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FM 5-410

CHAPTER 9

Soil Stabilization

for Roads and Airfields

Soil stabilization is the alteration of one or troops (and equipment), and time available
more soil properties, by mechanical or chemi- (METT-T).
cal means, to create an improved soil material Mission. What type of facility is to be
possessing the desired engineering proper- constructed—road, airfield, or build-
ties. Soils may be stabilized to increase ing foundation? How long will the
strength and durability or to prevent erosion facility be used (design life)?
and dust generation. Regardless of the pur-
pose for stabilization, the desired result is the Enemy. Is the enemy interdicting
creation of a soil material or soil system that lines of communications? If so, how
will remain in place under the design use con- will it impact on your ability to haul
ditions for the design life of the project. stabilizing admixtures delivered to
your construction site?
Engineers are responsible for selecting or Terrain, Assess the effect of terrain
specifying the correct stabilizing method, on the project during the construction
technique, and quantity of material required. phase and over the design life of the
This chapter is aimed at helping to make the facility. Is soil erosion likely? If so,
correct decisions. Many of the procedures what impact will it have? Is there a
outlined are not precise, but they will “get you slope that is likely to become unstable?
in the ball park.” Soils vary throughout the Troops (and equipment). Do you have
world, and the engineering properties of soils or can you get equipment needed to
are equally variable. The key to success in perform the stabilization operation?
soil stabilization is soil testing. The method Time available. Does the tactical situa-
of soil stabilization selected should be verified tion permit the time required to stabi-
in the laboratory before construction and lize the soil and allow the stabilized
preferably before specifying or ordering soil to cure (if necessary)?
materials.
There are numerous methods by which
Section I. Methods of soils can be stabilized; however, all methods
Stabilization fall into two broad categories. They are—
Mechanical stabilization.
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS Chemical admixture stabilization.
Deciding to stabilize existing soil material
in the theater of operations requires an as- Some stabilization techniques use a com-
sessment of the mission, enemy, terrain, bination of these two methods. Mechanical

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stabilization relies on physical processes to To obtain uniform bearing capacity, uniform


stabilize the soil, either altering the physical mixture and blending of all materials is es-
composition of the soil (soil blending) or plac- sential. The mixture will normally be
ing a barrier in or on the soil to obtain the compacted at or near OMC to obtain satisfac-
desired effect (such as establishing a sod tory densities.
cover to prevent dust generation). Chemical
stabilization relies on the use of an admixture The primary function of the portion of a
to alter the chemical properties of the soil to mechanically stabilized soil mixture that is
achieve the desired effect (such as using lime retained on a Number 200 sieve is to con-
to reduce a soil’s plasticity). tribute internal friction. Practically all
materials of a granular nature that do not sof-
Classify the soil material using the USCS. ten when wet or pulverize under traffic can be
When a soil testing kit is unavailable, classify used; however, the best aggregates are those
the soil using the field identification that are made up of hard, durable, angular
methodology. Mechanical stabilization particles. The gradation of this portion of the
through soil blending is the most economical mixture is important, as the most suitable ag-
and expedient method of altering the existing gregates generally are well-graded from
material. When soil blending is not feasible coarse to fine. Well-graded mixtures are
or does not produce a satisfactory soil preferred because of their greater stability
material, geotextiles or chemical admixture when compacted and because they can be
compacted more easily. They also have
stabilization should be considered. If chemi- greater increases in stability with cor-
cal admixture stabilization is being responding increases in density. Satisfactory
considered, determine what chemical admix- materials for this use include—
tures are available for use and any special
equipment or training required to successfully Crushed stone.
incorporate the admixture. Crushed and uncrushed gravel.
Sand.
Crushed slag.
MECHANICAL STABILILIZATION
Mechanical stabilization produces by com- Many other locally available materials
paction an interlocking of soil-aggregate have been successfully used, including disin-
particles. The grading of the soil-aggregate tegrated granite, talus rock, mine tailings,
mixture must be such that a dense mass is caliche, coral, limerock, tuff, shell, slinkers,
produced when it is compacted. Mechanical cinders, and iron ore. When local materials
stabilization can be accomplished by are used, proper gradation requirements can-
uniformly mixing the material and then com- not always be met.
pacting the mixture. As an alternative,
additional fines or aggregates maybe blended NOTE: If conditions are encountered in
before compaction to form a uniform, well- which the gradation obtained by blend-
graded, dense soil-aggregate mixture after ing local materials is either finer or
compaction. The choice of methods should be coarser than the specified gradation, the
based on the gradation of the material. In size requirements of the finer fractions
some instances, geotextiles can be used to im- should be satisfied and the gradation of
prove a soil’s engineering characteristics (see the coarser sizes should be neglected.
Chapter 11).
The portion of the soil that passes a Num-
The three essentials for obtaining a ber 200 sieve functions as filler for the rest of
properly stabilized soil mixture are— the mixture and supplies cohesion. This aids
Proper gradation. in the retention of stability during dry
A satisfactory binder soil. weather. The swelling of clay material serves
Proper control of the mixture content. somewhat to retard the penetration of

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moisture during wet weather. Clay or dust granular materials. The objectives here are
from rock-crushing operations are commonly to—
used as binders. The nature and amount of Increase the drainability of the soil.
this finer material must be carefully con- Increase stability.
trolled, since too much of it results in an unac- Reduce volume changes.
ceptable change in volume with change in Control the undeirable effects associated
moisture content and other undesirable with clays.
properties. The properties of the soil binder
are usually controlled by controlling the plas- Objective
ticity characteristics, as evidenced by the LL The objective of mechanical stabilization is
and PI. These tests are performed on the por- to blend available soils so that, when properly
tion of the material that passes a Number 40 compacted, they give the desired stability. In
sieve. The amount of fines is controlled by
limiting the amount of material that may certain areas, for example, the natural soil at
a selected location may have low load-bearing
pass a Number 200 sieve. When the stabi- strength because of an excess of clay, silt, or
lized soil is to be subjected to frost action, this fine sand. Within a reasonable distance,
factor must be kept in mind when designing
the soil mixture. suitable granular materials may occur that
may be blended with the existing soils to
markedly improve the soil at a much lower
Uses cost in manpower and materials than is in-
Mechanical soil stabilization may be used volved in applying imported surfacing.
in preparing soils to function as—
Subgrades. The mechanical stabilization of soils in
Bases. military construction is very important. The
Surfaces. engineer needs to be aware of the possibilities
of this type of construction and to understand
Several commonly encountered situations the principles of soil action previously
may be visualized to indicate the usefulness presented. The engineer must fully inves-
of this method. One of these situations occurs tigate the possibilities of using locally
when the surface soil is a loose sand that is in- available materials.
capable of providing support for wheeled
vehicles, particularly in dry weather. If Limitations
suitable binder soil is available in the area, it Without minimizing the importance of
may be brought in and mixed in the proper mechanical stabilization, the limitations of
proportions with the existing sand to provide this method should also be realized. The
an expedient all-weather surface for light principles of mechanical stabilization have
traffic. This would be a sand-clay road. This frequently been misused, particularly in
also may be done in some cases to provide a areas where frost action is a factor in the
“working platform” during construction design. For example, clay has been added to
operations. A somewhat similar situation “stabilize” soils, when in reality all that was
may occur in areas where natural gravels needed was adequate compaction to provide a
suitable for the production of a well-graded strong, easily drained base that would not be
sand-aggregate material are not readily susceptible to detrimental frost action. An
available. Crushed stone, slag, or other understanding of the densification that can
materials may then be stabilized by the addi- be achieved by modern compaction equip-
tion of suitable clay binder to produce a ment should prevent a mistake of this sort.
satisfactory base or surface. A common Somewhat similarly, poor trafficability of a
method of mechanically stabilizing an exist- soil during construction because of lack of
ing clay soil is to add gravel, sand, or other fines should not necessarily provide an excuse

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for mixing in clay binder. The problem may penetration of precipitation. To some extent,
possibly be solved by applying a thin surface moisture lost by evaporation can be replaced
treatment or using some other expedient by capillarity.
method.
Emergency airfields that have surfaces of
Soil Base Requirements this type require a mixture with a PI between
Grading requirements relative to mechani- 5 and 10. Experience indicates that road sur-
faces of this type should be between 4 and 9.
cally stabilized soil mixtures that serve The surface should be made as tight as pos-
as base courses are given in Table 7-3 of sible, and good surface drainage should be
TM 5-330 /Air Force Manual (AFM) 86-3, provided. For best results, the PI of a stabi-
Volume II. Experience in civil highway con- lized soil that is to function first as a wearing
struction indicates that best results are surface and then as a base, with a bituminous
obtained with this type of mixture if the frac- surface being provided at a later date, should
tion passing the Number 200 sieve is not be held within very narrow limits. Con-
greater than two-thirds of the fraction pass- sideration relative to compaction, bearing
ing the Number 40 sieve. The size of the value, and frost action are as important for
largest particles should not exceed two-thirds surfaces of this type as for bases.
of the thickness of the layer in which they are
incorporated. The mixture should be well-
graded from coarse to fine. Proportioning
Mixtures of this type are difficult to design
A basic requirement of soil mixtures that and build satisfactorily without laboratory
are to be used as base courses is that the PI control. A rough estimate of the proper
should not exceed 5. Under certain cir- proportions of available soils in the field is
cumstances, this requirement may be relaxed possible and depends on manual and visual
if a satisfactory bearing ratio is developed, inspection. For example, suppose that a loose
Experience also indicates that under ideal sand is the existing subgrade soil and it is
circumstances the LL should not exceed 25. desired to add silty clay from a nearby borrow
These requirements may be relaxed in source to achieve a stabilized mixture. Each
theater-of-operations construction. The re- soil should be moistened to the point where it
quirements may be lowered to a LL of 35 and is moist, but not wet; in a wet soil, the mois-
a PI of 10 for fully operational airfields. For ture can be seen as a shiny film on the surface,
emergency and minimally operational air- What is desired is a mixture that feels gritty
fields, the requirements may be lowered to a and in which the sand grains can be seen.
LL of 45 and a PI of 15, when drainage is good. Also, when the soils are combined in the
proper proportion, a cast formed by squeezing
the moist soil mixture in the hand will not be
Soil Surface Requirements either too strong or too weak; it should just be
Grading requirements for mechanically able to withstand normal handling without
stabilized soils that are to be used directly as breaking. Several trial mixtures should be
surfaces, usually under emergency condi- made until this consistency is obtained. The
tions, are generally the same as those indi- proportion of each of the two soils should be
cated in Table 7-3 of TM 5-330/AFM 86-3, carefully noted. If gravel is available, this
Volume II. Preference should be given to mix- may be added, although there is no real rule of
tures that have a minimum aggregate size thumb to tell how much should be added. It is
equal to 1 inch or perhaps 1 ½ inches. Ex- better to have too much gravel than too little.
perience indicates that particles larger than
this tend to work themselves to the surface Use of Local Materials. The essence of
over a period of time under traffic. Somewhat mechanical soil stabilization is the use of lo-
more fine soil is desirable in a mixture that is cally available materials. Desirable require-
to serve as a surface, as compared with one for ments for bases and surfaces of this type were
a base. This allows the surface to be more given previously. It is possible, especially
resistant to the abrasive effects of traffic and under emergency conditions, that mixtures of

