TItU CHUAN NGANH

14.0 DUONG CUNG DuONG 0 TO TIEU CHUAN THIET KE

22TCN223-95

C6 hlfu' h,le til 2,417/1995

CHllONG I

C.~C QUI DINH CHUNG

Ll.~O dubng cung la k~t c~u ao dttbng co lap m~t hoac lap mdng' lam bang M tOng xi mAng~<i~ v$t li~u co d~ cung cao, d~c tinh bi~n dang va cuong d~ ella no thuc t~ khOng phu thuQr:ya.o.1,1 bi~n doi cua nhi~t d(>.

Ao,,*'!:f~n,g ctlng duoc thi~t k~ dua theo Ij thuyet "tam t~n n~n dan Mi" dong thbi co xet tC1i s\1 th!J.~.~~t ella nhist d~ va cua cac nhan to khac gAy ra d6i vai ta:~ b~ tOng.

l.~;;~itlu chulin nay duoc ap dung d~ thi~t M ao dttbng cdng dubng 0 1;6 trong cac

trt1bngb~iiS.U:

- ~.4:uC1'qg ~ tOng xi mang do tai cM ~t t~n lap mong bang cac loai ~t li~u khac nhau.

- M9!~gb@ tOng xi mang dttC1i lap m~t be tOng nhua,

- M.t·t'ht~ng ~ tOng xi mang lap ghep.

1.3.<1l~ thi~t ke ao dirong ctrng din phai to chiic dieu tra khao sat thu thap cac 56 lieu sau:

1. Q.uimO giao thong tran duong a nam tlnh toan trong tucng lai, tllc la phai du bao duoc lttulqgng, thanh phan, tinh toan a cudi thai ky khai thac, Thai ky nay duoc qui dinh la 20 nam dlSivc,i m~t dubng cling.

2. l)i~\l tra, thi ngbiern, quan trac de xac dinh cac thong 50 tlnh toan doi vni n~n da:t (hoac d6iYClikEft cau mat duong c11). Noi dung va yem diu dieu tra thi nghiem theo qui dinh CJ Tieu ch:9~n thiet ke ao ducng mem 22 TCN-211-93.

3.Di~\ltra ve v~t lieu xay dung doc tuy~n, kha nang cung c~p xi mang co mae y~u cau; diEm tra.c:t~_uki~n khi hau (nhiet dQ), dia chat thuy van; dieu ki~n va phucng ti~n thi cOng (tron, rlli,.dlm, xe khe, hoan thien).

4. QiElu tra thu thap cac so lieu phuc V\! luan chiing hi~u qua kinh te va so sanh chon phuong all.trong giai doan luan cluing kinh te ky thuat thie't k~ ao dttbng (theo huang da.n a Chuang ~illi~u chuan thiet ke ao duong mern 22 TCN-211-93).

1.4.'l'bift ke ao duong cung gam cac nc)i dung sau:

1 .. ';l'b,bJtU diu tao nham chon va bo tri hop It kich thucc tam, cac khe va lien k~t giiia cac khe~t#, chen v~t li~u lop mong, v~t li~u chen khe, v~t li¢u lap tao phAng va b6 tri m~t

63

Cong ban ve thi

duong, ChQD cac bien phap tang cuong cuong d¢ va su 6n dinh cuong

tra cuong d¢ (be day) tam be tong xi mang va lap mong duai me

Tieu chuan

cung gom hai giai dean: luan chung kinb t~ ky thuat. va thi~t k~ l~p giai doan deu phai phan chia tuy~n duong thanh cac dean co cac khac nhau de thi~t ke cho phu hop.

chung kinh te - ky thu~t, cho phep dung cac thong 86 tlnh toan thiet ke va viec luan cluing hi~u qUa kinh t~, so sanh chon phuong vai k~t cau ao duong mem) phai theo phucng phap huang dAn CJ msm 22 TCN-211-93.

k~ l~p ban ve thi cOng phai thli nghiem (; trong phong va hien so tinh tcan cua nen dat, cua v?t lieu lap mong theo cac phuong senuan. 22 TCN-211-93 va cua vat lieu be tOng xi mang (theo cac tieu hien hanh).

CHLJONG 2

AO DUONG BE TONG XI MANG DO T~I CHO

mat 1

dU<rng be tong xi mang do tai ehO gam cac lop nhu a Hinh 2.1: lop tao ph!ng 2, lap mcng 3, nen dat 4.

edt ngang eua do duimg M t6ng -Xi mang d6 tqi eM.

ICJpmong so vai lop mat;

2.1.3. dat d., c~t

2.1.1. D«>···d:~rc;il •. ng ci1a m~t duong ~ tOng xi mang tu 15-20%0

2.1.2. mong Bm phai dugc xac dinh tily thuoc vao phuong phap va t6 hop

moi truong hop n~n r'9ng hen mat m6i ben tU 0,3·0,5m.

hcp, 30cm nen da:t tr~n cung dudi lap mdng phai duc;1c dam ch~t 1,0; tiA'p dUCli 30cm nay phM 'duQc dlm ch~t dat K=O,95. D6i vCli cae

64

ma tlnh hlnh thuy van, dia' chat kbong t6t thl trircc khi xay dung m~t duang bi~n phap xii Ii d~ bi~t (thay da:t, thoat nuClc hoac gia co).

tfnh toan cia n~n dl1t cd th~ tham khao 0 Tieu chuan thUi't kE! ao duCtng

mong dUQc b6 trf d~ giAm ap luc tAi trong 0 t~ tren n~n dirt, d~ han cM' nuoc %u6ng n~n dtlt, giam deh lay bien dang 0 gOc va canh tA:m, tao dieu ki~n bao phAng, 6n dinh, nAng cao cuong' d~ va khA nang chOng ndt' cua m~t ,duCtng d~ng eho 0 to va may rM ~ tOng chay tren lOp mong trong thai gian thi cong.

cd th~ lam bang b~ tOng ngheo, da gia ciS xi mang; .cat gia cO xi mang; dirt c6 •.. #_~l\g ho~c vOL Trsn cac duong dia phuong hose dUC1ng n¢i b¢ it xe nang' chay thl co 1a.,,"'/1IRti.na bAng d8. dam, xi, cat.

'AI dlllV mong phai X8.c dinh thea tlnh toan (xem dieu 4. 7) d~ chiu duoc tai trong xe may COJu.· •.• J:djlUtl.g t6i thi~u phai bang 14cm neu bang be tong ngheo, 15-16cm neu bang ddt, cat ..... '.,.'n va bAng.20em nE!u bang cat hat to hay cat hat trung. Cac d~c trung tinh toan cac~v.l:ttleu lam mong co the tham khao c1 Tieu chuan thie"t ke ao duong' mem 22TCN-211-93.

1-' ........ 'LI tao phang co the bang giay dau, cit tr~n nhua day 2-3cm hoac cat vang day naB 118.V duoc cau tao de dam bao d¢ phang cua lop tmcng, bao dam tam dich chuyen d6i.

_ ' __ t{iO m~t cAt ngang tam be tong xi mang m~t dirong.

2.2. Cdic tao mat cat ngang tam be tong xi mang mat duang,

cua tarn be tong mat duang phai co be day khong doi (Hinh 2.2) lam

cot thep tang cuong mep tan: thin.h. 2.2a).

hop nay chieu day tarn be tong h{ duoc tinh toan khi tai trorig rae dung

tong (truorig hop tai trong thu nhat nhu trong dieu 4.1) dien tich ti~t dian thep tlnh thea qui dinh d diet: 4.4.

tang cuong rnep tarn bang cot thep (htnh 2.2b)

hop nay chieu day h2 cua tam be tong duoc tinh toan khi tai trong tac goc tilm (truong hQP dat tai trong thu hai va thti ba, nhu qui dinh 0 dieu 4.1)

tri s6 Ian.

eu vao viec so sanh kinh te ky thuat ket hop vdi dieu kien thi cong va kinh nghiem hlnh thuc mat cat ngang cua tam thea mot trong hai truong hop tren.

day tj{m be tong xi mang phai xac dinh thea tinh toan (chuang Il Iv, co luu y khai thac duong nhung khong duoc nho hen cac tri s6 c1 being 2.1 diroi day.

65

phai co cuong d¢ chiu u6n gioi han khong nho hon 40daN/cnt khOng nho hen 300daN/cm2).

Doi vci duC1Jl,':.p 1, II tr] 56 nay phai khong nho hen 45daN/cm2 (cuong d¢ chiu nen gioi han khong nh6~(ln 350daN/em2).

Be tong lan'lI.~pm6ng duoi mat duong' be tong nhua phai co cuong d¢ chiu uon gioi han khong nho hen 2~/crn2 (cuong dQ emu nen gioi han khOng nho han 170 daN/em2).

Cac chi tiO\l~~~ng d¢ va mo dun dan hOi cua be tong lam duong eho iJ being 2.2.

1

Being 2.1

oa, cat. d!t gia kih vO co.

