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“Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall!” -Ronald W. Reagan
Upon visiting the Berlin Wall, President Ronald Wilson Reagan gave his famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate on June 12, 1987. 26 years before, on August 16, 1961, the “Wall” was built. In the 1950’s, Berlin was split in half. The eastern half was communists, while the western half was the Allies. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, the secretary of the communist party of the Soviet Union, demanded that the Western Allies - Britain, France and the United States - leave Berlin immediately. If they didn’t, he would cut off all communication between East and West Berlin. When they did not, he kept his word and built the Berlin Wall. At first, people tried to escape from the East to the West. Khrushchev tried to prevent this by placing guards armed with machine guns along the wall. The west began sending firemen with blankets to catch people jumping from upper floor windows in the buildings that the wall went through. These windows were soon bricked up, though. Machine gun posts, guards, minefields, dogs, and beds of nails soon prevented safe crossings. On August 17, 1962, a young man named Peter Fechter, an East German bricklayer, and his friend attempted to jump over the wall. Peter’s friend, despite numerous cuts and bruises, managed to get over the barbed wire fence, into West Berlin. Peter, however, did not have such good fortune. He was shot by machine guns on the East German side. He fell, but got back again. He scrambled up the wall, but was shot again. He lay, bleeding, for almost an hour. West German guards threw bandages at Peter, while an angry crowd of Western Germans screamed at the East Berlin soldiers. Peter eventually did die and East Berlin guards removed his body. He was one of many failed escape attempts to escape East Berlin Forty-one Eastern Berliners died trying to cross the wall in its first year. There was a new president of the Soviet Union. His name was Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev. Gorbachev did not believe in a communist system. He soon realized that the Soviet Union was not working with the communist system. Khrushchev, who had been communist, had put up the wall, so, Gorbachev, who did not believe in communism, took down the wall, with the support of the American President: Ronald Wilson Reagan. He visited Berlin and gave a very famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate. One of the most famous lines was, “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear down this Wall!”
Above: The Iron Curtain, the separation between capitalist and communist Europe
Above: Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev Below: Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
Left: The Brandenburg Gate, the place of Ronald Reagan’s famous speech
Above: The flag of the Soviet Union, the country that put up the Wall, and the flag of present day Russia
The Berlin Wall was important because for 30 years there was a separation between East and West Germany. Families were torn apart. There were many escape attempts. Over 5,000 to be exact. When the official dismantling of the wall took place on June 13, 1990, people from East Germany were allowed to freely enter and exit as they pleased. We have learned a lot since the Berlin Wall era, but most importantly: Freedom cannot
Above: Berlin during the Berlin Wall era
Above: Peter Fechter as he lies dying by the Berlin Wall
Top Left: The flag of the United States of America Top Right: the flag of the Soviet Union Left: The flag of Deutschland A.K.A. Germany
Below: An East German guard jumps over a pile of barbed wire and into his freedom in West Berlin
Right: Ronald Reagan the Brandenburg Gate during his famous speech, with the quote: “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this Wall
Below: Graffiti on the Berlin Wall
Left: The London Herald headline the day after the fall of the Wall
Imagine… You are under the rule of Fidel Castro. He looks like a wonderful leader at first. Fidel Castro turns out to be a horrible dictator caring about only himself and not Cuba, especially not you, just a resident. You leave Cuba in hopes to someday return to the peaceful island you once knew. Suddenly an opportunity springs up! US president Eisenhower wants you and about 1,300 other Cuban exiles like yourself to be trained and armed by the CIA. Then you could take Cuba back! Risk your life to free Cuba of Castro’s rule or wait for years and years until Castro grows too old to rule? This is the question many Cuban exiles had to ask themselves before the Bay of Pigs invasion occurred.
What lead to the Bay of Pigs Invasion?