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local materials will give satisfactory service, numerical example (see Table 9-1, page 9-6).
even though they do not meet the stated re- Two materials are available, material B in the
quirements. Many stabilized mixtures have roadbed and material A from a nearby borrow
been made using shell, coral, soft limestone, source. The mechanical analysis of each of
cinders, marl, and other materials listed ear- these materials is given, together with the LL
lier. Reliance must be placed on— and PI of each. The desired grading of the
Experience. combination is also shown, together with the
An understanding of soil action. desired plasticity characteristics.
The qualities that are desired in the
finished product. Specified Gradation. Proportioning of
Other factors of local importance in trial combinations may be done arithmetical-
proportioning such mixtures in the ly or graphically. The first step in using
field. either the graphical or arithmetical method is
to determine the gradation requirements.
Blending. It is assumed in this discussion Gradation requirements for base course, sub-
that an existing subgrade soil is to be stabi- course, and select material are found in
lized by adding a suitable borrow soil to Tables 7-1 and 7-3, TM 5-330/AFM 86-3,
produce a base course mixture that meets the Volume II. In the examples in Figures 9-1
specified requirements. The mechanical and 9-2, page 9-7, abase course material with
analysis and limits of the existing soil will a maximum aggregate size of 1 inch has been
usually be available for the results of the sub- specified. In the graphical method, the
grade soil survey (see Chapter 3). Similar gradation requirements are plotted to the
information is necessary concerning the bor- outside of the right axis. In the arithmetical
row soil. The problem is to determine the method, they are plotted in the column
proportions of these two materials that labelled “Specs.” Then the gradations of the
should be used to produce a satisfactory mix- soils to be blended are recorded. The graphi-
ture. In some cases, more than two soils must cal method has the limitation of only being
be blended to produce a suitable mixture. capable of blending two soils, whereas the
However, this situation is to be avoided when arithmetical method can be expanded to
possible because of the difficulties frequently blend as many soils as required. At this point,
encountered in getting a uniform blend of the proportioning methods are distinctive
more than two local materials. Trial com- enough to require separate discussion.
binations are usually made on the basis of the
mechanical analysis of the soil concerned. In Graphical Proportioning. The actual
other words, calculations are made to deter- gradations of soil materials A and B are
mine the gradation of the combined materials plotted along the left and right axes of the
and the proportion of each component ad- graph, respectively. As shown in Figure 9-1,
justed so that the gradation of the page 9-7, material A has 92 percent passing
combination falls within specified limits. The the 3/4-inch sieve while material B has 72
PI of the selected combination is then deter- percent passing the same sieve. Once plotted,
mined and compared with the specification. a line is drawn across the graph, connecting
If this value is satisfactory, then the blend the percent passing of material A with the
may be assumed to be satisfactory, provided percent passing of material B for each sieve
that the desired bearing value is attained. If size.
the plasticity characteristics of the first comb-
ination are not within the specified limits, NOTE: Since both materials A and B had
additional trials must be made. The propor- 100 percent passing the l-inch sieve, it
tions finally selected then may be used in the was omitted from the graph and will
field construction process. not affect the results.
Numerical Proportioning. The process of Mark the point where the upper and lower
proportioning will now be illustrated by a limits of the gradation requirements intersect

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FM 5-410

the line for each sieve size. In Figure 9-1, the B is selected for a trial mixture, A similar
allowable percent passing the Number 4 sieve diagram can be prepared for any two soils.
ranges from 35 to 65 percent passing. The
point along the Number 4 line at which 65 Arithmetical Proportioning. Record the
percent passing intersects represents 82 per- actual gradation of soils A and B in their
cent material A and 18 percent material B. respective columns (Columns 1 and 2, Figure
The 35 percent passing intersects the Num- 9-2). Average the gradation limits and record
ber 4 line at 19 percent material A and 81 in the column labelled "S". For example, the
percent material B. The acceptable ranges of allowable range for percent passing a 3/8-inch
material A to be blended with material B is sieve in a 1-inch minus base course is 50 to 80
the widest range that meets the gradation re- percent. The average, 50±80/2, is 65 percent.
quirements for all sieve sizes. The shaded As shown in Figure 9-2, S for 3/8 inch is 65.
area of the chart represents the combinations Next, determine the absolute value of S-A
of the two materials that will meet the and S-B for each sieve size and record in the
specified gradation requirements. The columns labelled “ (S-A)“ and “ (S-B), res-
boundary on the left represents the combina- pectively. Sum columns (S-A) and ( S-B).
tion of 44 percent material A and 56 percent To determine the percent of soil A in the final
material B. The position of this line is fixed mix, use the formula—
by the upper limit of the requirement relating
to the material passing the Number 200 sieve In the example in Figure 9-2:
(15 percent). The boundary on the right rep-
resents the combination of 21 percent
material A and 79 percent material B. This
line is established by the lower limit of the re-
quirement relative to the fraction passing the
Number 40 sieve (15 percent). Any mixture
falling within these limits satisfies the grada-
tion requirements. For purposes of
illustration, assume that a combination of 30 103 103
= x 100% = 43.5%
percent material A and 70 percent material 134 + 103 237

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Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-7


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The percent of soil B in the final mix can be approximate values is shown in Figure 9-3.
determined by the formula: The values shown in Figure 9-3 require addi-
tional explanation, as follows. Consider 500
pounds of the mixture tentatively selected (30
percent as material A and 70 percent as
material B). Of this 500 pounds, 150 pounds
or are material A and 350 pounds material B.
Within the 150 pounds of material A, there
100% - %A = %B are 150 (0.52) = 78 pounds of material passing
the Number 40 sieve. Within the 350 pounds
of material B, there are 150 (0.05) = 17.5
NOTE: If three or more soils are to be pounds of material passing the Number 40
blended, the formula would be— sieve. The total amount of material passing
the Number 40 sieve in the 500 pounds of
blend = 78+ 17.5= 95.5 pounds, The percent-
%C = age of this material that has a PI of 9
(material A) is (78/95.5) 100= 82. As shown in
Figure 9-3, the approximate PI of the mixture
This formula can be further expanded as of 30 percent material A and 70 percent
necessary. material B is 7.4 percent. By similar reason-
ing, the approximate LL of the blend is 28,4
Multiply the percent passing each sieve for percent. These values are somewhat higher
soil A by the percentage of soil A in the final than permissible under the specification. An
mix; record the information in column 4 (see increase in the amount of material B will
Figure 9-2, page 9-7), Repeat the procedure somewhat reduce the PI and LL of the com-
for soil B and record the information in bination.
column 5 (see Figure 9-2, page 9- 7). Complete
the arithmetical procedure by adding Field Proportioning. In the field, the
columns 4 and 5 to obtain the percent passing materials used in a mechanically stabilized
each sieve in the blended soil. soil mixture probably will be proportioned by
loose volume. Assume that a mixture incor-
Both the graphical and arithmetical porates 75 percent of the existing subgrade
methods have advantages and disad- soil, while 25 percent will be brought in from
vantages. The graphical method eliminates a nearby borrow source. The goal is to con-
the need for precise blending under field con- struct a layer that has a compacted thickness
ditions and the methodology requires less of 6 inches. It is estimated that a loose thick-
effort to use, Its drawback becomes very com- ness of 8 inches will be required to form the
plex when blending more than two soils. The 6-inch compacted layer. A more exact
arithmetical method allows for more precise relationship can be established in the field as
blending, such as mixing at a batch plant, and construction proceeds, Of the 8 inches loose
it can be readily expanded to accommodate thickness, 75 percent (or 0.75(8) = 6 inches)
the blending of three or more soils. It has the will be the existing soil, The remainder of the
drawback in that precise blending is often un- mix will be mixed thoroughly to a depth of
attainable under field conditions. This 8 inches and compacted by rolling. The
reduces the quality assurance of the perfor- proportions may be more accurately control-
mance of the blended soil material. led by weight, if weight measurements can be
made under existing conditions.
Plasticity Requirements. A method of
determining the PI and LL of the combined Waterproofing
soils serves as a method to indicate if the The ability of an airfield or road to sustain
proposed trial mixture is satisfactory, pend- operations depends on the bearing strength of
ing the performance of laboratory tests. This the soil. Although an unsurfaced facility may
may be done either arithmetically or graphi- possess the required strength when initially
cally. A graphical method of obtaining these constructed, exposure to water can result i n a

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FM 5-410

loss of strength due to the detrimental effect Compaction.


of traffic operations. Fine-grained soils or Drainage.
granular materials that contain an excessive
amount of fines generally are more sensitive Objectives of Waterproofers. The objec-
to water changes than coarse-grained soils. tive of a soil-surface waterproofer is to protect
Surface water also may contribute to the a soil against attack by water and thus
development of dust by eroding or loosening preserve its in-place or as-constructed
material from the ground surface that can be- strength during wet-weather operations.
come dust during dry weather conditions. The use of soil waterproofers generally is
limited to traffic areas. In some instances,
Sources of Water. Water may enter a soil soil waterproofers may be used to prevent ex-
either by the percolation of precipitation or cessive softening of areas, such as shoulders
ponded surface water, by capillary action of or overruns, normally considered nontraffic
underlying ground water, by a rise in the or limited traffic areas.
water-table level, or by condensation of water
vapor and accumulation of moisture under a Also, soil waterproofers may prevent soil
vapor-impermeable surface. As a general erosion resulting from surface water runoff.
rule, an existing groundwater table at shal- As in the case of dust palliative, a thin or
low depths creates a low load-bearing shallow-depth soil waterproofing treatment
strength and must be avoided wherever pos- loses its effectiveness when damaged by ex-
sible. Methods to protect against moisture cessive rutting and thus can be used
ingress from sources other than the ground efficiently only in areas that are initially firm.
surface will not be considered here. In most Many soil waterproofers also function well as
instances, the problem of surface water can be dust palliatives; therefore, a single material
lessened considerably by following the proper might be considered as a treatment in areas
procedures for— where the climate results in both wet and dry
Grading. soil surface conditions. Geotextiles are the

