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to attain certain goals, as a person¶s belief about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. It is a belief that one has the capabilities to execute the courses of actions required to manage prospective situations. It has been described in other ways as the concept has evolved in the literature and in society: as the sense of belief that one¶s actions have an effect on the environment; as a person¶s judgment of his or her capabilities based on mastery criteria; a sense of a person¶s competence within a specific framework, focusing on the person¶s assessment of their abilities to perform specific tasks in relation to goals and standards rather than in comparison with others¶ capabilities. Additionally, it builds on personal past experiences of mastery. The idea of self-efficacy is one of the center points in positive psychology; this branch of psychology focuses on factors that create a meaning for individuals. It is believed that our personalized ideas of self-efficacy affect our social interactions in almost every way. Understanding how to foster the development of selfefficacy is a vitally important goal for positive psychology because it can lead to living a more productive and happy life. A perception of perceived competence.
that is.1 Prosociality and moral disengagement 4. Self-efficacy is commonly understood as domain-specific. It refers to the global confidence in one¶s coping ability across a wide range of demanding or novel situations. one can have more or less firm self-beliefs in different domains or particular situations of functioning.3 Health Behavior Change 5 Possible Applications 6 Controversy 7 Conclusion 8 See also 9 References 10 External articles and further reading Generalizations of the Concept General Self-Efficacy.1 Social Cognitive Theory 2.2 Over-Efficaciousness in Learning 4. Social self-efficacy is ³an individual¶s confidence in her/his ability to engage in the social .1 Factors affecting self-efficacy 4 Theoretical Models of Behavior o o o 4. This broader construct is most frequently assessed with the General Self-Efficacy Scale.4 Attribution Theory 3 How self-efficacy affects human function o 3.3 Self-Concept Theory 2. But some researchers have also conceptualized a general sense of self-efficacy.  Social Self-efficacy.2 Social Learning Theory 2.1 Generalizations of the Concept 2 Theoretical Approaches o o o o 2.
the measure of self-efficacy having a heavy impact upon that of the others. Both sets of authors suggest that social selfefficacy is strongly correlated to the constructs of shyness and social anxiety. and (6) giving or receiving help.  . Smith and Betz measured social selfefficacy using an instrument they developed and tested called the Scale of Perceived Social Self-Efficacy (PSSE). and measured in the scientific literature as researchers began to generalize Bandura¶s theory for specific applications. Fitchen et al. For example.. (2) pursuing romantic relationships. when people lack social support they may be able to compensate for it by self-efficacy or vice versa. 1997) were either ³psychometrically inadequate or somewhat narrow in definition and scope´.. Trust in Friends. and thus they created the PSSE scale.. 1982. Matsushima and Shiomi modified an instrument used in a different study in such a way that they felt it captured and measured the construct of social self-efficacy. Additionally.interactional tasks necessary to initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships. Some of the item domains for this instrument included Self-confidence about Social Skill in Personal Relationship.´ As a construct social selfefficacy has been variably defined. Moreover. and Trust by Friends. particularly when applied to various target populations. (5) groups or parties. which they described as a measure of self-efficacy expectations with respect to a range of social behaviors. (3) social assertiveness. described.g. Scherer et al. (4) performance in public situations. Their instrument measured six domains: (1) making friends. They argued that extant attempts to measure the construct (e.
which emphasizes the role of observational learning and social experience in the development of personality. Teacher Self-Efficacy. People observe others acting within an environment whether natural or social. tasks. demonstrating competency skills used in the course. The main concept in social cognitive theory is that an individual¶s actions and reaction in almost every situation is influenced by the actions that individual has observed in others. Various empirical inquiries have also been conducted attempting to measure academic selfefficacy. Teacher self-efficacy pertains to one's perceived competence to deal with all demands and challenges that are implied in teachers' professional life. passing the course.  Theoretical Approaches Social Cognitive Theory Psychologist Albert Bandura has defined self-efficacy as one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations. satisfactorily completing assignments. One's sense of self-efficacy can play a major role in how one approaches goals. These observations are remembered by an individual and help shape social . The concept of self-efficacy lies at the center of Bandura¶s social cognitive theory. such as accomplishing course outcomes. and challenges. and meeting the requirements to continue on in his or her major. Academic self-efficacy refers to a student¶s belief that he or she can successfully engage in and complete course-specific academic tasks.Academic Self-efficacy.
