variables also the null hypothesis is rejected in the case of all the four pairs namely. The tests were conducted at a significance level of 5%.42 4.19 10.I.08
M e a n s
28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0
29. IeBS.954 138. 5.D.
Paired t-test of samples was used to examine the difference between the means. Gap analysis – BSNL telephone services. 1. EeBS and EeVAS.7844 6. error Mean .2345 S.9191 10.8246 34. of the difference Lower 17. Issue 1. H1: There is significant difference between the expectation levels and the satisfaction levels of the users of BSNL telephone lines.
69 28. H1: There is significant difference between the expectation levels and the satisfaction levels of the users of private telephone lines.31359 . While performing a gap analysis for Tata Indicom users. followed by Exchange enabled basic services.08 Ranks 3 1 2 4
Satisfaction – AS
9.5302 6. in the case of other services.1916 Upper .08 34.
Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4
-.7171 2. In the case of IeVAS. it was observed that there is a significant difference in the expectation and satisfaction levels of the users with regard to IeBS.99144 4. Issue 1. Expectation levels of the private telephone users
Expectations Expectation – IeBS Expectation – IeVAS Expectation – EeBS Expectation – EeVAS Mean Airtel 28.31 34 15. Satisfaction levels of the private telephone users
Satisfaction Satisfaction – IeBS Satisfaction – IeVAS Satisfaction – S Mean Airtel 29. In the case of IeBS. 69
On further analysis done through data reduction method. since the mean difference is showing a negative value.9623 -1. The gap analysis is presented in the figure below.74 Ranks 2 1 3 Mean Ranks Tata Indicom 30.20
From the above table it is observed that the private telephone users have highest level of satisfaction as regards the Instrument enabled value added services provided to them.5934 4. The gaps. followed by Instrument enabled basic services.44564 95% C. by testing the following hypotheses.74 35.3956 5.39543 7.6847 5. since the mean difference is showing a negative value.7438 4.000 . Instrument enabled basic services and Exchange enabled value added services. On the whole it is inferred that the user expectations of the exchange services are high in the case of both the private telephone service providers. 2008
Table 5. H0: There is no significant difference between the expectation levels and satisfaction levels of the users of private telephone lines.47 2 1 3
11. there is no significant difference. From the figure below it can be clearly seen that satisfaction obtained by the users from the Airtel telephones is higher than expectations with re-
spect to Instrument enabled Basic Services (IeBS).287 16.0474 5. The tests were conducted at a significance level of 5%.
From the table above it is inferred that the Private telephone users’ expectation levels are high as far as the Instrument enabled value added services are concerned.27 Ranks 3 1 2 4 Mean Tata Indicom 28. Paired t-test of samples was used to examine the difference between the means.82 28. of the difference Lower -1.926 13. EeBS and EeVAS in which cases the null hypothesis is rejected. EeBS and EeVAS in which cases the null hypothesis is rejected.637 . and for performing the analysis separately for both the private telephone service providers.000 t (df=225) Sig.0769
5. the expectation exceeds the satisfaction levels. Airtel and Tata Indicom.Innovative Marketing.83145 . Std.3077 6. and the satisfaction levels of the users exceed the expectation levels (S>E). Exchange enabled Basic services and Exchange enabled Value Added Services. it was identified that there is a significant difference in the expectation and satisfaction levels of the users with regard to IeVAS.I. by grouping the variables into four distinct heads.56559 . 3. Volume 4.93148 2. error Mean .57 36.34 30.05 15.68 35.049 5. if any between the expectations from a telephone service and the satisfaction derived from the use of private telephone service were ascertained separately for the service providers namely. Expectation-satisfaction gaps in service delivery – Airtel
Paired differences PAIRS Mean Expectation IeBSSatisfaction IeBS Expectation IeVASSatisfaction IeVAS Expectation EeBSSatisfaction EeBS Expectation EeVASSatisfaction EeVAS S.D. there is no significant difference and the satisfaction levels of the users exceed the expectation levels (S>E).297 .000 . Table 6.2. The following table gives the gap analysis for Tata Indicom Telephone service. Gap analysis – private telephone services.