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primary means of waterproofing soils when With 95 percent passing the Number
grading, compaction, and drainage practices sieve, the PI is 14.
are insufficient. Use of geotextiles is dis- With 14 percent passing the Number
cussed in detail in Chapter 11. 200 sieve, the LL is 21.
CHEMICAL ADMIXTURE STABILIZATION Therefore the soil is 5 percent gravel, 81
Chemical admixtures are often used to sta- percent sand, and 14 percent fines. Figure
bilize soils when mechanical methods of 9-4, page 9-12, shows this soil in Area 1C.
stabilization are inadequate and replacing an
undesirable soil with a desirable soil is not Table 9-3, page 9-13, shows that the
possible or is too costly. Over 90 percent of all stabilizing agents recommended for Area 1C
chemical admixture stabilization projects soils include bituminous material, portland
use— cement, lime, and lime-cement-fly ash. In
this example, bituminous agents cannot be
Cement. used because of the restriction on PI, but any
Lime. of the other agents can be used if available.
Fly ash.
Bituminous materials.
Cement
Other stabilizing chemical admixtures are Cement can be used as an effective stabi-
available, but they are not discussed in this lizer for a wide range of materials. In general,
manual because they are unlikely to be avail- however, the soil should have a PI less than
able in the theater of operations. 30. For coarse-grained soils, the percent
passing the Number 4 sieve should be greater
than 45 percent.
WARNING
Chemical admixtures may contain haz- If the soil temperature is less than 40
ardous materials, Consult Appendix C degrees Fahrenheit and is not expected to in-
to determine the necessary safety crease for one month, chemical reactions will
precautions for the selected admixture. not occur rapidly. The strength gain of the ce-
ment-soil mixture will be minimal. If these
environmental conditions are anticipated,
When selecting a stabilizer additive, the the cement may be expected to act as a soil
factors that must be considered are the— modifier, and another stabilizer might be con-
Type of soil to be stabilized. sidered for use. Soil-cement mixtures should
Purpose for which the stabilized layer be scheduled for construction so that suffi-
will be used. cient durability will be gained to resist any
Type of soil quality improvement freeze-thaw cycles expected.
desired.
Required strength and durability of Portland cement can be used either to
the stabilized layer. modify and improve the quality of the soil or
Cost and environmental conditions. to transform the soil into a cemented mass,
which significantly increases its strength and
Table 9-2 lists stabilization methods most durability. The amount of cement additive
suitable for specific applications. To deter- depends on whether the soil is to be modified
mine the stabilizing agent(s) most suited to a or stabilized. The only limitation to the
particular soil, use the gradation triangle in amount of cement to be used to stabilize or
Figure 9-4, page 9-12, to find the area that cor- modify a soil pertains to the treatment of the
responds to the gravel, sand, and fine content base courses to be used in flexible pavement
of the soil. For example, soil D has the follow- systems. When a cement-treated base course
ing characteristics: for Air Force pavements is to be surfaced with

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asphaltic concrete, the percent of cement by find the design cement content based on total
weight is limited to 4 percent. sample weight expressed as—
Modification. The amount of cement re- A = 100Bc
quired to improve the quality of the soil
through modification is determined by the where—
trial-and-error approach. To reduce the PI of
the soil, successive samples of soil-cement A= design cement content, percent of
mixtures must be prepared at different treat- total weight of soil
ment levels and the PI of each mixture
determined. B= percent passing Number 40 sieve,
expressed as a decimal
The minimum cement content that yields
the desired PI is selected, but since it was c = percent of cement required to obtain
determined based on the minus 40 fraction of the desired PI of minus Number 40
the material, this value must be adjusted to material, expressed as a decimal

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If the objective of modification is to im- becomes the design cement content. The ce-
prove the gradation of granular soil through ment content determined to accomplish soil
the addition of fines, the analysis should be modification should be checked to see if it
conducted on samples at various treatment provides an unconfined compressive strength
levels to determine the minimum acceptable great enough to qualify for a reduced thick-
cement content. To determine the cement ness design according to criteria established
content to reduce the swell potential of fine- for soil stabilization (see Tables 9-4 and 9-5,
grained plastic soils, mold several samples at page 9-14).
various cement contents and soak the
specimens along with untreated specimens Cement-modified soil may be used in frost
for four days. The lowest cement content that areas also. In addition to the procedures for
eliminates the swell potential or reduces the mixture design described above, cured
the swell characteristics to the minimum specimens should be subjected to the 12

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Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-13


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freeze-thaw cycles test (omit wire brush por- Step 2. Select an estimated cement
tion) or other applicable freeze-thaw pro- content from Table 9-7 using the soil
cedures. This should be followed by a frost- classification.
susceptibility test, determined after freeze-
thaw cycling, and should meet the require- Step 3. Using the estimated cement
ments set forth for the base course. If cement- content, determine the compaction
modified soil is used as the subgrade, its frost curve of the soil-cement mixture.
susceptibility (determined after freeze-thaw
cycling) should be used as the basis of the Step 4. If the estimated cement con-
pavement thickness design if the reduced tent from step 2 varies by more than
subgrade-strength design method is applied. ±2 percent from the value in Tables
9-8 or 9-9, page 9-16, conduct
additional compaction tests, varying
the cement content, until the value
from Table 9-8 or 9-9, page 9-16, is
within 2 percent of that used for the
moisture-density test.
NOTE: Figure 9-5, page 9-17, is used in
conjunction with Table 9-9, page 9-16.
The group index is obtained from Fig-
ure 9-5, page 9-17 and used to enter
Table 9-9, page 9-16.
Step 5. Prepare samples of the soil-
cement mixture for unconfined com-
Stabilization. The following procedure is pression and durability tests at the dry
recommended for determining the design ce- density and at the cement content
ment content for cement-stabilized soils: determined in step 4. Also prepare
samples at cement contents 2 percent
Step 1. Determine the classification above and 2 percent below that
and gradation of the untreated soil. determined in step 4. The samples
The soil must meet the gradation re- should be prepared according to
quirements shown in Table 9-6 before TM 5-530 except that when more
it can be used in a reduced thickness than 35 percent of the material is
design (multilayer design). retained on the Number 4 sieve,

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-14


FM 5-410

a CBR mold should be used to The lowest cement content that


prepare the specimens. Cure the meets the required unconfined com-
specimens for seven days in a humid pressive strength requirement
room before testing. Test three spec- and demonstrates the required
imens using the unconfined com- durability is the design content.
pression test and subject three spec- If the mixture should meet the
imens to durability tests. These tests durability requirements but not
should be either wet-dry tests for the strength requirements, the
pavements located in nonfrost areas mixture is considered to be a
or freeze-thaw tests for pavements modified soil.
located in frost areas.
Theater-of-operations construction re-
Step 6. Compare the results of the quires that the engineer make maximum use
unconfined compressive strength and of the locally available construction
durability tests with the require- materials. However, locally available
ments shown in Tables 9-4 and 9-5. materials may not lend themselves to

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-15


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-16


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-17


FM 5-410

classification under the USCS method. The If heavy vehicles are allowed on the lime-
average cement requirements of common lo- stabilized soil before a 10- to 14-day curing
cally available construction materials is period, pavement damage can be expected.
shown in Table 9-10. Lime gains strength slowly and requires
about 14 days in hot weather and 28 days in
Lime cool weather to gain significant strength. Un-
Experience has shown that lime reacts with surfaced lime-stabilized soils abrade rapidly
medium-, moderately fine-, and fine-grained under traffic, so bituminous surface treat-
soils to produce decreased plasticity, in- ment is recommended to prevent surface
creased workability and strength, and deterioration.
reduced swell. Soils classified according to
the USCS as (CH), (CL), (MH), (ML), (SC), Lime can be used either to modify some of
(SM), (GC), (GM), (SW-SC), (SP-SC), (SM- the physical properties and thereby improve
SC), (GW-GC), (GP-GC), and (GM-GC) the quality of a soil or to transform the soil
should be considered as potentially capable of into a stabilized mass, which increases its
being stabilized with lime. strength and durability. The amount of lime
If the soil temperature is less than 60 additive depends on whether the soil is to re-
degrees Fahrenheit and is not expected to in- modified or stabilized. The lime to be used
crease for one month, chemical reactions will may be either hydrated or quicklime, al-
not occur rapidly. Thus, the strength gain of though most stabilization is done using
the lime-soil mixture will be minimal. If hydrated lime. The reason is that quicklime
these environmental conditions are expected, is highly caustic and dangerous to use. The
the lime may be expected to act as a soil design lime contents determined from the
modifier. A possible alternative stabilizer criteria presented herein are for hydrated
might be considered for use. Lime-soil mix- lime. As a guide, the lime contents deter-
tures should be scheduled for construction so mined herein for hydrated lime should be
that sufficient durability is gained to resist reduced by 25 percent to determine a design
any freeze-thaw cycles expected. content for quicklime.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-18


FM 5-410

Modification. The amount of lime required untreated soil for expedient construc-
to improve the quality of a soil is determined tion; use the amount of stabilizer deter-
through the same trial-and-error process mined from the pH test or Figure 9-6,
used for cement-modified soils. page 9-20.

Stabilization. To take advantage of the Step 2. After estimating the initial


thickness reduction criteria, the lime-stabi- lime content, conduct a compaction
lized soil must meet the unconfined test with the lime-soil mixture. The
compressive strengths and durability re- test should follow the same pro-
quirements shown in Tables 9-4 and 9-5, page cedures for soil-cement except the
9-14, respectively. mixture should cure no less than one
hour and no more than two hours in a
When lime is added to a soil, a com- sealed container before molding.
bination of reactions begins to take place Compaction will be accomplished in
immediately. These reactions are nearly com- five layers using 55 blows of a
plete within one hour, although 10-pound hammer having an 18-inch
substantial strength gain is not reflected drop (CF 55). The moisture density
should be determined at lime con-
for some time. The reactions result in a tents equal to design plus 2 percent
change in both the chemical composition and design plus 4 percent for the
and the physical properties. Most lime has preferred method at design ± 2 per-
a pH of about 12.4 when placed in a cent for the alternate method, In
water solution. Therefore, the pH is a good frost areas, cured specimens should
indicator of the desirable lime content of a be subjected to the 12 freeze-thaw
soil-lime mixture. The reaction that takes cycles (omit wire brush portion) or
place when lime is introduced to a soil other applicable freeze-thaw pro-
generally causes a significant change in the cedures, followed by frost sus-
plasticity of the soil, so the changes in the ceptibility determinations in stan-
PL and the LL also become indicators of dard laboratory freezing tests.
the desired lime content. Two methods for For lime-stabilized or lime-modified
determination of the initial design lime soil used in lower layers of the base
content are presented in the following steps: course, the frost susceptibility (deter-
Step 1. The preferred method is to mined after freeze-thaw cycling)
prepare several mixtures at different should meet the requirements for the
lime-treatment levels and determine base course. If lime-stabilized or lime-
the pH of each mixture after one modified soil is used as the subgrade,
hour. The lowest lime content pro- its frost susceptibility (determined
ducing the highest pH of the soil-lime after freeze-thaw cycling) should be
mixtures is the initial design lime the basis of the pavement thickness
content. Procedures for conducting a design if the reduced subgrade strength
pH test on lime-soil mixtures are design method is applied.
presented in TM 5-530. In frost areas,
specimens must be subjected to the Step 3. Uniformed compression tests
freeze-thaw test as discussed in step 2 should be performed it the design
below. An alternate method of deter- percent of maximum density on three
mining an initial design lime content specimens for each lime content
is shown in Figure 9-6, page 9-20. tested. The design value would then
Specific values required to use this be the minimum lime content yielding
figure are the PI and the percent of the required strength. Procedures for
material passing the Number 40 sieve. the preparation of lime-soil specimens
These properties are determined from are similar to those used for cement-
the PL and the gradation test on the stabilized soils with two exceptions:

