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VOCATIONAL HIGHER SECONDARY

FIRST YEAR

FISHING CRAFT AND GEAR


TECHNOLOGY
Teachers’ Source Book

Government of Kerala
Department of Education
2005
State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thriuvananthapuram-12, Kerala
Prepared by State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT)
Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 012, Kerala.
Website www.scert.kerala.gov.in e-mail scertkerala@asianetindia.com

Typeset and design by SCERT Computer Lab


© Government of Kerala • Department of Education • 2005
Acknowledgement
Efforts have been made to obtain permission from copyright owners for reproducing the passages included
in this book. Due acknowledgements will be made as and when necessary permissions are obtained.
Director
Price : 30/=
Preface
Dear Teachers,
In the context of the changing scenario in the feld of
education, the role of the teacher is not simply to teach the
syllabi. The emerging needs of education calls for a facilitators
role from teachers. The learning process has been student
centred and activity oriented. Learning activities must enable
the student to develop process domain and multiple
intellegence skills to their maximum extent.
This sourcebook has been written primarly for the benefit
of teachers to teach Fishing craft and gear technology at
Vocational Higher Secondary Level. The subject matter has
been designed in such a way to help the teacher to provide
suitable learning activities for effective learning. This success
of the approach depends upon the vision and commitment
of teacher. It is also expected that teacher has to seek
help from other sources like reference books available in
libraries, web sites etc.
Hope that this sourcebook will help the teacher to develop
the skills and experience of students resulting in the
generation of a lot of self employment in the field of fisheries.
With regards,

Dr E. Valsala Kumar
Thiruvananthapuram Director
25-11-2005 SCERT, Kerala
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

CONTENTS

Section I
1. General Appraoch ........................................................................... 05
2. Subject Associated Approach Paper ............................................. 19
3. Curriculum ....................................................................................... 22
4. Syllabus ............................................................................................ 24
5. Evaluation......................................................................................... 32

Section II
Unit 1 General Introduction .............................................................. 47
Unit 2 Iraditional crafts ...................................................................... 53
Unit 3 Mechanisation of Iraditional Craft ....................................... 58
Unit 4 Types of Mechanised Boats ................................................... 60
Unit 5 Boat Building Materials ........................................................ 63
Unit 6 Common Fishing Methods ................................................... 67
Unit 7 Gear Materials ......................................................................... 70
Unit 8 Specification and construction of Gear Materials ........... 73
Unit 9 Prperties of Materials ........................................................... 76
Unit 10 Fabrication of webbings ...................................................... 79
Unit 11 Understanding the net ........................................................... 82

Section III
Samples Questions .............................................................................. 84

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Section I

General
Approach

Introduction oppurtunities is a severe issue of the present


The ultimate aim of education is human society. For overcoming this deep crisis, emergent
refinement. Education should enable the learner techinques have to be sorted out and appropriate
researches have tobe seriously carried out. It is
to formulate a positive outlook towards life and
to accept a stand which suits the well being of in the sence that the content and methodology of
the society and the individual as well. vocational Higher Secondary Education have to
be approached.
The attitude and potential to ‘to work’ has
The Vocational Higher Secondary course
determined the destiny, progress and cultural
was envisaged as a part of the National Policy
development of the human race. As we all are
aware, the objective of education to form a on Education with the noble idea of securing a
job along with education. The relevance of
society and individuals having a positive work
Vocational education is very great in this age of
culture. The educational process expected in and
outside our formal schools should concentrate un employment. This education system, which
ensures a job along with higher education, stands
upon inculcating concepts, abilities, attitudes and
aloof from other systems of education.
values in tune with these ‘work culture.’ Hence
vocationalised education cannot be isolated from A learning enviornment which ensures
the main stream of education. In anthor sence, vocational aptitude, vocational training, basic life
every educational process should be skills, competencies related to different subjects,
vocationalised. However, due to our inability to appropriate values and attitudes and existential
utilise the resources wisely, scarcity of job readiness has to be provided here.

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The curriculum should be one which oriented, need based vocational curriculum is
recognises the specific personality of the learner envisaged.
and should develop it in a desirable way. It should
What is learning?
provide opportunity to imbibe novel ideas to
follow a ctritical approach and for learning • Learning is construction of knowledge and
through experiences. so it is a live and continuous mental process.

The competency to transform ones own • Learning is a process of advancement


resources for the betterment of the society and through adding and correcting in the light of
the individual is to be ensured in each individual. comparing the new issue with the previously
Training in the sense of equality, democratic sense, learned concepts.
enviornmental consiousness and devotion to the • Learning takes place as a part of the effort
constitution is an inseparable factor of the to solve problems.
curriculum.
• Learning takes place by assimilating bits of
The need of a systematic curriculum is knowledge into ones own cognitive
prevailing in vocational subjects. A scientifically structure.
structured curriculum incorperating the unique
• Learning is not a linear process. It is a spiral
features peculiarity of Kerala ensuring the
process growing deeper and wider.
possibility of higher education and utilising the
national and international possibilities of • Learning is an intellectual process rather
employment is required. than the mere memorisation of facts.
Learning is a conglomeration of a variety
The new curriculum should be capable of
activities like problem analysis, elucidation,
assimilating the life skills, scientific temper, attitude
critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out
of co-existence, leadership qualities and mental
co-relations, prediction, arriving at
health to face the challenges of life. It should be
conclusions, applications, grouping for other
capable of strengthening the competencies
possibilities and extracting the crux. When
imbibed by the learners up to the tenth class.
opportunities are proviced for intellectual
A curriculum for selecting vocational areas processes learning will become effective and
according to the aptitude of the students, learning intellectual ability will get strengthend.
it in depth, acquire general awareness in the basic
areas and to secure jobs has become the social
need of the day. A learner centred, process

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Theoretical foundations of educational philosophy. The solution to the


learning present day perplexities of the society which
Education is the best device that can be approaches education on the basis of
adopted for creation of a new society. It should competitions and marketisation is only a
comprehensive view of life.
be democratic in content and process and should
acknowledge the rights of the learner. It should It is high time that education was recognised
also provide opportunity for better citizenship on the basis of the philosophy of human
training. The concept of equality at all areas should education. The human approach to education has
get recognition in theory and practice. to reflect in its content, learning process and
outlook. The perspective of ‘learning to be ‘ and
There should be consious programme of
action to develop nationality, humaness and love learning to live together as expressed by the
UNESCO and the concepts of existentialist
and against the enchroachment of the sectarianism
intelligence intrapersonal and interpersonal
of caste and religion.
intelligence.
The learner should be able to take firm steps
and deferred against the social crisis like The basis of new approaches on curriculum,
privatisation, liberalisation, globalisation etc and teaching- learning process are derived from the
developments place in the east and west of the
against all kinds of dominations.
world.
They should develop a discrimination to use
When we begin to see the learner at the
the acquired learning as a liberative
weapon. centre of the learning process, the teaching
process has to be changed timely. It is the result
They should be able to view education and of the rapid growth and development of Science
life with the perspective of social well being. and Technology and Pedagogy. If we want to
They should get opportunity to recognise undergo the changing process, we have to imbibe
that co-operation is better than competition and the modern hypothesis regarding learner, they
that co-operation is the key to social life and have;
culture. • Great curiosity
A basic awareness of all the subjects • Good imagination
needed for life essential for all students.
• Numerous other qualities and interests
The remnants of perspectives formed in us
during the colonial period still influence our • Independent individuality

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• Interest in free thinking and working in a the skills;


fearless atmosphere. • To observe
• Have interest in enquiring and questioning. • To collect data and record
• Ability to reach conclusions after logical • To classify
thinking.
• To measure and prepare charts
• ability for manifest and establish freely the
conclusions arrived at. • To experiment

• Interest for recognition in the society. • To predict


• To recognise and control the variables
• Determination to face the interference of
society and make components which is a • To raise questions
part of social life. • To generalise

• To form a hypothesis and check.
When we consider the learning system, the
• To conclude
domains to be stressed in education according
to the modern development becomes relevant. • To communicate

The knowledge domain consists of • To predict and infer

• Facts • To use tools.

• Ideas • Observation is the process of


acquiring knowledge through the senses.
• Laws
It is purely objective oriented. Learning
• The temporary conclusions and principles experiences which provide the
used presently by scientists. opportunity to use all the senses may be
The learning is a process. The continuous used.
procedures we undergo to reach a particular goal The process of grouping is known as
is process. The skills which are parts of the classifying. Starting from simple
process to analyse the collected ideas and proofs groupings of data, it can extend to the
and come to a conclusion is called process skills. level of classification into minute sub-
Some important process skills are, groups.

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In addition to this, consider the skills related causes and solutions can be guessed.
to creative domain also, they are skills: As regards the application domain the
• To visualize important factors are the ability to:
• To connect facts and ideas in new ways • observe in daily life examples of ideas
acquired.
• To findout new and uncommon uses of
objects • take the help of scientific process to solve
the problems of daily life.
• To fantasize
• choose a scientific life style
• To dream
• To develop creative isolated thoughts • connect the ideas acquired with other
subjects.
• Creativity is an essential component of
• integrate the subjects with other subjects.
process and activities. The element of
creativity is involved in finding out problems, Some basic stands have to be taken on the
formation of hypothesis, finding ‘solutions’ new scientific knowledge about intelligence
to problems etc. Through activity oriented learning and teaching. When such basic concepts
learning experiences, opportunities to are accepted changes are required in the following
express creativity can be created. factors.
Again, the following factors consisting in the • The vision, approach, structure and content
Attitudinal domain are also important as; of the curriculum.
• Self confidence • The vision, approach, structure and content
of the textbooks.
• Love for scientific knowledge
• Role of the teacher and the learner.
• Attitude to know and value history
• Learner atmosphere, learning materials and
• Respect human emotions
learning techniques.
• Decide with reasonable present problems
Some scientific pespectives accepted by
• Take logical decisions ragarding personal modern world in educational
values psychology are given below.
‘Hypothesis’ is a temporary conclusion
drawn using insight. Based on knowledge
and experiences relating to the problems the

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Constructivism compare his new findings with the existing


conceptions.
This approach puts forward the concept that
the learner constructs knowledge. New Learning is a live mental process. Rather
knowledge is constructed when ideas are than the ability for memorisation of facts cognitive
examined and practiced in new situations relating process has to be given emphasis. The process
them with the previously acquired knowledge and of problem analysis, elucidation, critical thinking,
experience. That is assimilated into the congnitive rational thinking, finding out co-relation,
structure of one’s knowledge. This method which prediction, hypothesis formation, application,
gives priority to critical thinking and proble solving probing for other possibilities, extracting the crux
provides opportunity for self motivated learning. and other processes are of critical importance in
learning.
Social Constructivism
Constructivism gives greater predominonce
Social constructivism is a sub section of
to co-operative learning. Social and cultural
constructivism. Knowledge is formed, spread and
factors influence learning. Sharing of knowledge
imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social
and experience among learners, collective
enviornment. Interactive learning , group learning,
enquiry, assessment and improvement, group
co-operative participatory learning, all these are
activity and collaborative learning, by sharing
concepts put forward by social constructivism.
responsibilities with the objective of public
The main propounders of constructivism are activity, provide opportunity for effective learning.
piaget, vygotsky and Bruner.
In learning internal motivation is more
Discovery learning and interactive learning important than external motivation. The learner
have prime importance. Learning takes place as should have interest and initiative in learning.
a part of the attempt for problem solving. The Learning situation should be capable of forming
activities of a learner who confronts cognitive a sense of ownership in of the learner regarding
disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries the learning process.
to overcome it is leades to the renewal of
Learning is not a linear process. It
cognitive structure. It is through this process
progresses in a spiralled way advancing deeper
construction of new knowledge and the
and wider.
assimilation of them that learning take place.
Observation and enquiry are unavoidable factors. Learner-his nature and features
The learner advances towards new areas of The learners in standard XI has undergone
acquisition of knowledge where he tries to a learner centered and process oriented learning

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experience up to X standard. He is adequately • To enable him to defend against the


competent to select vocational subjects unfavourable circumstances without any
according to his aptitude and interest and to help
acquire higher education and profession as he
Role of the Learner
wishes. The aspirations about future life is framed
in this particular age foreseeing national and • Active participant in the learning process.
international job oppurtunities. Some of the • Acts as a researcher
peculiarities of the learner at this stage are:
• Sharer of information
• Physical, intellectual an emotional planes are
• Sharer of responsibilities
intensive changes during this age and their
reflections can be observed. • Collects information

• Ability to enquire, discover and establish • Takes leadership


cause-effect relationship between • Involves in group work
phenomena.
• Acts as a co- participant
• Readiness to undertake challenges.
• Observes his environment
• Capacity to shoulder leadership roles.
• Experiments and realises
• Attempt to interprest oneself.
• Makes interpretations and draws inferences.
• Susceptibility to different presseures.
Role of the Teacher
• Doubts, anxities and eagerness about sex.
The teacher should;
• Longing for social recognition.
• consider the ‘Stress and strain’ of the
Needs of the learner teenagers
• To make acquaintance with a job through • understand the socio- economic and cultural
vocational education. background of the students.
• To acquire more knowledge in the • promote and motivate the students to
concerned area through higher education. construct knowledge.
• To recognise and encourage the peculiar • arrange proper situations to interact in and
personality of the later adolescent period. outside of the classroom.