Oa dAm, XI. sCi Cat. cip phOto

24

22

22 22

20 20 22

18 18 20

18 18 18

v.t IIh lap

Bl ctl, t'm BTXM t61 thlh (em) til, thuOc luu IUl1ng u tlnh to," (u/ngl, dim)

>10000

7000· 10000 5000·7000 3000·15000 2000-3000 1000·2000

Luu

t6i thilu cOn my thuoc tcii trong true thilt kl nhu sau: t6i thieu La LScm,

day t6i thieu la 24cm.

2.4.

cAc CHi Tltu ClfONG fX) vA ~6 DUN DAN HOI elIA B£ TONG LAM DlfONG.

Being 2.2.

Cubng dO ;Ial h,n uu 28 ngl, (d.N/emz) M& dun dln h~1 E
C6c 16p t't (d.N/emZ) I
Cubnsl dO ehlu teo u6n Cubng dO chlu nen
50 400 35. 104
l6pmtt 45 350 33 104
40 300 31,5 104
35 250. 29.104
Ldp m6ng cua 30 200 26.5.104
bA tOng 25 170 23.104 66

trong bang me djnh b~ thi nghi4m mdu dam M ttmg vOi ung su4t b~ 0,6 u6n. pn hqn:

gillt dD<pt buJn. chung kinh M kj thu4J cO tM tham. kIuio cae s6 li~u ghi trong himh tinh toM thilt M, tuy nhi~n d giai doqn. thwt kll4p ban vl thi c6ng mdu biJn.g v4-l ~ hi4n tnlimg dL :rc:ic dinh lq.i chink xOC cae chi' tieu nO; tren. .

.. J."'''''''''' k~t gbta cae khe cUa t& be tang.

2Wl1..~.AC. khe cUa Um bA ~ng dltgc chia ra hal loai: khe ngl\ng vA khe doc, Hlnh thuc cU& _'i~1I Idle W CJ blnh 2.3a,b, c. Cae khe ngang l~ chia ra bai 1~: khe dan va khe co.

khe ngang pbAi thAng gee voi nhau va khe ngang t~n hai Ian xe phAi thAng ··~k.~lau (cA ~n duCrng tbAng vA duong cong), 0 cac doan cd nhanh duong ~ chao thl

1"; ; _,, cUa IAn re va dlu khe ngang cUa Ian di thAng phaib6 trl trung' nhau .

....... dQc cO tM lAm theo ki~u khe ngam (hlnh 2.3c) h<* ki~u cdthanh truy~n ll,tc (h.1.nh 2.3d).

Mellit o=I,S

l

b

1

5'0

c

Hl.n.h 2.3. Cae loci khe

a. Khe dan. co thanh truyen. luc.

b.Khe co gid:

c. Khe dQC kilu ngam. d. Khe dQC co thanh truyen. luc.

thuong b6 trl thea kieu thanh truyan luc (hlnh 2.30), khe co thuong lam thea

kieu (hinh 2.36).

duong M tong cd hai hoac 11hi~u Ian xe cln pha! b6 trl khe doc theo tim duang

h* voi tim duong. Cl,t ly giua cac kbe dQC khOng dUQc V1.1Qt qua 4,5m va thucng'

bang mQt IAn xe. Khe doc cd the' lam kieu khe co hoac ki~u khe ngam (Hlnh 2.3c).

67

Ion han 112

2.5.2.

thanh truyen luc eho a being 2.3.

truyan luc d€n mep mat duong (cua khe dan, khe co) khong duoc cac~ giira hai thanh truyen luc,

THObc CVA cAc THANH TRurtN L(,1C.

Being 2.3.

NM hoo 22·30

30 30

65 (100)" 65(100)

20 25

Chl\u del thBnh truyln life (em)

50 50

Khoanll e6eh, gHiB 2 thBnh truyln life (em)

Trang kh. din

Tranll kh. eo

Ghi chit:

" .... UHlrr don ung ooi trubng hop tam b~ t6ng d(j.t tren lap truing gia c6 cae

each nhau

2.5.3. Kich

ngam trong khe ki~u ngam (hinh. 2.3c) cho a bting 2.4.

IdCH THOOC CVA NGAM (xem hinb: 2.3c)

Bang 2.4

".,'"
Chllu dlY C6e kleh thuac CUB ng6m (cm)
bl tang b I 0
• e
18 6 6 6 3,5 1,5
20 7 6 7 4 1,5
22 7,5 7 7 4 1,5
24 8 8 8 4 1,5
26 9 8 9 4,5 1,5
28 9,5 9 9,5 4,5 1,5
30 10 10 10 5 1,5
'. gilla cac khe eo va dan.

cae khe ngang (khe co va dan) duoc l~y theo s6 li~u cua being 2.5.

68

KHOANG CACH GIUA cAc KHE NGANG (M)

Bdng 2.5.

dvlrng vii ItICu khe

Chllu dl, tlfm bl tang (mm)

Nhltt dO khanll khf khl d6 bl tang (dO °C)

10 • 25

khang c6t thllp ttA"

5 • 15

Khe

khang c6t thep trA"

xi mAng va cae Io~i m6ng Ran k't v6 co khac:

• Khe co

24 20 ·22 18 20-24 18

24 20 • 22 18 20·24 18

48 60 cu6i ca !hi ceng
36 42 42
25 30 40
6 6 6
5 5 5 54 72 cu6i ca !hi cOng
42 54
25 35 45
6 6 6
5 5 5 2.,r;.~b.it_u r~ng cua khe co, dan va yeu diu doi vai v~t li~u chen khe. r9ng cua khe dan tinh theo cong thiic sau:

b == fJ . a . L . ~t . 1000, em

(2.1)

Tl'9n.gdo:

~t.i~i.u 56 cua nhiet d¢ cao khong khi cao nhat cua dja phuong lam duong so voi nhiet

do khi d~~tong;

j3.lj,s6 ep co cua vat lieu chen khe, khi chen khe bang mattic nhua lay f3 = 2,0; L·.i~QiJ1g each giua hai khe dan, m;

a .~ •. s6 dan no cua be tong, thuong lay a = O,OOOO!.

2.7.2.el1j~u rQng cua khe co khi chen khe bang mattic nhua thuong l~y til 8·12mm. 2.1 . ..t'V"t U~u chen khe phai dam bao tinh dim hoi IAu dai, co the dinh bam chat veti M

tong, khOng'th«m mrdc, trbi lanh khong don, troi nong khong chay (qui dinh chi tiet xem a qui trlnh~ihtcOng mat duong ciing).

69

2.S.1

thuuc trun trong cac trl10ng hQ'p dac biet,

I, II, chiau dai tam (C1:! ly giua cac khe co ngang) nan giam d~n ung vai be day t§:m 18, 20 va ~ 22cm tro-ng cac truong' hop sau

.

tiep tu nen dap sang nen dao tren pham vi chuydn ti~p 20-4Om.

,

• .••• ~~<"'"iM.n nan dap qua vimg dat y~u ho~ than bun va nen dAp cao hen 5,Om

hoac cac dean CU,f . .,I:l_ nen co tM hin khong d~u (nhu cac dean Ian ~n hai ban c6ng va sau mo diu ... ) thl xi mang din duoc ho trl them cac luoi c6t thep tu 1,6 den 2,3kg/m2

x..Jtd;~(nst m~t duong M tong xi mang trsn mong cat hD~C cap ph6i cat soi thl "."'~. v"n Fe duong nen bo tri hai thanh thep go <P12mrn. Chung d"d~C d~t cao 5Cl'l1,.th!lnh thu nhat d~t each mep U(m iOem, thanh thu hai d~t each thanh thu ClAtleilt thep duoc dat each khe ngang 50cm.

I

..... -- ...J

IIIIII

5000

I(i!h thvOt mm

thep 4>14 kich thuoc

tMp trong t6.m BTXM de phbng nut do lun. (ky hieu tren hinh. ve: C6t each nhau 300-400mm; c6t thep <P8 b6 trl ngang each nhau 500mm; lit 1400 x 3000mrn b6 trl hai luoi trong rn"t tdm nhu h1.nh ve).

300+400/500/14/8 14-00dOOO

CHUONG III

'fiND TOAN, LUU LUONG XE C~Y TINH ToAN VA pts6 cHrfT GIAM C110NG DO TINB ToAN

3.1. Tii .*~.' tlnh toan tieu chuan d6i vCJi k€t cau ao duang cllng duoc qui dinh th6ng nMt nhu a Di~ua.~.l ·Ti~u chu8n thi~t k~ ao duong' memo 22 TCN-211-93 vA khi tinh toAn tai trong hanh •• <<tlS9C nha.n them vl1i M s6 xung klch nhu Being.3.1 dUCJi dAy:

70

TAl TRONG TiNH TOA.N TIEU cHuAN vA He s6 XUNG KiCH. Being 3.1

t"u Till tron; bllnh Till trong bhh tlnh
tlau ehdn (daN) H6 a6 Kung klch to," (daN)
5000 1,2 6000
6000 1,15 6900
4750 1,20 5700 toan vai ~i trong tieu chuan, phAi kia'm toan lai vai xe nang'

nh~t CO eh~y trAn duo ng, ki~m toan vdi xe nhieu banh 80 tan, vai xe xlch T60 (khi trsn

duang cdlhfeo xe xfeh di lai) .

