Pease taught in primary grades of the eleventh district School during the spring, nine years after the Introduction of music, and eh was successful enough to Earn an appointment to teach music in the primary Department of the schools…Cincinati 185 Charles Aiken teaching in primary in 1855 p. 186 Postwar America 186 America was emotionally exhausted at the end of the Civil War in 1865…cultural black water. P. 186 “Scientific” Music education 186 School teachers were know at that time, were inclined to be pragmatic 186 After the war, pragmatic administrators were not interested in Enjoyment or beauty, and it would be almost a century Before aesthetic reasons would be used as a rationale for Music in schools P. 187 The music Specialist 187 Approach to music ed…scientific 188 students tested regularly 188 Music specialists became supervisors who visited the schools On a regular basis to test the pupils, improve the quality Of their singing, and assign new material to be learned. P. 188 Music Instructional Material 188 Supervisors began to emphasize methodology as school music Expanded, and it became an important part of the business Of textbooks. P. 188 Graded Music Series Mason view vs. Bird SHOULD CHILDREN LEARN TO READ PRINTED MUSIC BEFORE THEY SANG SONGS?? 188 Mason…used Pestalozzian concepts to create The Song Garden 189 Joseph Bird published a pamphlet, To Teachers of Music In which he disagreed with Mason’s rote method That the Boston Academy of Music advocated. 190 Daniel Batchellor and Thomas Charmbury wrote an American version of the Tonic Sol-Fa Music Course 190 American teachers finally rejected the Sol fa because It was not traditional, and students who learned it Would then have to learn standard notation to sing Choral music P. 190 George Loomis

190 a music supervisor in Indianapolis 190 produced First Steps in Music in 1866 190 placed notes above or around a single line 190 staffs added until there were five lines 194 indicated the key by placing a number where at the key signature Indicating what degree the song began P. 195 Luther Whiting Mason 195 introduced to the works of Christian Heinrich Hohmann…used Hohmann materials in his teaching. 195 was responsible for the Elements of Music section of The Young Singers 195 Kenneth Ray Hartley research suggests that Mason employed his Own time names with the rests whispered P. 196 The National Course 196 Written by Luther Whiting Mason 196 consisted of seven books, five readers, in intermediate book that Included books two and three and an abridged fourth Reader P. 198 Course of Study 198 questioned Mason commitment to song material 198 2nd graders to sing scales with syllables and…etc. and learn only Four songs 199 emphasized the facts of music rather than the music itself p. 199 served in Japan—Mason Song p. 199 most schools allotted fifteen minutes in the daily schedule for music P. 201 Benjamin Jepson 201 The Elementary Reader 201 Jan. 3, 1865 began teaching music to the pupils of Cedar Street School 201 Public school Music Rehearsal at the end of the year. 201 The Elementary Ready, The Standard Reader, The New Standard Reader 201 Dictation in music P. 202 The Normal Music Course 202 Writers…Hosea Holt and John Tufts 202 was published in 1883…Appelton and Company 202 became Silver Burdett 203 series of five books P. 202 Hosea Edson Holt 202 bandsman during the Civil War 202 taught at seminary and Bridgewater Normal School P. 203 Publishers School 207 Holt introduced THE NATIONAL MUSIC COURSE To the Nation Summer School of Music 207 renamed American Institute of Normal Methods