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• guide the students by explanations, • be a guide to the learner in developing


demonstrations etc. insights and creating responses on current
• promote opportunity for co-operative affairs.
learning and collaborative learning. • be capable to lead the learner into a variety
• facilitate interpersonal and intra-personal of learning methods and process based on
curricular objectives.
interactions.
• act as a democratic leader. • be a link between school and community.

• act as a problem solver • be a good organiser, guide, friend,


philosopher and co-learner.
• effectively guide the students for the
selection and conduct of various continuous • have an inter disciplinary approach in
learning activities.
evaluation elements.
• continuously evaluate the progress of the • be able to guide the learner in his/her career
prospects based on his interest aptitude and
learners.
ability.
• gives scaffolding/support wherever
• be impartial and democratic.
necessary.
• provide ample experiences to attain the
• motivate for learning
basic values and objectives of the
• promote divergent thinking. curriculum.
• act as a democratic group leader.
New Concepts of Learning
• act as a co-learner
1. Discovery Learning-
• gives variety of learning experiences.
The teacher has to create a motivating
• be a constant student atmosphere for the learner to discover concepts
• facilitate for reference/data collection and facts, instead of listening always. Creating
• have a clear under standing about the age, occasion to progress towards discovery is
preferred. Instead of telling everything before and
needs, peculiarities, abilities, nature, aptitude
compelling to initiate the models, situations are
etc. of the learner.
to be created to help the children act models as
• have the ability to motivate the learner in themselves.
order to acquire and enrich their knowledge.

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2. Learning by discussion to avoid the situations of one person working


for the whole group.
That discussion leads to learning is Burner's
theory. Here discussion is not opposing each 5. Co-operative learning
other. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. New
This is the learning in which the learners help
ideas are arrived at by seeking explanations, by
one another. Those who have more knowledge,
mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem
experience and competency, will help others. By
solving.
this exchange of resources the learners develop
3. Problem solving and learning a plane of social system in learning also. As there
Only when the learner feels that some thing are no high ups and low ones according to status
among the learners they can ask the fellow
is a problem to be solved that he takes the
students doubts and for helps without any
responsibility of learning it. It is an inborn
tendency to act to solve a problem that causes hesitation or in hesitation Care should be taken
not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical
cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. It is
copying. It should be on the basis of actual needs.
also needed to have confidence that one is
capable of doing it. The problems are to be So even while encouraging this exchange of ideas
among the members of the group cautions
presented in consideration of the ability and level
acceptance is to be observed as a convention.
of attainment of the learner.
There should be an understanding that
4. Collaborative learning satisfactory responses should come from each
This is the learning in which the member and that the achievement of the group
responsibilities are distributed among the will be assessed on the basis of the achievement
members of the group keeping common learning of all the members
objectives. The common responsibility of the 6 Zone of Proximal
group will be successful only if each member Development
discharges his duties. All the members will reach
Vygotsky observes that these is a stage of
a stage of sharing the result of learning, equally
through the activity with mutual understanding. achievement where a learner can reach by himself
The teachers who arrange collaborative learning and another higher zone where he can reach with
the help of his teachers and peers and elders.
will have to make clear the responsibilites to be
discharged. This is possible through the discussion Even though some can fulfil the learning activity
with the learners. Collaborative learning will help by themselves there is the possibility of a higher

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excellence. If appropriate help is forth covering • Guessing the incident, story from the picture.
every learner can better himself. • Guessing the facts from indications.
7 Scaffolding • and other such activities can be given the
It is natural that the learner may not be following activities can be given for the
able to complete his work if he does not get cognitive process of summarisation.
support at the proper time. The learner may • Preparation of blue print.
require the help of the teacher in several learning
• Preparation of list.
activities. Here helping means to make the learner
complete the activity taking responsibility by • Preparation of flow chart.
himself. The teacher has to keep in mind the • Epitomising in one word.
objective of enabling the learner to take the
• Giving titles and so on.
responsibility and to make it successful.
• Symbols, performance of characters
8 Learning: a live mental indications, lines of a poem, tables, pictures,
process concepts, actions, body language and such
Learning is a cognitive process, only a things can be given for interpretation.
teacher who has an awareness as to what the Process based language given for
cognitive process is alone can arrange learning interpretation. Process based language
situations to the learner to involve in it. Learning learning has to give prime importance to the
can be made effectively and intellectual sharpness cognitive process.
can be improved by giving opportunity for the
9 Internal motivation
cognitive processes like reminding, recognising
compromising , co- relating, comparing, Internal motivation is given more importance
guessing, summarising and so on. How is than external motivation. The teacher has to
cognitive process considered in language arouse the internal motivation of the learner, A
learning? Take guessing and prediction for person internally motivated like this alone can
example. immerse in learning and own its responsibility.
How motivating is each of the activities is to be
• Guessing the meaning from the context.
assessed.
• Guessing the content from the heading.
10 Multiple intelligence
• Predicting the end of the story.
The Theory of Multiple Intelligence put

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forward by Howard Gardener has created a 4 Bodily Kinaesthetic


turning point in the field of education. The Intelligence
National curriculum document has recommended The activities using body language come
that the curriculum is to be designed taking into under this. This area of intelligence is more
consideration of this theory. developed in dancers and actors who are able
Main factors of the intellect : to express ideas through body movements and
in experts in sports, gymnastics etc.
1. Verbal/linguistic Intelligence -
Ability to read and write, making linguistic 5 Musical Intelligence
creations , ability to lecture competence effective This is an area of intelligence which is highly
a communication , all these come under this . developed in those who are able to recognise
This can be developed by engaging in language the different elements of music in musicians and
games and by teaching others. in those who can here and enjoy songs. Playing
musical instruments, initiating the songs of
2. Logical /mathematical
musicians, listening silently to the rhythms and
Intelligence
activities like this are capable of developing this
Thinking rationally with causes and effect area of intelligence.
relation and finding out patterns and relations
come under this area, finding out relations and 6 Interpersonal Intelligence
explaining things sequential and arithmetical Those in whom this area of intelligence is
calculations are capable of developing this area developed show qualities of leadership and
of intelligence. behave with others in a noble manner. They are
capable of understanding the thought of others
3. Visual /spatial Intelligence
and carrying on activities like discussion
In those who are able to visualise models successfully.
and bringing what is in the imagination into visual
form and in philosophers, designers and sculptors 7 Intrapersonal Intelligence
this area of intelligence is developed. The activities This is the ability to understand oneself.
like modelling using clay and pulp, making of art These people can recognise their own abilities
equipments, sculpture, and giving illustrations to and disabilities. Writing diaries truthfully and in
stories can help the development of this ability. an analysing way and assessing the ideas and
activities of others will help developing this areas
of intelligence

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Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

8 Naturalistic Intelligence ii) Ability to reach consensus


A great interest in the flora and fauna of the • When different opinions, ideas and positions
nature, love towards fellow beings interest in arise the students may be given the
spiritual and natural factors will be capable of responsibility to reach a consensus.
developing this area. • Imaging what would be the course of action
9. Existential Intelligence in some situtations, allowing to intervene in
a healthy way in problems between
The ability to see and distinguish ours own
individuals.
existence as a part of the universe, ability to
distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of iii) Problem solving
life, the ability to realise the ultimate nature of • Developing the idea that there is reason
mental and physical existences, all these are the and solution to any problem.
peculiarities of this faculty of intelligence.
• Training in finding reasons for problems.
Emotional Intelligence
• Suggesting solutions through individual or
The concept of emotional intelligence put group efforts.
forward by Daniel Golman was used in framing
• Discussing social problems.
the new curriculum. The fact that one’s
Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the greatest factor • Analysing the shortcomings in methods to
affecting success in life is now widely accepted. solve problems.
The teacher who aims to focus on improving the Whether plastic can be banned within
emotional intelligence of students need to school premises can be given as a problem.
concentrate on the following. Group discussion will provide reasons and
solutions. Problems which can influence
i) Ability to take decisions
classroom learning and for which the learner can
Rather than imposing decision on students actively contribute solutions need to be posed.
while planning and executing activities, the
• Self criticism, evaluation
students may be allowed to take part in the
decision making process. Taking decisions • Ability to face problem-situation in life
through open discussion in the class, inviting • Thinking what one would do if placed in
students suggestions on common problems etc. the situation of others, how one would
are habits to be cultivated. respond to certain experiences of others -

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All these foster the growth of emotional • To develop enviornmental awareness, sense
intelligence. of national integration, tolerence and human
values so as to ensure social and cultural
iv) Life skills
improvement.
Life skills need to be given a prominent place
• To enable the learner to find on his own
in education. W.H.O. has listed ten skills required
employment.
for success in life.
• To inculcate mental courage in the learner
• Self awareness
to face unfavourable situations.
• Empathy
• To make human resource development
• Inter personal relations possible.
• Communication • To enable the learner to understand social
• Critical thinking problems and to react appropriately.

• Creative thinking • To develop the learner to identify and


develop his own competencies.
• Decision making
• To develop vocational aptitude, work
• Problem solving
culture and attitude in the learner so as to
• Copying with emotion provide useful products and services to the
• Copying with stress society.

The new curriculum addresses these areas. • To create an awarenss about mental and
physical health.
Knowing the characteristics of the learner,
role of the teacher and how to use the teachers • To acquire awareness about different job
handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively areas and to provide backgrounds for
implement learning activities. acquiring higher level training in subjects of
interest.
Objectives of the Vocational
• To develop possibilities of higher education
Higher Secondary
Curriculum. by creating awareness about common
entrance examinations.
• To facilitate higher education while giving
opportunity to enter in the field of • To provide situation for the encouragement
employment. of creative thinking and organising training

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programmes in each area, creative abilities participation should be ensured in the planning
and to develop artistic talents. and implementation of these activities. Social
service should be a part of the course. If a learner
Nature of Approach
has to change his school, he should be provided
The learning device is to be organised in an oppurtunity to continue his studies in the new
the selected vocational subjects in such a way school. While considering criteria for admission
that adequate practical experience should be to higher courses, grades of vocational subjects
given, making use of the modern technology. The should also be given due weightage. In tune with
development in each area on the basis of the changes in the Vocational Higher Secondary
information technology is to be brought to the Education changes should be ensured in the field
learner. The work experience in the respective of higher education.
fields(OJT, Field trip, Production/Service .....
The teachers have to take special care in
training, Survey, Workshop, Exhibition, Youth
arranging learning activities for the development
festival, Physical fitness etc.) are to be adjusted
of all the faculties of intelligence.
suitable to the learning and evalution process. The
participation and leadership of the students in Learning activities and learning atmosphere.
planning and execution is to be ensured through A proper learning atmosphere is essential
this kind of activities. Social service is to be made for the betterment of learning activities.
a part of the course.
They are:
Approach towards Vocational • Proper physical environment
Higher Secondary Education
• Healthy mental atmosphere
The learning methodology has to be
organised so as the learning provide adequate • Suitable social atmosphere
practical thinking on the opted vocational subject • Active participation of PTA, Local bodies
utilising the new technology. The development and SRG
of information technology should be made
• Reference materials and visual media
available in each sector. Work experience, OJT, equipments.
Field trip production, Service cum training centre,
Survey, Workshops, Exhibitions, Youth festivals, • Academic monitoring
Physical fitness etc should be systematised well • School Resource Group (SRG)
appropriate to learning and evaluation. Learner

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Subject Associated Appraoch Paper


Fishing Craft and Gear Teachnology

Introduction The courses like fishing craft and gear


Vocational education, a dream of Mahatma technology, fish processing technology, aqua-
Gandhi, was realized by the central government culture offer scope in studying new technologies,
and help to improve the fishing industry, which
to address the problem of massive unemployment
among the youth in our country. Among the directly or indirectly helps to improve the standard
different vocational courses introduced fisheries of living of fisher folk and also generate
employment opportunities.
courses has great relevance. Being a country with
a vast coastline of about 8000 km fishing and Aims
allied industries play an important role in providing
• To create general awareness about the
employment to a vast majority of the population,
fisheries sector, its resources and their
as well as sustaining the economy with the foreign
significances.
exchange earned from the export of various
fisheries products. Among the maritime states of • To impart knowledge and training on various
India, Kerala holds a remarkable position in fish culture, capture and processing
fisheries sector. That is why the importance of techniques.
fisheries in the economic development of Kerala • To create and develop confidence and skills
was emphasized by our President Dr. APJ Abdul for initiatives in self employment in fisheries
Kalam. sector.