• Cicchi ti~u ky th~t chu y~u cua may keo nhisu banh eho dBang 3.2.

Bang 3.2
Dan vi M'V k'o 80
T 80
chii$c 4
T 2Q
m 1,2 -t- 4,0 + 1,2
chii$c a
m 3 x 0.9
m C\5 x 0,2 Chi tllu

Trong hJ<lng

56 true banh X8

AP iI.sc c~. m6i trvc xe

Khaang cach giua cac true thea hlJdng doc se banh x. ttln mOi true banh

Khaang each gNa cac dOi banh x e thea hUdng ngang Kreh thlJOc vtt banh xe (banh k ep)

ti~u chu yeu cua xe xich T - 60 duoc eho cr Bang 3.3.

I Chi tliu

r--------~--------------------------------}----------------+----------------~

I r rang ILI<lngxe xfch

Ap ILlc bar:lh;x(ch SO banh xiC:h

Chi~ dai lit. I)anh xfch Chiiu rOlilObanh xlch

CtJ Iy gRlal'lil,tFl,jc banh xlch (thea hlldng ngang)

3.3.Ht SO chiet giam cuong de) n: khi tlnh tcan cucng dQ k~'t eau ao ducng cung, cuong d¢c;hiu uon eho phep cua be tong xi mang duoc xac dinh bang cucng de) chiu ucn giai han (Bdng2.2) nhan vci h~ s6 chiet giarn cuong d¢ n qui dinh tuy thuoc t6 hop tai trong tinh toa~ nhuaBdn.g 3.4.

71

TRI eVA HE so CHltT GIAM cuoxc eo N

Bang 3.4

Ht .6 chl't gllhA cuang dO (n)

0,5 0,59-{),83 0,65 0,85 • 0,90

H4 (;6 dll to&n k"1/n

2.0

1.7 • 1,53 1,54 1,18 . 1,11

CHLJONG IV

TiNB·1'oAN CU'ONG DO (BE DAY) MAT nlJONG BE TONG.x'lriMANG DO T~I CHC VA MONG BE TONG XI MA.NG DU'OI MAT BE TONG NHljA.

4.1. Tinh t(liltchieu day tam xi mang theo cong thuc sau:

Trang do:

va. Pll h= -[a)

(4.1)

h- Chiau day t«m (em);

PI' - Ta! tr9~gbanh xe tinh toan (da nhan voi M s6 xung klch), daN/em2 (Bang 3.1); [0] - Cubng~ehiu uon eho phep cua be tOng xi mang (daN/em2);

E h

a - H~ s6 ~.trl s6 thay d6i tuy thea vi trl cua tru trong va ty s6 -;;;- va R ;

Ech

Voi

E - M6 duneS_n hbi ella b~ teng, daN/cm2

E~h - Mo dl1b"~_n hbi chung tren mat lop mong duoc XRe dinh theo hueng' ddn c1 Dieu 4.6 (daN/em2);

R - Ban kfJl~~" di~n tich v~t banh xe tinh toan (em),

Khi tfnh toa.chi~u day cho trubng hop tiLi trong tac dung " giira t~m, canh t~m va goc tarn (Hlnh 4.l)tliipnln bi~t·dung cac M s6 al,a2, a3 . Trong ba tri s6 . al,a2, a3 pbru chon tri s6 Ion nh~t df"JDnehi~u day h thee (4.1)

72

2R·_·_·---------.-- .. _. ----I

1If I If

H'inh 4.1. Cac Uf tri tlnh toan eua banb. xe tren. tam. be tong (1 giiia tdm; II canh tam; III goc tam)

cac M a l,a2' a3 Ian luot eho trong cac bang 4.1, 4.2, 4.3.

HE s6 a I (tai trong We dt)ng iJ giifa tam).

Bang 4.1.

!
~

2,0 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,11 0,5
h
20000 X 1,66 1,60 1,53 1,45 1,36 1,23 1,08 0,99
1500 \ •• 1,67 1.63 1,56 1.50 1,41 I 1.30 1,17 1,04 0,95
I I
I 1000 ·.··1.62 1,55 1,49 1,41 1.22 I 1,22 1,11 I 0,97 I 0.88
I
f 800 •• 1.57 1,51 1,44 1,37 1.28 1,17 1,07 I 0.93 I 0,84
I I I
1 500 1,$1 1,46 1.39 1,32 1.22 1.13 1,02 0,88 0,80
;" -
, I J I
i 500 1.4., 1.42 1,35 1,26 1,19 I 1.10 0,99 0,86 I 0,76
~ !
400 1,44 1.38 1,31 1,22 1.15 I 1,07 0,96 I 0,82 I 0.72
··1.38 I I
r 300 1,33 1,26 1,18 1,11 I 1,02 0,92 0.77 0.68
200 1.31 1.25 1,18 1,12 1.04 I 0,96 0,85 0.70 0,61
L._. !
150 1,25 1.19 1,13" 1,07 0.98 I 0,91 0,80 0,65 0,56
I
I
100 1.18 1.13 1,08 1,01 0,94 I 0.84 0,75 0,58 0.50
-
80 1,14 1.09 1,04 0.97 0,90 I 0.81 0.69 0.55 I 0,46 73

HE: s6 a2 (tal trong tac dung 0 canh tam)

Bang 4.2

2,0

1,8

1,47

1,4

1,2

1,0

0,8

D,e

0,15

1,11

2000

2,74

1,39

1,86

2,49

2,36

2,21

2,05

1,82

1,55

1500

1,32

I

2,62 '

2,42

2,30

2,14

1,95

1,71

1,47

1000

1,19

2,51 I 2,41

2,39

2,14

2,00

1,80

1,60

1,35

800

1,11

2,44 I

2,19

2,08

1,91

1,72

1,53

1,29

600

1,03

2.33 I 2.23

2,11

1,97

1,83

1,63

1,45

1,20

500 2,26

I 2,15

2,03

1,90

1,79

1,58

1,39

1,14

0,98

400 i 2,19 .'

2.09

1,97

1,79

1,68

1,53

1,33

1,07

0,99 0,82

0,91

300

200

I

I

2.10

1.87

1,73

1,73

1,62

1,61

1,49

1,45

1,33

1,25

1,13

0,86 0,69

150

100

1,97

1,86

1,63

1,54

1,53

1,42

1,39

1,29

1.24

1,12

1,04

0,92

0,77. 0,61

0,65 0,50

80

L

; 1,65

1,34

1,22

1,05

0,84

0,58 0,45

I

1,65

i 1,57

1,11

1,4

1,2

1,0

: "'~', HE; 86 a, ('.' trong me dong. Oiila "ole tAm)

0,11

Bang .4.3

0,5

,

2.0

O,B

2000

1,49

2.25

2.17

2.09

1,97

1,80

1,62

1500

1,42

i 2.27

,I

2.20

2,12

2,04

1,91

1,73

1.55

1000

, .

2,13

2,04

1,95

1,66

1,47

1,34

800

UJ7

1,99

1,88

1,75

1,60

1,40

600

1,19

2,14 ,I 2,09

UJ2

1,93

1,80

1,68

1,54

1,33

500

2,11 ,I 2,04

1,97

1,85

1,75

1,64

1,49

1,28

1,14

400

1,08

2,07 2.00

I

1,93

1,81

1,72

1.60

1,44

1,21

300

74

2,01 1,95

1,86

1,75

1,66

1,54

1,38

1,15

1,00

1.77

1,67

1,57

1,44

1.19

0,87

1.84

1,76

1.61

1,50

1,28

1,03

0,80

1,69

1.34

0.95

1,68

1.62

1.52

1.41

1.26

1,08

0.84

0.54

T1'~~~hqp a map dubng c6 b6 via va lat he thl c6 th~ dung cac bang 4.1 vb. 4.3, tran cac dubng .. O .. ~ khac thl dung cac bang 4.1, 4.2. 4.3.

, .. , .. :. ... ,

DI~'~hchi~u day tAm M tong theo cong thuc (4.1) din phai dung phucng phap rna dan: dilu ti~nl'i .. dinh h, tim h/R roi tra cac M s6 a trong bang tren va thay vao cOng thuc (4.1). Neu tri stih tim ra khong phu hop vdi gia dinh thl phai gia dinh chieu day cho den khi k€t qua dnh tc>4.n va gia dinh gan hoac hoan toan phu hop moi thai.

Chilbday tinh khong duoc nh6 hen quy dinh a bang 2.1 va Dieu 2.3. 4.2.\i(i'm toan chieu day be tong dudi me dung cua xe n~ng ca biet

4.2.J>l{hi kilm toan tac dung cua xe nang ca biet hoac cua cac true xe nhieu banh (hlnh 4.2) thi chi.u day tam be tong mat duong duoc tinh thea cong thiic:

h = V 62.. M (a]

(4.2)

Tr011l11'(jo:

h l~l1i~u day tam (ern):

[ dl·,Cuong de? chiu keo khi uon cho phep ella be tong (daN/cm2); L~·T6ng 1110 men uon, (da Nicrn/cm).