Communism-way of government in which ownership of private property and business isn’t allowed so that produced goods and money can be shared equally amongst everyone. Cuban dictator Fidel Castro promised Cuban residents many things. He didn’t fulfill any of these things. Instead, the US was forced to invade the Bay of Pigs located on the Southern coast of Cuba. This invasion became known as The Bay of Pigs Invasion. US relationships with Cuba decreased because of Castro’s communist leanings. One cause of the Bay of Pigs Invasion was Castro’s public alignment w/the Soviet Union lead by Nikita Khrushchev. This angered many middle class and wealthy Cubans resulting in them leaving the country hoping to return in “better times”. Although US president Kennedy had his doubts about the outcomes of this invasion, he pushed them aside and launched it anyways.
Failure and lessons learned.
The outcomes of the Bay of Pigs Invasion weren’t successful for the US. 90 of the exiles were killed and the rest were taken captive. Soviet made tanks helped Castro win along with the fact that he found out about the attack plans before hand. This defeat embarrassed Kennedy so much, that he had to take a vow that he would consider advice and options more carefully in the future. Demonstrations against the US began in Latin America and Europe.
A dictator, a Cold War, 1,300 people in danger.
What was the Bay of Pigs? Who was involved? Most people are confused when they hear “Bay of Pigs”. This is simply the name of the place the Cuban exiles launched an invasion on. President Eisenhower had a plan for launching a huge attack on Trinidad, Cuba. President Kennedy favored the plan to overthrow Castro’s rule but since the US was in a Cold War with the Soviet Union, he wasn’t sure about the success of Eisenhower’s plan. He didn’t want to put the US in danger. At the same time, he didn’t want to appear to have a soft sot for communism. Therefore, he decided on a small scale, top-secret invasion o an area about 100 miles away from Trinidad. Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs). This is what the Bay of Pigs Invasion was planned to be. It took a lot more than just a plan to attempt to carry out the Bay of Pigs. For any idea you need people. President Eisenhower first got the idea of an invasion on Cuba. Cuban dictator Fidel Castro and Soviet Nikita Khrushchev were the people who gave the US certain attack motives. Finally, you would need an army if you want to accomplish anything! President Kennedy gave the command for 1,300 CIA trained Cuban exiles to attack Bahia de Cochinos, the Bay of Pigs. Castro sent militiamen, soldiers, and Soviet tanks to defend the Bay of Pigs. Many people were involved directly and indirectly with the Bay of Pigs.
Tensions increased between Cuba and the US. Castro tightened military ties with the Soviet Union in case Cuba was attacked again. Although this invasion didn’t end successfully for the US, now leaders look back and see how they can avoid outcomes such as these in the future.
The Coca-Cola Company Coca-Cola was an amazing soda manufacturing company. Its’ unique hoopskirt bottles made itself known throughout the U.S. and other countries such as Germany and France. Dependant on what drinks the public wanted, Coca-Cola would satisfy their everchanging taste buds. Though nowa-days Coca-Cola and its’ subcompanies such as Sprite, PowerAde and Pibb’s are big, they all started small a long time ago.
^^^This is a picture of a mule carrying crates packed with Coca-Cola products in a foreign country.
The Coca Leaf and the Kola Nut
The first glass of Coca-Cola was brought into existence in a small pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia in May, 1886. The creator was a man called John Pemberton, who combined the Coca leaf and the Kola nut while attempting to create a headache relieving syrup. However, it didn’t thrive in his care, so a man named Asa Candler, who had frequent headaches, heard about it, and bought it for $2,300.
What you want is a Coke!
Throughout the years of Coca-Cola advertising, they changed the world of modern ads and catchy slogans. As the times changed the public eye’s needs and wants, the advertising people at Coca-Cola would have to change the ads to go on television, radio, and bill-boards. Over the Coca-Cola history, sayings and signs became known through out America.
THE U.S. TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
Pibbs, Sprite, and PowerAde
The Coca-Cola Company has lots of sub-companies. Makers of Coca-Cola would make new drinks or buy the others to satisfy the public. The companies that we know today are Fanta, PowerAde, Sprite, and Pibbs. Sometimes, when a certain a soda-fountain company prospered, CocaCola would offer to buy the company, or the rights to that soda.
During the temperance movement of the 1920’s, the CocaCola fountains in various restaurants and drugstores gave people a spot to meet and socialize at places other than saloons. Instead of buying the distilled spirits, everyone in the family could enjoy a refreshing Coca-Cola.