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Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Educational Approach each other. The negotiation among peers take


place here.
The studies conducted by UNESCO,
SCERT on the various defects of teacher centred For example, if we want to make an
education evolved a new idea of student centred awareness among the students about different
educational approach. According to their fishing methods, the students can be divided into
approach the learning activities should pave way different groups and a group discussion on the
for the construction of knowledge. While selecting topic can be conducted. The ideas evolved from
the learning activities are should take into account the discussion can be consolidated and presented
the nature, mental ability and skills of students. in the class by one person from each group.
This approach should explore in activities which
3. Collaborative learning
are methods like problem solving and self
studying. It is important that the new educational The two important aspects of this method
approach should create opportunities for of learning are sharing of ideas and negotiation
individual learning, co-learning and group among the learners. Suppose we want to deal
learning. with different gear materials used both natural
and synthetic and compare both in terms of
For this we can adopt different strategies
strength, resistance to weather, their efficiency.
and techniques.
Here also they can be divided into groups and
1. Discovery learning the teacher can ask them to collect different types
The teacher has to create an atmosphere of supplementary feeds and their efficiency. Their
that encourages the learner to discover ideas and observation can be consolidated and presented
in the class. Their observations can be
facts of his own. For example the teacher can
assign the students to identify and classify different consolidated and presented.
marine fishes. This gives an opportunity for the 4. Socio-Cultural related
learner to observe the different ***** fishes learning
available in the local market and can collect
This method of learning pertains to social
information from different sources like internet
and cultural aspect of the society. For example
and journals. Their observation can be
an informal interview can be conducted by the
consolidated and presented.
learner to study the impact of trawl-net over
2. Co-operative learning traditional gears. A suggested topic can be
problems related to tsunami and resent fish
In this method the learners learn by helping

20
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

production fishery products in a region dominated 6. To make a clear idea about mechanised
by vegetarians. fishing crafts.

Learning Objectives 7. To develop skill to conduct the comparative


study about different boat building materials
1. To create basic knowledge of fishing craft
and to understand merits and demerits.
and gear.
8. To understand the operational methods of
2. To develop a skill for construction of
different trawl-nets seine-nets, gill-nets,
different types of boats.
longlines etc.
3. To understand the importance of fisheries
9. To understand and differentiate natural and
in the Indian economy.
synthetic gear materials.
4. To familiarise with constructional
10. To develop a skill to identify different gear
procedures of various traditional crafts.
accessories.
5. To make an awareness of the topographic
11. To make a clear idea of various physical
features of Indian costs and to understand
properties of gear materials.
the relationship between topography and
features of crafts used. 12. To develop the skill in fabrication of nets,
assembling, rigging, mending of nets.

21
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Curriculum Objectives

Curriculum Objectives 2.1 To familiarize the learners with the


1.1 To understand the position of India in the classification of marine environment.
world fisheries. 2.2 To develop the skill in identifying various
1.2 To understand the importance of fisheries traditional crafts used in India.
in the Indian economy. 2.3 To make an awareness of the topographic
1.3 To identify the maritime states, major fishing features of Indian coast and to understand
the relationship between the topography and
harbours and ports of India.
features of crafts used.
1.4 To understand various fishing methods
2.4 To familiarize the learners with
briefly.
constructional procedures of various
1.5 To develop the skill in identifying the traditional crafts briefly.
morphological characters of a typical fish
and prawn. 2.5 To understand the advantages and
disadvantages of traditional crafts.
1.6 To develop the skill in differentiating teleost
and elasmobranchs. 3.1 To develop a knowledge of mechanization
of traditional fishing crafts.
1.7 To understand commercially important
3.2 To acquire an idea about the role played by
fishery resources of India.
FAO, INP and TCM in mechanization.
1.8 To develop the skill in familiarizing different
4.1 To make a clear idea about various
commercially important fishes, crustaceans
and molluscs. mechanized fishing crafts – Trawler, Purse

22
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

seiner, gill netter, long liner, combination 7.2 To develop skill to identify different gear
vessel, factory vessel and fish carriers. accessories such as hooks, floats, sinkers,
4.2 To develop a skill in differentiating various baits.
mechanized crafts. 8.1 To make a clear idea on the differences
4.3 To develop a skill in differentiating traditional between fibre, yarn, twine and rope.
crafts and mechnised crafts. 8.2 To develop skill in differentiating different
5.1 To get an idea about different materials used types of twists. (S,Z)
for the construction of boats – wood, steel, 8.3 To understand about the specification of
ferrocement, fiberglass reinforced plastic, yarns (yarn numbering system.)
aluminium and marine plywood. 9.1 To make an awareness of various physical
5.2 To develop the skill to conduct a properties of gear materials.
comparative study about different boat 9.2 To make an awareness of the reaction of
building materials and to understand its gear materials to various chemicals – acid,
merits and demerits. alkali, oils.
5.3 To acquire knowledge about estimation of 10.1To develop the skill in making different types
construction cost of boats built with of knots used for various purposes.
different materials.
10.2To develop the skill in fabrication of netting
6.1 To acquire an idea about the classification especially on braiding, creasing, batting,
of fishing methods – Von Brandt cutting (T, N, B Cuts), joining, mounting and
classification. rigging and understanding their uses.
6.2 To understand the operational methods of 11.1To develop the skill in assembling a net panel
different trawl nets, seine nets, gill nets and with specific dimensions.
lines.
11.2To develop the skill in identifying various
7.1 To understand and differentiate natural and tears and to repair damaged net by
synthetic fibres used for making gear. mending.

23
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Syllabus

Unit 1 - General Introduction suitable for mechanization. Mechanised


boats like gillnetter, shrimp trawler, purse-
• Morphology and biology of typical fish and
shellfish. Major Indian fisheries: marine, seiner, long liners. Combination vessels,
estuarine and fresh water. Pelagic and Factory vessels and fish carriers.
demersal fisheries of India. Marine fish Unit 5 - Boat building materials
production in India. Export of marine
• Wood : Common boat building timbers
products from India.
available in India, their common, trade and
Unit 2 - Traditional Crafts scientific names. Potential yield of boat
• Topographic features of the Indian coast. building timbers in Kerala and neighboring
states. Timber used for catamaran.
Traditional crafts of India: Cattamaran, dug
Important technological characteristics of
out, outrigger and plank built canoes.
Characteristics of traditional crafts in relation boat building timbers. Wood defects and
general description of wood seasoning.
to topography. Methods of construction.
Advantages and disadvantages. • Steel : Steel as a constructional material.
Common grades of steel used in vessel
Unit 3 - Mechanisation of
construction. Corrosion of steel in sea water,
Traditional Crafts
in the splash zone and in atmosphere. Simple
• The role played by national institutes and methods of steel vessel construction by
international organisaitons in mechanization. welding and revetting.
Part played by Kerala in mechanization.
• Ferrocement : Definition of ferrocement.
Unit 4 - Types of Mechanised Method of construction of ferrocement
Boats boat. Factors affecting strength of
ferrocement. Repairing of ferrocement
• Types of mechanized boats. Types of crafts
boats.

24
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

• Fibre glass reinforced Plastic (FRP) glass sisal, synthetic: - Nylon, polypropylene,
fibres: Chopped strand and woven mats. poly ethylene (monofilament, multifilament,
Catalyst and accelerator land – laying tape, spun). Natural, synthetic and wire
process. Single and double skin construction ropes-different types of hooks. Floats,
properties of FRP laminates. sinkers and baits.
• Aluminium : Marine aluminium alloys. Unit 8 - Specification and
Corrorion of aluminium in sea water. Construction of Gear
Fabrication techniques of aluminium boats. Materials
• Other materials : General familiarization • Twines and ropes. Numbering systems and
of the properties of cast iron, brass, bronze, specification. Preparation of twines and
stainless steel, copper and cupronickel. ropes twisting yarn, strand twines, ropes
• Comparitive study of wood, FRP, Ferro and braiding.
cement, steel and aluminium as boat building Unit 9 - Properties of Gear
materials, their merits and demerits. Cost Materials
of construction of small boats with different
materials. • Diameter, strength, moisture content, sinking
speed, resistance to atmosphere. Reaction
Unit 6 - Common Fishing with materials of contact.
Methods
Unit 10 - Fabrication of
• Traditional fishing methods: Line fishing Webbings
(hand lines, drop lines, long lines, troll lines,
pole and line), stationery nets (stake nets, • Different types of knots, seaming, joining,
braiding and creasing, cutting, tailoring,
dip nets, gill nets, chinese nets) encircling
mounting and assembly.
nets (seine nets, purse-seining), trawl nets
(beam trawl, otter trawl, different types of Unit 11 - Understanding the Net
trawling) deep sea trawlers and deep sea
• Assembling of the net and reading the given
trawling.
design of a net. Mending nets.
Unit 7 - Gear Materials
7.1 Materials used and general concepts.
Natural : Cotton, hemp, coir, jute, manila,

25
26
Year Plan
Time Months when
Unit Name of the Chapter Activity/Strategy
(in hours) Plan to teach

5 June • Data collection and analysis


1 General Introduction
• Field visit
• Group discussion
• Demonstration of samples

20 July • Field visit


1 General Introduction
• Model demonstration
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

• Debate

12 August • Field visit


2 Traditional crafts
• Group discussion
• Demonstration of model crafts
• Debate

8 September • Field visit


3. Mechanisation of Traditional crafts
• Discussion
• Debate
12 September • Field visit
4. Types of Mechanised Boats
• Discussion
• Assignment
• Chart Preparation
• Model Demonstration
Time Months when
Unit Name of the Chapter Activity/Strategy
(in hours) Plan to teach

20 October • Field visit


5. Boat Building Materials
• Group discussion

21 November • Group discussion


6. Common Fishing Methods
• Demonstration
• VCD/Slide Display
• On board Training - Project

4 December • Discussion
6. Common Fishing Methods
• On board Training - Project
10 December • Field visit
7. Gear Materials
• Demonstration
• Group discussion
10 January • Group discussion
8. Specification and construction of gear
materials • Demonstration

6 January • Group discussion


9. Properties of year materials
• Experiment
• Visit to gear material shop
7 February • Demonstration
10. Fabrication of webbings
• Discussion
5 February • Demonstration
11. Understanding the Net
• Discussion
Total 11 Units 140 hours