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-19


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and AirfieIds 9-20


FM 5-410

after mixing, the lime-soil mixture Class C. This class of fly ash has a high CaO
should be allowed to mellow for not content (12 percent or more) and originates
less than one hour nor more than two from subbituminous and lignite (soft) coal.
hours; after compaction, each spec- Fly ash from lignite has the highest CaO con-
imen should be wrapped securely to tent, often exceeding 30 percent. This type
prevent moisture loss and should be can be used as a stand-alone stabilizing
cured in a constant-temperature cham- agent. The strength characteristics of Class
ber at 73 degrees Fahrenheit ±2 C fly ash having a CaO less than 25 percent
degrees Fahrenheit for 28 days. Pro- can be improved by adding lime. Further dis-
cedures for conducting unconfined cussion of fly ash properties and a listing of
compression tests are similar to those geographic locations where fly ash is likely to
used for soil-cement specimens except be found are in Appendix B.
that in lieu of moist curing, the lime-
soil specimens should remain securely Class F. This class of fly ash has a low CaO
wrapped until testing. content (less than 10 percent) and originates
from anthracite and bituminous coal. Class F
Step 4. Compare the results of the fly ash has an insufficient CaO content for the
unconfined compressive tests with the pozzolanic reaction to occur. It is not effective
criteria in Table 9-4, page 9-14. The as a stabilizing agent by itself; however, when
design lime content must be the low- mixed with either lime or lime and cement,
est lime content of specimens meeting the fly ash mixture becomes an effective
the strength criteria indicated. stabilizing agent.
Other Additives. Lime may be used as a Lime Fly Ash Mixtures. LF mixtures can
preliminary additive to reduce the PI or alter contain either Class C or Class F fly ash. The
gradation of a soil before adding the primary LF design process is a four-part process that
stabilizing agent (such as bitumen or ce- requires laboratory analysis to determine the
ment). If this is the case, then the design lime optimum fines content and lime-to-fly-ash
content is the minimum treatment level that ratio.
will achieve the desired results. For nonplas-
tic and low-PI materials in which lime alone Step 1. Determine the optimum fines
generally is not satisfactory for stabilization, content. This is the percentage of fly
fly ash may be added to produce the necessary ash that results in the maximum den-
reaction. sity of the soil mix. Do this by con-
ducting a series of moisture-density
tests using different percentages of
Fly Ash fly ash and then determining the mix
Fly ash is a pozzolanic material that con- level that yields maximum density.
sists mainly of silicon and aluminum The initial fly ash content should be
compounds that, when mixed with lime and about 10 percent based on the weight
water, forms a hardened cementitious mass of the total mix. Prepare test samples
capable of obtaining high compression at increasing increments (2 percent)
strengths. Fly ash is a by-product of coal- of fly ash, up to 20 percent. The
fired, electric power-generation facilities. design fines content should be 2 per-
The liming quality of fly ash is highly depend- cent above the optimum fines content.
ent on the type of coal used in power For example, if 14 percent fly ash
generation. Fly ash is categorized into two yields the maximum density, the
broad classes by its calcium oxide (CaO) con- design fines content would be 16 per-
tent. They are— cent. The moisture density relation
Class C. would be based on the 16 percent
Class F. mixture.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-21


FM 5-410

Step 2. Determine the rates of lime to unconfined strength requirements (see


fly ash, Using the design fines con- Table 9-4, page 9-14) must be met. If test
tent and the OMC determined in step specimens do not meet strength require-
1, prepare triplicate test samples at ments, add cement in 1/2 percent increments
LF ratios of 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. Cure all until strength is adequate. In frost-suscep-
test samples in sealed containers for tible areas, durability requirements must
seven days at 100 degrees Fahrenh- also be satisfied (see Table 9-5, page 9-14).
eit.
As with cement-stabilized base course
Step3. Evaluate the test samples for materials, LCF mixtures containing more
unconfined compressive strength. If than 4 percent cement cannot be used as base
frost is a consideration, subject a set course material under Air Force airfield pave-
of test samples to 12 cycles of freeze- ments.
thaw durability tests (refer to FM
5-530 for actual test procedures). Bituminous Materials
Types of bituminous-stabilized soils are—
Step 4. Determine the design LF Soil bitumen. A cohesive soil system
ratio. Compare the results of the made water-resistant by admixture.
unconfined strength test and Sand bitumen. A system in which
freeze-thaw durability tests with the sand is cemented together by bitumi-
minimum requirements found in nous material.
Tables 9-4 and 9-5, page 9-14,
respectively. The LF ratio with the Oiled earth. An earth-road system
lowest lime content that meets the made resistant to water absorption
required unconfined compressive and abrasion by means of a sprayed
strength and demonstrates the application of slow- or medium-curing
required durability is the design LF liquid asphalt.
content. The treated material must also Bitumen-waterproofed, mechanically
meet frost susceptibility requirements stabilized soil. A system in which two
as indicated in Special Report 83-27. If or more soil materials are blended to
the mixture meets the durability produce a good gradation of particles
requirements but not the strength from coarse to fine. Comparatively
requirements, it is considered to be a small amounts of bitumen are needed,
modified soil. If neither strength nor and the soil is compacted.
durability criteria are met, a different Bitumen-lime blend. A system in which
LF content may be selected and the small percentages of lime are blended
testing procedure repeated. with fine-grained soils to facilitate the
penetration and mixing of bitumens
Lime-Cement-Fly Ash (LCF) Mixtures. into the soil.
The design methodology for determining the
LCF ratio for deliberate construction is the Soil Gradation. The recommended soil
same as for LF except cement is added in step gradations for subgrade materials and base
or subbase course materials are shown in
2 at the ratio of 1 to 2 percent of the design Tables 9-11 and 9-12, respectively. Mechani-
fines content. Cement may be used in place of cal stabilization may be required to bring soil
or in addition to lime; however, the design to proper gradation.
fines content should be maintained.
Types of Bitumen. Bituminous stabiliza-
When expedient construction is required, tion is generally accomplished using—
use an initial mix proportion of 1 percent Asphalt cement.
portland cement, 4 percent lime, 16 per- Cutback asphalt.
cent fly ash, and 79 percent soil. Minimum Asphalt emulsions.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-22


FM 5-410

The type of bitumen to be used depends -on-


the type of soil to be stabilized, the method of
construction, and the weather conditions. In
frost areas, the use of tar as a binder should be
avoided because of its high-temperature sus-
ceptibility. Asphalts are affected to a lesser
extent by temperature changes, but a grade of
asphalt suitable to the prevailing climate
should be selected. Generally the most satis- =
factory results are obtained when the most P
viscous liquid asphalt that can be readily
mixed into the soil is used. For higher quality where—
mixes in which a central plant is used,
viscosity-grade asphalt cements should be P
=
percent of cutback asphalt by weight
used. Much bituminous stabilization is per- of dry aggregate
formed in place with the bitumen being
applied directly on the soil or soil-aggregate a = percent of mineral aggregate retained
system. The mixing and compaction opera- on Number 50 sieve
tions are conducted immediately thereafter.
For this type of construction, liquid asphalts b = percent of mineral aggregate passing
(cutbacks and emulsions) are used. Emul- Number 50 and retained on
sions are preferred over cutbacks because of Number 100 sieve
energy constraints and pollution control ef-
fects. The specific type and grade of bitumen c= percent of mineral aggregate passing
depends on the characteristics of the ag- Number 100 and retained on
Number 200 sieve
gregate, the type of construction equipment,
and the climatic conditions. Table 9-13, page d= percent of mineral aggregate passing
9-24, lists the types of bituminous materials Number 200 sieve
for use with soils having different gradations.
S= percent solvent
Mix Design. Guidance for the design of
bituminous-stabilized base and subbase cour- The preliminary quantity of emulsified as-
ses is contained in TM 5-822-8. For subgrade phalt to be used in stabilizing subgrades can
stabilization, the following equation may be be determined from Table 9-14, page 9-24.
used for estimating the preliminary quantity Either cationic or anionic emulsions can be
of cutback asphalt to be selected: used. To ascertain which type of emulsion is

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-23


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-24


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-25


FM 5-410

preferred, first determine the general type of improved by adding suitable fines containing
aggregate. If the aggregate contains a high considerable material passing a Number 200
content of silica, as shown in Figure 9-7, page sieve. The amount of bitumen required for a
9-25, a cationic emulsion should be used (see given soil increases with an increase in per-
Figure 9-8, page 9-25.). If the aggregate is a centage of the finer sizes.
carbonate rock (limestone, for example), an
anionic emulsion should be used. Section II. Design Concepts
Figures 9-9 and 9-10 can be used to find the STRUCTURAL CATEGORIES
mix design for asphalt cement. These Procedures are presented for determining
preliminary quantities are used for expedient design thicknesses for two structural
construction. The final design content of as- categories of pavement. They are—
phalt should be selected based on the results
of the Marshall stability test procedure. The Single-layer.
minimum Marshall stability recommended Multilayer.
for subgrades is 500 pounds; for base courses,
750 pounds is recommended. If a soil does not Typical examples of these pavements are in-
show increased stability when reasonable dicated in Figure 9-11.
amounts of bituminous materials are added,
the gradation of the soil should be modified or A typical single-layer pavement is a stabi-
another type of bituminous material should lized soil structure on a natural subgrade.
be used. Poorly graded materials may be The stabilized layer may be mixed in place or
premixed and later placed over the existing
subgrade. A waterproofing surface such as
membrane or a single bituminous surface
(SBST) or a double bituminous surface treat-
ment (DBST) may also be provided. A
multilayer structure typically consists of at
least two layers, such as a base and a wearing
course, or three layers, such as a subbase, a
base, and a wearing course. A thin
waterproofing course may also be used on
these structures. Single-layer and multi-
layer pavement design procedures are
presented for all categories of roads and for
certain categories of airfields as indicated in
Table 9-15, page 9-28.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-26