p. 207 Other Music Education Methods 207 Orlando Blackman—The Graded School Singers 207 Cincinnati teachers—Cincinnati Music Readers last revised by Gustave Junkermann in 1893 208 Charles Whiting—Public School Music Course 208 Thomas Tapper and Frederick Ripley—The Natural Music Course Uncomplicated approach 210 also Harmon Course in Music and Melodic Course in Music 210 William Tomlins—beautiful singing—edited Birchards Laurel Series p. 210 Twentieth-Century Series 210 Textbooks changed because of the Music Supervisors National Conference in the twentieth century 211 Silver Burdett—Normal Music Course…progressive…scientific 212 The Universal Music Series—Karl Gerkens and George Gartlan and Walter Damrosch emphasized the development of the love for music as its primary objective 212 Songs of Childhood—Ginn and Co. 1923 212 phonograph records were used 212 World of Music 213 Frances E. Howard—The Child’s Voice 213 Thaddeus P. Giddings—as many as 100 songs taught by rote 214 SONG METHOD 214 William A. Hodgdon, Sterrie A. Weaver P. 214 High School Music 215 generally comprehensive in nature 215 vocal music constituted as part of high school curriculum from the Beginning in most places P. 216 Instrumental Music 216 town bands were popular after the Civil War 216 students taught at home from a private teacher 216 most celebrated orchestra organized by Will Earhart in Richmond, VA p. 216 Teacher training 216 began music study at home or in singing schools 217 1829 Meeting in Concord, NH for singing school masters 217 Lowell Mason had a convention at the Boston Academy of Music P. 217 William Torrey Harris established the first public Kindergarten P. 218 Summer Schools 219 sponsored by the book companies helped train teachers P. 219 Child centered education P. 220 Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel 220 created the kindergarten because the early stage in life influenced The rest of the child’s life

220 self generated activity P. 220 Kindergarten 221 Music played an important role 221 The Kindergarten Song Book 221 Songs for Little Children—Eleanor Smith p. 221 Colonel Francis W. Parker—WHOLE PERSON 222 in the twentieth century most teachers did not believe in the emotions aspect but this new psychology, reversed opinions p. 222 Parker and John Dewey changed course p. 222 John Dewy—father of progressive education 222 child-centered idea p. 223 New education and Music p. 223 William Wirt—platoon style of teaching…centers p. 225 The State of music education: two surveys 226 1078 questionaires…621 responses 226 music instruction had increased CHAPTER 10 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION ORGANIZATIONS P. 231 Society of Associated Teachers of New York City founded p. 231 National Teacher Association founded…1857 p. 232 National Education Association founded in 1879 p 232 Curricular Expansion 232 NEA voted to support physical culture…PE and three years Later history and music 233 Eben Tourjee—a plea for Vocal Music in the Public Schools 233 NEA supported music in schools P. 233 Dept. of Music Education 233 NEA suggested a Department of Music Education 233 Daniel Hagar was the first president 234 discussions of music education and singing demonstrations Became a part of the NEA meetings p. 235 Teacher Welfare 235 teacher welfare—salaries vs. cause of education was the debate 235 cause of ed. People were more concerned with curriculum p. 236 Cooperative Efforts 236 NEA became a union—in 1970’s and MENC left because Its purpose was not that of a labor union P. 236 The Music Teachers National Association 237 1876 first permanent music teacher association—Music Teachers National Association

63 men and women 238 most who came to first meetings were private teachers P. 238 Certification of Music Teachers 239 1974 Board and Certification Handbook…teachers certified p. 239 MTNA MEMBERSHIP AND OPERATION 239 business carried on until 1959 with volunteers p. 240 MUTUAL INTERSTS OF ASSOCIATIONS p. 240 Early School Music Associations 240 The Normal Music Teachers Association--Boston 240 supported normal music teaching 241 The New England Public School Music Teachers Association 242 The Society of American School Music Supervisors 243 The American Association of School Administrators 244 Code of ethics…defined events that were appropriate For school organizations 245 The National Society for the Study of Education 246 yearbook devoted to music 246 Principals Association 247 Bulletin…published music research 247 The National Association of Elementary School Principals 248 1951 The Principal was devoted totally to Music p. 248 Accrediting Agencies CHAPTER 11 THE BEGINNING OF THE MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE P. 253 The Music Supervisors National Conference p. 253 Philip Cady Hayden 253 primary force in the founding of the Music Supervisors National Conference 253 and 254 founded School Music Monthly 253 1897 create the National Federation of School Music Teachers by Having teachers pay $.50 P. 256 Call to Keokuk 256 1907 Hayden called supervisors to Keokuk for 2 day Music meeting nd 257 2 meeting in 1909 and adopted a constitution and officially Became the Music Supervisors National Conference P. 257 The Meeting at Keokuk 257 Hayden’s rhythm demonstrations 258 presentations by students 258 music publishers attended 258 ate together P. 262 The Constitution and a Name