27
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
28
Model Unit Plan - Traditional Crafts
Total Period : 12 Hrs.
Objectives Concepts/Ideas Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Period
• To familiarise Idea about • Observation • Practical demonstration • Diagrams • Perfection of 2
about various divisions • Communica- of ecological divisions • Charts notes and
classification of pelagic and of sea and differentiate diagrams
tion • Slides
of marine benthic zone. each zones. • Participation
• Identification in observation
environment • Discussion
• Differentiation and
• Chart Preparation and discussion
labelling of each • Timely
divisions submission
• To develop An idea about • Identification • Visit landing centres or • Models of • Construction 3
skill to traditional crafts boat building yard to different skill and
• Differentiation
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

identify and its observe various traditional performance


various construction • Observation traditional crafts and crafts. are evaluated.
1
traditional • Communication their operation and • Observation
• Cattamaran construction.
crafts used in • Classification • Systematic
• Dugout • Model demonstration
India. recording
• Plank built • Assignment - Model • Neatness and
• Outrigger construction of timely
traditional crafts. submission.
• To make an • Topographic • Classification • Discussion about • Diagrams • Preparation of 1
awareness of features of topography of Indian notes and
the • Differentiation • Chart
maritme states coast. diagrams
topographic • Observation • Models
features of of east and • Picture demonstration • Active
west coast • Communication
Indian coast • Chart preparation of participation
and to (Nature of sea and
crafts used in different
understand bottom, nature observation
the coasts.
of sea, elimatic are evaluated.
relationship condition,
between the • Neatness and
distance to
topography timely
and features fishing
submission.
of crafts ground.)
used.
Objectives Concepts/Ideas Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Period
• To familiarise A brief • Date Collection • Visit to boat building • Diagrams • Preparation of 3
with knowledge about • Observation site and collect data • Models notes and
constructional the varation in about the construction diagrams.
• Comparison • Charts
procedures the construction of traditional crafts. • Participation
• Communication 1
of various of traditional • Model demonstration. in observation
crafts briefly. crafts. Eg. and
• Assignment -
Different types discussion.
construction of
of cattamaran,
different crafts of • Neatness and
Dug out canoes,
various designs. timely
plank built
submission
canoes.
• To • Idea about • Communication • Group discussion • Notes • Active
understand advantages • Data Collection • Debate based on participation
the and discussion. in discussion.
• Comparison
advantages disadvantages • Ability to 1
and of traditional • Differentiation
prepare report
disadvantages crafts. of discussion.
of traditional
• Ability to
crafts.
substantiate
his own ideas
and views.

29
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Model Daily Play

Name of the Teacher : .................... Class : I VHSE


Name of the school : .................... Strength : 30
Subject : FCGT Duration of Period : 1 hour

Topic : Traditional fishing methods Process Skills : Communication, observation


and inference.
Curriculum Objectives : To understand the
concepts and ideas of various traditional fishing Previous knowledge: Locally used fishing
methods. gears.

Concepts and ideas : An introduction to Materials Required


traditional fishing gears. • Notes based on discussion point.
• Models of various fishing gears.
• Video clipping of various fishing operation.
• Slides of various fishing gears.
• Charts showing fishing gear classification.
Activities / strategies Responses/Feed back
Introduction
After establishing rapport with students ask some
questions regarding their concept on traditional
fishing gears and locally used fishing gears and
their operations they have observed. Direct them
to present their ideas in the class.
Class
Activity 1 - Group Discussion
From the difficulties to answer the questions they Participation in discussion.
are asked to discuss with fellow students, for this Method of presentation
purpose they are grouped into 5. Provide them .
Ability to substantiate his own ideas and views.

30
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Activities / strategies Responses/Feed back

With discussion points like: different techniques


of fishing, region of operation, behaviour of fishes,
method of capture. Based on these points they
are asked to discuss and categorise types of gears
with respect to the fish behaviour, region of
operation.
Activities II - Video display/slides display
Video/slides when presented they can easily Participation in observation
discuss and answer the questions and prepare
notes. Ask them to present the notes in groups. Presentation of prepared notes.
Then the points are consolidated in the class.
Activity III
When these discussion is completed ask a student Discussion on personal fishing experience.
to explain his experience in any one of the fishing
gear operation to which he is accustomed to. The
teacher have to initiate the student with necessary
assistance.
Discussion Points Assignment
• What is a gear. • Chart preparation showing detailed
• Mention briefly about fishing gears. classification of fishing gear based on Von-
• Introduction to classification of fishing gears Brandt classification.
based on Von Brandt classification. • Model construction of various fishing gears.

31
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Evaluation

Introduction Need and importance of


As the curriculum is based on a particular Evaluation
vocation, evaluation becomes an inevitable Evaluation is to assess the scientific
procedure. Evaluation is done along with learning knowledge of students and to recognise to what
process throughout the course of study. Inorder extent they have achieved the specified
to make an evaluation, the teacher should be able capabilities. A written examination at the end of
to understand the students, their scholastic and an year which is purely based on a textbook is
co-scholastic knowledge. Capacity building in not of much use. “Evaluation is a systematic
the selected vocation is the most important part process of collecting, analysing and interpreting
in vocational education and it should be evaluated evidence of students’ progress and achievement
accordingly. The technical skills, interest and both in cognitive and non-cognitive areas of
devotion in the particular field, communication learning for the purpose of taking a variety of
skills, analysis, organising and presentation skills discussions”.
etc. have to be evaluated. The personal and social The teacher can properly assess the level
qualities also have to be evaluated. Thus of the learner and can identify his/her strength
evaluation is an integral part of learning process and weakness. This will help each student to
which assesses the implementation of the evaluate themselves and to improve their level of
curriculum. learning by taking necessary assistance from the
teacher (self evaluation) classmates can evaluate
themselves through interaction (peer group

32
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

evaluation) Evaluation even help the teacher to • Evaluation should restore the faith and trust
analyse and improve their performance. of the masses by ensuring transparency in
Evaluation helps to integrate the teacher, learner the procedure.
and even the parents. Thus student who are Theories of constructivism and multiple
socially useful and can perform productive work intelligence are the basis of modern
are created. This will improve the quality of our learning. So evaluation strategies have also
young generation. to be changed. Evaluation must be;
Features of Evaluation • Continuous and comprehensive
• Evaluation should be humane in nature. It • Scholastic and co-scholastic
must help the students grow as social
• Depending on grading system.
beings.
• Depending on a vocational or trade
• Evaluation should be the responsibility of
proficiency.
the teacher who teaches the students and is
responsible for developing the requisites Continuous and Comprehensive
healthy attributes in them. Evaluation
• Evaluation should be consistent with its Most of our traditional evaluation methods
purpose and must provide a reliable and are related only to the area of scientific knowledge
valid measure of the student’s performance. or the memory of students. To eliminate the
limitations of this method we are forced to
• Evaluation should reflect the outcome of
evaluate the multi-dimensional competencies of
each learning intervention and should
provide all the students with equal the learner with respect to the practicability and
nature of the subject.
opportunity to display their individual
potential. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
is an essential ingredient of any learning process.
• Evaluation should take into account both the
It helps the learner to understand and evaluate
background and the prior experience of the
students. his own progress and to develop adequate
strategy for further improvement. Continuous
• Procedures for grading and their reporting Evaluation also helps us to measure the attained
should be appropriate and easily goals of formulated curriculum objectives.
understood by one and all.

33
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Merits of Continuous and and continuous manner. More over, the learner
Comprehensive Evaluation is to be made aware of the findings and it helps
system are: him to measure his progress. Necessary help
1. Making student’s learning regular should be provided to them in time. As such we
can generate the environment and opportunity
2. Provides for a variety of activities for Continuous Evaluation.
3. Effective feedback is possible In order to evaluate the multi- dimensional
4. Assess the all round development of the competencies of the learner, different tools and
learner on a continuous basis through a techniques have to be used. The multi-
variety of activities. dimensional competencies of the learner include:
5. Remedial and diagnostic teaching is • Class -room interaction
possible. • Task orientation
6. The process as well as the product is • Creative expression
assessed.
• Field/institutional interactions
Different tools are used to evaluate the multi
• Knowledge assessment/ expression
dimensional competencies of the learners. The
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous Evaluation Items
(CCE) includes not only written test (class tests)
1. Assignment
but also oral tests, observation, interview, debates,
discussions, seminars etc. 2. Seminar

The learner proceeds through a variety of 3. Class test


learning experiences. Therefore the level of 4. Project etc.
progress should be evaluated in a comprehensive

* For continuous evaluation class test (CT) is made compulsory taking any two of the above said indicators. CT can be a written test,
oral test (viva), Practical test.

34
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

CE Item Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score


1. Assignment 1. Awareness of the content 4/3/2/1
2. Comprehensiveness of the content 4/3/2/1
3. Systematic and sequential arrangement 4/3/2/1
4. Observation/suggestions/Views
Judgements/ Evaluation 4/3/2/1
5. Timely Submission 4/3/2/1 20
2. Seminar 1. Ability to plan and organise 4/3/2/1
2. Skills in the collection of data 4/3/2/1
3. Awareness of the content (presentation
of the paper, participation in discussion,
ability to substantiate the ideas and views) 4/3/2/1
4. Ability to prepare the report
(sequence in the presentaionof the concepts,
authenticity and clarity of ideas/views/concepts 4/3/2/1
5. Quality of Seminar Document 4/3/2/1 20
3. Project 1. Ability to plan
(Selection of the method for solution of the problem,
identifying suitable tools, planning the various
activities to be carried out in each stage) 4/3/2/1
2. Ability to collect data (sufficiency and
Relevance of data. Classification and
arrangement of data for analysis, reliability
and authenticity of the Collected data.) 4/3/2/1
3. Ability to analyse the elements and procedure
(Structuring of elements and developing logic.
Efficieny in using the package/tool. Recognising
design errors and correcting them) 4/3/2/1
4. Ability to prepare the project report
(Reflection of the process skills. Communicability
and authenticity of the report in relation with the
Project diary 4/3/2/1
5. Viva Voce(Knowledge of the content and Process) 4/3/2/1 20

35
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

CE item calculation

Subject item: Assignment

Sl. No Name Evaluation Indicators Total Score


(20)
I II III IV V
(4) (4) (4) (4) (4)

1 Anand 2 3 4 4 4 17

2 Shibu 4 3 4 4 4 19

Consolidated statement of CE
Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fishing Craft and


Gear Technology
Sl. No Name CE Items Total Total CE
(60) Out of 20
1 2 3
Class Test Assigment Seminar/
Score 20
obtained × 60
(20) (20) Project
(20)

1 Anand 18 17 19 54 18

2 Shibu 20 19 18 57 19

No minimum score for CE

36
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Terminal Evaluation (TE) • Questions should be based on the learning


process and the new approach to each
Terminal Evaluation is in written form. The
test should not be aimed to test the memory alone. subject.
The terminal evaluation questions give more • Results should be scientifically analysed.
emphasis on application level, analysis and • Evaluation results should be analysed and
synthesis. The questions are framed so that the follow up may be carried out at relevant
students are able to apply their different mental levels (remedial measures).
process. The maximum score is 80 and the
minimum score of TE is 24 (30%). • Eighty percent marks are set apart for the
common examination as the part of the Term
The terminal evaluation questionnaire should Evaluation
be capable of measuring
The Question Paper must have
• Content validity
• Application level questions
• Criterion validity
• Synthesis level questions
• Constant validity
• Comparison of facts
• Reliability
• Challenging questions
• Class test, term evaluation and annual
examination should be in tune with the new • Scope for obtaining innovative ideas
approach. • Giving creative thinking by the students
• Should not be prepared to test the rote • Questions based on the objectives of
memory. learning activities
• Questions asked should provoke the • Practial oriented questions
thinking abilities of students.
• Enviornment related questions
• Questions to test the competency of
• Divergent thinking level questions
application analysis, synthesis and evaluation
are to be given. In otherwords the questions Role of the Teacher in the
should be framed in such a way that the Evaluation Process
students are able to apply their various • Preparation for the effective execution of
mental processes. evaluation

37
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

• Preparation of daily planning notes (teaching Grading


manual) and helping learners in their It is not scientific to assess the achievement
activities. of a student soley based in the marks in the
• While learners are engaged in doing terminal examinations. Marking system proved
seminars/collections/assignments/ unscientific in evaluating the growth and
collections, conduct interim evaluation and development of students both in cognitive and
provide necessary help. non-cognitive areas. To overcome this
• Consider assignment, seminar, collections shortcomings, a popular mode of evaluation
based on students’ performance- grading system-
etc. as learning activities and approach them
has been evolved. At the Higher Secondary stage,
as evaluation materials.
it is desirable to use a point absolute grading to
• Prepare a format to record continuous co-ordinate and record the evaluation. After
evaluation. giving the score, they are changed into
• Identify and evaluate the progress at percentages and appropriate letter grades are
different stage. awarded curresponding to each percentage. The
score percentage and curresponding letter grade
• Find out learner’s difficulty by conducting
feedback. in Fishing Craft and Gear Technology is given
below.
• Make use of the support mechanism fully,
Score in Grade
provided by the department of education. percentage
• Make the parents aware of the new 90-100 A+
approach to curriculum and evaluation
80-89 A
system through class P.T.A.
70 -79 B+
• Make use of the training programme for
60-69 B
professional excellence and transparency in
work. 50-59 C+

• Make use of the Humanities Teachers 40-49 C


Council for academic progress. 30-39 D+
• Identify and make use of the possibility of 20-29 D
action research to resolve classroom Below 20 E
learning problems.