By Aaron Klein and Casey Perdue
Ever wanted to learn about the Cold War? Well here’s your chance!
How the Cold War Started
The Cold War began in 1945, right after World War II. The Cold War was a struggle between the US and the Soviet Union, who both used primarily nuclear, but also classical, bombs. The US was threatening the Soviet Union with bombs because we feared that they would expand too far into Eastern Europe. We didn’t want them expanding because they were Communist and taking over small countries around them. America was afraid of Communism.
Mutually Assured Destruction (M.A.D.)
Mutually Assured Destruction was the fact that if one country bombed another country, the other country would see the bomb on radar, and drop bombs on the other country. For example: if America decided to drop a bomb on Europe, then Europe would see the bomb on radar, and send bombs of their own. Due to this some people think that it was less likely someone would drop a bomb in the Cold War then it is now, because now we have terrorists.
The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan were both made by President Harry S. Truman. The Truman Doctrine said that America would help with the economics in Eastern Europe. The Marshall Plan said America would help the military in Turkey and Greece.
The End of the Cold War
The Cold War ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union broke up into Russia and other smaller countries. When The Soviet Union broke up, America couldn’t fight them, and the war stopped.
Introduction to Harlem Today when you look out your window, it’s probably calm and peaceful. But in the 1920’s and 30’s in Harlem, it would be buzzing with excitement. Duke Ellington might be performing jazz at the Cotton Club, or W.E.B. Dubois could be making a famous speech for desegregation. Whatever the place you may be today, it wouldn’t be the same without the Harlem Renaissance.
Duke Ellington on the Piano
“Come on! Get hot! Get happy! [With] Harlem’s jazz king, blaring, crooning, burning up the stage with his red hot rhythms, moaning saxophones, wailing cornets, laughing trombones, [and] screaming clarinets.” ~ An advertisement for the Washingtonians
Harlem’s Rebirth When thousands of black people moved North, known as the Great Migration, no one knew what amazing culture, art and strength would blossom. The Cotton Club was only one of the famous nightclubs that provided jazz to whites, and later everyone. During the Harlem Renaissance, people like George Gershwin specialized in music. However, people also wrote literature, painted, and protested. The Harlem Renaissance was not only an innovation for African Americans. It was an innovation for America.
The King of Jazz Have you ever wondered who made jazz the way it is today? Many people influenced jazz’s journey; one of the most recognized people was Duke Ellington. Although Duke Ellington is most well known as a pianist, he also arranged and composed music. His band, the Washingtonians, was the house band at the Cotton Club for many years. They were also broadcasted on radio several times every week. In addition to playing at the Cotton Club, Ellington toured in the United States and Europe. His most famous compositions are “Mood Indigo” and “Take the A Train”. “With his newfound fame and money, Ellington was able to hire the best musicians in New York, and wrote stunning arrangements that allowed them to showcase their talents.” “And thanks to Ellington, the 1920s would always be remembered as a time when jazz grew up, gained influence and changed the musical landscape forever.”
Dubois’s Fight for African American Equal Rights W.E.B. Dubois was one of the famous protest leaders during the 20s and 30s. From the point he went to Fisk University to teaching at Wilberforce College, he wanted to give Blacks equal rights. Dubois helped create the Niagara Movement in 1905 and helped to start the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He even wrote sixteen books about segregation! Although he disagreed with Booker T. Washington’s way of dealing with segregation, Dubois helped Blacks come from slums to scholars.
, the sytem
Bootlegging was a huge business during the Prohibition Era. It was an extremely corrupt business but very profitable. Al Capone made millions of dollars off of bootlegging. Even though Al Capone started his life of crime at an early age, his business didn’t last forever.
Background Al, or Alphonse, Capone was born and grew up in Brooklyn, New York and was the fourth of nine kids. He had to repeat the sixth grade because he skipped school so often. Later, when he was 14 he stopped going to school after he hit his teacher. After he left school he became a bouncer. One night, he insulted a rival gangster and they got into a brawl. Afterwards Al had to lay low so he moved to Chicago where he started his empire.
