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May 2006

Dicalcium phosphate: The production makes the difference
This article describes two different methods that exist for the production of dicalcium phosphate. The dicalcium phosphates that result from these two processes differ significantly in terms of composition, purity and, most importantly, phosphorus digestibility.
The most commonly used production method is known as the “wet acid” route in which rock phosphate is reacted with sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid. After concentration and purification to reduce the level of undesirable elements, this phosphoric acid is reacted with a calcium source such as quick lime or limestone to produce dicalcium phosphate. Process chemistry Phosphoric acid route Phosphoric acid production Ca10(PO4)6F2 + 10 H2SO4 6H3PO4 + 10CaSO4 + 2HF Production of anhydrous dicalcium phosphate H3PO4 + CaCO3 CaHPO4 +CO2 +H2O or H3PO4 + CaO CaHPO4 + H2O This phosphoric acid production process generates large quantities of gypsum, which contains significant levels of undesirable elements. As a consequence, apart from a few exceptions, production in Western Europe is no longer carried out and phosphoric acid has to be imported from other regions. The quality of the phosphoric acid, in terms of levels of impurities or undesirable elements, can have a major effect on the purity, composition and digestible phosphorus content of the resulting dicalcium phosphate. Therefore, Tessenderlo Group liaise closely with suppliers of feed grade phosphoric acid to ensure that the quality of their products is strictly controlled. Processing for purity Another method, which was first used by Tessenderlo Group, is the dissolution of rock phosphate in hydrochloric acid to deliver a very pure and crystalline dicalcium phosphate. The process starts with the dissolution of finely ground rock phosphate in diluted hydrochloric acid, resulting in the formation of a monocalcium phosphate solution. Microscopic view of crystalline dicalcium phosphate (Aliphos Dical) Aliphos Italphos Windmill

New dioxin legislation P digestibility for pigs High technological additives

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The insoluble fraction, consisting mainly of calcium fluoride, is removed and the liquor is purified (see picture page 4). Because monocalcium phosphate is readily soluble in water it cannot be precipitated. Process chemistry Hydrochloric acid route Dissolution in hydrochloric acid Ca10(PO4)6F2 + 12 HCl 3Ca(H2PO4)2 + 6CaCl2 + CaF2 Saturation of monocalcium phosphate solution to produce dihydrated crystalline dicalcium phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2 + Ca(OH)2 2CaHPO4.2H2O

an official accredited laboratory.10 0.03 0.and/or pyrophosphates • As a crystallization process it ensures a very predictable composition and a highly pure dicalcium phosphate.0 ng WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/kg for dioxins and 1. the dioxin levels in all inorganic feed phosphates of Tessenderlo Group are well below the legal maximum content and the same is true for the sum of dioxins and dioxin like PCBs.06 0.Therefore. This latest edition includes permitted maximum contents for a group of 12 PCBs that exhibit similar toxicological properties to dioxins and are therefore often termed ‘dioxin-like PCBs’. maximum contents for feed materials of mineral origin. The results of the dioxin analyses performed during February 2006 on the inorganic feed phosphates of Tessenderlo Group are published in the table below.02 0. Dicalcium phosphate crystals are precipitated and after filtration and drying the resulting product is a very pure crystalline dihydrate dicalcium phosphate that is sold as Aliphos® Dical.07 0.03 0. In line with our results of previous years. Advantages of Tessenderlo’s process Dissolution is a gradual process.03 ALIPHOS DICAL ALIPHOS MONOCAL ALIPHOS MONOMAG WINDMILL DICALPHOS ALIPHOS MODICAL WINDMILL MAGNUMPHOS WINDMILL MONAMPHOS ITALPHOS DICAL ITALPHOS MONOCAL ITALPHOS MODICAL Dissolution tanks of finely ground rock phosphate with diluted hydrochloric acid Aliphos Italphos Windmill . Analyses are performed at Carso France.10 0. additional calcium is added to saturate the liquor and to change the molecular structure from monocalcium phosphate into dicalcium phosphate. According to this legislation. Also the nutritional value of these products (Aliphos® Monocal & Modical) is proven to be the highest on the market.08 0.02 0.03 0.15 0.05 0. The use of high quality dicalcium phosphate in these types of feed phosphates results in chemically stable and pure products with a low content of undesirable elements.5 ng WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/kg for the sum of dioxins and dioxin like PCBs.14 0.04 0.06 0. offering a number of advantages for animal feeding applications: • The low temperature of the process prevents the formation of biologically unavailable meta. are 1.08 0.08 0. Legislation on undesirable substances: dioxins and dioxin like PCBs On the 3rd of February a new Commission Directive 2006/13/EC on undesirable substances in animal feed with regards to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was published.03 0. such as inorganic feed phosphates.03 0. Dioxins Dioxins + Dioxin-like PCBs (ng/kg) (ng/kg) 0. virtually free of undesirable elements • The hydrate structure is recognized to be nutritionally beneficial as has been proven in several trials with a wide range of animal species (see also the results of a recent pig trial presented on page 3) In a later stage this crystalline dicalcium phosphate dihydrate is used for the production of either monocalcium or monodicalcium phosphate.