38
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Consolidated statement of CE & TE


Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fishing Craft and


Gear Technology

Sl. No Name CE TE Total Grade


(20) (80) CE+ TE
(100)

1 Anand 18 60 78 B+

2 Shibu 19 72 91 A+

The maxumum score of CE+TE is 100 and the minimum score is 30. (30%)

Practical Evaluation (PE) 2 Study and recording of morphological


PE is the important part of vocational characters of selected teleosts,
elasmobranches, crustacean and molluscs.
practicals. The practical skills must be evaluated
- 25 hrs
after completing all practical experiments in each
term and at the end of the academic year. PE 3. Preparation of charts showing fish landing
must cover all required indicators to evaluate the centres, fishing harbours and ports in India
technical skill and practical knowledge of the and Kerala. Compilation of data of fish
different topics covered. landings (item-wise and quantity wise) of
India and Kerala for the past 10 years.
Syllabus
- 30 hrs
Practical 420 hrs 4. Identification and familiarisation with
1 Collection and identification of commercially traditional and mechanised boats in use in
important teleosts, elasmobranches, India and Kerala. Study of their design,
crustaceans and molluscs. - 50 hrs. operation and operational problems.
- 50 hrs

39
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

5. Boat building materials: Visit to boat building of yarn made by various fibres, strands
yards. Identity of wood, quality, quantity made from yarns, twines made from strands,
required for construction, wastage, use of ropes made from stands. Practise of making
various types of wood in the construction twine/rope. - 25 hrs
of boat. Ingredients used in FRP boat 8. Making of webbing by hand braiding. Study
building. Quality, quantity required for of webbing using different types of knots.
construction and wastage of FRP. Identification of the webbing made by trawl
Identification of different thickness of steel knot/double trawl knot. Practise making of
used in boat building. Quality of steel, webbing. Shaping of webbing: tapering of
quantity required for construction and webbing by different methods, shaping by
wastage. Identity of ferro-cement, quality, braiding, by creasing, by tailoring, by
quantity required and wastage. - 70 flymesh. Practising shaping of webbing.
hrs - 60 hrs
6. Construction of boats. Familiarisation of 9. Assembling, mounting and rigging of nets.
construction procedures, tools, methods, Assembling of webbing by lacing and
equipments used, inspection at progressive stapling. Mounting of webbing to bolch line.
stages of construction and constructional Mounting of webbing by different
problems of boats made of wood, FRP, percentage or hanging. Fastening mounted
steel and ferro-cement. - 60 hrs webbing to the head and foot rope and fixing
7. Making twine/rope. Study of different fibres floats and sinkers. - 50 hrs
used for making twine/rope. Identification

Indicators for Practical evaluation and their score


No Indicators Percentage Score
1 Procedure and
demonstration 40% 60
2 Calculation 10% 15
3 Identification 20% 30
4 Spotters 10% 15
5 Record 10% 15
6 Viva 10% 15
Total 150

40
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Consolidated statement of Practical Evaluation


Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fishing Craft and


Gear Technology
No Name Procedure and Calculation Identification Spotters Record Viva Total Grade
demonstration

60 15 30 15 15 15 150

1 Anand 40 10 20 10 12 13 105 B+

2 Shibu 55 13 25 13 13 13 142 A+

How will you find out Vocational Competency


grade for PE Evaluation
Convert the total score into percentage and Being a vocational course, a system to
findout the grade judiciously evaluate the required value addition
and consequent capacity building in the selected
eg: Total score: 105, percentage
105 vocational subject is highly essential. As the other
× 100 = 70 , Grade B+
150
evaluation components like CE, PE and TE
The minimum score to be obtained is cannot assess the vocational competencies and
fixed at 40% that is 60 out of 150. Grade B professional skills acquired by the students, an
internship evaluation (IE) component has been
introduced to meet this requirement.

41
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

IE Item Evaluation Weightage Score


Indicators
1. Regularity and
Punctuality 10

2. Value addition Field Visit


1. Attitude and readiness 4/3/2/1
towards the task.
2. Capacity for observation. 4/3/2/1
3. Data collection.
4/3/2/1
4. Application of ideas.
4/3/2/1
5. Documentation/
recording. 4/3/2/1
OR
Survey 20
1. Planning.
2. Data collection. 4/3/2/1
3. Consolidation of data 4/3/2/1
and analysis. 4/3/2/1
4. Drawing inference.
5. Reporting. 4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1

3. Capacity buildingOJT/ Simulated Experiment/


Practical skill
1. Involvement/ 4/3/2/1
Participation.
2. Skills in doing work/ 4/3/2/1
Communication skill.
3. Time bound action. 4/3/2/1
4. Capacity for observation, 4/3/2/1
analysis and innovation.
5. Documentation, Recording
and display. 20
4/3/2/1
OR

42
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

IE Item Evaluation Weightage Score


Indicators
3. Capacity Performance in camp/
building Exhibition/ clinic
1. Ability for planning and 4/3/2/1
organising.
2. Mastery of subject.
4/3/2/1
3. Ability for
communication. 4/3/2/1

4. Innovation. 4/3/2/1
5. Involvement/Social 4/3/2/1
commitment.
OR
Performace in production/
service cum training centre
(PSCTC)
1. Mastery of vocational 4/3/2/1
skills.
2. Managerial capacity. 4/3/2/1
3. Promoting self 4/3/2/1
confidence.
4. Innovative approach. 4/3/2/1
5. Promoting self -reliance. 4/3/2/1

Items Score

Vocational Competency Regularity & Punctuality 10


Items for Internship Field visit/survey(any one) 20
Evaluation OJT/simulated experiment/
Practical Skill/ Performance-
Camp/exhibition/Clinic 20
Performance- PSCTC (any one)
Total 50

43
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

A minimum of 80% attendance is required the second year. He has to improve the
for promotion to the second year. Those who component in which he performed poor. He has
have shortage of attendance should repeat first to attain the minimum by improving the particular
year. Those who have 80% and above component to get eligible for appearing second
attendance but failed to achieve 30% of year public examination.
Internship Evaluation (IE) will be promoted to

Consolidated statement of IE
Class: Ist year

Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fishing Craft and Gear


Technology

Sl No Name Regularity & Field visit OJT or Total Grade


Punctuality or survey Practical Score
skill

10 20 20 50

1 Anand 5 12 10 27 C+

2 Shibu 6 15 16 37 B+

44
Format for Subject Wise Evaluation
Sl no: Name CCE TE Total Grade PE Vocational Competency Evaluation

1 2 3 To- (80) (100)


To- Regular- Value Capacity
(20) (20) (20) tal 1 2 3 4 5 6 To- Grade ity and Total Grade
tal Addition building (50)
Class As- Semi- (60) out tal Punctu- (20) (20)
Test sign- nar/ of ality
ment Project 20 (10)

45
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
46
Sl
no:
Name

CE
TE
Total
English

Grade
CE
TE
Format

Total
Course
General

Grade
Foundation

CE CE
TE TE
for School

Total
Grade
Total
Grade PE
Total
Vocational Subjects

VCE
Grade
CE
wise Score Sheet

TE
PE
Physics

Total
Grade
CE
TE
PE
Total
Chemistry

Grade
CE
TE
Total
Mathematics

Grade
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Section II
Unit 1

General
Introduction

Introduction shellfish. Major Indian fisheries: marine, estuarine


Fisheries Science is an applied science and fresh water. Pelagic and demersal fisheries
which mainly deals with culture, capture and of India. Marine fish production in India. Export
of marine products from India.
processing of aquatic animals and plants. As this
is a new subject to the students we are trying to Curriculum Objectives
provide a basic knowledge and general
• To understand the position of India in the
awareness to Indian fisheries through this unit.
world fisheries.
Discussion, general secondary data collection and
analysis through graphs should be the main part • To understand the importance of fisheries
of the learning activities which should be followed in the Indian economy.
in this chapter. • To identify the maritime states, major fishing
Plan the learning activities and provide such harbours and ports of India.
learning experiences to students so as to develop • To understand various fishing methods
creativity, process skill and research attitude briefly.
through secondary data collection,
• To develop the skill in identifying the
documentation and preparing charts of Indian
morphological characters of a typical fish
capture fishery related materials.
and prawn.
Syllabus • To develop the skill in differentiating teleost
Morphology and biology of typical fish and and elasmobranchs.

47
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

• To understand commercially important • Mention the length of coastline of India and


fishery resources of India. Kerala; EEZ.
• To develop the skill in familiarizing different • Mention the major fisheries institutions
commercially important fishes, crustaceans (CMFRI, CIFT, IFP, CIFNET, EIA,
and molluscs. MPEDA, FSI)

Suggested Activities c. Familiarisation of fishing


methods.
a) Status of India in world
fisheries. • Field visit to a nearby landing centre and
prepare report on observed fishing
• Data collection of landing, exports – from
methods.
internet, journals and economic reviews.
Based on the collected data, graphs and pie • Group discussion on fishing methods of
diagrams can be prepared and discussed. India Kerala and local area.

The activity aims at developing the skill in Points for discussion


observing and comparing the collected datas and • Mention the major fishing methods like
thus help them to reach a conclusion over the trawling, seining, gillnetting, line fishing.
present status of Indian fishery.
d) Morphology of fish and
Points for discussion Prawn
• Percentage contribution of fish in Indian • Discussion with demonstration using
economy. specimen, chart, slides.
• Total seafood export in terms of quantity
Points for discussion
and value.
• Mention the characters of typical fish and
b.) Major fishing zones of India prawn.
• Map preparation of maritime states, major • Morphological characters.
harbours and ports of India.
e) Teleost and Elasmobranchs
Points for discussion
• Discussion with demonstration using
• Mention fishing zones, maritime states, specimens, slides of commercially important
major fishing harbours and ports of India. teleosts and elasmobranchs.

48
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Points for discussion commercially important species, food and


feeding, breeding and fishing season, fishing
• Mention the classification and
morphological characters of teleost and methods, economic importance (oil sardine,
elasmobranch and help the students to mackerel, Bombay duck, tuna, peracids.)
differentiate. • Mention the identification points and
classification of commercially important
f) Commercially important
fishes-oil sardine, mackerel, Tuna, Anchovy,
fishes, crustaceans and
Ribbon fish, Bombay duck, seer fish,
molluscs
Pomfrets, Horse mackerel, Torpedo
• Field visit to landing centers or markets to trevally, Silver belly, Flat fish, Crustaceans
identify and collect commercially important – white prawn, tiger prawn, karikadi,
species. poovalan, thelly, Scylla serrata, Portunus
• Based on references and collections from pelagicus, Portunus sanguinolentus,
field visit let them prepare notes and molluscs, cuttle fish, squid, octopus, edible
diagrams. oyster, pearl oyster, clam, lobster, fresh
water fishes – catla, rohu, mrigal, Chinese
Points for discussion carps, scampi brackish water – tilapia,
• Mention the scientific and common names, mullet, pearl spot, chanos – based on
classification, geographical distribution, practical section.