it is an important aspect of social cognitive theory. It considers that people learn from one another. Self-efficacy represents the personal perception of external social factors. Social Learning Theory This psychological theory describes the acquisition of socially valuable skills that are developed exclusively or primarily in a social group. those who believe they can perform well²are more likely to view difficult tasks as something to be mastered rather than something to be avoided. Self-efficacy levels reflect a persons¶ understanding of what skills they can offer in a group setting. and modeling.behaviors and cognitive processes. imitation. people with high self-efficacy²that is. Since Self-efficacy is developed from external experiences and self-perception and is influential in determining the outcome of many events. Self-Concept Theory . This theoretical approach purposes the idea that by changing how an individual learns their behaviors in the early stages of mental development could have a large impact on their mental processes in later stages of development. According to Bandura's theory. Social learning promotes the development of individual emotional and practical skills as well as the perception of oneself and the acceptance of others with their individual competencies and limitations. including such concepts as observational learning. Social learning depends on group dynamics and how individuals either succeed or fail at dynamic interactions.
Unlike Social learning and Social Cognitive Theory. Self-concept is learned and. It is also becoming clear that self-concept has at least three major qualities of interest to behavioral therapist: (1) it is learned. whereas . 1. and Control ability. no one is born with a self-concept. Self-concept organization refers to the way we apply experiences to our selves. from what we can tell. we often develop ideas based on multiple experiences.determining the location of the cause²internal (dispositional) or external (situational) to the person Influential to feelings of self-esteem and self-efficacy If success or failure is attributed to internal factors. Attribution Theory Attribution theory focuses on how people attribute the cause of an event and how those beliefs interact with internal perception of themselves. success will lead to pride and increased self-efficacy. Many of the successes and failures that people experience in many areas of life are closely related to the ways that they have learned to view themselves and their relationships with others. (2) it is organized. Stability.Seeks to explain how people interpret and perceive their own existence from cues they receive from external sources. Self-concept dynamics refers to the idea that our perception changes at all times and is not fixed at a certain age. Attribution Theory defines three major elements of cause: Locus. Locus . self-concept theory focuses on how these perceptions are organized and how they are dynamically active throughout life. and (3) it is dynamic.
but will engage in tasks where their self-efficacy is high. which encourages people to tackle challenging tasks and gain valuable experience. Controllability . pity. guilt If we attribute our own abilities to success we will increase self-efficacy Failing at a task we cannot control can lead to shame or anger How self-efficacy affects human function Choices regarding behavior People will be more inclined to take on a task if they believe they can succeed. which can lead to difficulties. Motivation . People with a self-efficacy significantly beyond their actual ability often overestimate their ability to complete tasks.failure will diminish self-esteem and negatively affect selfefficacy 2. they will expect to fail in that subject in the future 3.whether the cause is static or dynamic over time Closely related to expectations and goals in the future If students attribute their failure to stable factors such as the difficulty of the subject.whether the person is actively in control of the cause Related to emotions such as anger. or shame Conflict can arise if we feel we have not done our best. Research shows that the µoptimum¶ level of selfefficacy is a little above ability. People generally avoid tasks where their self-efficacy is low. On the other hand. people with a self-efficacy significantly lower than their ability are unlikely to grow and expand their skills. gratitude. Stability .