5 Phosphate -7. DCP0H2O).0 30. Materials and methods The basal diet was a so-called semi-synthetic diet (GR) with a low P-content (less than 1.0 5.5 4. 7-9 Anim. In contrast to this. 7-12 Feedstuffs were analysed for crude nutrients and mineral elements.0 65.0 65. Aliphos Monomag is produced by means of reacting a calcium source and a highly reactive magnesium oxide (MgO) with feed grade phosphoric acid. 4-6 Anim.5 0. The resulting product is a homogeneous chemical complex of monocalcium and monomagnesium phosphate.2H2O) as well as traces of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate (CaHPO4).0 146.5 1. 4-6 Anim.0 Vitamins / trace 5.0 Lysine-HCl 2.5 -7. 1-3 Aliphos Dical Anim.0 30.0 2. 7-12 Anim. Table 2: Design of the trial Days Period 1-7 8 14 15-21 22-28 29-35 36-42 Pre period Collection Pre period Collection Pre period Collection GR Italphos Dical Anim.0 144.0 Differences in dP-content caused by differences in feed phosphate production Feed phosphates including dicalcium phosphates (DCP). 4-6 Anim.0 2. With this method the composition of the product can be estimated. The purity of the raw materials used in the processes but certainly the different process conditions do have major consequences for the digestibility of such products. The P digestibility (dP) of the different feed phosphates was calculated according the following formula: DPfeed phosphate (%) = DPtest feed (%)-DPGR (%) x (1-a) a Continued on next page a = analysed P content of the feed phosphate (g/kg DM) x ratio of the test component in test feed (kg/kg) / analysed P content of the test feed (g/kg DM) Aliphos Italphos Windmill . Braunschweig.9 kg up to 61. It is known from literature (CVB. 10-12 Aliphos Monomag Anim.5 MgO -1. DCP2H2O) compared to DCP anhydrate (Italphos Dical. 7-9 Anim.0 30.0 5. Twelve castrated males (hybrids “BHZP”) were used in the trial. Ca(OH)2 and traces of CaO.0 Soy oil 15. 4-6 Anim.0 elements CaCO3 9. 1-3 Anim. 7-9 Anim. Ca and Mg were analysed in faeces and urine.0 3.0 5.5 5.0 145.5 Ca-Mg-P Aliphos Monomag 635. can be manufactured by various methods. 7-9 Anim. Aliphos Dical contained mainly dihydrate dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4.5 7. P.0 L-Tryptophane 0.0 2.6±0. 1-3 Anim. a calcium-magnesium phosphate (CaMgP) was tested because no accurate P-digestibility figure exists for such a product. Both calcium and magnesium were added to the trial feeds to arrive at more or less the same levels in the trial diets to exclude any affect on P-digestibility.6±1.0 g per kg DM (Table 1). Aliphos Dical and Aliphos Monomag using pigs. 1-3 Anim. N.0 85. Aliphos Monomag. 4-6 Anim. The three phosphates investigated in this trial were analysed according to a method known as XRD-analysis. Three balance trials were carried out with these animals in the live weight range from 36.5 Potato protein 85.0 3.0 g calculated digestible P per kg DM). 10-12 Anim.0 NaCl 3.0 Sugar beet pulp 150. Germany) to evaluate the P-digestibility of Italphos Dical.0 65. Phosphates were added to the base diet at a rate such that the total calculated digestible P did not exceed 2. 1-3 Anim. 10-12 Anim.0 0.0 3.0 8.5 0.0 15.0 15. 1-3 Anim.0 Cellulose 30.0 15. 4-6 Anim. 10-12 Anim.0 Albumen protein 65. This can result in products with different chemical compositions (see pages 1&2). Italphos Dical contained mainly dicalcium phosphate anhydrate (CaHPO4) together with CaCO3.New results on digestible phosphorus (P) content of three types of feed phosphates for pigs In 2005 Tessenderlo Group carried out a trial at the Agricultural Research Centre (FAL. Aliphos Monomag is composed of monocalcium phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2. However.xH20 and monomagnesium phoshate Mg(H2PO4)2 together with MgO and CaCO3.0 635.5 85.0 85. 1990) that there are differences in digestible P-content of DCP dihydrate (Aliphos Dical. Table 1: Composition of the mixed feeds (g/kg) GR DCP0H2O DCP2H2O Italphos Dical Aliphos Dical Corn starch 635. often no differentiation is made between the two chemically different products and only one value for P-digestibility of around 70% has been assigned to all forms of DCP used in pig feeding (DLG Information 1/1999).0 635.2 kg in an incomplete Latin square arrangement (Table 2).