Family Life Al Capone always kept his work private from his family. They never really knew about his bootlegging business. He would often be gone for a while at a time, but his family never asked why, and that’s how he liked to live. Even though his family never new about his business and he was away from home a lot he did care about them. He spent lots of money on them, buying jewelry for his wife Mae, and toys, accessories, and lots of sports tickets for his son, Albert.
Expensive Taste Al Capone lived a lavish life. He liked to gamble at high stakes, up to 100,000 dollars at a time, and always wore expensive clothes.
He also spent a lot of money on drugs and alcohol. But he never got too careless with his safety. As a precaution he always drove around in a bulletproof car and had huge bodyguards stay with him whenever he went. Al Capone liked to spend money, but he never forgot the risk of his business.
Going to Prison Al Capone was very good at staying out of trouble with the law. The police tried to bust him for all kinds of different stuff. For example, he went to jail for 10 months for carrying a concealed weapon in Philadelphia. He tried and did everything to stay out of prison. He bribed the police and anybody else he needed to with alcohol and money. He even had a fake second hand furniture dealing business to cover up his real business. Eventually, he went to court on income tax evasion. During the trial, the jury had to be replaced because he bribed the original jury. After the jury was replaced, he went to prison for 11 years in 1928.
Life After Crime Al Capone was one of the first prisoners in Alcatraz. The only reason he got sent there was because he was making so much trouble in his other prison. For example, he had people outside of prison sneak in drugs, alcohol, or anything else he wanted into prison. Once he was moved to Alcatraz the rules were much stricter and the security was better so nothing got in or out. While Capone was in jail, he was behaving very well, so well that he got out early only after eight years. Unfortunately, when he got out of jail he was very sick with a disease called syphilis. He spent the rest of his life residing at his Florida beach house. Because of his disease he slowly lost sanity. He sometimes went up to complete strangers and gave them sticks of gum. Eventually, in 1947, Al Capone died of a stroke.
By; Sarah and Ruthie
Music changed a lot in the 1970s. Rock became popular and changed culture. The bands that helped this happen included Pink Floyd, The Rolling Stones, and Cream. These were three bands in the classic genre. Classic was a type of rock that was sweeter soulful songs; it was a phase that was popular but faded quickly in the mid 1970s. Punk rock also influenced music culture. Some of the popular punk bands were, Sex Pistols, The Clash, Blondie, and Patti Smith. Punk was a more aggressive genre. Metal was a genre based off of punk. The most influential metal bands were Led Zepplin, Steppen Wolf, and Black Sabbath.
Rock music in the 1970s influenced everyone’s style and the way they acted. People started wearing ripped up t-shirts, had many piercings, and had wild hairdos. Due to the aggressive style of music, it made people feel angry and so more fights were common. At concerts people started acting nasty, people threw cans and spat into the crowd.
The first type of rock in the 1970s people just called rock; nowadays people call it Classic rock. Classic rock was more sweet and soulful with still a rock feel. It was wildly popular but as punk came into the picture it faded fast. In the mid 70s, punk was the rage. People say that England had the bands that started punk. Punk had way more aggressive sounds and exiting stage performances. Punk was huge. Everyone liked the different sounds and looks of this genre. Based off punk, was metal. Metal was like punk but even more intense. Metal started in the late 70s. It didn’t become really popular until the 80s though. All the genres were important to the decade that evolved rock.
Hot Pants! One of the many strange trends in the 1970’s was hot pants. Hot pant were short tight skimpy shorts. They came with different patterns and everyone wore them. Even men wore hot pants. Hot pants were a huge trend in the 1970’s.
Have you ever been in a race that you really wanted to win? The space race is like that; both the U.S. and the Soviet Union paid trillions of dollars to win. Losing would make them the worse of the two. Winning was worth a lot.
The Race Begins
The space race started with the launch of the soviet Sputnik 1. The U.S got upset and scared. The soviets had beaten them to space and who knew what sputnik 1 could do from there. Maybe it could take photos of them. This was also happening during the cold war so the U.S wondered if sputnik 1 could bomb them. So the race continues running off of fear and demand for superiority.