4.2.2.~ac dinh m6 men u6n thea cac cong thuc sau:

1) ltl3'm.en uon. .twang tam ua tiep tu yet: do Uti t rong phan bo deu tren dien tlch vong tron v~tbti.nhtuong ducng R sinh ra ngay duci banh xe.

CPtt (l + ,LI ) MI' = Mr = --Z:-r, a-R-

( 4·3)

2) M6 men uon huang tam va tuyeri do Uti trong t<:iP trung cua banh xe ben canh gay

ra.

(4.4)

(4.5)

75

d)

p

p

r

b) Anh huang eua btinh. xe kep,

trung thay the' clio tdi deu tren. dien. ti ch,

So d6 xae dinli m6 men u6n thilt ke'trong uim. be tong.

tam, (daN .cm/cm); tuyen, (daN.em/em);

xe tinh toan da nhan voi h~ 56 xung kich, (daN) (Being 3.1);

a) Dung

Trong cac MF - Mo MT - Mo Pll - Tai p - H~ 56 ~ni'._Cln A,B- Cac

tren:

M tong (J-I =0,15)

dinh thea tich 56 ar. thea aR.

aR CJ Bang 4.4 hoac tinh true tiep qua cong thuc (4.6) hotic (4.7); cac 4.5.

r -

tac dung tai trong den di~m can tim mo men, (em) (Hlnh

4.2).

a - H~ 86

quan-dsn d¢ cung hlnh tru ella tam, tlnh thea cong thuc:

a=

6Ei1 (1 - ,u~) Eh3 (l -'l~)

Trong d6:

Ed- MO 4.6, (daN/cm2).

(4-6)

h~i chung trim mat lap mong (duoc xac dinh thea huang dAn (j Dieu

,

E- M6 dun".n h<>i cua be tong, (daN/em"');

,um- H~ s6l?oi$$on chung cua mong va nen dat. Neu lay ,ut>=O,15; Pm =0,3-0,4; thl co the tinh gEm dung:

1~6Em

a - - ch (4.7)

-h E

76

e'ln kiim toan chiau day tam dliai tac dung cua tcii trong xe xich, xe nhieu dung eOng thuc (4.8) va thea Hlnh 4.2a de tlnh mo men' nen huang tam va h,te t~p trung gAy ra de quyet dinh mO men u6n dung de kiem toan trsn

Mx = MF eosz. a + MT sin2 a My = MF sin2 a + MT eos2 a

(4.8)

"<·.LftlIC ~p giua hrc cua huang tim me men vai dirong n6i lie~ diem tac dung luc vai

GIA TRI CUA ar vA aR

Bang 4.4

E tt/r hay II/R
-
E~h 1,8 1,8 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,8 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1
2000 \~~~2 O.osO 0,090 O,lJ3 0,120 0,144 0,180 0.240 0.286 0.360 0.480 0.150 1.440
1500 ~;~t9 0.088 0,099 0.114 0.133 0.159 0.198 0.265 0.346 0.397' 0.530 0.795 1.SSQ
1200 i(;J;~$ 0,095 0,107 0.122 0,143 0.171 0.214 0.285 0.342 0,427 0,569 0.855 1.710
100(1 .().~1 0,104 0;114 0.130 0.152 0.182 0.227 0.304 0.364 0.454 0.605 0.910 1.820
800 .()~80 O,lJ8 0,122 0.140 0.163 0.195 0.244 0.326 0.390 0.487 0.650 0.975 1.950
GOO • •••. ~l~8 0,120 0.135 0.154 0.181 0.216 0.270 0,360 0.432 0.540 0.720 1.080 2.160
I.V:)
500 0,127 0.142 0.163 0.191 0.228 0.286 0.381 0.456 0.570 0.760 I 1.140 2.280
I (),'~3
1 400 0,137 0,154 0.176 0.206 0,246 0.808 0.410 0,492 0.615 0.820 1,230 2.461
j 300 il'¥,a$ 0,189 0.194 0,226 0,271 0,338 0.452 0.542 0.677 0.902 1.355 2,710
200 i~'~. 0,172 0,194 0.222 0,259 0,310 0,387 0.512 0.620 0,775 1,033 1.550 3,'100
I 150 .··.0.#1· 0,190 0,214 0,244 0,285 0,342 0,426 0.570 0,684 0,860 1.137 1.710 3,420
100 (),~$ 0,126 0.244 0,279 0,326 0,390 0,487 0.650 0,780 0,975 1.300 1.930 3.900
1
J
! 80 'Q·~lO 0,420 0,525 0.700 0.840 1,050 1.398 2,100 4.200
, 0.233 0.262 0,300 0.351
l
,
I 77

TRl ellA cAc HE: so A, B, e TRONG cAc CONG THUC (4.3); (4.4); (4.5)

e •• "}\Ill'la" vo-i ung sw1t nhiet,

tn~t tr(;n va n~t duai cua tam b~ tong chenh nhau ~t (d¢ C) thl trong ling suiIt u6n yang tlnh thee cac cong thuc duoi day:

E[a

0[= 2 (Cx+.uCy).~t (4.9)

2 (1 -.u )

t~n:

yang thee huang doc c'1 gii'!a iA:m, daN/cm2 vbng thee huang ngang a' giua tam, daN/cm2 u6n vbng theo d9C c'1 canh iA:m, daN/cm2

at hay aR C
a
0.05 0,091
0,1 0,147

0.2 0,220
0.3 0,275
0.4 0.313
0.6 0.352
8.B 0.387
1.0 0,364
1.2 0,353
1.4
1.6 0,309 4.3.

Khi

Trong

78

Bdng 4.5

at hay aR A B C
\8 0,025 .{l,019 ·
2,0 0,021 .{l,021 0,263
2.2 OIJfT ·0,019 "
2.4 0,014 .{l.018 ·
2.6 4:'0.012 ·0,017 ·
2.8 0.010 ·0.016 ·
3.0 0.008 -0.014 ·
3.2 0.007 .{l,013 ·
3,4 0,006 -0,012 ..
3,6 0,005 -0,011 ..
3.8 0.004 • 0.009 ·
4.0 0,003 .{l,008 - (4.10)

(4.11)

vai

VII'"''''' l~h nhiet de? giita mat tren va mat duoi tam be tong, co the lay 61 =O,B4.h,

Poisson cua be tOng, thuong lay bang 0,15.

Cac M s6 eo trj sO thay doi thoo ti s6 LII va BII.

dan hoi cua be tong k\li chiu tac dung cua su chenh l~ch nhiet de) lau dAi -I-.l,:i .• IOJ. thucng' hlY bang O,6E" voi E" la mo dun dim hoi cua be tong, daN/cm.!.

dai do nhiet dQ cua be tong a = 10-5 o~

III chieu dai tam be tong (tuc khoang each gitra hai 'khe co); B la chieu rqng 1 lil ban klnh dQ ciing cua tam be tong, tlnh thea ceng thuc:

(4.12)

h • ChiE!U day tam be tong, ern;

E • Mo dun dan hoi etta be tong; daN/cm2;

E~:, . Mo dun dim hoi chung t"~n mat mong, daN/cm2; nhu huang dan a Dicit 4.6).

cac h~ s6 C, va Cy co the tra cJ toan do ve a liinh 4.3 'hoac bang 4.6

toan tac dung ph6i hQP cua ling suat do nhiet va ung' suat do tni trong xe tong hQP Ian hon cucng de? chill uon cho rh~r cua hf:> tong t h i rhai giam hoac tang chieu day gia dinh elm tam roi kie'rn toan lai voi ling sua! t6ng

chay, bot hop.

CJ(, c, 1,1

1.0 0,9

0,8 0.7 0,6 0,5 0,4- 0.3 0,2 0,1

o a

/- - --

/
/
II
I
1
/
I V
I
/
/ ,
i
/_
_/ L .§_ 2 3 4- 5 6 7 8 9 10 77 12 13 14 I l

Hinh 4.3. Toari do tra eric h~ so' Cx viz Cy

79

4.4. khong d6i

Bdng 4.6
~ va ~
I I 4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 9,0
0,42 0,70 0,91 \01 1,07 1,08 c6t thep tA.ng cuong a canh tl'fm: Khl dung tam M tOng tiel dian leU}~~!Ylll (dng voi~ bang 4.1) co cot thcp tang ctWng a canh tam, tiet dien cot th'iIO •• Dhl"OIllZ pbAp gan dung (xem. hinb: 4.4)

r+ 1

+-l'-----m-o-c-m---.-JJ,

1 1

HLnh 4.4

Luc phu t ttk dung len mot dai rong 100 em (; gan canh tam mil cot thep phai thu

nhan duoc xac di.lldlja tren gia thi~ is. irng suat 02 (; canh Him giam dan den 0'1 a giua tam

(trong pham vI~ d6) va ti~ :e(o ~6:go :h:Co ,) ~ 100 (4.13)

Neu xem 02 = 1,5 OJ (4.14)

thi

( OJ, 02 - 'Q'ngsuat do tai trong gay ra trong tam be tong trong truong hcp ta.i trong tac dung (; giira t«tnv~Cs canh tam).