and persist longer. than those with low efficacy. someone with a high self-efficacy may not prepare sufficiently for a task. Health Behaviors . For example. feeling sick. On the other hand. Self-efficacy also affects how people respond to failure. On the other hand. a person with high self-efficacy in regards to mathematics may attribute a poor result to a harder than usual test. the more active the efforts. A person with a low selfefficacy will attribute the result to poor ability in mathematics. as well as increased stress. A person with a high self-efficacy will attribute the failure to external factors. This often results in poor task planning. people with high self-efficacy often take a wider overview of a task in order to take the best route of action. lack of effort or insufficient preparation. The stronger the selfefficacy or mastery expectations. See Attribution Theory.People with high self-efficacy in a task are more likely to make more of an effort. People with high self-efficacy are shown to be encouraged by obstacles to make a greater effort. low self-efficacy provides an incentive to learn more about the subject. Observational evidence shows that people become erratic and unpredictable when engaging in a task in which they have low self-efficacy. where a person with low self-efficacy will attribute failure to low ability. As a result. Thought patterns & responses Low self-efficacy can lead people to believe tasks are harder than they actually are.
among others. 2008). & Schwarzer. A rule of thumb is to use the following semantic structure: "I am certain that I can do xx. or breast self-examination are. Self-efficacy influences the challenges that people take on as well as how high they set their goals (e. seat belt use. dieting. 2005). how much effort will be expended. dependent on one¶s level of perceived selfefficacy (Conner & Norman. one can either use more items that jointly cover the area of interest. condom use. even if yy(barrier)" (Schwarzer...g. 2005). More important is rigorous theory-based item wording. If the target behavior is less specific. Selfefficacy is directly related to health behavior. It is actually not necessary to use larger scales if a specific behavior is to be predicted.g. dental hygiene. Self-efficacy beliefs are cognitions that determine whether health behavior change will be initiated. but it also affects health behaviors indirectly through its impact on goals. "I intend to reduce my smoking. physical exercise. 4 items) have been used. A number of studies on the adoption of health practices have measured self-efficacy to assess its potential influences in initiating behavior change (Luszczynska. and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and failures. Often single-item measures or very brief scales (e.Health behaviors such as non-smoking." or "I intend to quit smoking altogether"). or develop a few specific . Self-efficacy influences the effort one puts forth to change risk behavior and the persistence to continue striving despite barriers and setbacks that may undermine motivation.
healthy food consumption) or in a narrow way (i. They studied the academic achievements of students involved in science classes in Australia and found that students with high levels of self-efficacy show a boost in academic performance compared to those who reported low self-efficacy.. These behaviors may be defined broadly (i. The researchers found that confident individuals typically took control over their own learning experience and were more likely to participate in class and preferred hands-on learning experiences. The Destiny Idea Further information: Locus of control Bandura showed that people of differing selfefficacy perceive the world in fundamentally different ways.e.e.sub-scales. Those individuals reporting low self-efficacy typically shied away from academic interactions and isolated themselves in their studies. Academic Productivity Research done by Sharon Andrew and Wilma Vialle also show the connection between personalized self-efficacy and productivity.. Whereas general self-efficacy measures refer to the ability to deal with a variety of stressful situations. consumption of high-fibre food). People with a high self- . measures of self-efficacy for health behaviors refer to beliefs about the ability to perform certain health behaviors.
a. Enactive Attainment "Mastery experience" is the most important factor deciding a person's self-efficacy.efficacy are generally of the opinion that they are in control of their own lives.or herself as similar to his or her own model. . and where they see people failing. "Vicarious Experience" ³If they can do it. achievement that has meaning in their culture. but what I call their accruing ego identity gains real strength only from wholehearted and consistent recognition of real accomplishment." (Erik Erikson) 2. They may have to accept artificial bolstering of their self-esteem in lieu of something better. success raises self-efficacy. people with low self-efficacy may see their lives as somewhat out of their hands.´ This is a process of comparison between oneself and someone else. Experience . Factors affecting self-efficacy Bandura points to four sources affecting selfefficacy.a.a. When people see someone succeeding at something. On the other hand. that their own actions and decisions shape their lives. I can do it as well. that is. their self-efficacy will increase. This process is more effectual when a person sees him. their self-efficacy will decrease. If a peer who is perceived as having similar ability succeeds. 1.k.a.k. Modeling . failure lowers it. Simply put. "Children cannot be fooled by empty praise and condescending encouragement.