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-27


FM 5-410

Both single-layer and multilayer pavement classifications are presented to provide


structures may be constructed under either guidance to the designer in determining
the expedient or nonexpedient concept. Dif- thickness requirements when using stabi-
ferent structural designs are provided to lized soil elements. The design thickness also
allow the design engineer wider latitude of provides the planner the option of comparing
choice. However, single-layer structures are the costs of available types of pavement con-
often associated with expedient construction struction, thereby providing the best
rather than nonexpedient construction, and structure for the situation.
multi layers are nonexpedient and per-
manent. Certain considerations should be The design procedure primarily incorporates
studied to determine whether to use a single- the soil stabilizers to allow a reduction of
layer or mulilayer design under either thickness from the conventional flexible
concept.
pavement-design thicknesses. These thick-
The overall concept of design as described ness reductions depend on the proper
herein can be defined in four basic determina- consideration of the following variables:
tions as indicated in Table 9-16. Load.
Tire pressure.
STABILIZED PAVEMENT Design life.
DESIGN PROCEDURE Soil properties.
To use different stabilized materials effec- Soil strength.
tively in transportation facilities, the design Stabilizer type.
procedure must incorporate the advantages Environmental conditions.
of the higher quality materials. These ad- Other factors.
vantages are usually reflected in better
performance of the structures and a reduction The design curves for theater-of-operations
in total thicknesses required. From a airfields and roads are given for single-layer
standpoint of soil stabilization (not modifica- and multi layer pavements later in this sec-
tion), recent comparisons of behavior based tion.
on type and quality of material have shown
that stabilization provides definite structural In the final analysis, the choice of the ad-
benefits. Design results for airfield and road mixture to be used depends on the economics

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-28


FM 5-410

and availability of the materials involved. information includes procedures for deter-
The first decision that should be made is mining soil’s suitability for stabilization and
whether stabilization should be attempted a means of determining the appropriate type
at all. In some cases, it may be economical and amount of stabilizer to be used. The final
merely to increase the compaction require- objective in this total systematic approach is
ments or, as a minimum, to resort to to determine the required design thicknesses.
increased pavement thickness. If locally Depending on the type of facility and the AI or
available borderline or unacceptable the CBR of the unstabilized subgrade, the
materials are encountered, definite con- design procedure presented in this section al-
sideration should be given to upgrading an lows determination of the required thickness
otherwise unacceptable soil by stabilization. of an overlying structure that must be con-
structed for each anticipated facility.
The rapid method of mix design should be
indicative of the type and percentage of stabi- This basic structural design problem may
lizer required and the required design have certain conventional overriding factors,
thickness. This procedure is meant to be a
first-step type of approach and is by no means
conclusive. Better laboratory tests are
needed to evaluate strength and durability
and should be performed in specific cases
where time allows. Estimated time require-
ments for conducting tests on stabilized
material are presented in Table 9-17. Even
when stabilized materials are used, proper
construction techniques and control practices
are mandatory.

THICKNESS DESIGN PROCEDURES


The first paragraphs of this section give
the design engineer information concerning
soil stabilization for construction of theater-
of-operations roads and airfields. The

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-29


FM 5-410

such as frost action, that influence this re- cussed below. The more expedient methods
quired thickness. The decision to stabilize or are shown first, followed by more elaborate
not may be based on factors other than struc- procedures. Road classification is based on
tural factors, such as economy, availability of equivalent number 18-kip, single-axle, dual-
stabilizer, and time. It must be realized that wheel applications. Table 9-18 lists the
soil stabilization is not a cure for all military classes of roads.
engineering problems. Proper use of this
manual as a guide allows, in some cases,
reductions in required thicknesses. The
primary benefit in soil stabilization is that it
can provide a means of accomplishing or
facilitating construction in situations in
which environmental factors or lack of
suitable materials could preclude or seriously
hamper work progress. Through the proper
use of stabilization, marginal soils can often
be transformed into acceptable construction
materials. In many instances, the quantity of
materials required can be reduced and
economic advantages gained if the cost of
chemical stabilization can be offset by a
savings in material transportation costs.
Single-Layer
The structural benefits of soil stabilization,
shown by increased load-carrying capability, For each category of roads (Classes A
are generally known. In addition, increased through E), a single design curve is presented
strength and durability also occur with that applies to all types of stabilization (see
stabilization. Figures 9-12 through 9-14 and Figure 9-16,
page 9-32). These curves indicate the total
Generally, lesser amounts of stabilizers pavement thickness required on an unstabil-
may be used for increasing the degree of ized subgrade over a range of subgrade
workability of a soil without effectively in- strength values. It should be noted that each
creasing structural characteristics. Also, curve terminates above a certain subgrade
greater percentages may be used for increas- CBR. This is because design strength criteria
ing strength at the risk of being uneconomical for unsurfaced roads indicate that a natural
or less durable. Some of the information soil of this appropriate strength could sustain
presented is intended for use as guidance only the traffic volume required of this category of
and should not supersede specific trial- facility without chemical stabilization. The
proven methods or laboratory testing when
either exists. following flow diagram indicates the use of
these design procedures:
Primary considerations in determining
thickness design are those that involve the
decision to construct a single-layer or multi-
layer facility, as discussed earlier. The
method chosen depends on the type of con-
struction. All permanent construction and
most multi layer designs should use the
reduced thickness design procedure. Usually
the single layer is of expedient design.

ROADS
Specific procedures for determining total
and/or layer thicknesses for roads are dis-

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-30


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-31


FM 5-410

On a single-layer road, a thin wearing and 9-19, page 9-34, are applicable over a
course may be advisable to provide water- range of subgrade CBR values.
proofing and to offset the effects of tire
abrasion. Individual layer thickness can be ac-
complished using Table 9-19, page 9-35. This
Multilayer table indicates minimum base and wearing
For each road category, four design curves course thickness requirements for road Clas-
are shown (see Figures 9-16 and 9-17 and ses A through E. Minimum surface course
Figures 9-18 and 9-19, page 9-34). These cur- thickness requirements are indicated for a
ves indicate the total thickness required for base course with a strength of 50 to 100 CBR.
pavements incorporating one of the following If a stabilized soil layer is used as a subbase,
combinations of soil and stabilizer: the design base thickness is the total thick-
Lime and fine-g-rained soils. ness minus the combined thickness of base
Asphalt and coarse-grained soils. and wearing courses. If a stabilized layer is
Portland cement and coarse-graind soils. used as a base course over an untreated sub-
grade, the design base thickness is the total
Coarse- and fine-g-rained soils are defined thickness minus the wearing course thick-
according to the USCS. The curves presented ness. The following flow diagram shows
in Figures 9-16 and 9-17 and Figures 9-18 these procedures:

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-32


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-33


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-34


FM 5-410

Reduced thickness design factors, (see- equivalency factor from Figure 9-20, page
Table 9-20 and Figure 9-20, page 9-36 ) should 9-36, requires that the unconfined compres-
be applied to conventional design thickness sive strength, determined according to ASTM
when designing for permanent and nonex- D1633, is known. Equivalency factors are
pedient road and airfield design. The use of determined from Figure 9-20, page 9-36, for
stabilized soil layers within a flexible pave- subbase materials only. The relationship es-
ment provides the opportunity to reduce the tablished between abase and a subbase is 2:1.
overall thickness of pavement structure re- Therefore, to determine an equivalency factor
quired to support a given load. To design a for a stabilized base course, divide the sub-
pavement containing stabilized soil layers re- base factor from Figure 9-20, page 9-36, by 2.
quires the application of equivalency factors See TM 5-330/AFM 86-3, Volume II for con-
to a layer or layers of a conventionally ventional design procedures.
designed pavement. To qualify for application
of equivalency factors, the stabilized layer
must meet appropriate strength and
durability requirements set forth in TM
5-822-4/AFM 88-7, Chapter 4. An equivalen-
cy factor represents the number of inches of a
conventional base or subbase that can be
replaced by 1 inch of stabilized material.
Equivalency factors are determined from—
Table 9-20 for bituminous stabilized
materials.
Figure 9-20, page 9-36, for materials
stabilized with cement, lime, or a
combination of fly ash mixed with
cement or lime.
Selection of an equivalency factor from the
tabulation depends on the classification of
the soil to be stabilized. Selection of an

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-35


FM 5-410

AIRFIELDS the controlling aircraft and design life in


Specific procedures for determining the cycles (one cycle is one takeoff and one land-
total and/or layer thicknesses for airfields are ing) are indicated for each airfield cate-
discussed in the following paragraphs. The gory. The design curves are applicable for all
more expedient methods are shown first, fol- types of stabilization over a range of subgrade
lowed by more elaborate procedures. strengths up to a maximum above which
Airfields are categorized by their position on stabilization would generally be unwar-
the battlefield, the runway length, and the ranted if the indicated material subgrade
controlling aircraft. Table 9-21 lists aircraft strength could be maintained. Design curves
categories. are presented for typical theater-of-opera-
tions gross weights for the controlling aircraft
Single-Layer category. For a single-layer facility, a thin
wearing course may provide waterproofing or
Design curves for single-layer airfield con- minimize abrasion resulting from aircraft
struction are in Figures 9-21 through 9-28, tires. The following flow diagram indicates
pages 9-38 through 9-44. In these figures these procedures:

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-36


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-37


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-38


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-39


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-40


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-41


FM 5-410

Multilayer flexible pavement design curves and proce-


In the design of multilayer airfields, it is dures may be found in TM 5-330/AFM 86-3,
first necessary to determine the total design Volume II. After total thickness has been
thickness based on conventional flexible determined, a reduction factor is applied (see
pavement criteria. Then an appropriate Table 9-22 or 9-23, page 9-45). Individual
reduction factor is applied for the particular layer thicknesses can be determined using
soil-stabilizer combination anticipated for Table 9-24, page 9-46, and procedures indi-
use. Determinations of individual layer cated for multi layer roads. The following flow
thickness finalizes the design. Conventional diagram indicates these design procedures:

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-42


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-43


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-44


FM 5-410

EXAMPLES OF DESIGN Thirty percent is retained on a Num-


Use of the design criteria in this section can ber 4 sieve.
best be illustrated by examples of typical The classification is (SC).
design situations.
Using this information, a determination
Example 1 can be made from Figure 9-4, page 9-12, and
Table 9-3, page 9-13, that the proper agent is
The mission is to construct an airfield for cement, lime, or fly ash. The soil-lime pH test
the logistical support of an infantry division indicates that a lime content of 3 percent is re-
and certain nondivision artillery units. The
facility must sustain approximately 210 quired to produce a pH of 12.4. Since the soil
takeoffs and landings of C-130 aircraft, classified as an (SC), an estimated cement
content of 7 percent is selected from Table
operating at 150,000 pounds gross weight, 9-7, page 9-15. The fly ash ratio is 4 percent
along with operations of smaller aircraft. Be- lime, 1 percent cement, 16 percent fly ash,
cause of unsatisfactory soil strength and 79 percent soil. The characteristics of all
requirements and availability of chemical additives are then reviewed, and because of
stabilizing agents, stabilization is to be con- predicted cool weather conditions, cement
sidered. The facility is also considered an stabilization is chosen.
expedient single-layer design.
The design thickness is then determined.
A site reconnaissance and a few soil The facility will be designed as a close battle
samples at the proposed site indicate the fol- area 3,000’ airfield designed for 420 cycles of a
lowing: C-130 aircraft. To determine the design
The natural strength is 8 CBR. thickness. Figure 9-1, page 9-7, is used. For a
It has a PI of 15. subgrade strength of 8 CBR and interpolating
It has a LL of 30. between the 125,000- and 175,000-pound cur-
Twenty percent passes a Number 200 ves, the required design thickness is 13 1/2
sleve. inches.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-45