Dien tlchJi~fdi~n c6t thep din thiet de thu nhan luc phu them tren day 18. :

Q

F=-

[ct1

Voi [oa } 18.i~:ng sURt chiu keo cho phep cua cot thep (daN/cm2). Can cd V8.0 F (cm2) d€ tinh ra 56 thanl.tc~t thep can phai b6 tri trong pham vi 80cm M tit mep vao. Thuong dung cot thep co dUbl18'!ldnh tit 10 + 14mm.

(I./../~ )

Tru:onghqp.t6ng di~n tlch cot thep bang nhau nen 5\1 dung loai c6t thep tiet di~n nho voi 56 thanh tUdJ)' d6i nhieu, nhung phai dam baa b6 trl khoang each gipa cac thanh cot thep ~h6ng nho hunlOcm, lap bao h¢ cua cot thep each day tam be tong '4h va khong nho hen 5cm, SCI do b6trfc6t thep Cs mep tam nhu ve a binh. 4.5.

80

++

Scm

t>5c:m

Hl.n.h 4.5. So do b6 tri cot thep a mep tam.

t k~ lop m6ng be tong xi mang cua m~t duong be tong nhtra

toan be day lap mong be tong xi mang duoi lap be tong nhua tien hanh nhu

sau:

quyet mang

c6ng thuc (4.1) xac dinh chieu day cua tam be tong xi mang hrd sau do day lop be tong nhua thea diu tao, rei tinh chisu day lop mong be tong xi

( 4.16)

Trong.d6:

h,,)[v~ht>tA. - Chieu day cua lap mcng be tong xi mang va lap mat be tong nhua, (em) Eh.;f,.~Ehtn - M6 dun dan hoi cua be tong xi mang va be tong nhua, (daN/em::). 4.6.i~.~. djnh rna dun dan hoi chung tr en mat lap mong E~l

Lc,pt~~~l'Ig va nen dat ducc xem nh u mot h~ ban khcng gian dan hoi 2 lap va viec tinh mo dun~~~<h~i chung tren mat lap mong duoc t ien hanh theo hucng dan 0 Dieu 3. 10 voi tcan do ktn.lt 3.3 cr "Tieu chuan thiet ke ao ducng niern" 22 TCN-211-93.

Ch'llyrang trong khi ap dung toan do noi t re n de t inh toa n thi tr] 56 D - duo ng kinh tVC1ng dUelng-eua vet banh xe tinh tcan phai thay bang tri 56 Dm xac dinh thea corig thirc sau de' xet detl$1! phan be tai trong cua tarn be tong xi m ang a tran:

Dm = l' + h (CI11)

14.16)

VaL :l"ti. Be day tam be tong xi marig (em)

Khitfnhtoan E~;l cac tri s6 mo dun dan hoi t inh toan cua vat lieu mong va cua nEm dat cung dUQ¢.i,cacainh nhu a cac PhI.! luc III ua II 0 Tieu chuan 22TCN-211-93.

4.7.1"inb chieu day lap m6ng cua mat duong be tong xi mango

DuOitdcd1,lng lap lai cua tai trcng, dat nen duo ng eo the bi bien dang deo. Lap mong d uoi m~ta\J(lng be tong xi mang phai bao dam cho trong dat nen ducng phia duoi kho ng x uat hi en bien dQ.ng deo (khong bi t nrot) voi dieu kien:

Trongd6:

Tanl -D'ng suat eat (truct) hoat dong lOTI nhat do hoat tai gay ra;

81

thiet ke ao

voi dong nhat cua

..

tAi (trorig lucng ban than ella cac lop ket cau phia tren) gay ra; cua dat (str dung va xac dinh nhu a phu luc II cua Tieu chuan TCN-21l-93);

d~c trung cho dieu kien lam viec cua ket cau mat ducng: k = kJ k' huang ella su lap lai tai trong (Bang 4-8), k J h¢ so xet den s1,1 khong lam viec ella mat duong cung thea chieu dai duong, lay theo Bdng 4- 7

GIA TRl ellA HI;: so Kl

Bang 4.7

Bling thanh truv'&n lu e

0,65 0,55

0,75 0,65

GIA TRl ellA H£ so K'

Bang 4.8

~ .. _· -=~~~~ 1_n_g_._v __ d_im __ t_ri_n_m __ O_t_I._n __ x. -+ k_· _,

Dl.liIi 1000 1.0

3000 0.85

Trill 3000 0.75

thee toan do Hlnh 4.6 vai cac thong s6 tinh toan cua nsn d{t duoi Ph\l luc II Tieu chuan 22 TCN 211-93

su~t cAt hoat dQng i:J chieu sau z, kG/cm2

82

a. Tolin do xac dinhting sutit cat hoat dQng

cae khe khOng co thanli truyen luc (lien kit tu do)

ung suat cAt hoatdong' a chieu sau z, kG/cm2

b. Toan do xdc dinh: ling suat edt hoqt dong khi kite eo thanh: truyen. luc (lien Mt khop)

4.6. Cac toan. do xac dinli ling sulf.t eat hoot dgng lon. nhtit.

0,06 f---;--~~--+--,f--+---+--+"-d---j '-'---'_--L_;'_;'---l..-'-__;_....::w 4fJ

7:"b

Hmh 4.7"

Toan diJ de zdc dinii d6 [an eua ung sudt edt hoet d¢ng do trong Luong ban tluin. ccc lap co dui1ng nllm tren. lilp tinh. toen. (r:lb) idy ra trong l;,p tinh toano

83

CHUONG V

m.(tt dtt<.rng be t6ng lAp ghep.

tOng hlp ghep cd th€ lambang tam hlnh chu nhat, hinh vuong, hoac

t6 hlnh hoc cua tuyen dirong, y~u diu xe chay va dieu ki~n thi cong cln true) dB chon hlnh dang va kfch thuOc tn:m.

lAp ghep phai lien ket tOt vC1i nhau, bao dam truysn t8.i trong tit t!Jln.i.,". bao dam mat ducng bang phang, 6n dinh khi chiu Iuc ngang.

Co tM li~ttJt4~t thea cac hlnh thue dudi day:

1. Lien kat kh<'1p (Hinh S.la)

2. Lien Mt cung (Hlnh 5.1b)

3. Lien ket tuyet d6i cdng (Hlnh S.lc)

HI.nh 5.1. Caehl.nh thuc lib kit giila ccc t6.m.

phAi ti~p xUc t6t ven mong, th\fbng d(it tAm ~. t6ng len cat d~m hoac

d:~ng cho t~m nam chac t~n lap nay.

tong la.p ghep co tM lam bang ~ t6Dg thuong,. b~ tong c6t thep va M I\lC, trong do thl1i1ng dung nhat lil cac ta:m ~ tOng c6t thep. Cuong dQ c::ua"(P~ tUln thea qui dinh a Die« 2.4 ella Tieu ch~n nily.

5.2. Tit,lIi·htl'din tfm be t6ng lAp ghep.

Mo tlbn phu thuQc vao chi s6 dQ mem s· ella t~m:

hlnh 6 canh.

PhAi can -.~ .iiA .... (nhat Iii kha

84

",'

fJOBT)(M

C) ••

(5.1)

41i~ dan hM chung t~n mat lop mong (daN/em2), X8.e dinh nhu huang dAn a

Poisson tltong duong tr~n m~t lop mdng ( ,um=O,30)

.. )(0 dun dan hhi (daN/em2) va. h~ s6 Poisson eua M tOng, (Eb xem Bang 2.2,

h." ••• Ii:;bt,tu day t«m ~ tong (em)

}dnh tb1. trim hoac nita canh ngan cua t4m ehu nMt (em)

'''''':"''Il'IE hqp S > 10, t«m xem nhu VO han va dung cac cong thuc tlnh toan nhu d6i voi Xi !DAng dd tai eh6 a Chuang IV.

10, tam xem nhu hiru han va xac dinh mo men uon a giua tam

(5.2)

do

trQng banh tinh toan (Bang 3.1), daN; - Cac tr] s6 eho a Being 5.1.

hop S <0,5, tam thuoc loai tuyet d6i cung, rno men udn a gii1a tam tinh thea

cOng

-Z ~t = Mr p

(5.3)

cua banh xe tinh toan, daN/cmZ;

vuong bang 1/2 chieu dill canh, vdi tam 6 canh bang chieu dai canh.

TRl so MA vA MB trong rung th\lc (5.2)

Bdn.g 5.1.

$ 0.5 1 2 3 5 1()
~A - 0,052 - 0,066 - 0,066 - 0.074 -0.086 -0.108
0/21 0.01 O.(R 0.03 0.04 0,05 I 0,075 I:¥O 0,15 020
MI 0,057 0,443 0,405 0,378 0,358 I 0.320 0.203 0.255 0.224 -

TrtS6M trong cong thue (5.3) xem a bang 5.2 phu thuoc vao tri s6 D/2r , vci D- duong

klnh vttb41lh xe tuong ducng.