263 1909 meeting 93 people attended 263 spawned committee to organize 263 next meeting in Cincinati—150 music educators from 23 of 46 states Attended p. 263 The Music supervisors National Conference p. 264 The educational Council 264 1918 meeting…became the brain trust to respond to requests and Information on music 264 Bulletin…report of the Educational Council P. 264 Music for Every Man 265 Willis P. Kent…Gave a speech entitled—Music for Every Man 266 Otto Miessner speech---Music Democratized. Urged schools To treat children as individuals and not to force all children To sing if they showed an aptitude for instrumental music p. 266 Standard Course of Study 266 Standard course for 1-6 grades existed by 1919. 267 Music was behind in the South 267 1922 MSNC conference was held in Nashville at Peabody University P. 267 Publications Program 267 Proceedings P. 267 Music Supervisors Bulleting 268 published 4 times each year and free to all interested in school music 268 published professional papers P. 268 Peter Dykema 268 Used the magazine to build MSNC 269 suggested that MSNC should promote singing by selecting A small number of songs on which teachers could concentrate 269 had pamphlets ready at the next meeting…VP 270 valued community singing 270 operated a one man public relations program for MSNC P. 271 Community Sings 271 music education increased during WW I 272 55 Songs and Choruses appeared just in time for the declaration of War…patriotic George M. Cohan songs included—1 1/ 2 million Sold. 273 Liberty Edition (National Anthem) and Army Song book was prepared for the troops—MSNC formed a committee to make the pamphlet P. 275 The Melting Pot 275 community sings brought all types…melting pot…of Americans Together to sing P. 275 Increasing membership P. 275 George Oscar Bowen 275 succeeded Kykema as editor of the Music Superviors Journal In 1921

276 First National High School Chorus..Hollis Dann 276 biennial conference p. 276 Regional Organizations—every other year 277 The Eastern Division 277 The Southern Division 278 The Southwestern Division 278 The North Central Division 278 The Northwest Division 278 The Western Division p. 279 Paul Weaver 279 Music Supervisors Journal 279 added advertisement 279 grew size of paper 280 members charged to receive the Journal p. 280 Edward Baily Birge 280 Chairman of the editorial board 280 MEJ clubs on college campuses 280 student memberships 280 wrote the first history of American music education 1966

p. 280 MSNC WAS CHANGED TO MENC…Music Educators National Conference in 1934 P. 281 Committee Reports P. 281 Russell Morgan 281 expanded committees P. 282 Conference Headquarters 282 Opened in the Lyon and Healy Building Suite 820, 64 East Jackson Blvd. Chicago, IL Oct. 29, 1929 P. 283 The Great Depression—hard times for the new office CHAPTER 12 THE BROADING MUSIC CURRICULUM P. 288 Democracy in music education p. 288 The High School 288 America’s common schooling 289 Jepson reported in a St. Louis Meeting of NEA that he distributed A framework for a four year course study for high schools p. 289 Academic Credit 289 F. B. Dyer requested advice about how to incorporate music into High schools 291 at the St. Louis Meeting the high school committee…Earhart

Gave a report granting full credit for music courses in high School requiring homework and labs. p. 289 Electives 291 Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University was influential In creating elective systems to broaden college study. 292 problems created by elective music courses meant that the needs of Students were neglected p. 292 Music Appreciation 293 Frances Elliot Clark 293 added new opportunities for students to listen To music 293 authority on how to use the phonograph to teach p. 294 The Radio 294 Alice Keith of Cleveland Schools and D.C. Boyle of Ohio Schools Of the Air 294 were pioneers in the use of radio for teaching music 294 Edgar B. Gordon, MSNE president used methods of teaching with the radio 294 Margaret Hood..Montana…promoted radio programs for rural students 294 Walter Damrosch’s Friday morning NBC program Music Appreciation Hour p. 295 Frank Damrosch---Young People’s Concerts p. 295 Will Earheart—prepared 4 books entitled Master Musicians…music apprec. p. 296 Music Apprec. Was a part of PROGRESSIVE Education P. 296 Instrumental Music 296 Theodore Thomas 296 violinist 296 born in Germany 296 organized his own orchestra 296 orchestra toured to build orchestras in America 296 conductor of the NY Philharmonic Society 296 founded the Chicago Symphony p. 296 Concert Bands 297 showmanship…Gilmore and Sousa p. 297 Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore 297 virtuoso cornetist, conductor, and showman 297 Nation Peace Jubilee…1000 orchestra…10,000 singers 298 Fisk Jubilee singers P. 298 John Philip Sousa 298 toured the world 298 famous marches 298 allowed school and college musicians to sit in with his band p. 298 Other bands P. 299 The Development of School Bands and Orchestras (1900-1935)