Is It Done Yet
Have you ever wondered how long the space race lasted? Well it lasted twelve years. The space race officially started with the launch of sputnik 1 in 1957. It ended with Apollo 11s the landing on the moon in 1969 when the first men walked the moon.
Above: a picture of sputnik 1
And the winner is…
In the beginning of the space race the Soviet Union immediately seized the lead. They sent the first man in space, the first satellite in orbit and the first women in space. They also got the first pictures of the far side of the moon and sent the most people in one space craft. But all this cost the Soviet Union a lot of money and they started to slow down while the U.S. kept going. The U.S. got the first remote controlled spacewalk the first videos of space and the first man on the moon. Mean while the Soviet Union sent the first probe to the moon. But although they got the last laugh the U.S hadn’t achieved as much as the soviet union. So counting firsts the Soviet Union still had a small lead when the race ended.
BY Emma Plosser &Lucy Hoak
If it wasn’t World War 1 that
killed 25 million people, than what did? The Spanish Flu. It killed more people ` than World War 1 and 2, the Korean, and the Vietnam War combined!!
Has an unknown cause 25 million killed The flu rained terror
A haiku by Emma Plosser
The Cause of the Spanish Flu:
Is it out there?
There is no definite cause for the Spanish flu but a common theory started at the unsanitary Fort Riley. Kansas’s frequent dust storms spread acid smoke from the manure piles of diseased animals. The flu quickly infected the entire barracks. From there, the soldiers trained at Fort Riley spread the virus to other training camps by touch. Soon the flu took over most of Europe and silently crept through the entire world including the poles! Only Tristan da Cunha escaped the flu. Most flu causes went unnoticed during the first wave because everyone’s attention was on the war, but during the 2nd and 3rd wave people began to take notice.
It was named The Spanish flu because Spain was first to recognize there was a flu.
The Spanish Flu’s effect: Who could have predicted the terrible outcome?
Besides being a danger to anyone who caught it, the Spanish Flu also did a lot more. While some countries thought the flu as a mere nuisance when it started popping up in army bases, the flu shut down whole armies and postponed attacks. In fact, Germany might have won the war if their attack on the Allies (Great Britain, France, U.S.A, and Russia) was stopped because of the flu. In smaller areas such as San Francisco the Flu affected daily life as well. Businesses were shut down due to shortage of healthy available workers. People became so paranoid of the Flu that they fled from their sick family and friends, and even threatened physicians with weapons if they didn’t cure them. As well as causing bodily harm, the flu also affected peoples’ way of life.
A nurse wearing a mask to not catch the Spanish flu from sick people.
The harm of the Spanish flu: Deadly enough to kill in 24 hours
Imagine a virus so dangerous it could infect an entire barrack of soldiers. A victim who caught the Spanish Flu would first have trouble breathing, then bloody foam would erupt from their nose and mouth, and their skin would turn blue. Within 24 hours, the victim would drown in their own body fluids and die. The Flu even reached President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference, and his health was never the same again after contracting it. The Second Wave in particular was especially horrible, slaughtering fit young adults as well as the elderly and very young. Everywhere in the world, the Flu will be remembered as one of the most dangerous diseases since the Middle Ages.
A graph of death rates.
Op Art patterns were very popular at this time.
It is the 1960s; the outrageous fashions that it will be known for are just starting to immerge. But what exactly were these fashions? How did they all become popular? And what places would sell them? In this article you will find all this out and more!
What Were These Fashions?