85

D/2r

TRJ s6 M trong cong thuc (5.3)

Bang 5.2

0,50

0.70

0,90

0,07

0,60

0,80

1.00

M

0,08

0,09

0,10

0,10

0.09

M6 men

~m do anh huong cua luc cat thea chu vi Q tinh thea c~ng thuo:

MQ = - MQQr

(5.4)

Trang do

s6, tra theo bang 5.3 phu thuec vao S

TRl s6 Mo trong cong thuc (5.4)

Bang 5.3

s 0.,5 1 I 2 3 5 10
I
Mo .~~~4 0.247 I 0.220 0,197 .0,161 0,126
~","" huang cua cac tam ben canh (khi Iisn k~t- khop) tlnh thea cong thuc: -p

Q = Q LI (5 - 5)

vet

Trang do

11 = r,y"[;

phu thuec VaG ty so r/ LI tra thea Being 5.4.

GIA TRl Q trong ct'lng thuc (5.5)

Bang 5.4

rILl 0,1 .... ~. 0.4 0,6 0,8 1 1.2 1.4 1,5 1,8
Q 1.582 0,367 0,224 0,150 0,105 0,074 0,053 0,038 0.027 Chieu

M tOng lAp ghep xac dinh thee ceng thuc:

h=~

(5-6)

Trang do: [a] - tri~t giam

u6ng cho phep cua be tong, xac dinh thea Di~u 2.4 chia cha h~ 56 n6i a Dieu 3.3;

86

u6n t6ng ceng tinh thea cong thuc:

M = Mil + MQ

(5.7)

theo cOng thtic (5.2) hoac (5.3) ung voi trl10ng hQP t~m hiiu han hoae tam

tuyft

Tfnb theo cOng thilc (5.4)

day cua ~m M tOng lap ghep dl1c;1C chon trubc khS. nang v~n chuy~n va lAp ghep

tA:m do tlnh toan luong c6t thep y~u diu.

G.3.D~xae djnh dien tich cO't thep din thiet phai tlnh gia tri ella h~ sO' {J 1 hoac Yl the<)cOng thue:

T*Qn,gd6:

M+MO men uon tong cong, tinh thea cong' thuc (5.7); hoi·Chi~u cao co Ich cua tiel dien tam;

b •. Chf~u rQng cua tiet dien tlnh toan;

.Ung suat chiu nan ucn cho phep cua be tong (daN/cm2), l~y thea Bang 5.5.

Bang 5.5.

I

250

400

200

300

175

lfngllu.it nen u&' cho phep (Oh I. daN/cm2

90

110

130

-Ung' suat cho phep ella cot thep, daN/cm2, lay nhu sau:

Cot thep t ron CT3 C6t thep tron CT5

1350 daN/cm2 1600 daN/cm2

Sl:'ltli:l6 tra bang 5.6 de xac dinh ty l~ cot thep p%

87

Bang 5.6
P% Y1 p% {J1 Y1
,
2,00 59,1 1.00 6.34 113,7 ~
1,90 62,1 oso 6,57 125,7
1,80 65,2 D,8O 6,84 140,3
1,70 69,0 0,70 7;18 159,3
1,60 73,0 0.60 7,60 184,8
1,50 77,4 0,50 8,14 219,8
1,40 82,8 0,40 8,86 272,2
1.30 88,6 0,30 9,95 359,0
1,20 95,5 0,20 11,76 531,5
UD 103,8 0.10 15.84 1045,0 Btl

CAC vi nu TINH TOAN

Thien ke' chieu day mat d~ang M tOng xi mang cho duang cap Ill, luu lugng dAm veri thanh phan 700 xe du lich, 500 xe ca true 4,5T, 450 xe tai 5,6T, 375 83 xe tAi true lOT va 38 xe tAi 2 true 9,4T. Ml).t duang r¢ng 7m. mn duang chl).t k = 0,98, eha:t luong d~ng d~u, bao dam thoat nUDC tot.

-~

kll cauva xdc dinh cdc tham so linh todn.

diu, tlnh hinh xe va ~~t li~u x!y dung, kha nang thi cong, chon ke't cau m*t

- LIJpm4t duimg b~ tong xi mang M.350 khcng cot thep, do tai ehO, klch thuerc tam tr~n m*t ~An8"611l x 3,5m.

Theli)bdng 2.2 (Dieu 2.4) duoc cuong d¢ chiu keo khi u6n Rku = 45 daN/em2 va mO dun dan h~i$= 3.3.104 daN/cm2, M sO poisson It = 0,15.

- ~ .... nt.6ng: cat gia c6 8% xi mang M400, day 15 em, tra bang III.3 phu luc III Ti~u chuan 2zitCN 211-93 ducc E. = 2800 daN/em2·.

- D<f.:tn.m dubng: a set dam chat k = 0,98, thoat nUDC tot, d¢ am tucng d6i d muc bat lei WfWt = 0,7 thea phu luc II Tieu chuan 22 TeN 211-93 ducc Eo = 300 daN/cm2, = 17°, C = 0,28.q{:1.N/Cm2.

- Td,ftr9ng tinb: toan. : 0 to true lOT, tra Bang 3.1 dieu 3.1 duoc tai trong banh xe p = 5000 daN

H~ Jil6xung kich 1,20.

V$yb,\,i trqng tlnh toan Pit = 5000 x 1,2 = 6000 daN.

DUClllgkinh v~t banh xe tlnh tcan

Do = 33 ern; R = 16,5 em

Bang quy d6i liru h:tc;1ng xe / ngay dem ra xe chua:n co tr\1c lOT

!
, Loai xe N., Tn./C xe Nqd
ai
,
,
1 Xe con cac loai 700 - 0 0
I ca true 4.5 T 500 4.5 0,03 15
tAi true 5,6T 450 5,6 0,08 36
tat true 6,9T 375 6,9 0,34 128
Xe tAi true 'to.OT 83 10,0 1 83
XII tAi true 9.4T 38 2 x 9,4 2 x 0,66 50
TOng cong 2146 312 Doi duong 2 lim xe, luu luong xe chay tinh toan:

Ntt = 0,55 L Ni ai

89

N .

1

te cua loai xe thu i;

a . 1

ve xe tinh toan cua xe thu i, lay thea Di~u 3.6 Tieu chuiin 22 TeN

211·93.

Nit = 0,55 x 312 = 172

bi long xi miing;

. Gia dinh

day tl1:m b~ tong h = 24 em .

D = Do + h = 33 + 24 = 57 em

. Tim

hbi tuong duorig tren mat lap rnong E~h: hm 15

-=-=026

D 57 '

Tra toan

Eo 300

El = 2800 = 0,11

3.3 cuaTteu chuan 22 TeN 211-93 dune

Vf?_y E~l - Xac

El

x 2800 = 476 daNiem2

0,17

Xac dinh

h 24

Ii = 16,5 = 1,45

Tii cap

s, 33.1et

- = --=693

Enl 476

eh

tra Bang 4.1, 4.2 va 4.3 ta duoc:

al = 1,35

az = 2,053

a3 c: 1,983

Trang do(,tZ > a3 > al nen ta tlnh chieu day theo a2 (tai trong canh CJ tam). Xac dinhht'86 chi~t giam cuong de? theo Bang 3.4 Dieu 3.3: n == 0,5.

Sit dl;lDg~~ •• thuc (4.1) ta co:

•.... h == ~ voi [a) == ~u. n

h __ 4 /2,053 x 6000

V = 23,4cm

45x 0,5

Ta chip ·nbt-n. h = 24 em nhu gia dinh ban dau

90

2

"Uixe true J3T

co P = 6500 daN,R = 18cm. H~ so xung kich kd = 1,15. Khoang each gifra tl'\1c sau la 1,7m (Hznh 4.26)

djnh mO men uon sinh ra duci banh xe tlnh toan thea cong thuc (4.3), ta can

h 24 s,

- = - = 1 33' - = 693

R 18 ' , m

Ech

Bang 4.4 duc;tc aR =0,157, va tra Bang 4.5 ta ducc c = 0,188.

Ptt = p.~ = 6500 x 1,15 = 7475 daN

c'Ptl (1 + p.) O,188x 7475 (1 + 0,15)

MF=MT= 2naR = 2x3,14xO,157

MF = MT = 1639,1 daN.cm/cm

(4.4)

men u6n do tai trong t~p trung cua banh xe ben canh gay ra theo cong thuc

h 24 Eb

R = 170 = 0,14; -;;;- = 693

Ech Tra})8.ng4.4 ducc ar = 1,640

Tra.tii.ng 4.5 ducc A = 0,030 B =} .• 0,019

MF = (A + IlB) Pu,.

= (0,025 . 0,15 x 0,019)7475 = 203 daN.em/cm Mr = (B+ flA )Pu

= (·0,019 + 0,15 x 0,030)7475 = . 108 daN.em/em

2: MF = 1639 + 203 = 1842 daN.em/em 2: MT = 1639 . 108 = 1531 daN.em/em

tong

> L MT nan ta tlnh voi LMF duoc ting suat keo ucn xuat hien trong UJ:m be

dung cua xe nang true 13T.

