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September 2, 2009
Leonardo Ferro Universit` di Napoli “Federico II” a CERN PH-CMG email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
2 . These two-dimensional segments still do not provide any information about the coordinate parallel to the sens wires. The cell hits are the basic ingredients for the reconstruction of segments in the r − φ and r − z projections separately. The local reconstruction in the CMS Drift Tube (DT) begins with the reconstruction of mono-dimensional hits in the single drift cells. In the following analysis the muons are observed at an intermediate depth (about 100 m underground). The only detected particles are cosmic muons since the LHC beam is not running yet. A better knowledge of composition vs. There are several deep underground experiments that investigate the energy range of 1-100 PeV. The data used for the analysis are taken by CRAFT09 (Cosmic Run At Four Tesla) which started on 23 July and is still going. The only information contained in these hits is their distance from the wire. with an intrinsic left/right ambiguity and without any information about their position along the tube. we have followed the analysis done in the paper  with Aleph data and compared the results with it. The goal of experiments that study these events is to better understand the mass composition and energy spectrum of primary cosmic ray nuclei. the study of higher energetic muons requires larger detector areas and longer exposure time than have been possible with instrumentation at the top of the atmosphere. energy aids in understanding the origin and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays. corresponding to a vertical muon threshold energy of about 50 GeV. but they measure the track angle in the measurement plane (orthogonal to the wires). energy. 2 Segment selection In the ﬁgure 1 is displayed a typical multi-muon event 58 incoming muons and the reconstruction of the segments in the chambers.1 Introduction Cosmic multi-muon events are generated by the interaction of very energetic primary cosmic ray in the upper atmosphere such as protons or iron nuclei. The primary composition is known from direct measurements with satellite experiments up to an energy of 1014 eV. Since we do not have a cosmic multi-muon Monte Carlo simulation for CMS yet. The analysis has been done using reconstructed segments in the muon chambers of CMS detector. Due to the rapidly falling ﬂux of muons vs.
Pelliccioni Local Muon Reconstruction in the Drift Tube Detectors. M. 2 February 2006: par 3.Figure 1: Event display of a multi-muon event with segments reconstruction in the chambers.1. Bolognesi. Lacaprara. In ﬁgures 2 and 3. CMS Physics Technical Design Report. S. G.1. Bellan. S. 2 See: CMS collaboration. So we See: N. Cerminara. R. CERN-LHCC-2006-001. only the inner layers of the upper-half part of the detector have been used since there is no θ information in the outer layer2 and the angle θ is not aﬀected by the magnetic bending. instead. Volume I: Detector Performace and Software. We expect the detected muons to be parallel since they come from a particular interaction that induces the so called cosmic shower as can be seen in the picture 4 in the example of a proton. 1 3 . CMS-NOTE-2009-008. Amapane. it is possible to reconstruct the threedimensional information about the muon traversing the chamber1 . the θ and φ distributions of the previous event are plotted. By combining the two projections. especially for theta.1. This is not the case of the plots 2 and 3. For θ measurement. In the muon counting and in the φ measurement only the half-upper part of the outer layer has been used since the muons are coming from above and the measurement is not aﬀected by the magnetic bending.
Figure 3: Phi distribution of the event. but for muon counting it is best considering all segments. We have then required at least seven hits for the segment in phi and four hits in theta. Therefore the selection is very good for the study of angular distribution of muons. as shown in the ﬁgure 6. However. Figure 4: Example of cosmic shower induced by a proton. we have selected about 62% of segments in the outer layer and 47% in the inner ones. With this ﬁlter. The resulting eﬀect of the selection is shown in the ﬁgure 5. we have to keep in mind that we are rejecting real muons that have not been well reconstructed. In this way. the theta and phi distribution acquire a nicer behaviour. in which the rejected segments are displayed in red. need a selection of segments based on the quality of the reconstruction. as put in evidence by the ﬁgure 7. 4 .Figure 2: Theta distribution of the event.
Figure 5: Event display of the multi-muon event in the half upper part of the detector with the rejected segments in red. 5 . Figure 6: Distributions of theta and phi for selected segments in red compared to the distributions without selection. This is shown in the ﬁgure 8 in logarithmic scale for both selected segments and all segments. 3 Analysis The ﬁrst analysis is the counting of multiplicity of muons in all multimuon events.
but we also have to consider that the thereshold energy for vertical muons in CMS is 50 GeV and in Aleph 6 . Figure 8: Multiplicity of muons in logarithmic scale. and this is not expected since the surface of CMS is nearly 13 times bigger than Aleph’s. In our distribution it ends at 100 muons.Figure 7: Zoom in of a part of the detector with real muons rejected by the selection put in evidence by circles. In red the multiplicity only for selected segments. in which we can see that the nail of the distribution ends at about 20 muons. This plot can be compared with that of Aleph (ﬁgure 9).
70 GeV. The last analysis is about the zenith angle of the bundle. that is the zenith angle of the mean direction of the shower. As we can see. Figure 10: Distributions of the angles of muons with respect to the mean direction of the shower. the quality selection works very well for angular distributions. we calculated the angle of the muons with respect to the mean direction of showers with more than 50 incoming muons. The results are plotted in the ﬁgure 10. Figure 9: Multiplicity of muons in Aleph experiment compared to MC simulations for proton and iron nuclei showers. It has been calculated for 7 . After that. The angular distribution for Aleph shown in the ﬁgure 11 agrees with ours. In black the distribution for only selected segments.
instead in CMS we have n = 6. that is requiring θ < π (the 2 8 . Figure 12: Distributions of the cosin of the zenith angle for more than 2 and more than 20 muons.Figure 11: Distribution of the angle of muons with respect to the bundle axis in Aleph.3 for more than 20 muons. Also taking ’half sky’. Same distribution on the right for CMS with the red one for more than 2 muons and scale on the left. events with more than 2 and more than 20 muons.31 for more than 2 muons and n = 8. On the left the distribution of Aleph where the dashed is for showers with more than 20 muons and scale on the right.32 for more than 2 muons and n = 4. In Aleph n = 3. The relation is y = A cosn θ where A is a normalization constant.01 for more than 20 muons. and ﬁtted with a power law function obtaining diﬀerent values from that of Aleph’s.
A. Avati. Br¨hl and C. S. Wachsmutha. H. Jeroen Hegeman for his useful aids in C++ and all the friends for their pleasant companionship during my stay in CERN. Eggert. Ziegler. Issue 4. This is however only the beginning of the analysis on the multimuon events and there are several ideas to reﬁne the analysis further. K.part of sky that does not contain the access shaft) the results don’t change signiﬁcantly. o T. especially my supervisor Martijn Mulders who has always been kind and available for help. Pages 513-523. L. Astroparticle Physics Volume 19. Dick. J. We also need a Monte Carlo simulation to better understand our results. 9 . References  V. Str¨m. 4 Conclusions The results obtained for multi-muon events in CMS are not always the same as the results obtained with Aleph data. There is a very diﬀerent behaviour in the distribution of the zenith angle and also a diﬀerent multiplicity distribution. July 2003. Grupen Cosmic multi-muon events observed u in the underground CERN-LEP tunnel with the ALEPH experiment. Schmeling. Acknowledgments I would like to thank everyone who supported me in the summer student project.