FM 5-410

Example 2 bituminous, fly ash, or cement stabilization is


The mission is to provide a rear area 6)000’ appropriate (see Figure 9-4, page 9-12, and
airfield facility for C-5A aircraft operating at Table 9-3, page 9-13). Because of the lack of
320,000 pounds gross weight. Time and adequate quantities of cement and fly ash,
materials indicate that a multilayer facility bituminous stabilization will be tried.
can be constructed using nonexpedient
methods. A site reconnaissance indicates the The material is termed “sand-gravel
following: bitumen. ” Table 9-13, page 9-24, recom-
mends either asphalt cutbacks or emulsions
The natural strength is 5 CBR. (considerable materials passing the Number
It has a PI of 5. 200 sieve); since cutback asphalt is available,
It has a LL of 35. it will be used. It is anticipated that the in-
Fifteen percent passes the Number place temperature of the sand will be about
200 sieve. 100 degrees Fahrenheit. (From Table 9-13,
Sixty percent is retained on the Num- page 9-24, it can then be determined that the
ber 4 sieve. grade of cutback to be used is MC-800. From
The classification is (GM). the equation given on page 9-23 and the
gradation curve (not shown for the example),
Chemical stabilization is considered for the a preliminary design content of 6.7 percent
upper subgrade, but a supply of 100-CBR asphalt is determined.) Design specimens
base course material is available. An asphal- are then molded and tested using the proce-
tic concrete wearing course will be used. dures indicated in TM 5-530. Comparing the
Since the soil classified as (GM), either test results with the criteria given previously

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-46


FM 5-410

(a minimum of 500 pounds), it can be deter- Expedient design procedures indicate that
mined that the upper subgrade can be lime or cement stabilization is feasible (see
stabilized with cutback asphalt. An optimum Table 9-3, page 9-13, and Figure 9-4 page
asphalt content of 6.5 percent is indicated. 9-12). Only lime is readily available, Design
procedures for a single-layer C1ass E road will
The design thickness is then determined. be used. Figure 9-6, page 9-20, is used to
(Only procedures for determining design determine the initial design lime content,
thickness of a Type A runway area will be in- Since the soil has a PI of 15 and 60 percent
dicated.) Since the airfield is a rear-area passing the number 40 sieve, an estimated
6,000’ facility with the C-141 as the control- lime content of 2 1/2 percent is selected. Fig-
ling aircraft category and is a multilayer ure 9-15, page 9-32, indicates that the
design, TM 5-330, Figure D-36 is used. A sub- required design thickness of stabilized
grade strength of 5 CBR and a design material is 9 inches.
thickness of 45 inches is required for a con-
ventional pavement. Since soil stabilization Example 4
is involved, reduced thickness design is al-
lowed. Table 9-20, page 9-35, shows that the The mission is to construct a road between
equalizing factor for an asphalt-stabilized two rear-area units. Time and material con-
subbase of a (GM) soil is 2.00. Therefore, the ditions allow nonexpedient procedures. A
required thickness for the pavement, includ- hot-mix plant is available so that an asphaltic
ing the surface and base course, is 22.5 concrete wearing course can be applied. How-
inches. ever, the upper portion of the in-place
material must be upgraded to provide a
To determine individual layer thicknesses, suitable base course. Geometric criteria indi-
use Table 9-24. For a rear-area, 6,000’ air- cate that a Class D multi layer road is
field with the C-141 as the controlling aircraft required. A soil survey reveals the following
and a 100 CBR base-course strength, the mini- with respect to the in-place material:
mum surface-course and base course The average soil strength is 7 CBR.
thicknesses are 2 1/2 and 6 inches, respective- It has a PI of 9.
ly. Thus, the individual layer thickness It has a LL of 25.
would be as follows: surface course, 2 1/2 in- Thirty-seven percent passes the Num-
ches; 100-CBR base course, 6 inches; and ber 200 sieve.
stabilized upper subgrade, 14.0 inches. Forty-five percent passes the Number
Another viable solution would be to stabilize 4 sieve (25 percent is smaller than
the base course also. 0.05 mm, and 5 percent is smaller
than 0.005 mm).
Example 3 The classification is (GC).
The mission is to quickly provide an ex-
pedient road of geometrical classification Following procedures in Figure 9-4, page
between two organizational units. Only the 9-12, and Table 9-3, page 9-13, it is deter-
in-place material can be stabilized. The mined that cement or lime-cement-fly ash
preliminary site investigation indicates the stabilization will work with this soil; how-
following: ever, fly ash is not available. The soil-cement
laboratory test (see TM 5-530) is run. Test
The natural strength is 15 CBR. results indicate that a cement content of 6
It has a PI of 15. percent is required. Figure 9-18, page 9-34, in-
It has a LL of 30. dicates that a total pavement thickness of 12
Sixty percent passes a Number 40 inches is required above the 7-CBR subgrade
sieve. for a cement-stabilized, coarse-grained soil.
Fifty-five percent passes a Number A minimum base-course strength of 70 CBR is
200 sieve. assumed. Table 9-18, page 9-30, indicates7
The classification is (CL). that a Class D road is designed for 4.7 x 10

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-47


FM 5-410

18-kip equivalent loads and a CBR of 50; a 4- THEATER-OF-OPERATIONS AIRFIELD


inch asphaltic cement pavement and a CONSIDERATIONS
10-inch cement-stabilized base are required. In the theater of operations, the lack of
trained personnel, specialized equipment, or
Example 5 time often eliminates consideration of many
The mission is to provide an expedient tac- laboratory procedures. The CBR and special
tical support area airfield for the operation of stabilization tests in particular will not be
approximately 7,000 cycles of F-4C traffic. considered for these reasons. As a result,
The single-layer design is selected. A site other methods for determining design pave-
reconnaissance reveals the following: ment thicknesses have been developed using
The natural strength is 4 CBR. the AI (see TM 5-330/AFM 86-3, Volume II).
It has a PI of 12. This system is purely expedient and should
Eleven percent passes a Number 200 not replace laboratory testing and reduced
sieve. thickness design procedures.
Twenty percent retained on a Num-
ber 4 sieve. Functions of Soil Stabilization
Organic material occurs as a trace in As previously discussed, the three primary
the soil samples. functions of stabilization are—
Climatological data indicate a trend for Strength improvement.
subfreezing weather, and full traffic must be Dust control.
applied immediately upon completion. Or- Waterproofing.
dinarily, based on information from Figure
9-4, page 9-12, and Table 9-3, page 9-13, Use of Table 9-25 allows the engineer to
either cement, lime, or fly ash stabilization evaluate the soil stabilization functions as
would be the appropriate agent for this situa- they relate to different types of theater-of-
tion and the soil would classify as an (SW-SM) operations airfields. It is possible to easily
borderline. With the constraints on curing see the uses of stabilization for the traffic or
times, soil stabilization would not be the ap- nontraffic areas of airfields. This table,
developed from Table 9-26, page 9-50, shows
propriate method of construction. Another the possible functional considerations for
means, possibly landing mats, must be con- situations where either no landing mat, a
sidered for the successful completion of the light-duty mat, or a medium-duty mat may be
mission. employed. (Landing mats are discussed in
TM 5-330/AFM 86-3, Volume II and TM
Example 6 5-33 7.) As an example of the use of this table,
The mission is to provide an expedient consider the construction of the “heavy lift in
Class E road between two organizational task the support area.”
forces. The single-layer design is selected.
The preliminary site investigation for a por- Referring to the traffic areas, a certain min-
tion of the road indicates a natural soil imum strength is required for unsurfaced-soil
strength of 30 CBR. The design curve for this operations (that is, without a landing mat) or
road classification, shows that a 30-CBR soil if either the light duty mat (LM) or the
is adequate for the intended traffic and that it medium duty mat (MM) is used. If the exist-
does not require any stabilization (see Figure ing soil strength is not adequate, stabilization
9-15, page 9-32). Therefore, no soil sampling for strength improvement may be considered
or testing is necessary. A problem area may either to sustain unsurfaced operations or to
later arise from a reduction of strength, that be a necessary base for the landing mat. Fur-
is, a large volume of rainfall or a dust problem ther, if no mat is used, stabilization might be
on this particular road. needed only to provide dust control and/or soil

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-48


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-49


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-50


FM 5-410

waterproofing. If a landing mat is used, how- In evaluating the subgrade for stabilization
ever, the functions of dust control and soil purposes, a representative AI strength profile
waterproofing would be satisfied and must be established to a depth that would
stabilization need not be considered in any preclude the possibility of overstress in the
event. Possible stabilization functions for underlying subgrade. This depth varies
nontraffic areas have been shown in a similar depending on the—
manner. For certain airfields, such as the Airfield.
“light lift in the battle area, ” no function for Pattern of the profile itself.
strength improvement in either traffic or non- Manner of stabilization.
traffic areas is indicated. Such airfields have
an AI requirement of 5 or more unsurfaced In this regard, the thickness data given in
operations (see Table 9-26, page 9-50). Site Table 9-27, page 9-52, can be used also to pro-
selection should be exercised in most in- vide guidance in establishing an adequate
stances to avoid areas of less than a 5 AI. For strength profile. Generally, a profile to a
certain airfields, such as the “tactical in the depth of 24 inches is sufficient to indicate the
support area,“ a landing mater improved sur- strength profile pattern. However, if a
facing always will be provided. Therefore a decrease in strength is suspected in greater
“no mat” situation pertains only to the non- depths, the strength profile should be ob-
traffic areas. tained to no less than the thickness indicated
in Table 9-27, page 9-52, under the 5-6 sub-
Design Requirements grade AI column for the appropriate airfield.
for Strength Improvement
Where stabilization for strength improve- The use of Table 9-27, page 9-52, to estab-
ment is considered, certain basic design lish the design requirements for soil
requirements, in terms of strength and thick- stabilization is best illustrated by the follow-
ness of a stabilized soil layer on a given ing example: Assume that a rear area 3,500’
subgrade, must be met. The strength and airfield is to be constructed and that a sub-
thickness requirements vary depending on grade AI evaluation has been made from
the operational traffic parameters and which a representative profile to a sufficient
the strength of the soil directly beneath the depth can be established. One of three
stabilized soil layer. Since the traffic general design cases can be considered de-
parameters are known for each airfield type, pending on the shape of the strength profile.
a minimum strength requirement for the sta-
bilized soil layer can be specified for each The first case considers constant
airfield based on unsurfaced-soil criteria. For strength with depth; therefore, the re-
any given subgrade condition, the thickness
of a minimum-strength, stabilized-soil layer quired thickness is read directly from
necessary to prevent overstress of the sub- Table 9-27, page 9-52, under the ap-
grade also can be determined. Table 9-27, propriate subgrade AI column. Thus,
page 9-52, gives design requirements for traf- in the example, if a subgrade AI of 8
fic and nontraffic areas of different airfield is measured, the required thickness of
types for which stabilization may be used for a stabilized soil layer if no landing
strength improvement. As seen, the mini- mat were used would be 18 inches.
mum-strength requirement in terms of AI is a The required minimum strength of
function only of the applied traffic for a par- this stabilized soil layer is an AI of
ticular airfield and is independent of the 15. If the light landing mat were
subgrade strength. However, the thickness is used, a 6-inch-thick layer with a min-
a direct function of the underlying subgrade imum AI of 10 would be required as a
strength. base overlying the subgrade AI of 8.
The second case considers an increase
Proper evaluation of the subg-rade is essen- in strength with depth; therefore, the
tial for establishing thickness requirements. required thickness of stabilization