6 L MF 6x 1842

0= = = 19,19daN/cm2

h2 242

Vn.g.s\u1:t cho phep cua be tong M350 khi kie m to an vdi xe nang: [0]= O.6RIe"" = 0, 6x45=27daN/cm2. Trong do he so triet giam cucng dO 0,6 la:y thea Bang 3.4.

Vi C1.'# 19,19 daN/cmz < [0] = 27 daN/cmz nen tam be tOng chiu duoc tac dung cua xe n~ng laT.

91

p = 6T. Khi xem tai kinh Iii:

Hinli 1:

cac 6 do va

duoc tom tat

Ti1 do

92

cua xe xich T60

cua xe xlch T60 la 60 T, ap I\fC ella banh xe III 6T/rn, chieu dai r¢ng cua banh xich Iii 0,7m, khoang each giua 2 banh xlch la the dong thai tac dung tren mot tam, vi v~y chi din kiem toan tam khi chiu tac dung ella mot v~t banh xich, be qua anh huang

thanh 5 () deu nhau, tai moi 6 chiu tac dung cua mot I\fC tap trung u6n do cac ap luc me dung tren cac o gay ra d6i voi diem A thi tren () 1 III tai trcng phan b6 deu tran vong tron tucng duong ban

R= -{fij_,7 =

TC

0,47m

x

d3 kilm. toan tam. M tong xi nu'ing duoi tac dung cua bank xi eli

d\1ng tr{lD cac 6 2, 3 thl xem Is cac I\fC t~p trung tac dung tai tam cua m()t c\f ly r2= 1,0111 va r3=2,Om.

men uon do cac luc tac dung cua banh xlch gAy ra d61 voi diem A

cOng thtic (4.7):

=.!_ {1'5[ = _!_ y 6 x 476

h Eo 24 33x 104

x.47=0,47

x 100=1,00 x 200=2,00

, a = 0,01

u6'n do tAi trQng banh xlch gAy ra d6i vdi di4~m A (0 giua tam)

A

8

c

CPu (1 + II)

MF = 2 n aR

0,326 x 6.000 (1 + 0,15) 2 x 3,14 x 0,47

762

0.32!:! x 6.000 (1 + 0,15)

= 762

2 x 3.14 x 0,47

0,058 -0.006

2 (-0,006+0,15xO.058) 6000 = 32 2 [(0,058 + 0,15 (-0.006)] 6.000=625

0.326

0,021 -0,02

MT = 996 daN.em I em

2 (-0.02 + O,15xO,021) 6.000=202 2 [(0.021 + 0,15 (-0.02)) 6.000 = 216

MF = t663 daN.em I em

Do i2 MF > L MT nen kiem toan voi LMF = 1663 daN.em/em Ungsu«t keo uon Ian nhat gay ra a day tam 130:

3 x 1663

a = 2 = 17,3 daN/cm2

24

keo uon cho phep [0 )=0,65 Rw trong do h~ so chiet giarn cucng d¢ 0,65 lay

ta duoc

[0 ) = 0,65 x 45 = 29,25daN/cm2 17,3daN/cm2 < (0) = 29,25daN/cm2

tOng chiu duoc tac dung cua xe xich T60.

totln voi truirng hap tam chiu ttic dung dong thiri cua ldi trong va nhiet drj.

"'''''''U.U l~eh nhiet d¢ a be mat va nhiet d¢ a day tam (M) tlnh theo ceng thuc M =0,84h d ou: 4.3:

thea

nhtt

~t = 0,84 x 24=20,16°C

trung dan hoi cua tam be tong duqc tlnh theo cong thuc (4.12):

»rz: V 33.Hf

1 = O,6h V -;- = 0,6 x 24 476' L = 0,6 x 24 x 8,85 = 127,4

Ech

dinh ty so

L 600

B 350

= 4,71; T = 127,4 = 2,75

wan do Hinh 4.3 duoc C, = 0,62; Cy = 0,15

- Ungsuat do chenh l~ch nhiet d¢ gay ra a giiia tam thea huang d9C:

Eta

02 = (C, + f.l Cy) ~t x 2

. 2(1-fl)

127,4

93

Urig suat

198.10' x 10-5

+0,15xO,15)20,16x ,

2 (1 - 0,15~)

02 = 13,12daN/cm2

nhiet do gay ra thea huang ngang cua tam:

Eta

a n = (Cy + fl C, ) A t x 2

2(1-11 )

198 1 0' x 10 - 5

(0,1.5 + 0, 15x 0,62) 20,16 x -,

2(1-0,15~)

an = 4,96daN/cm2

Ung suat

nhiet dO gay ra thea huang doc (; canh tam:

Et·a 1981o'xlO-5

---- = 0,62x 20,16x = 12,66daN/cm2

2(1-112) 2(1- 0,152)

do tai trong va nhiet d¢ cling tac dung gay ra C1 mat cat giira tam

- Ung suat theo huang d9C.

trong do a,

do tai trong gay ra a giua tam:

al Pit 1,35x 6000 ..,

a I = --2- = 2 = 14,06 daN/cm-

h 24

= 13,12daN/cm2 tadudcoI:=; 27, 18 daN/cm2

- Ung suat,

do tai trong va nhiet dO cling tac dung gay ra a canh tam:

all = 02 + a c

tjong do 021~.\tl'lg su~t do tai trong gl1y ra C1 canh tam:

a 2 Pit 2,053x 6000 .,

02 = --2 - = 2 = 21,39daN/cm~

h 24

a c = 12,66 daN/cm2

all = 34,05daN/cm2

Ta duoc

Ta thay oll><7rn~n ki~m toan thea all'

Trong trU(1J:).I"'~~P nay [0 ] = 0,85Rj;.u tri s6 0,85 Ill. h~ so chi~t giam cucng dO, lay thea Bang 3.4, ta duc;Jc:

2 [a] = 0,85.4~<==38,25daN/cm .

all = 34,05da1'llcm2 < [a] = 38,25daN/cm2

Vf!.y tam b6t.6.g lam vi~c an toan duoi tac dung t6ng hop cua ta.i trong' va nhi~t dO.

94

day Idp m6ng.

lop mdng dttoi m~t duong M tong' xi mang phai-bao dam d~ dat n~n khong --"T-.'£) deo:

T am + T ab < K'KI C S [T a]

Tb .... J,lQ,ng 4.8 khi hai Iuqng 0 to tlnh toan trong 1 ngay d~m tr~n m¢t Ian xe nho han 1,0.

Th·~.· •• · •••• ,llg 4.7 v~ lop mdng gia c6 xi mang, tam b~ tong lien klt bAng thanh truyan h.1C

thl

[1"a ] = 0,65x1,OxO,28=0,182daN/cm2

- T{lUl fam va Tab

Th,.,totln d~ b H'inh 4.6, v~ 1 = 127, tp = 17°

z = hI = 15cm

chiJ"fsA.U tit m~t ti~p xuc bang:

hb + Z = .24 + 15 = 39cm

va

Pu 6000

= 0,372

-=--

Taco'tam = 0,04daN/cm2.

Thec:>toan d~ CJ H'inh 4.7 vci hb + Z = 39cm va 'f' = 1 ~ ta duc;Jc:

Tab = 0,002daN/cm2

Tam + Tab = 0,040 + 0,002 = O,042daN/cm2.

V~y

Nhut:~n ta cd [Ta] = 0,182daN/cm2

V~Yl'ain + Tab [TaJ chieu d~y lop mdng de. chon dam bao khtlhg phat sinh bi~n #ng deo tron.gl!.l.tn"n.

Vic;tY,2: K.et cau mat duong cao cap gom lap mat If! Scm be tOng nhua, lop Wodng bang be tOngl<ftnang M250. Tai trong thiet ke la true lOT. Lap mcng M tOng xi mang d$t tr~n lop d~Ill(!litva toan b¢ k~t cau mat dUClng d~t trsn nen cat co E~ = 500daN/cm2.

Haytlnh chieu day lop mong b~ tong xi mang va tfnh xem sau khi lop mc5ng be tOng dat duqc.quang d¢ bao nhieu thl co the rai lap be tOng nhua phla trsn. May lu dung de Iu len lop mat n~ng lOT, chieu rong' ella banh lu sau Iii 5Ocm, trong lucng banh lu la 375OdaN.

Gidi:

J) finltehii", day kip mOlig bi long M250 - Tinhchieu day htd

95

Tra

o to true lOT co P = 5000daN, R = 16,5cm. la:y h~ s6 xung kich ~ = 1)

Tai t (Vai

hId 26

If = 165 = 1,58

,

Eb 290.000
= = 580
E~ 500
a2 = 2,094
h=~ = V 2,094x 6000 = 26,79
[a] 0,5x 35 = 26 em \sai s6 3%)

hId = 26cm.

- Kiern toaniyoi xe true 13T (Ptt=6500daN; R = l Scrn)

hId 26 z, 290.000

_. _ = - = 1 44 . - = = 580 ., JJ = 0,15

oR 18 ' , m 500 r:

Ech

Tra

aR = 0,152 c = 0,184. CPn (1 + fl)

=

0,184.6500(1 + 0,15) 2.3,14.0,152

= 1441 daN.cm/cm

V?y

2naR

tAi trong cua banh xe ban canh gay ra

hId 26 Eo 290.000

"7 = 170 = 0,153; E~ = 500 = 580;

ar = 1,638

A = 0,030. B= -0,019.