This article will be published in Kraftfutter Feed Magazine. etc). These differences clearly reflect differences in chemical composition.10 1. which has a 90% digestibility for pigs. Potter et al. The Pdigestibility from Italphos Dical was 72%.5 ± 8.3 Ca (g/kg DM) 5. anhydrous vs.76 1.21 Table 4: P intake and excretion per day n P intake mg GR 12 1036±59 Italphos Dical 8 2700±167 Aliphos Dical 5 2628±99 Aliphos 9 2550±147 Monomag“ Aliphos Monomag 3.1 Aliphos Dical.01 0. After subtracting the effect of the basal diet. DCP dihydrate Aliphos Dical scored a much higher value of 80%.99 2. which is to be expected for a product in which the greater part of the P is found in the form of MCP (Aliphos Monocal).23 Mg (g/kg DM) ME (MJ/kg DM) 16.4 3. 1995.8 15. Aliphos Italphos Windmill . 9 65 ± 4 83. however. Prot. De Groote and Huyghebaert. This is also in line with previous studies for poultry where similar differences between DCP2H2O (80%) and DCP0H2O (70-75%) were found (Van der Klis and Versteegh. 1993. a European Feed Business Magazine.12 16.9 CaMgP P faeces mg 854±116 1213±171 1050±184 884±132 Table 5 shows the P-digestibilities of the experimental diets.61 1.2 3. The results of the P-balance trial are shown in Table 4.31 P urine mg 20±3 17±2 18±1 16±2 Table 5: P-digestibility of the experimental diets and feed phosphates (%) n dP diet dP phosphate GR 12 17 ± 13 Italphos Dical. The average feed intake of all animals in the whole trial period was 1503 ± 83 g/day. 1997. DCP0H2O 8 55 ± 7 72.91 1. DCP2H2O 5 60 ± 6 79.Results The analyses of the trial feeds are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Results of analyses of the trial feeds GR Italphos Aliphos Dical Dical 3. the Pdigestibility of the different feed phosphates can be calculated.1 kg with an average live weight gain (LWG) of 590 ± 116 g/day.53 1.6 5.13 16. dihydrate dicalcium phosphate. The average LW was 48. The dP content of Aliphos Monomag was 84%.7 15.6 15.59 5. Sedimentation of insoluble material out of the monocalcium phosphate liquor.00 16.9 Aliphos Monomag. Conclusion Differences were found in P-digestibility between Italphos Dical (DCP0H2O) and Aliphos Dical (DCP2H2O). (% DM) 15.15 P (g/kg DM) 0.8 Ash (% DM) Cr.52 6.