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-51


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-52


FM 5-410

may be considerably less than indi-


cated in the table. For this example,
assume that the AI increases with
depth as shown in Figure 9-29. A sta-
bilized layer can be provided either by
building up a compacted base cm top
of the existing ground surface or by
treating the in-place soil. Because of
this, each situation represents a
somewhat different design problem.
An in-place treatment is analogous to
replacing the existing soil to some depth with
an improved quality material. Where
strength increases with depth, the point at
which thickness is compatible with the
strength at that particular point must be
determined. This point can be determined
graphically simply by superimposing a plot of
the thickness design requirements versus
subgrade AI (see Table 9-27) directly on the
strength profile plot. This procedure is over a significantly weaker zone of
shown in Figure 9-29. The depth at which the soil beneath. In this example, the impor-
two plots intersect is the design thickness re- tance of proper analysis of subgrade
quirement for a stabilized-soil layer. In the conditions is stressed. If strength data
example, a thickness of 9.5 inches (or say 10 were obtained to less than 30 inches,
inches) is required. the adequacy of the design could not
be fully determined.
If a compacted base of a select borrow soil is
used to provide a stronger layer on the sub- Consider again an in-place stabilization
grade shown in Figure 9-29, the thickness process. Although the strength profile and
must again be consistent with the strength at design curve intersect initially at a shallow
some depth below the surface of the placed depth (about 3 inches) (see Figure 9-30, page
base-course layer. Since the base-course 9-54), the strength profile does not remain to
layer itself will be constructed to a minimum the right of the design curve. This indicates
AI of 15, the weakest point under the placed that the design requirement has been satis-
base will be at the surface of the existing fied. The second and final intersection occurs
ground, or in this instance an AI of 8. Using at 24 inches. Since there is no indication of a
this value, Table 9-27 gives a thickness of 18 further decrease in strength with depth, a
inches of base course. Compaction of the ex- thickness of 24 inches is therefore required.
isting ground would be beneficial in terms of
thickness requirements if it would increase In the case of a compacted base placed on a
the critical subgrade strength to a higher subgrade that decreases in strength with
value. If, for example, the minimum AI of the depth, the procedure for determining the
existing ground could be increased from 8 to design thickness is more difficult. The design
12, the thickness of base required would be thickness can be determined by comparing
reduced to 10 inches (see Table 9-27). the strength-depth profile with the design
curve. If the measured AI at any given depth
The third case considers a decrease in is less than the minimum requirement shown
strength with depth. The strength by the design curve, a sufficient thickness of
profile shown in Figure 9-30, page improved quality soil must be placed on the
9-54 indicates a crust of firm material existing ground surface to prevent overstress

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-53


FM 5-410

the strength actually achieved may well ex-


ceed the minimum requirement, no
consideration should be given to reducing the
design thickness as given in Table 9-27, page
9-52, or as developed by the stated proce-
dures.

Section III. Dust Control


EFFECTS OF DUST
Dust can be a major problem during combat
(and training) operations. Dust negatively
impacts morale, maintenance, and safety.
Experience during Operation Desert
Shield/Storm suggests that dust was a major
contributor to vehicle accidents. It also ac-
celerated wear and tear on vehicles and
aircraft components.
Dust is simply airborne soil particles. As a
general rule, dust consists predominantly of
soil that has a particle size finer than 0.074
mm (that is, passing a Number 200 sieve).
The presence of dust can have significant
adverse effects on the overall efficiency of
aircraft by—
Increasing downtime and mainte-
nance requirements.
Shortening engine life.
at that depth. However, the thickness of base Reducing visibility.
necessary must be such that the require- Affecting the health and morale of
ments will be met at all depths. To satisfy personnel.
this condition, the required thickness must be
equal to the maximum difference, which will In addition, dust clouds can aid the enemy by
occur at a particular strength value, between revealing positions and the scope of opera-
the depth indicated by the design curve and tions.
the depth from the strength-depth profile, In
the example shown in Figure 9-30, this max- DUST FORMATION
imum difference occurs at an AI of 12. The The presence of a relative amount of dust-
difference is 10 inches, which is the required size particles in a soil surface does not
thickness for an improved quality base. necessarily indicate a dust problem nor the
severity of dust that will result in various
The same procedures described for a situations. Several factors contribute to the
decrease in strength with depth can be used generation, severity, and perpetuity of dust
to derive the strength and thickness require- from a potential ground source. These in-
ments for a base course under either an LM or clude—
MM. The thickness design requirements Overall gradation.
given herein are for stabilized soil layers Moisture content.
having a minimum strength property to meet Density and smoothness of the
the particular airfield traffic need. Although ground surface.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-54


FM 5-410

Presence of salts or organic matter, The success of a dust-control program


vegetation, and wind velocity and depends on the engineer’s ability to match a
direction. dust palliative to a specific set of factors af-
Air humidity. fecting dust generation. These factors
include—
When conditions of soil and environment Intensity of area use.
are favorable, the position of an external force Topography.
to a ground surface generates dust that exists Soil type.
in the form of clouds of various density, size, Soil surface features.
and height above the ground. In the case of Climate.
aircraft, dust may be generated as a result of
erosion by propeller wash, engine exhaust Intensity of Area Use
blast, jet-blast impingement, and the draft of
moving aircraft. Further, the kneading and Areas requiring dust-control treatments
abrading action of tires can loosen particles should be divided into traffic areas based on
from the ground surface that may become air- the expected amount of traffic. The three
borne. classes of traffic areas are—
Nontraffic.
On unsurfaced roads, the source of dust Occasional traffic.
may be the roadway surface. Vehicle traffic Traffic.
breaks down soil structure or abrades gravel
base courses, creating fine-grained particles Nontraffic Areas. These areas require
that readily become airborne when trafficked. treatment to withstand air-blast effects from
wind or aircraft operations and are not sub-
DUST PALLIATIVES jected to traffic of any kind. Typical
The primary objective of a dust palliative is nontraffic areas include—
to prevent soil particles from becoming air- Graded construction areas.
borne. Dust palliative may be required for Denuded areas around the periphery
control of dust on nontraffic or traffic areas or
both. If a prefabricated landing mat, of completed construction projects.
membrane, or conventional pavement surfac- Areas bordering airfield or heliport
ing is used in the traffic areas of an airfield, complexes.
the use of dust palliative would be limited to Protective petroleum, oil, and lubri-
nontraffic areas. For nontraffic areas, a pal- cant (POL) dikes.
liative is needed that can resist the maximum Magazine embankments or ammuni-
intensity of air blast impingement by an tion storage barricades.
aircraft or the prevailing winds. Where dust Bunkers and revetments.
palliative provide the necessary resistance Cantonment, warehouse, storage, and
against air impingement, they may be totally housing areas, excluding walkways
unsuitable as wearing surfaces. An impor- and roadways.
tant factor limiting the applicability of a dust Unimproved grounds.
palliative in traffic areas is the extent of sur- Areas experiencing wind-borne sand.
face rutting that will occur under traffic. lf
the bearing capacity allows the soil surface to Occasional-Traffic Areas. Besides resist-
rut under traffic, the effectiveness of a shal- ing helicopter rotor downwash, aircraft
low-depth palliative treatment could be propwash, and air blast from jet engines,
destroyed rapidly by breakup and subsequent these areas are also subjected to occasional
stripping from the ground surface. Some pal- traffic by vehicles, aircraft, or personnel.
liatives tolerate deformations better than Vehicle traffic is limited to occasional, non-
others, but normally ruts 1½ inches deep channelized traffic. Typical occasional-
result in the virtual destruction of any thin
layer or shallow depth penetration dust pal- traffic areas include the following:
liative treatment. Shoulders and overruns of airfields.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-55


FM 5-410

Shoulders, hover lanes, and peri- Sands or gravels (with fines) (types
pheral areas of heliports and heli- (SM), (SC), (SM-SC), (GM), (GC),
pads. (GM-GO, and (GW-GM)).
Nontraffic areas where occasional Sands (with little or no fines) (types
traffic becomes necessary. (SW-SM), (SP), and (SW)).
Gravels (with little or no fines) (types
Traffic Areas. Areas subjected to regular (GP) and (GW)).
channelized traffic by vehicles, aircraft, or
personnel. Properly treated traffic areas Soil Surface Features
resist the effects of air blasts from fixed- or Soil surface features refer to both the state
rotary-wing aircraft. Typical traffic areas in- of compaction and the degree of soil satura-
clude: tion in the area to be treated. Loose surface
Roadways and vehicle parking areas. conditions are suitable for treatment in non-
Walkways. traffic or occasional areas only. Firm surface
Open storage areas. conditions are suitable for treatment under
Construction sites. any traffic condition.
Runways, taxiways, shoulders, over-
runs, and parking areas of airfields. Loose and Dry or Slightly Damp Soil. The
Hover lanes and landing and parking surface consists of a blanket (¼ to 2 inches
pads of heliports. thick) of unbound or uncompacted
Tank trails. soil, overlying a relatively firm subgrade and
ranging in moisture content from dry to
slightly damp.
Topography
Dust palliative for controlling dust on flat Loose and Wet or Scurry Soil. The surface
and hillside areas are based on the expected condition consists of a blanket ( ¼ to 2 inches
traffic, but the specific palliative selected may thick) of unbound or uncompacted soil, over-
be affected by the slope. For example, a liquid lying a soft to firm subgrade and ranging in
palliative may tend to run off rather than moisture content from wet to slurry consis-
penetrate hillside soils, which degrades the tency. Soil in this state cannot be treated
palliative’s performance. until it is dried to either a dry or slightly damp
state.
Divide the area to be treated into flat and
hillside areas. Flat is defined as an average Firm and Dry or Slightly Damp Soil. The
ground slope of 5 percent or less, while surface condition consists of less than a ¼-
hillside refers to an average ground slope inch-thick layer of loose soil, ranging in
greater than 5 percent. Particular areas can moisture content from dry to slightly damp
be given special attention, if required. and overlying a bound or compacted firm soil
subgrade.
Soil Type
Firm and Wet Soil. The surface condition
Soil type is one of the key features used to resembles that of the previous category. This
determine which method and material should soil must be dried to either a dry or slightly
be used for dust control. Soils to be treated for damp state before it can be treated.
dust control are placed into five general
descriptive groupings based on the USCS. Climate
They are— Climatic conditions influence the storage
Silts or clays (high LL) (types (CH), life, placement, curing, and aging of dust pal-
(OH), and (MH)). liative. The service life of a dust palliative
Silts or clays (low LL) (types (ML), may vary with the season of the year. For ex-
(CL), (ML-CL), and (OL)). ample, salt solutions become ineffective