What do plastic dresses, bell bottoms, and leg makeup all have in common? They were some of the most popular fashions of the 60’s! One of the popular themes was the “Space Age”. Designers like André Courréges, Pierre Cardin, Paco Rabanne, and Cecil Gee, experimented with looks inspired by the “Space Race”. They used materials like, plastic, synthetics, PVC, silver Lurex, and metallic paper to create a unique modern look. Along with the Space Age came many other trends, some were miniskirts and dresses paired with multiheight boots, Op Art patterns, and leg makeup. Pillbox hats became popular when Jackie Kennedy wore one by a New York designer in 1961. Coco Chanel also created a formal yet modern woman suit (smart suit) paired with a bob haircut. These were only some of the crazy fashions of the 60s. Being a hippie was very popular in the 60s in San Francisco and New York. Hippies were a style the young people against the Vietnam War created. They usually wore tie dyed clothing and headbands. Hippies weren’t the only trend though; some people liked the rocker look better. Rockers wore studded leather, jeans, and winkle pickers. Winkle pickers are leather boots with pointy toes. Rockers were hated by mods. “Mod” is short for modernist. They wore short jackets, drainpipe trousers, polo shirts, turtle neck sweaters, suede boots, and bobs. All these rivalries lead to rockers “defeat” in London.
By: McKayla and Marion
How Did These Fashions Catch On?
Are you wondering how these outrageous fashions caught on? Fashions caught on then just like they do today. They caught on by having movie stars wear in popular movies. Another way was havi9ng models war these clothes and since people would want to wear fashionable clothes they often wore the clothes models did. One more way was famous designers designed these clothes which made some people want to wear them and then since other people were wearing them everyone started to.
Where Could You Buy These Fashions?
Have you ever heard of a boutique called Mr. Fish? This was one of the most popular places to shop for clothes in the 60’s. During the 1960’s, London was known as the capital of fashion. It had many unique clothes and boutiques selling them. Even Mary Quant, a very popular designer had a boutique named “Bazaar” that sold the “London Look”. By the peak of the 60’s most people bought popular fashions in boutiques. Some of the most popular ones were called Mr. Fish, Granny takes a trip, and I was Lord Kitcheners Valet, although there were many other places to shop for these clothes Now you know all about the fashions of the 60’s and what NOT to wear to this year’s biggest party!
To the right are Coco Chanel’s smart suits and to the left is a Plastic Space Age dress.
Did you know that the Korean War actually hasn’t ended? Even though the fighting has stopped, there was never a treaty signed. That is why the Korean War is called the forgotten war. The fighting stopped on Porkchop Hill. Porkchop Hill is sometimes called old baldy because all the bones and metal on the hill from the war have killed all the plants on Porkchop Hill. What is The DMZ? The DMZ or the Demilitarized Zone is a border between North and South Korea. The DMZ is about 2.5 miles (4km) wide and 155 miles long. Half of it is on each side of the Demarcation Line which is the actual border between North and South Korea. Over the years 2 highways and 2 railways have been made throughout the DMZ.
When Was it Made? The Dmz was made on 7/27/1653.
Wildlife Refuge? Since no one is allowed in the DMZ, it has become and accidental nature reserve that houses some endangered species and migratory birds. Some animals that live there are Asiatic Black Bears, Amur Gorals, Eurasian Lynxes, among other animals. There are over 3000 species of plants there also.
Ready to Fight!
Boom! The sound of a nearby claymore exploding on an unexpecting enemy awakes you as you sleep on the ground, rolled up in poncho liners or in a sleeping bag depending on were you are stationed. That is what a morning would be like for some American soldiers. Once you get up its time to fight! The U.S. soldiers grab their M-16 and follow or lead their squads.
As they follow their squads they encounter a small group of enemies and fire their weapons. The standard M-16 could be automatic or three round burst and it had a range of 1300 feet so they took them out without much resistance. They also had hand held explosive devices, grenades. Uh-oh! This time the U.S. is overwhelmed with enemies. You have to make a quick escape. Luckily you see a Bell UH-1 helicopter. This helicopter can carry our whole 8-man squad and is attached with a mounted machine gun.
Back at the Base
After a long ride on the helicopter, you get back to the base and are told to inspect some of the planes. You look at all the Fighter Jets, specifically the F-4 Phantoms and F-5 Freedom Fighters, both armed with cannons. You look at the CH-47’s which are used to carry ammo, artillery, and troops. Next you carefully look and the Napalm canisters, which had sticky gel that made targets, burst into flames. All the planes look good so you decided to go to sleep and relive that day again.
Ready to Fight!
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