10226 2.8683 6.8936 S.000 . error Mean .208 .7895 Upper -.2170 -3. Expectation-satisfaction gaps in service delivery – Tata Indicom
Paired differences PAIRS Mean -1.8896 4. 4. 2.54851 95% C.82 36 32 30.73346 3.880 -1.65744 1.2 15.47 Expectation Satisfaction 34 35.18184 . 3.2
40 36.7293 2.D. Gap analysis for Airtel telephone services
Table 8.874 7. Issue 1. Gap analysis for Tata Indicom telephone services
M e a n s
Fig.76040 Std.08 28.3345 4.I of the Difference Lower Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Expectation IeBSSatisfaction IeBS Expectation IeVASSatisfaction IeVAS Expectation EeBSSatisfaction EeBS Expectation EeVASSatisfaction EeVAS -3. Volume 4.099 .5703 .39872 .Innovative Marketing.5319 3.9977 -2.5106 5.006 .68 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 leBS IeVAS EeBS EeVAS 11.278 13. 2008
36 32 29.05
M e a n s
15.08 30.34 28.50716 8.57 28.69 28.000 t (df=225) Sig.74 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 leBS
it was found that the users are most satisfied with the Instrument Enabled Value Added Services followed by Instrument Enabled Basic Services. and Zeelenberg M. since the users are given a choice. (2003). the BSNL users are found to be most satisfied with respect to the Exchange enabled Basic Services offered to their telephones. Issue 1. As regards the user categories. the respondents using BSNL phones stated that all the Instrument Enabled Value Added Services were unavailable to them. followed by Instrument Enabled Basic Services. 4. Recommendations to BSNL: The initial and immediate action the BSNL needs to take is to replace the old instruments with the state-of-art instruments with compatibility to all the value additions offered by the service provider. Vol. yet another dream of India is gradually getting translated into reality. and Brand Richard R. Variety coupled with plethora of value-additions offered by the players.. The market potential of more than 60% is unexplored which the private players need to target. In the case of private telephone users. Additions in the form of augmented services like Short Messaging Service. The competitive environment is necessitating re-structuring the strategies of the players. The private players should also involve in sales promotion activities. The turnaround in the telecommunication industry drives India to the realm of excellence.
References 1. Recommendations to private users: Being relatively new when compared to their PSU counterpart. 17-31. Brady. ‘Performance-only measurement of service quality: a replication and extension’. Journal of Business Research. The efficiency associated with service delivery system is almost on a par with global standards.
Bebko and Charlene Pleger (2002). The users are also dissatisfied with the Tariff structure adopted by the players. 2. pp. Issue 1. to sustain in the market. No. Vol. Michael K. As regards satisfaction levels. 9-26. 55. which the service provider can adopt to control churn. No. 14. pp. in order to educate the users on their relative strengths. The service providers need to concentrate more on customer retention measures. pp. the telecom players are marching ahead by constantly luring delightful customers into their fold. Inferences & recommendations It was found that the Instrument Enabled Value Added Services were very highly expected followed by Exchange Enabled Basic Services. The private players should mainly concentrate on the services offered to the users. They Get Back: The Experience and Behavioural Implications of Anger and Dissatisfaction in Services’. Journal of Service Marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 31. by all the service users. The users of Private telephone line are quite satisfied with respect to availability of valueadditions in their fixed-line telephone service. (2002). Consequently the teledensity of India is improving fast. which was hitherto unavailable. is leading to switch-over and churn. ‘Angry Customers don’t Come Back. the private service providers need to explore newer avenues of the market and capitalize on its present upswing. Vol. by building on its strength of being the largest telephone service provider of the peninsula. 2. Pieters R. in order to reduce the switch-over rate. 4. Yes.