49
50
Unit I

Unit Plan - General Introduction


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
1.To understand the • Indian Fisheries • Interpretation of • Data collection • Graph • Active
importance of Fisheries in data Participation
Indian economy and the • Inferring • Punctuality
position of India in world • Reliability
fishery. • Authenticity

• To get an idea about the • Maritime states • Observation • Data collection • Chart • Active
maritime states, coast line, Participation
• Coast line
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

major fishing harbours and • Punctuality


ports of India • Reliability
• Authenticity
• To understand various •Knowledge • Communication • Field visit to a • Models •Responsiveness
fishing methods. about • Observation nearby landing • Observation
• Pictures
commonly centre and
• Identification • Interest
used fishing report
methods preparation on
observed
fishing
methods.
• Group
discussion on
fishing
methods of
India and
Kerala
Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To develop the skill in • Basic • Observation • General • Specimen • Identification
identifying the characters of a discussion skill
• Communication • Chart
morphological characters typical fish with • Awareness
of a typical fish and and prawn and • Identification demonstration • Slide • Skill in
prawn. morphological • Differentiation using communication
characters specimen, • Ability to
chart and prepare the
shade. report
• To develop the skill in • Taxonomical • Observation
• Discussion • Specimen • Identification
differentiating teleost and classification with skill
• Communication • Slide
elasmobranchs. demonstration • Classification
• Morphological
using skill
characters
specimens and • Skill in
slides of Communication
commercially • Ability to
important prepare the
teleost and report
clasmobranchs.
• To understand Idea about • Observation • Field trip to • Reference • Classification
• Scientific name l a n d i n g
commercially important • Common name book skill
• Idea c e n t e r s /
fishery resources of India • Classification
• Geographical conception fishmarket to • Specimen • Perfection of
distribution collect and note is
• Food and feeding i d e n t i f y • Pictures
commercially evaluated
• Growth
• Fishing season important • Ability to
• Breeding season fishes
• Fishing methods collect
• E c o n o m i c • Preparation of sufficient and
importance of notes and relevant data
• Oil sandine) diagrams based
• Mackerel on references
• Bombay duck and data
• Tuna collected
• Penaeids

51
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
52
Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To develop the skill to Idea about • Observation • Collection and • Specimen • Identification
familiarise varieties of • Fresh water identification skill
• Classification • Slide
commercially important of • Observation
• Brackish water skill
fishes, crustaceans and commercially
• Marine fishes • Perfection in
molluscs. important
note
• Shell fishes specimen.
preparation
and molluscs
• Field visit • Record
• Based on book evaluation
reference and • Reliability and
speiemen authenticity of
collected, the collected
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

notes and data


diagrams can
be prepared.
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Unit II

Traditional Crafts

Introduction of traditional crafts in relation to topography.


India has a long coastline of 8118km along Methods of construction. Advantages and
which various types of indigenous crafts and disadvantages.
mechanized crafts are used. The important types Curriculum Objectives
of traditional crafts used in our coast are
• To familiarize with the classification of marine
cattamaram, dug out canoes, plank built canoes.
environment.
These are designed to suit the local climatic
condition and topography of the sea bottom and • To develop the skill in identifying various
coast. Through this unit we try to familiarize briefly traditional crafts used in India.
about the ecological divisions of sea, • To make an awareness of the topographic
topographical features of Indian coast and the features of Indian coast and to understand
relationship between the topography and features the relationship between the topography and
of traditional crafts used along the coast. For this features of crafts used.
various learning activities like pictorial
• To familiarize the learners with
demonstration chart preparation and field visits
constructional procedures of various
are included.
traditional crafts briefly.
Syllabus • To understand the advantages and
Topographic features of the Indian coast. disadvantages of traditional crafts.
Traditional crafts of India: Cattamaran, dug out,
outrigger and plank built canoes. Characteristics

53
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Suggested Activities • Discuss briefly the constructional


procedures of catamaran, Plank built,
a) Ecological divisions of sea
outrigger, dug out canoes.
• Pictorial demonstration of ecological
divisions of sea. c) Topography of Indian coast
and crafts used
• Discussion about various zones of sea and
differentiate each zones. • Discussion about topography of Indian
coast.
• Preparing charts on ecological divisions of
sea. • Model and picture demonstration.
• Map preparation of India and show various
Points for discussion
crafts used in various maritime states.
• Discuss about pelagic and benthic zone of
Ocean. Points for discussion

• Mention the subdivisions of pelagic and • Mention about topography.


benthic zone – Neretic, Oceanic, • Differentiate topographic features of
continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal. maritime states of west and east coast –
Nature of sea bottom, nature of sea, climatic
b) Traditional crafts
condition, distance to fishing ground.
• Visit to landing centers, boat building yards
• Characteristics of various crafts in relation
of traditional crafts to observe various crafts
to topography.
and their operation and construction.
• Model demonstration of different traditional d) Merits and demerits of
crafts. traditional crafts

• Model construction of different traditional • Group discussion on merits and demerits


of traditional crafts.
crafts.
• Debate.
Points for discussion
• Mention what is a craft. Points for Discussion

• Discuss about catamaram, Plank built • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages
of traditional crafts.
canoe, dug out, outrigger canoes.

54
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Additional Information to Tamil Nadu : Tuticorin boat, Cattamaran


Teacher Andhra Pradesh: Masula, Cattamaran,
Names of other traditional crafts used Kakinada Nava
in various coast. Orissa : Ganjan, Dingi, Nava
Gujarat : Machwa, Hodi, Lodhia, West Bengal : Bat chari, Chot-type.
Malia
Suggested Assignment
Maharashtra : Satpati, Versova, Ratnagiri
type. Construction of models of various typical
traditional crafts. Construction of different
Goa : Dugout and Plank built
traditional crafts of varied designs.
canoe.
Karnataka : Rampani, Pattamar

55
Unit II Unit Plan - Traditional Crafts

56
Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To familiarise learners with Ideas about • Communication • Pictorial • Diagrams • Preparation of
various divisions demonstration notes and
classification of marine • Observation of ecological • Chart
environment. of pelagic and divisions of diagram.
skill
benthic zone. sea and • Participation
• Inferring skill differentiate in observation
each zaones. and
• Chart discussion.
preparation
• To develop skill in • An idea about • Observation • Visit to landing • Model Skill in
centres or boat
identifying various t r a d i t i o n a l • Application
building yard • Construction
traditional crafts used in crafts and their to observe and
• Performance
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

India. construction various performance


skill
• Cattamaram traditional are evaluated
crafts and their
• Dug out operation and • Observation
• Plank built construction. • Systamatic
• Outrigger • Model recording
demonstration • Neatness and
timely
submission

• To make an awareness of • Topographic • Communication • Discussion • Diagram • Preparation of


features of skill about notes and
the topographic features of • Chart
maritime states topography of diagrams
Indian coast and to of cast and • Observation Indian coast. • Active
understand the relationship west east skill • Model
• Picture preparation
between the topography (Nature of sea and
bottom, nature demonstration.
and features of craft used. observation
of sea, climatic • Chart are evaluated.
condition, preparation of
distance to • Neatness and
crafts used in timely
fishing different coasts.
ground.) submission
Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To familiarise with A brief • Data collection • Assignment • Diagrams • Preparation of
constructional procedures knowledge about (Construction notes and
• Observation of different • Chart
of various crafs briefly. the variation in traditional diagrams.
the construction • Evaluation crafts. • Models • Participation
of traditional in observation
• Visit to boat
crafts. Eg.: building site and
Different types of and collection discussion.
cattamaram, plank of data about
the • Neatness and
built, dugout.
construction timely
of traditional submission
crafts.
• Model
demonstration.

• To understand the • Idea a b o u t • Communication • Group • Construction


advantages and advantages and skill discussion skill
disadvantages of disadvantages • Debate • Active
traditional crafts. of traditional participation
crafts. in discussion
• Awareness of
the content
• Ability to
prepare the
report
• Ability to
substantiate
his own ideas
and views.

57
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Unit III

Mechanisation of
Traditional Crafts

Introduction Suggested Activities


Due to the inefficiency of traditional Crafts • Field visit to fish landing centres to observe
used, mechanization was started during the 1st and differentiate motorized and mechanized
five year plan with the help of various international crafts.
organizations. This chapter deals with the • Discussion and debate on observation in
difference between motorisation and field visit.
mechanization through various learning activities.
This also helps the student to understand how Points for discussion
mechanization helps to increase the efficiency of • Make a clear concept about motorisation
catch. and mechanization of traditional crafts.
Syllabus • Discuss various stages of mechanisation and
the role played by FAO, INP and TCM.
The role played by national institutes and
international organisaitons in mechanization. Part Additional Information
played by Kerala in mechanization.
• Number of motorized boats in India.
Curriculum Objectives • Number of mechanized boats in India.
• To develop a knowledge of mechanization • Number of motorized boats in Kerala.
of traditional fishing crafts.
• Number of mechnised boats in Kerala.
• To acquire an idea about the role played by
FAO, INP and TCM in mechanization.

58
Unit III

Mechanisation of Traditional Crafts


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To develop a knowledge • A clear concept • Observation • Field visit to • Notes prepared • Perfection in
of mechanisation of about fish landing during field note
• Identification
traditional crafts. motorisation centres for visit. preparation
and observing and based on
• Reference
mechanisation differentiating observed data.
books
of traditional motorised and • Active
crafts. mechanised participation
crafts. in discussion
• Various stages
of • Discussion and • Ability to
mechanisation debate on substantiate
observed his own ideas
information. and views.
• To acquire an idea about • Idea about the • Communication • Discussion • Reference • Evaluation
the role playedby the role played by books based on
• Grasping skill
FAO, the INP and the the FAO, the active
TCM in mechanisation. INP and the participation
TCM. • Presentation
method
• Skill in
communication
• Clarity of
ideas

59
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Unit IV

Types of
Mechanised Boats

Introduction seiner, gill netter, long liner, combination


By the implementation of mechanization in vessel, factory vessel and fish carriers.
fishing boats a boost up have occurred in the • To develop a skill in differentiating various
case of mechanized boats. In addition to higher mechanized crafts.
efficiency of mechanized boats the improving • To develop a skill in differentiating traditional
economy added to the popularization of crafts and mechnised crafts.
mechanized boats. This chapter deals with
various types of mechanized boats like trawlers, Suggested Activities
purse seiners, gin netters, long liners, combination • Visit to fishing harbours to observe different
vessels, factory vessels and fish carriers. mechanized boats and their operation.
Syllabus • Discussion on reports prepared after visits.
Types of mechanized boats. Types of crafts • Preparation of chart on deck arrangement
suitable for mechanization. Mechanised boats like of different mechanized crafts – purse seiner,
gillnetter, shrimp trawler, purse-seiner, long liners. trawler, gill netter, long liner.
Combination vessels, Factory vessels and fish • Construction of model of mechanized boats.
carriers.
Points for Discussion
Curriculum Objectives
• Mention concept and features of various
• To make a clear idea about various mechanized boats – Trawler, Purse seiner,
mechanized fishing crafts – Trawler, Purse

60
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

gill netter, longliner, combination vessel, trawler, stern trawler, side trawler, beam
factory vessel and fish carriers. trawler, single boat and double boat trawler,
• Mention deck arrangements of different shrimp trawler, fish trawler.
mechanized boats. Suggested Assignment
Additional Information Construction of models of different
• Mention different types of trawlers outrigger mechanized boats.

61
62
Unit IV

Types of Mechanised Boats


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To make a clear idea about • Concepts and • Communication • Visit to a • Models • Active
various mechanised features of fishing harbour • Pictures participation
• Observation
fishing crafts - various to observe in discussion
• Nots prepared
Trawler mechanised • Construction different • Evaluation of
during field
boats. skill mechanised the report
Purseseiner visits.
boats and their prepared
Gillnetter observation. • Reference
books • Skill in
Longliner • Discussion on
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

communication
Combination vessel report prepared
• Neatness and
Factory vessel and fish after visit.
timely
carrier • Assignment: submission
Construction of
models of
mechanised
boats.
• To develop the skill in • Idea about • Observation • Chart • Models • Chart
differentiating various deck preparation on preparation
• Inferring skill • Pictures
mechanised crafts and arrangement of deck • Participation
different arrangement of • Nots prepared
traditional crafts.
mechanised different during field
crafts and mechanised visits.
comparision of crafts • Reference
traditional and books
mechanised
crafts.
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Unit V

Boat Building
Materials

Introduction defects and general description of wood


It is an important pre-requisite to have an seasoning.
uninterrupted supply of raw materials for the Steel : Steel as a constructional material.
fishing boat building industry. A careful selection Common grades of steel used in vessel
of materials is needed to avoid disasters. For this construction. Corrosion of steel in sea water, in
a thorough knowledge of different types of boat the splash zone and in atmosphere. Simple
building materials is essential. No single material methods of steel vessel construction by welding
is ideally suited for all types, sizes and areas of and revetting.
operation. Each material has its own merits and Ferrocement : Definition of ferrocement.
demerits. In this chapter the teacher can elicit Method of construction of ferrocement boat.
their knowledge through field visits and group Factors affecting strength of ferrocement.
discussions. Repairing of ferrocement boats.
Syllabus Fibre glass reinforced Plastic (FRP) glass
Wood : Common boat building timbers fibres: Chopped strand and woven mats.
available in India, their common, trade and Catalyst and accelerator land – laying process.
scientific names. Potential yield of boat building Single and double skin construction properties
timbers in Kerala and neighboring states. Timber of FRP laminates.
used for catamaran. Important technological Aluminium : Marine aluminium alloys.
characteristics of boat building timbers. Wood Corrorion of aluminium in sea water. Fabrication
techniques of aluminium boats.