sows and layers/breeders. Extensive research Scientific publications have shown the benefits of the use of ACIXOL and REPAXOL in broiler feeds (M. The Micropearls of SODA Feed Ingredients are already well known in Europe and the range has been enlarged with the recent introduction of new microencapsulated products. In ACIXOL organic and inorganic acids are combined by spray freezing with REPAXOL.55 % 98 97 96 95 Negative control Avilamycin 10 AciXol 500 RepaXol 100 Relative production cost of broilers (CLO-Melle Belgium. Belgium Tel: +32 2 639 1811 Fax: +32 2 639 1940 www. REPAXOL is used as an ingredient in two other products of this range. REPAXOL is a combination of essential oils and can be efficiently used at low dosages (50 to 300 ppm) in all types of animal feed..com 101 100 100 99 100 99. It shows that the coated products give a 1. 2005). B-1050 Brussels. poultry and turkey feeds. 69(6). ACIXOL In FORMAXOL. The ISO 9001:2000 quality system was implemented several years ago and the plant introduced a full HACCP plan in early 2005. Tessenderlo staff and the SODA FI technical department are happy to advise you on how to achieve the most cost-effective solution. Geflügelk. Fully equipped to meet the high standards of the EU Feed Hygiene regulation. This was followed in March 2006 by FAMI-QS certification for the production of feed ingredient mixes which is equivalent to all existing GMP systems for the feed industry today. Soda FI developed a new range of products based on their knowledge of the technology of encapsulation and their extensive experience gained through consultation with the pig and poultry industry on this subject. poultry and rabbits) as well as maintaining performance in an era where more ‘natural’ methods of animal production are often demanded by the final consumer..5% advantage over the control group. Your requests will be forwarded to the responsible people in your area or contact animalnutrition@tessenderlo.com . 261-266. pigs. The intelligent use of this combination of ingredients gives pig and poultry growers the possibility of addressing the challenges of today’s animal husbandry such as suboptimal condition of the breeding animals (pigs.tessenderlogroup. Several field trials have demonstrated that the combination of these protected feed ingredients is also very effective in piglets. This high technology plant has developed in response to the demands of today’s feed industry. 2005) Tessenderlo Group Feed Ingredients Leading the world in feed phosphates Tessenderlo Group Troonstraat 130. In the figure below a calculation is made of the financial result in this trial. This combination has the advantage of providing strong formic acid activity enhanced by the effect of the essential oils. ACIXOL.Tessenderlo Group enlarges the range of high technological additives Tessenderlo Group has cooperated closely with SODA Feed Ingredients for about ten years in the commercialization of coated acids and other products. Lippens et al. The synergy between the acids and the essential oils makes it an ideal product for continuous use in pigs.com animalnutrition@tessenderlo. the REPAXOL is combined with formiate and citric acid through a fluid bed process. Arch. Production in EURHEMA SODA Feed Ingredients has many years’ experience in the manufacture of these products in its EURHEMA plant located in Cavriago Italy. New Products The new range of products: REPAXOL. and FORMAXOL combine acids and essential oils in a high technological premix which allows their gradual release within the digestive tract. This produces an excellent tool for the natural control of the health and performance of animals through the feed. The essential oils are protected in a way that they are heat stable. Reports are available on request. These products also give the feed compounder the possibility to work with products that are quite difficult to handle when used individually.S. SODA Feed Ingredients’ research team has used its considerable knowledge and expertise to develop Microcapsules or Micropearls which are a combination of simple feed preservatives and essential oils.20 98.

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