CRM strategies and quality management tools like Six Sigma are found to be effective tools in managing data and for maintaining quality in the service delivery process.Innovative Marketing. Jr. since the users are satisfied with the value-additions in the form of additional features offered by the players. and Cronin J. September 2003. and capitalize on the switch-over attitude of the user in order to increase their market share. Bougie R. Among the other services provided the respondents are most satisfied only with the Exchange Enabled Basic Services. ‘Service Intangibility and Its Impact on Consumer Expectations of Service Quality’. Undoubtedly. have led to some very encouraging changes in the user behavioral pattern. Implementing a good CRM solution and training its support staff to update the data base will solve the problem to a great extent. Vigorous sales promotion activities need to be undertaken by the service provider. Volume 4.
It is inferred from the above figure that the gap between the expectation and satisfaction exists in the case of all the types of services but the gap is in favor of expectations in the case of EeBS and EeVAS and in the favor of satisfaction in the case of IeBS and IeVAS functions. 377-393. 3. Conclusion The study thus reveals that privatization and subsequent opening up of the telecom sector to competition. Remote Messaging Service will add great value to the product and the brand.
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Not required (NR) – 1. 2008
Appendix A Variables used for data analysis and their individual measures The following are the 30 variables identified to study the expectation and satisfaction levels of the telephone users.No. The following table gives the individual scores based on the respondents’ level of expectations for BSNL. Table 1.22 3. Volume 4. Somewhat essential (SE) – 4. Neutral (N) – 3.62 4.
. Least essential (LE) – 2.No.
S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Caller identification (CLIP) Call forwarding Call wait Data storage Digital display Call alert Dynamic locking Touch dial Selectable ring tones Conferencing Wireless option Dial-a-service Silent mode 24 X 7 Customer care Installation Voice clarity Short messaging service (SMS) Remote telephony management Built-in speaker Parallel ringing Product demonstration Online information/payment Multiple subscriber numbers Auto call back Internet access services Voice mail box Complaint redressal Exchange services Tariff Options Billing Accuracy Variables
To find out the most expected product/service variable the various levels of expectations were valued as under1:33 Most essential (ME) – 5. Scores based on the level of expectation – BSNL
The scaling methodology is uniform for all the categories of service providers.Innovative Marketing. 1 2 3 4 5 Caller identification (CLIP) Call forwarding Call wait Data storage Digital display Variables Sum 954 760 817 1020 785 Mean 4.51 3. Issue 1.36 3.
the respondents were asked to express their level of satisfaction on a five point scale134ranging from “Most satisfied” to “Most dissatisfied”. 2008
Table 1 (cont.56 0.00 5.07 2.00 0.No.55 2.00 1.00 0.00 3. Scores based on satisfaction levels – BSNL
S.57 4.00 0. Scores based on the level of expectation – BSNL
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Call alert Dynamic locking Touch dial Selectable ring tones Conferencing Wireless option Dial-a-service Silent mode 24 X 7 Customer care Installation Voice clarity Short messaging service (SMS) Remote telephony management Built-in speaker Parallel ringing Product demonstration Online information/payment Multiple subscriber numbers Auto call back Internet access services Voice mail box Complaint redressal Exchange services Tariff options Billing accuracy 570 1014 372 649 910 997 467 654 1130 1130 1130 787 593 984 501 923 803 538 624 1032 1006 1130 1130 1130 1130 2.00 5.00 5. which were available were measured using the following scale: Most satisfied (MS) – 5. The respondents were initially asked to state if a particular features was available to them.00 0. Volume 4.08 3.87 4.65 2.00 0.58 0.00 5.00 0. Issue 1. Somewhat satisfied (SS) – 4.70 0.).00
The scaling methodology is uniform for all the categories of service providers.03 4.52 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Call forwarding Call wait Data storage Digital display Call alert Dynamic locking Touch dial Selectable ring tones Conferencing Wireless option Dial-a-service Variables Caller identification (CLIP) Sum 356 0 353 0 0 0 1063 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 1.45 5. Not satisfied (NS) – 2.76 4.48 2.38 2.00
In order to analyze the satisfaction levels of the telephone users. The following table gives the individual scores based on the respondents’ level of expectations for BSNL.
. Most dissatisfied (MD) – 1.62 4.00 4. Neutral (N) – 3.35 2. The feature.22 4.41 2.00 5. Table 2. The value for unavailable feature is given as zero.Innovative Marketing.49 1.89 5.