63
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Other materials : General familiarization • Conduct a survey on the construction cost


of the properties of cast iron, brass, bronze, of boats using different types of materials.
stainless steel, copper and cupronickel.
Points for discussion
Comparitive study of wood, FRP, Ferro
• Mention the commonly used wood for boat
cement, steel and aluminium as boat building
building, their trade name and scientific
materials, their merits and demerits. Cost of
name.
construction of small boats with different
materials. • Mention important characteristics of boat
building timbers.
Curriculum Objectives
• Discuss on timbers commonly used for
• To get an idea about different materials used cattamaran.
for the construction of boats – wood, steel,
ferrocement, fiberglass reinforced plastic, • Mention the common grades of steel used
for boat construction.
aluminium and marine plywood.
• To develop the skill to conduct a • Discuss what is ferrocement, its
components.
comparative study about different boat
building materials and to understand its • Discuss what is FRP, chopped strand,
merits and demerits. wovenmat, catalyst and accelerator.
• To acquire knowledge about estimation of • Mention properties of FRP laminates.
construction cost of boats built with • Discuss marine aluminium alloys.
different materials.
• Discussion on comparative study of each
Suggested Activities materials with their merits and demerits.
• Field visit to boat building yards or landing • Analysis on construction cost with different
centers, collection and identification of materials.
different boat building materials.
Additional information
• Conduct survey in landing centers and boat
• Mention the types and significance of
building yards to collect datas from
marine plywoods in boat building industry.
fishermen and boat builders on merits and
demerits of different boat building materials.
Prepare a report of this survey and conduct
a group discussion on it.

64
Unit V

Boat building materials


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To get an idea about • C o m m o n l y u s e d • Observation • Field trip to • Specimen • Active
wood for boat boat building participation
different materials used • Reference
building, their trade • Identification
for the construction of name and scientific
yard or landing books • Observation
boats. name. • Differentiation centers and
• Ability to
• Characteristics of collection and
boat building timbers.
collect
identification of
• Timbers commonly sufficient and
different boat
used for cattamaran. relevent
• Different grades of
building
specimens
steel, FRP, materials.
ferrocement • Recording of
• Discussion
aluminium alloy and observation
marine plywood
types and
importance.

• To develop the skill to • C o m p a r i t i v e • Data collection • Report preparation on • Reference • Active


study of each the comparitive study participation
conduct a comparitive material with their • Presentation of different boat building
books
study about different boat merits and materials from the data • Notes/reports • Observation
skill
building materials and to demerits. collected from the field prepared during • Ability to
understand their merits and visit. prepare the
field visits.
demerits. • Report preparation on report
merits and demerits of (Sequence in
boat building material the
after conducting a
survey to fish landing
presentation
centres and boat of the
building yards concepts,
collecting data from authenticity
fishermen, boat builders and clarity of
and conduct a group ideas/views/
discussion. concepts

65
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
66
Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To acquire knowledge • Analysis of • Data collection Project - • Reference • Ability for
about the estimation of construction Survey on notes datacollection,
• Analysis skill
cost of construction of cost. constrction cost • Survey reports analysis and
boats using different • Inferring of boat built with preparation of
materials. different types of report.
materials. • Presentation
of the report
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Unit VI

Common Fishing
Methods

Introduction gill nets, chinese nets) encircling nets (seine nets,


Fishing gear and fishing methods are two purse-seining), trawl nets (beam trawl, otter
identical terms but are not similar. Fishing gear is trawl, different types of trawling) deep sea
trawlers and deep sea trawling.
the tool used for catching the fish while the fishing
method denotes fishing activities with or without Curriculum Objectives
gear. There are endless varities of fishing gears
• To acquire an idea about the classification
used all over the world. Hence for studying this
of fishing methods – Von Brandt
a compact, reliable and systematic classification
classification.
is needed.
• To understand the operational methods of
In this chapter we intend to classify various
different trawl nets, seine nets, gill nets and
fishing methods based on operation and features.
lines.
As a consequence of classification study, through
learning activities, the students can acquire Suggested Activities
knowledge about the selection of gear according
a) Fishing methods classification
to various parameters.
• Discussion with demonstration of various
Syllabus gears.
Traditional fishing methods: Line fishing • Model construction of various fishing gears.
(hand lines, drop lines, long lines, troll lines, pole
and line), stationery nets (stake nets, dip nets,

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Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Points for Discussion trawling, stern trawling, one boat trawling,


twin trawling.
• Mention briefly about fishing without gear,
wounding gears, stupefying device, lines, fish • Seine nets – Shore seining, boat seining.
traps, aerial traps, bag nets, dragged gear, • Gill nets – stationary, drift nets, and trammel
seine nets, surrounding nets, driving nets, nets.
lift/dipnets, falling gear, gill net, tangle nets,
• Lines – Pole and line, troll line, hand line,
harvesting machines.
long line.
b) Fishing Operations
Additional information
• On-board training – On different fishing
• Mention on other classifications – A.C.
boats.
Hardy, Umali, FM Davis, ISSCFG
• Display of video clippings of different fishing (International Standard Statistical
operations. Classification of Fishing Gears.)
• Working model demonstrations and • Commonly used fishing gears in Kerala with
discussion. special reference to locally used gears;
Points for discussion Environment friendly fishing gears.

• Mention different types of trawling – Assignments – Suggested


pelagic, mid water, bottom, beam trawling, • Model construction of various fishing gears.
otter trawling, outrigger trawling, side

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Unit VI

Common Fishing Methods


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To acquire an idea about • Classification • Observation • Discussion with • Fishing gears • Based on model
demonstration of constructed and
the classification of of fishing • Communication differentiating
gears (based various fishing capacity evaluation
fishing methods. • Model
on Von Brandt gears. can be done.
construction • Assignment model • Participation in
Classification.) discussion
• Classification construction of • Ability to
various fishing substantiate his
gears. own ideas and
views.
• Neatnes and timely
submission.
• Idea about different • Observation • On board • VCD • Participation
• To understand the types of trawling
operational methods of • Pelagic • Application training on • Models in training
trawl nets, seine nets, gill • Mid water different fishing • Understanding
• Bottom • Inferring
nets and lines. crafts. ability
• Beam
• Outrigger • Video display • Discipline and
• Side on different neatness in
• Stern
• One boat and fishing work
• Twin trawling operation • Basic interest
• Seine nets
• Shore scine • Model • Self reliance
• Boat seine demonstration • Quality and
• Purse seine quality of
• Gillnet
• Stationary work
• Drift • Observation
• Lines
• Pole and line • Attitude and
• Trawl line commitment
• Hand line • Timely
• Long line
• Trammel net submission

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Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Unit VII

Gear Materials

Introduction Curriculum Objectives


By now the students will have acquired • To understand and differentiate natural and
knowledge on the different types of fishing synthetic fibres used for making gear.
methods and gears common in the world. The • To develop skill to identify different gear
efficiency of a fishing gear depends to a very great accessories such as hooks, floats, sinkers,
extend on the materials used for its construction. baits.
Here we discuss on the different types of gear
materials and their properties. Suggested Activities
In addition to gear materials we also discuss • Collection and identification of different gear
various fishing accessories used in several fishing materials – natural and synthetic – from gear
activities. material shop.
• Visit to a gear material shop for
Syllabus
understanding trade names of gear materials
Materials used and general concepts. and specifications and types of fishing
Natural : Cotton, hemp, coir, jute, manila, sisal, accessories.
synthetic: - Nylon, polypropylene, poly ethylene
(monofilament, multifilament, tape, spun). • Demonstration and identification of different
gear accessories.
Natural, synthetic and wire ropes-different types
of hooks. Floats, sinkers and baits.

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Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Points for discussion • Discuss different forms of fibres


• Mention Natural fibres – Plant and Animal (Monofilament, multifilament, split fibres and
origin, Types of plant fibres (leaf, fruit, seed, tapes.)
bast fibres). • Discuss the materials and types used for
• Mention synthetic fibres – poly codensation hooks, floats, sinkers, baits.
compound (PA, PES) Polymeric compound
Additional information
(PVA, PVC), Poly additive compounds
(PE, PP), Mixed polymers (Poly vinylydene • Mention about shackle, thimble, swivel,
chloride.) bouys, anchors, net sonde, TED-Turtle
excluding devices.

71
72
Unit VII

Gear Materials
Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To understand and • Idea about • Observation Visit to a gear • Gear materials • Ability to
natural fibres. material shop prepare notes
differentiate natural and (Plants animal • Identification for • Reference
synthetic fibers used for on
orgin) • Collection and books
observation
making gear. • Synthetic identification of and
fibres gear materials
• Poly and identification
condensation understanding skill
• Poly meric the trade names
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

• Polyadditive of various gear


• Mixed materials.
polymers
• Different forms
of fibers
• Monofilament
• Multi filament
• Split fibres
• To develop a skill to • Types of • Observation Demonstration • Hook • Identification
hooks, float, and skill
identify different gear Sinkers, baits, • Identification • Float
identification of
accessories such as material and its gear • Observation
• Sinker
hooks, floats, sinkers, purpose. accessories. skill
bait. • Visit to a gear • Baits
material shop
for collection
and
identification of
gear
accessories.
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Unit VIII

Specification and
Construction of Gear
Materials

Introduction Curriculum Objectives


A detailed account of different gear materials • To make a clear idea on the differences
have been provided on the previous chapter. In between fibre, yarn, twine and rope.
this unit, essential information is provided on the • To develop skill in differentiating different
specification and construction of gear materials. types of twists. (S,Z)
A detailed discussion about different yarn
• To understand about the specification of
numbering system prevailing all over the world is
also given in this unit. Discussions, demonstration yarns (yarn numbering system.)
and construction should be the main part of the Suggested Activities
learning activities which should be followed in
• Discussion with demonstration of various
this chapter. Plan the learning activities and
types of ropes.
provide such learning experiences to students so
as to develop creativity, process skill and • Demonstrate different types – size, material
differentiation skill. – and conduct a discussion on the type of
braiding, number of strands, type of material
Syllabus used.
Twines and ropes. Numbering systems and • Demonstrate ropes of different twists and
specification. Preparation of twines and ropes ask students to identify and differentiate.
twisting yarn, strand twines, ropes and braiding.
• Construction of rope with different materials
and by different twists.

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Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

• Familiarisation of conversion of yarn • Discuss twists and brief about degree of


numbering system through conversion twists, direction and types of twists –
formulas and discussion. (S, Z)

Points for discussion • Describe direct and indirect yarn numbering


systems.
• Mention what is a fibre, yarn, twine and
rope. Additional information
• Discuss combination and wire rope. • Mention the use of core.
• Mention the different types of yarns (single,
folded and braided yarns.)

74
Unit VIII

Specification and construction of gear materials


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To differentiate different • Idea on • Observation • General • Fibre, yarn, • Perfection in
different types discussion with twine, rope. observation
types of twines and ropes. of fibres, yarn, • Communication demonstration and ability of
twine and • Inference of various differentiation
ropes. types of ropes are evaluated.
(fibers, yarns,
twines.)

• To differentiate different • Identification • Observation • Demonstration • Ropes of • Observation


of different of ropes of different twist. skill
types of twists. types of twist. • Communication
different twists • Fibres of • Differenciation
• Application
and let them different • Application
identify and material skill
differentiate
construction of
rope with
different twist.