299 Industry contributed to band development 300 found place in progressive education 300 kept boys occupied…and lead to them becoming musicians 300 1922 MSNC—committee on instrumental affairs created p. 301 Musical Instrument manufacturers helped promote bands in school 301 code to not sell instruments at a lower price to professional musicians p. 301 Professional Concerts bands and Amusement Parks 303 trolley parks then cars took people to parks to hear band concerts P. 304 WWI New Dances and Silent Movies 304 instrumental people found jobs in theaters playing to movies 304 Dance bands became popular P. 304 The Radio and Phonograph 304 people listened to band music on the radio and on records p. 305 School Bands 305 1910 School bands made it possible for young people to Be in bands 305 private instruction 305 raised money for instruments 306 during WWI bands waned 306 Band Competitions were created by the instrumental makers p. 307 The Instrumental Affairs Committee 307 MSNC set standards for competitions 307 fear of exploitation of high school bands 307 competitions led to standardization of band instrumentation, the Practice of publishing full band scores instead of piano reductions, increased emphasis on instrumental training Programs, and a huge growth in school bands. 308 Orchestras and choirs joined the competition movement 309 Ranking system was created p. 309 Bands and their communities 309-310 Hobert’s Band p. 310 School Orchestras 311 Richmond High School Orchestra was the seminal group in A series of events that led to the creation of the National High School Orchestra and National High School Music Camp p. 311 Joseph Maddy 311 first supervisor of instrumental music in America in 1918 In Rochester, NY p. 312 Class Instrumental Instruction P. 312 Charles H. Farnsworth 312 description of the Maidstone movement in England Was the key to the explosion of instrumental music in American public schools P. 313 Albert G. Mitchell 313 leave from Boston Public Schools to study Maidstone

313 organized 5 classes of violin student with 16 to 20 Students in each class 313 so successful he became a full time instrumental teacher 313 wrote the Violin Class Method 313 metal E String 313 developed a shoulder rest for the violin P. 314 Heterogeneous Class Teaching 314 mixed instrumental classes 314 The Universal Teacher…Joseph Maddy and Thaddeus Giddings p. 314 Homogeneous Class Teaching 314 teach similar instrumental classes p. 315 Elementary School Orchestras 315 followed successful high school orchestras 315 Gee, Dad, It’s a Wurlitzer. p. 315Class Piano Instruction 316 instrumental band instruction led to class piano instruction P. 317 The Marching Band 317 public relations tool P. 318 The addition of New Instrumental Music programs made the need for More music teachers P. 319 Music Memory Contests 1923…similar to spelling bee 320 Music Discrimination contests…had to know the piece and composer p. 319 Teacher education 322 MSNC created the Educational Council to develop courses for Training music educators…Gehrkens and Dann on committee 323 Curriculum 323 three major areas… 1. general education 2. professional education 3. music 324…teacher education 323 Tuition varied 323 programs varied…hours 324 teacher preparation materials were in existence 326 William Revelli created a wind instrument program in 1941 at University of Mich. 326 Music teacher education matures 327 problems…teaching minority children