05 3.11 2. Scores based on the level of expectation – private
S.49 4.63 4.00
.72 4.49 4.51 2. Table 3.00 3.23 3.00 0.56 4.44 2.03 4.60 2.00 5.00 0.42 0. Issue 1.74 0.87 3.00 0.46 1.40 3.38 2.46 5.56 2.00 4.00 5.83 5.45 5.26 4. No.00 5.86 5.71 0.11 4.72 2.00 3.48 3.71 3.60 4.).15 2.35
The following tables give the expectation and satisfaction levels of the two private telephone users considered for the study.65 4.96 4. Volume 4.44 2.64 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Caller identification (CLIP) Call forwarding Call wait Data storage Digital display Call alert Dynamic locking Touch dial Selectable ring tones Conferencing Wireless option Dial-a-service Silent mode 24 X 7 Customer care Installation Voice clarity Short messaging service (SMS) Remote telephony management Built-in speaker Parallel ringing Product demonstration Online information/payment Multiple subscriber numbers Auto call back Internet access services Voice mail box Complaint redressal Exchange services Service provider Variables Sum 382 302 320 408 313 227 406 146 267 360 404 196 260 455 455 455 319 241 396 206 369 324 208 238 415 406 455 455 Touchtel Mean 4.43 2.43 2.17 1.07 0.72 4.40 3.00 0.18 3.62 4.00 3.00 5.89 4.53 4.32 3.29 2.00 3.Innovative Marketing.45 1.00 Sum 199 160 166 218 161 111 209 77 135 183 208 99 133 235 235 235 175 117 205 99 188 159 115 128 216 209 235 235 Tata Indicom Mean 4. Scores based on satisfaction levels – BSNL
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Silent mode 24 X 7 Customer care Installation Voice clarity Short messaging service (SMS) Remote telephony management Built-in speaker Parallel ringing Product demonstration Online information/payment Multiple subscriber numbers Auto call back Internet access services Voice mail box Complaint redressal Exchange services Tariff options Billing accuracy 320 160 840 1064 0 0 0 0 846 16 0 0 943 267 769 685 1047 984 1.64 3.45 2.20 3.52 4.35 2.36 2.36 4.00 5.93 3.00 5. 2008
Table 2 (cont.
41 3.74 2.66 4.36
.96 4.11 3.49 4.98 4.80 3.70 4.60 0.77 4.70 1. Issue 1.53 3.00 5.Innovative Marketing.46 3.81 4.00 5.).04 4.55 2.26 3.32 2.35 Sum 127 80 212 188 216 187 215 164 197 156 121 160 187 194 178 222 126 130 193 142 214 102 95 219 70 213 158 143 218 205 Tata Indicom Mean 2.00 4.14 3. Scores based on satisfaction levels – private
S.70 1.40 3.69 2.11 1.48 4.02 4.64 4.66 4.00
Table 4. Scores based on the level of expectation – private
29 30 Tariff options Billing accuracy 455 455 5.00 235 235 5.57 3.88 4.13 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Caller identification (CLIP) Call forwarding Call wait Data storage Digital display Call alert Dynamic locking Touch dial Selectable ring tones Conferencing Wireless option Dial-a-service Silent mode 24 X 7 Customer care Installation Voice clarity Short messaging service (SMS) Remote telephony management Built-in speaker Parallel ringing Product demonstration Online information/payment Multiple subscriber numbers Auto call back Internet access services Voice mail box Complaint redressal Exchange services Tariff options Billing accuracy Service provider Variables Sum 155 178 401 347 406 336 427 259 388 283 158 164 357 377 353 431 201 135 372 171 408 206 60 419 90 410 325 279 424 396 Touchtel Mean 1.49 4.48 2.92 4.No.07 4.66 1.19 3.74 1.51 3.99 4.57 3.36 3.88 4.21 1.17 2. 2008
Table 3 (cont.85 4. Volume 4.68 2.09 1.79 4.51 4.69 4.98 4.60 3.26 0.72 2.57 3.02 4.