• To develop a clear idea • Convertion of • Mathematical • Conversion • Formulas • Problem


yarn approach with discussion solving ability
about yarn numbering • Reference
numbering is evaluated.
system. system • Learning and books
through demonstration
• Communication
formulas.

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Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Unit IX

Properties of
Gear Materials

Introduction Curriculum Objectives


It is essential to know the properties of • To make an awareness of various physical
different types of gear materials prior to their properties of gear materials.
selection for construction of fishing gears. So a • To make an awareness of the reaction of
thorough knowledge of the properties is gear materials to various chemicals – acid,
necessary for a student studying fishing gears. alkali, oils.
Till now the pupils have attained an awareness in
the types of gear materials and their Suggested Activities
specifications. In this chapter, we intend to • Discussion with demonstration – conduct
familiarize the various physical properties of gear an experiment to analyse different properties
materials the resisting property of gear materials like density – density can be measured by
to various weather conditions and to different finding the sinking speed of different
chemicals during gear operations. Further this materials Breaking strength – by using
chapter also aims at the student to develop the special machines known as breaking
skill in selecting gear materials for different fishing strength testers or dynamo meters (if
gears. provided.)
Syllabus Water absorption – to check ability of
different materials to absorb water when
Diameter, strength, moisture content, sinking
immersed. Weather resistance – In different
speed, resistance to atmosphere. Reaction with
materials of contact.

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Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

conditions like rain, light, wind. Diameter – using • Mention the damages caused by chemicals
screw guage. like acid, alkali, oil.
• Discussion with demonstration – on Additional information
resistance to chemicals like acid, alkali, oils
• Discuss visibility, knot stability, elasticity,
– conduct experiments with different gear
shrinkage.
materials and to have a comparative study
of the results. • Mention various gear materials suitable for
making different gears.
Points for discussion
• Discuss physical properties like resistance
to weathering, density, diameter, breaking
strength, sinking speed, water absorption.

77
78
Unit IX

Properties of Gear Materials


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To understand the • Density • Communication • Discussion • Gear material, • Perfection in
• Demonstration water, breaking observation
physical properties of gear • Breaking • Observation • To conduct an strength testers notes.
materials. strength • Experimental experiment to
or • Handling of
• Water skill analyse
dianomometer, apparatus
absorption different
properties like screw guage • Active
• Weather participation
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

density,
resistance breaking • Self reliance
• Diameter strength, water
absorption and
weather
resistance.

• To develop knowledge Reaction with • Experimental • Discussion • Gear materials • Active


• Acid skill with (natural, participation
about the ability of gear • Alkali
material to withstand • Oils • Observation demonstration synthetic) • Observation
corrosion. • Conduct • Acid • Ability in
• Inference
experiments organising
• Alkali
with gear • Documentation
materials by • Oil
• Result review
immersing it in
chemicals like
acid, alkali and
oil and make a
comparitive
study of the
result.
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Unit X

Fabrication of
Webbings

Introduction Suggested Activities


After studying the types, specifications and • Demonstration and practice to make
properties of gear materials, next step is to different knots (reef knot, clove hitches,
familiarize the fabrication techniques of nets. For rolling hitches, bowline, sheet bend, double
this purpose this chapter deals with different sheet bend, fisherman’s knot, overhand
types of knots, joints, braiding, shaping methods knot, sheep shank, butterfly knot.)
– through cutting tailoring methods. • Demonstration and practice of braiding of
Syllabus nets with different knots (single sheet bend
and double sheet bend.)
Different types of knots, seaming, joining,
braiding and creasing, cutting, tailoring, mounting • Demonstration and practice of shaping of
and assembly. nets by creasing, bating, cutting/tailoring and
fly meshing.
Curriculum Objectives
• Demonstration and practise of joining,
• To develop the skill in making different types mounting and rigging of net.
of knots used for various purposes.
Points for discussion
• To develop the skill in fabrication of netting
especially on braiding, creasing, batting, • Briefly describe different types of knots and
cutting (T, N, B Cuts), joining, mounting and their uses – reef knot, single sheet bend,
rigging and understanding their uses. double sheet bend, bow line, fisherman’s

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Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

knot, sheep shank, figure of eight, butterfly Additional information


knot. • Mesh size measurements can be practiced
• Discuss netting – knotless and knotted by measuring the total length of 4 sides, or
netting, direction of netting and measurement measuring from the centre of knot to the
of mesh size. centre of next diagonally opposite knot.

• Mention shaping of net by creasing, bating • Mention direction of netting, direction of


and cutting/tailoring. braiding, row, mesh, selvedges.

• Mention joining – seaming, sewing,


mounting – reaving, stapling and rigging.

80
Unit X

Fabrication of Webbing
Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To understand different Different knots • Observation • Demonstration • Ropes of • Active
• Reef knot of different suitable size. participation
knots. • Application skill knots and
• Overhand knot • Pictures
• Bow line performance
• Sheet bend are evaluated.
• Double sheet
bend
• Fishermans
knot
• Sheepshank
• Clove hitch
• Rolling hitch
• Butterfly knot

• To develop the skill in Braiding of nets • Observation • Demonstration • Twine of • Active


with differnt and practising suitable size. participation
fabrication of netting. • Application
knots.
of different • Guage • Performance
Shaping of net by • Handling of knots
creasing tools • Needle • Handling
• Braiding of nets efficiency
• Cutting • Stand
• Shaping • Mathematical
• Bating • Scissors
• Joining ability
• Fly meshing • Rigging of nets. • Floats sinkers
Joining and
rigging of nets.

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Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Unit XI

Understanding the Net

Introduction Suggested Activities


Students have already acquired the skill in • Students are asked to make different net
making nets with different types of knots, joining, panels having specific dimension and
cutting, braiding, creasing and bating techniques. assembling them accordingly.
This chapter deals with understanding assembling • Enable the students to identify different tears
of net panels, and repair of net panels by – simple, complex in damaged nets through
mending. This can be attained through repeated demonstration and discussion.
practices.
• Make students to repair the nets by mending
Syllabus methods.
Assembling of the net and reading the given Points for discussion
design of a net. Mending nets.
• Mention briefly hanging co-efficient
Curriculum Objectives (horizontal and vertical.)
• To develop the skill in assembling a net panel • Mention briefly mounting of net.
with specific dimensions.
• Discuss different types of tears – simple,
• To develop the skill in identifying various horizontal, vertical, oblique, complex.
tears and to repair damaged net by
• Mention mending methods and their
mending.
significance.

82
Unit XI

Understanding the Net


Objectives Concepts or Process Skill Activities Learning Aid Evaluation
Ideas
• To develop the skill in • Idea about • Observation • Let them make • Twine • Participation
assembling a net panel. assembling different net • Handling
• Performance panels having • Needle
nets. specific efficiency
• Hondling • Guage
efficiency dimension and • Applicaiton
assemble them • Stand skill
accordingly • Scissors
• Float
• Sinkers

• To identify various tears Mention different • Observation • Demonstration • Net panel • Participation
and their repair. types of tears and discussion • Neatness and
• Application • Scissors
• simple Let them performacne
• Needle
• vertical identify can be
• oblique different tears. • Guage evaluated
• complex and • Repair the nets • Stand
• various by mending • Twine.
mending method.
methods and
their
significance.

83
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Section III

Sample Questions

1. Note the relationship between the first two words and suggest a suitable word for the fourth
position.
a) Crustacean : Prawn :: Teleost : ………………………
b) Liftnet : Chinese net :: Surrounding net : ………………………
c) Natural fibre : Cotton : : Synthetic fibre : ………………………
2. Mark the maritime states in the outline map of India choosing from the following list.
Kerala, Punjab, Karnataka, Assam, Haryana, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.
3. Find out the odd man out from the following.
a) Purse seine, Trawlnet, beach seine, boat seine.
b) Sardine, Shark, Mackerel,Tuna.
4. Match the following
Wood Traditional Craft
PP, PE Shaping of net
Creasing Boat building material
Fibre Floats in water
Cattamaran Yarn

84
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

5. Arrange the steps for construction of a netting yarn from fibres.


(Folded yarn, fibres, cabled yarn, single yarn)
6. What suggestion will you give to a person in case of selecting a suitable and economical boat
building material and justify your suggestions.
7. During a visit to a harbour with your friend express how you help him to differentiate bony
fishes and elasmobranches with their external characters.
8. How will you explain to a friend to identify different mechanized boats.
9. During a visit to a sea shore a group of people were found pulling a large long net from two
sides towards shore.
a) What type of fishing method is it?
b) Name the gear used?
c) Which type of fishes are caught by this type of fishing method?
10. You were asked to conduct a burning test of a net material, when burned it shrinks, then curled,
melts and burned with light flame, also drops of melting drip down. Also the smoke smells
similar to burning paraffin.
a) What type of material is it?
b) Do these material absorb water?
11. First column contains common name of fishes, second column their scientific name and third
column with their family.
Common Name Scientific Name Family
1. Scampy Megalaspis cordyla Mytilidae
2. Karikkadi Rastralliger kanagurta Penaeids
3. Mackerel Sardinella longiceps Palecmonids
4. Mussel Macrobrachium rosenbergi Scombridae
5. Oil sardine Parapenaeopsis stylifera Carangidae

85
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

6. Horse maokerel Perna indica Clupeidae


List out the correct sequence.
12. A yarn is 210 denier ie. 9000 m of a single yarn weights 210 gm. A buyer from another country
who uses a different system wants its corresponding specification in British system. How can
you help him.
13. Picture of two twist. Identify the twist.
14. Characterstics of combination vessels are:
a) It has only one type of fishing gear.
b) It has two or more type of fishing gear.
c) It has two or three types of boats.
d) It will have a skiff boat.
15. Match the following
Origin Type of material
Seed PVC
Coir
Cotton
Fruit Silk
Leaf Manila
Animal
Polymeric Compound

86
Fishing Craft & Gear Technology

Suggested Topics

1. On Assignment c) Suitability of various gear materials for


a) Map preparation of India showing maritime making different fishing gears.
states, major harbours and ports of India. d) Impact of the use of trcol-net on the catch
of the traditional fishermen.
b) Chart Preparation of India showing various
traditional crafts used in Indian coast. e) Part played by Kerala in mechanization.
c) Impact of the use of tracol nets on the catch f) Different stages of mechanization of
of traditional fishermen. traditional crafts.
d) Conversion of yarn numbering system (from g) Impact of sea wall.
direct to indirect system.)
3. Project
e) Prepare an assignment on different types of
a) Landing of economically important species
boat building materials.
of fish, prawns and cephalopods within 5
f) Physical and chemical properties of different km of nearby coastal area during a short
gear materials. period.
g) Prepare an assignment on different fishing b) Measure to be taken to improve the catch
methods practised. of traditional fishing craft.
h) Different types of tears and mending. c) Conduct a survey on the construction cost
i) Prepare an assignment on different gear of boats using different types of materials.
accessories. d) Relationship between mush size and size of
2. On seminar the fishes being caught.

a) Seminar on tracol ban – is it a bon or bane. e) Comparison of catch and earnings of


traditional crafts and mechanised boats.
b) Effect of tsunami on fish catch.

87
Vocational Higher Secondary School - I Year

Reference 7. A Census of Artisanal Marine Fishing Fleet


of Kerala 1998 - A publication of SIFFS,
1. Fishing craft and gear technology - Latha
Shenoy and Y. Sreekrishna. Kerala.
8. Marine Fisheries of India - Dr. S.•.
2. Modern Fishing Gear Technology - Shahul
Hameed M.A, M.R. Bhoopendranath. Shanbhogue.

3. Marine Fisheries. Bal. DV and Virabhadra 9. Fishes of India Vol. I & II - Arun Jhingaran.
Rao. Internet Sites
4. A text book of Fish, Fisheries and 1. listserv@searn.sunet.se
Technology - Biswas K.P.
2. http://dir.yahoo.com/science/agriculture/
5. Fish and Fisheries of India - V.G. Jhingran. aquacultre/fisheries/institutes/
6. Fish and Fisheries - Yadav B.N. college_and_university/_departments.
3. http:/www.webscope.com/fishelp/info.html.

88