[0,030+0,15(-0,019)]6500= 176daN.em/cm; 15.0,030)6500=-94,25daN . em/em;

"

ki~m toan vai2:MF

Trong vc'Ji xe n~ng

h = .. J 6L MF = ... J 6x1617

V [0] V 0,6x35 = 21,49 < 26cm

x 35=21daN/em2, voi 0,6 18. M 86 tri€t giam cuong' d¢ khi ki~m toan 3.4.

96

dly 1(Jp mong ~ tOng M250 dttl1i 1l1p mtt ])A tOng nh\fa dly, Scm

~ng thdc (4.16):

. ,i~b-;;' 11 3000

hbx = htd - hbtn Y ~x = . 26 - 8 V 290.000' = 26- 1. 76 ~ 2,24

IM~Clltieu dly lap mong ba tong xi mllng hbx = 24cm.

ctrun, ~ eua /4p mAn, hi 18n, xi miln, eho phip rdi /4p ~ hi ttJng nlqra lin Irln. .m Mp ro4t ba tOng nh\fa )'Au clu ung su«t cho phep c1ia lap m6ng phii l<tn

khOng xet d.1n S\f tAng di~n phAn b6 tAi trQng tran m~t lap m6ng c1ia 1l1p ~

So,4~dnh toan vl1i tAi tl'Qng xe lu nhu Hlnh 2.

_ ikbi rii ba tong nh\fa cttC:1ng d~ l(fp mdng' ~t khoAng 70% cttbng d¢ thi.1t kf . (Rn =tr;m.2, Ru = 24daN/cm2, [0'] = 12daN/cm2, E = 200.000daN/cm2)

tfnh toan (J di~m A:

h 24 -=-=037

r 65 '

2000.0000 --50-0- = 400

Tr"iBang 4.4 ta duc;1C ar = 0,677

Tra. Jilang 4.5 ta duqc A = 0,086; B = 0,014

3750 r=O,65

ci:JN

t=0,65 3750 daN

I 0,8

1 1

Hl.nh 2. Sa d(j kilm toan uoi xe tu

97

= 2(0,086+0,15xO,014)3750=660,8daN.crnJcm = 2(O,014+0,15xO,086)3750=201,75daN.cm/cm

6 x 660,8 = 6,88 da/cm2 < [0'] = 12daN/cm2 ,242

lu lam vi~c sau khi be tOng dat duoc 70% cuong d¢ thiet ke (sau

duong trong Tlim M

tra cueng d¢ cua ~m be tOng xi mang lap ghep dung M xAy dung

T4m ~ vong tron nQi

(d = 2r H'inh 4

6 canh, chieu d~y 16cm, klch thudc nhu Hinh: 3, dl1c;1C ch~ tao a xi co c11C1ng d¢ keo u6n ti~u chuan Ru =45daN/cm2, d~t tr~n lop mong n~n duang IS. d4t a set E~ = 340daN/cm2, Po = 0,3.

k~ cho d11C1ng 0 to trong khu nhala 0 t6tI1,lC sau 7T (Pit = 3500daN,

6 canh dUQc tlnh toan nhu t4m trim co dl1bng :Jdnh bang dubng kinh

tfnh toan cua ~m chiu tai trong cua banh xe . phan b6 tren yang trim ....... ., ..... co d11bng kinh D = 3Ocm, ap hrc p = 5daN/cm2.

2010

p

Q

p:5daN/cm2

l

l

d=2r=200cm

1

1

, Hz.nh 4. So d~ tinh toan cae tdm lap ghep h'inh 6 canh:

T~i chu vii~cbiu tac d\lDg cua hIe cat Q tl1C1ng dl1C1ng voi phan l~e cua cac ~m ~n

canh.

~ .t6ng 6 canh'

- Xac dj~~ 86 S theo eOng thdc 5.1:

98

8- 3 (1 .... ,uS) Ec'\ ~ _ 3 (1 - O. ,If?) 340 x 1001 _ 0"

- - - ~1

(1 - ,u~) Eb h3~1 - o,a2) 330.000x 163 . .

I

10, v~y t«m thu¢e loai ed dQ edng huu ban tran- m$t bAng.

do tAi tl'Qng 0 to sinh ra ti'ong t«m M tOng dttc;1c xae dinh thea c6ng thlic (5.2)

Mil = Pi, (MA ;. MR)

~~jJlo : Pit = Po ~ = 3500 x 1,2 = 4200 daN, v~i ~ = 1,2 (M 86 xung klch)

D 30

2r = 200 = 0,1 => tra bang 5.1 dttqc:

MA = -0,0545; Ms = 0,255 .

V.M" = 4200(-0,0545 +0,255) = 842dN.cm/em. anh httong eua t«m ban eanh:

-P VI:

Q = Q LI v~i LI = r 28

LI = 100~81 = 85

L 85

1,18

-=-=

0,077.4200

Q = 85 = 3,8 dllJ."l/crn

a giua tam do snh huang cua I\1C ca.t Q thea chu vi:

-

MQ =-M(JQr

= -0,254 (tra Bang 5.4 khi S =0,81) Q= 3,8daN/cm =-0,254x3,8xlOO=-96,52daN.crnlcrn.

t6ng c¢ng do tA.i trong tlnh toan va do tai trong tit cac tim ban canh truysn

sang:

M = Mtt + MQ = 842 + 96,52 = 745,48 daN.em/em.

a giira ttlrn

a = 6M = 6 x 745,48 = 17,47daN/crnZ < [a] = 0,5 x 45 = 22,5 daN/cm2

h2 162

99

rrsu CHUAN NGANH

22TCN 21 ()..92

GONG HOA GHU NGHiA

GlAD THONG NONG THON TIEU CHUAN THIET KE

C6 hi~u tuc ttl 1/1/1993

QU]el dink so 2636 QDIKHKT ngay 2511111992 eua B~ GTVT)

CHUONG I

NHiTNG QUY DJNH CHUNG

Dieu 1.1. l\l~~~lUlli dubng giao thong nong thon IS. b¢ phan giao thong dia phuong nei ti~p vci h~ tb~l(htbng qu6c gia nham phuc vu san xuat Nong - Lam - Ngu nghiep va phuc vu giao 1uuldnll tJ - van hoa - xii Mi cua cac lang xa, then xcm, Mang luol nay nham

Dieu 1.2.

g ti~n eo gioi loai trung, nhe va xe tho so qua lai.

ch mang htlli dubng nong thon phai thea man cac y~u eau sau day:

bao dam cho cac

- Phuc V\l~~~.m!t d~ng thai co xet Wi viec phat tri~n lau dai (dac biet d6i voi cong

trlnh cau c6ng ... )..tl!il!J!. hQP voi di~u kien cua dia phuong. •

- Phai k~t eMt eh~ mang luoi giao thong vdi quy hoach tudi tieu cua thuy 19i (tan

dung M th6ng dt( muong).

- K€t hop clJ.ttcM voi quy hoach khoanh vung san xuilt nOng nghiep va quy hoach dan cu phil hop voi t$:pquan va d~c thu kinh t€ dia phuong.

Dieu 1.3. I)1JlJngnt'Si tit huy~n tOi xa va lien xa la nhirng duong co xe co gioi qua Iai thuong xuy6nih~eeO tlm quan trong huyen xli doi hoi co y~u caucha; lucng cao n~n khi thi€t k€ phai theochu'n ky thuatung voi duong cap VI trong tieu chuan TCVN-4054-85-

Thi~t M dubngO hie 1) do Nha nucc qulin ly (B¢ GTVT va Sa Giao thong). Khuysn

khlch cac dia cd di~u ki$n dAu tl1 thi nan lam ducng co ti~u chuan ky thuat eao.

~~iA Is dU<htg chu yeu,ph\lc vucho cac phuong ti~n giao thong CX1 gioi ti~ chuiln d~ thiet ke ceng trinh tr~n dubng 18. 6T/ true, Duong loai BIll cliIS<.Ii'!IlItl. phlk1ng ti~n giao thong thO so (xe sue ~t keo hoac xe CO gim nhe) co tAi trong true ti~u cn~_i .• ~ .••. thi~t M Ia 2.5 T/tT\lc va tai trong kiem toan la 1 T/tl1,lc banh sAt.

d11ng dubng giao thong nong' thon .chu y~u dua vao nhu cau giao Kl~UCJOlil~n (hi~n d~, tucng lai phat trien ... ) rna xem xet, Iva chon loai dl1bng iN'·n"~i •• 1.3 va Dieu 1.4 sao cho phil hop vCli kha nang; dhu tl1 va nhu cau khai

Nhirng d\f'tffl.<C~D b~i bao gbm dl1C1ng tu xii xu6ng then, li~n then va .tu then ra canh

dong (khu vue thl dUQc chia Him 2 loai duong A va B.

, , .

Dieu 1.4. loai trung, tAi

100

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