1. lack of strong music performance skills 2. poor music reading skills 3. little or not acquaintance with traditional Western art music And the music of other cultures 327 Gov. support during the 1960s was a major factor for improvement. 327 Competency based music education 328 National Association of Schools of Music…skills Page 328 328 MENC appointed the Task Force on Music Teacher Education to recommend change. CHAPTER 13 THE MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE MATURES 336 MENC adopted a new constitution and became a part of NEA taking the place of the Department of Music Education 337 The 1940 Constitution 337 MENC one organization with six alternate geographical divisions 337 State Music Education Associations 337 New constitution provided state level organizations 339 Texas was not made to be a member of MENC and were Eventually replaced by a new organization 340 Resolutions—MENC resolutions made by presidents changed music education 340 1940 resolutions…conference programs, choirs sing more, progressive philosophies Resulted in the lack of stress on the acquisition of musical skills in Elementary schools 340 Outline of a program 340 Five Basic Music Activities for the four levels of elementary school.. Singing, rhythmics, listening, playing, and creating 341 This extended into middle school and high school 341 1940 yearbook—discontinued 342 In and out clubs—urban music groups who shared ideas 342 Big Cities 342 City supervisors…directors of music 342 outstanding programs in music 343 Rural Schools

344 often received music via the radio. 344 Margaret Hood…Montana…got permission via Al Jolson to avoid Royalties so the music could be shared with the children. 345 The War Years—WW II 345 Music in our Democracy 345 Music for Uniting the Americas 346 Problems during the war… 346 change of school schedule 346 Excise tax on instruments 346 Music teachers went off to war---women and retirees taught…but Some schools had no music 346 Community Music 347 Conventions…cancelled MENC convention in 1945 348 After WW II 348 college students increased due to the GI Bill 348 General Education in a Free Society…protect themselves from providing A common education for all citizens 348 Music became a part of common schooling 348 Graduate Students—Graduate students in music increased 349 Research 349 Creation of Journal of Research in Music Education…1953…became quarterly journal in 1964 349 Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning—1992…nurture or nature 350 Update: Applications of Research in Music Education—added 350 Society for Research in Music Education…SRME…all subscribers to Journal of Research in Music Education belong 351 Research Activities separate from MENC 351 The Council for Research in Music Education—CRME—Bulletin 351 Missouri Journal of Research in Music Education 351 symposiums 352 MENC Leadership 352 A Newly stated Purpose 352 The advancement of music education

353 Source Books 353 Materials developed by MENC were compiled in the Music Education Source Book—later Music in American Education 354 Basic Concepts in Music Education—1950’s college textbook 355 Music in the Senior High School—comprehensive musicianship in the band Rehearsal 355 Presidential Preparation 355 Robert Choate one of the most influential music educators in the Mid century 356 Expanded Music Educators Journal to over 200 pages and move from 6 to 9 issues 356 Vanett Lawler—great asset due to her expanded affiliations and consultant with The Pan American Union 357 MENC Moves to Washington 357 MENC moved from Chicago to Washington 358 Music Industry Council 358 Music Educators Exhibitors Association…Changed to Music Industry Council..MIC 359 Music Publishing and Copyright Laws 359 Laws changed in the 1970’s leading to a new revision of the Law in 1976 359 National Interscholastic Music Activities Commission…continued to publish Selected music for the state festivals, prepared adjudication forma, and In 1963 publish the NIMAC Manuel, a guide for interschool music Activity 360 Associated Orgainzations 360 the College Band Directors National Association 360 National Association of College Wind and Percussion Instructors 360 Organizations outside of MENC 361 MENC Board of Directors 3 National officers—president and two vice presidents Six division presidents The Presidents of the two auxiliary organizations And six members at large—four year terms

361 Smaller Executive committee—five board members served on the executive Committee 362 The National Executive Board 362 phase out the divisional meetings and return to annual national meetings 362 The National Assembly—presidents could get more done 363 The Tanglewood Symposium—used to counter the insinuations of the Yale Seminar. 365 Tanglewood Declaration….music CORE CURRICULUM 365-66 The Goals and Objectives Project—to carry out the declaration 366 MENC Commissions 368 NEA centennial—Howard Hanson created a work for the occasion. 368 Publications—books…many publications 370 MENC Historical Center…to preserve music history 371 Public Relations—1966 Joan Gaines pr for MENC 372 The society for General Music—recognized by MENC…general music classes 372 The National Catholic Music Educators Association 375 MENC Headquarters Building 376 MENC changed from a department in 1969 to an affiliate 377 MENC moved to its own building

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