These can have a strong influence ± most people remember times where something said to them significantly altered their confidence. Although not as influential as experience. stressful situations. it is the person's belief in the implications of their physiological response that alters their self-efficacy. rather than the sheer power of the response. fear. shakes. fatigue. those with low self-efficacy may take this as a sign of their own inability. thus decreasing their self-efficacy further. If a person gets 'butterflies in the stomach' before public speaking. A person's perceptions of these responses can markedly alter a person's selfefficacy.or herself. etc. 3. Social Persuasions Social persuasions relate to encouragements/discouragements. Thus. while those with high self-efficacy are likely to interpret such physiological signs as normal and unrelated to his or her actual ability. 4. aches and pains. people commonly exhibit signs of distress. modeling is a powerful influence when a person is particularly unsure of him. It is generally easier to decrease someone's self-efficacy than it is to increase it. Physiological Factors In unusual. Theoretical Models of Behavior . nausea. negative persuasions decrease it. While positive persuasions increase self-efficacy.this will usually increase an observer's self-efficacy.
Feelings of selfefficacy (with respect to academic work. moral disengagement and prosocial behavior have a negative relationship. Prosociality and moral disengagement Examples of prosocial behavior are helping others. The three types .A theoretical model of the effect of self-efficacy on transgressive behavior was developed and verified in research with school children. being kind and cooperative. sharing. On the other hand. and selfregulation) influence prosocial behavior. social interactions. Social Self-Efficacy has a positive correlation with prosocial behavior. blaming the victim). Self-regulatory selfefficacy and academic selfefficacy have a negative correlation with moral disengagement (making excuses for bad behavior. avoiding responsibility for consequences.
One study used the foreign language classroom to examine students' beliefs about learning. Survey and interview results indicated students¶ attributions for success and failure and their expectations for certain subjects¶ learning ability played a role in the relationship between goal attainment and volition. Over-Efficaciousness in Learning Research on learning has indicated that in certain circumstances. perceptions of goal attainment. For other students who felt they were "bad at languages. and motivation to continue language study. having less self-efficacy for a subject may be helpful." .of self-efficacy are positively correlated. It appears that overefficaciousness negatively affected student motivation. as negative attitudes towards how quickly/well one will learn can actually prove of benefit.
self-efficacy can assist relapse prevention. As a moderator. mediators. and the initiation of action. Possible Applications The applications of self-efficacy in modern society are enormous. but we are also learning that adults are affected by perceived selfefficacy as well. Selfefficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions. the development of action plans. See Health Action Process Approach. We are searching for ways to make our children learn more effectively and be more productive.their negative beliefs increased their motivation to study. self-efficacy can support the translation of intentions into action. Moreover. Health Behavior Change Social-cognitive models of health behavior change include the construct of perceived selfefficacy either as predictors. By . or moderators.
but those with high self-efficacy seem to be more able to live stress-free lives that are rewarding and happy.understanding how to help influence one to develop a positive mental assessment of their abilities. This will allow more people to develop high levels of self-efficacy that will translate into increased productivity in their environments. Also. the stress of life can be at times intolerable. it is possible for us to design learning and work environments that provide the necessary feedback and support for individuals. Some research shows that while selfefficacy can be accurately reported by an individual. it . the advantages of high versus low levels in certain social situations is not universally agreed upon as salient. Controversy While the general concept that self-efficacy is a positive aspect of the human cognition is mostly accepted.
such as public speaking. were more difficult to individuals with low self-efficacy.isn¶t able to predict actual social interactions in many situations. and currently more research is needed to determine if one can make any predictive claims based on perceived selfefficacy. Proponents of self-efficacy psychology also believe their . The controversy exists regarding how important self-efficacy is to complex social situations. Conclusion Research suggests that perceived self-efficacy may be important in the realm of a healthy emotional lifestyle and in stress reduction. but those individuals showed no correlating social responses in a casual social setting. Tasks that are specifically socially oriented. More research is needed on selfefficacy as it may apply to such areas as the work place and the field of education.
as well as how individuals perceive themselves.field may better redefine the meaning of social interactions.  .
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