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-56


FM 5-410

during the dry season when the relative can be accomplished by disking or by applying
humidity drops below 30 percent. rapid curing (RC) bituminous cutbacks or
rapid setting (RS) asphalt emulsions. Mulch
DUST-CONTROL METHODS is undesirable around airports and heliports
The four general dust-control-treatment since it may be ingested into jet engines,
methods commonly used are— resulting in catastrophic engine failure.
Agronomic.
Surface penetrant. Shelter Belts. They are barriers formed by
Admix. hedges, shrubs, or trees that are high and
Surface blanket. dense enough to significantly reduce wind
velocities on the leeward side. Their place-
Agronomic ment should be at right angles to the
prevailing winds. While a detailed discussion
This method consists of establishing, of shelter-belt planning is beyond the scope of
promoting, or preserving vegetative cover to this manual, shelter belts should be con-
prevent or reduce dust generation from ex- sidered for use on military installations and
posed soil surfaces. Vegetative cover is often near forward landing strips (FLS) con-
considered the most satisfactory form of dust structed for contingency purposes in austere
palliative. It is aesthetically pleasing, environments (such as those constructed in
durable, economical, and considered to be Central America).
permanent. Some agronomic approaches
to dust control are suitable for theater-of- Rough Tillage. This method consists of
operations requirements. Planning construc- using a chisel, a lister, or turning plows to till
tion to minimize disturbance to the existing strips across nontraffic areas. Rough tillage
vegetative cover will produce good dust- works best with cohesive soils that form clods.
palliative results later. It is not effective in cohesionless soils and, if
used, may contribute to increased dust
Agronomic practices include the use of— generation.
Grasses.
Shelter belts. Surface Penetrant
Rough tillage.
The surface penetration method involves
Grounds maintenance management and fer- applying a liquid dust palliative directly to
tilizing will help promote the development of the soil surface by spraying or sprinkling and
a solid ground cover. Agronomic methods are allowing the palliative to penetrate the sur-
best suited for nontraffic and occasional- face. The effectiveness of this method
traffic areas; they are not normally used in depends on the depth of penetration of the
traffic areas. dust palliative (a function of palliative vis-
cosity and soil permeability). Using water to
Grasses. Seeding, sprigging, or sodding prewet the soil that is to be treated enhances
grasses should be considered near theater-of- penetration of the palliative.
operations facilities that have a projected
useful life exceeding 6 months. Combining Surface penetrants are useful under all
mulch with seed promotes quicker estab- traffic conditions; however, they are only ef-
lishment of the grass by retaining moisture in fective on prepared areas (for example, on
the soil. Mulching materials include straw, unsurfaced gravel roads). Dust palliative
hay, paper, or brush. When mulches are that penetrate the soil surface include—
spread over the g-round, they protect the soil Bitumens.
from wind and water erosion. Mulches are ef- Resins.
fective in preventing dust generation only Salts.
when they are properly anchored. Anchoring Water.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-57


FM 5-410

Bitumens. Conventional types of bitu- 1 to 3 days. In selecting the material for use,
minous materials that may be used for dust local environmental protection regulations
palliative include— must be considered.
Cutback asphalts.
Emulsified asphalts. Asphalt emulsions (emulsions) are a blend
Road tars. of asphalt, water, and an emulsifying agent.
Asphaltic penetrative soil binder They are available either as anionic or
(APSB). cationic emulsions. The application of emul-
sions at ambient temperatures of 80 degrees
These materials can be used to treat both Fahrenheit or above gives the best results.
traffic and nontraffic areas. All bituminous Satisfactory results may be obtained below
this temperature, especially if the application
materials do not cure at the same rate. This is made in the morning to permit the warming
fact may be of importance when they are effects of the afternoon sun to aid in curing.
being considered for use in traffic areas. Also, Emulsions should not be placed at tempera-
bituminous materials are sensitive to tures below 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
weather extremes. Usually bituminous Emulsions placed at temperatures below
materials impart some waterproofing to the freezing will freeze, producing a substandard
treated area that remains effective as long as product. For best results in a freezing en-
the treatment remains intact (for example, as vironment, emulsions should be heated to
placed or as applied). Bituminous materials between 75 and 130 degrees Fahrenheit. The
should not be placed in the rain or when rain temperature of the material should never ex-
is threatening. ceed the upper heating limit of 185 degrees
Fahrenheit because the asphalt and water
A cutback asphalt (cutbacks) is a blend of will separate (break), resulting in material
an asphalt cement and a petroleum solvent. damage. Emulsions generally cure in about 8
These cutbacks are classified as RC, medium hours. The slow setting (SS) anionic emul-
curing (MC), and slow curing (SC), depending sions of grades SS-1 and SS-lh may be diluted
on the type of solvent used and its rate of with 1 to 5 or more parts water to one part
evaporation. Each cutback is further graded emulsified asphalt by volume before using.
As a general rule, an application of 3 parts
by its viscosity. The RC and SC grades of 70 water to 1 part emulsion solution is satisfac-
and 250, respectively, and MC grades of 30, tory. The slow-setting cationic emulsions or
70, and 250 are generally used. Regardless of grades cationic slow setting (CSS)-1 and CSS-
classification or grade, the best results are ob- 1h are easiest to use without dilution. If
tained by preheating the cutback. Spraying dilution is desired, the water used must be
temperatures usually range from 120 to 300 free of any impurities, minerals, or salts that
degrees Fahrenheit. The actual range for a might cause separation (breaking) of the
particular cutback is much narrower and emulsion within the distribution equipment.
should be requested from the supplier at the
time of purchase. The user is cautioned that Road tars (RTs) (tars) are viscous liquids
some cutbacks must be heated above their obtained by distillation of crude tars obtained
flash point for spraying purposes; therefore, from coal. Tars derived from other basic
no smoking or open flames should be per- materials are also available but are not nor-
mitted during the application or the curing of mally used as soil treatments. Tars are
the cutback. The MC-30 grade can be graded by viscosity and are available in
sprayed without being heated if the tempera- grades ranging from 1 to 12. They are also
ture of the asphalt is 80 degrees Fahrenheit available in the road tar cutback (RTCB) form
or above. A slightly moist soil surface assists of viscosity grades 5 and 6 and in the emul-
penetration. The curing time for cutbacks sified form. Tar emulsions are difficult to
varies with the type. Under favorable ground prepare and handle, The low-viscosity
temperature and weather conditions, RC grades RT-1 and RT-2 and the RTCB grades
cures in 1 hour, MC in 3 to 6 hours, and SC in can be applied at temperatures as low as 60

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-58


FM 5-410

degrees Fahrenheit without heating. The tar 0.33 to 0.5 gallon per square yard. The
cutbacks generally have better penetrating material may be diluted for spraying using 4
characteristics than asphalts and normally parts water to 1 part concentrate. This
cure in a few hours. Tars produce excellent material is primarily suited for dry sandy
surfaces, but curing proceeds very slowly. soils; it provides unsuitable results when
Several days or even weeks may be required used on silty and clayey soils.
to obtain a completely cured layer. Tars are
susceptible to temperature changes and may Lignin is a by-product of the manufacture
soften in hot weather or become brittle in cold of wood pulp. It is soluble in water and there-
weather. fore readily penetrates the soil. Its volubility
also makes it susceptible to leaching from the
APSB, a commercial product, is a special soil; thus, application is repeated as neces-
liquid asphalt composed of a high penetration sary after rainfall. Lignin is readily available
grade of asphalt and a solvent blend of in the continental United States and certain
kerosene and naphtha. It is similar in char- other sections of the world. It is useful in
acter to a standard low-viscosity, medium- areas where dust control is desirable for short
curing liquid asphalt} but it differs in many periods of time; it is not recommended for use
specific properties. The APSB is suitable for where durability is an important factor. The
application to soils that are relatively imper- recommended application rate is 1 gallon per
vious to conventional liquid asphalts and square yard of a resinous solution of 8 percent
emulsion systems. Silts and moderately plas- solid lignin sulphite.
tic clays (to a PI of 15) can be treated
effectively. Curing time for the APSB is 6 to Concrete curing compounds can be used to
12 hours under favorable ground tempera- penetrate sands that contain little or no silts
ture and weather conditions. On or clays. This material should be limited to
high-plasticity solids (with a PI greater than
15), the material remains on the surface as an areas with no traffic. The high cost of this
asphalt film that is tacky at a ground material is partly offset by the low application
temperature of approximately 100 degrees rate required (0.1 to 0.2 gallon per square
Fahrenheit and above. The APSB must be yard). Standard asphalt pressure dis-
heated to a temperature between 130 to 150 tributors can be used to apply the resin;
degrees Fahrenheit to permit spraying with however, the conventional spray nozzles
an asphalt distributor. should be replaced with nozzles with smaller
openings to achieve a uniform distribution at
Resins. These dust palliative may be used the low application rate.
as either surface penetrants or surface
blankets. They have a tendency to either Salts. Salts in water emulsions have been
penetrate the surface or form a thin surface used with varying success as dust palliative.
film depending on the type of resin used, the Dry calcium chloride (CaC12) is deliquescent
soil type, and the soil condition. The and is effective when the relative humidity is
materials are normally applicable to nontraf- about 30 percent or greater. A soil treated
fic areas and occasional-traffic areas where with calcium chloride retains more moisture
rutting will not occur. They are not recom- than the untreated soil under comparable
mended for use with silts and clays. drying conditions. Its use is limited to
occasional-traffic areas, Sodium chloride
Resin-petroleum-water emulsions are (NaC1) achieves some dust control by retain-
quite stable and highly resistant to weather- ing moisture and also by some cementing
ing. A feature of this type of dust palliative is from salt crystallization. Both calcium
that the soil remains readily permeable to chloride and sodium chloride are soluble in
water after it is treated. This type of product water and are readily leached from the soil
is principally manufactured under the trade surface; thus, frequent maintenance is re-
name Coherex. Application rates range from quired. Continued applications of salt

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-59


FM 5-410

solutions can ultimately build up a thin, be applied with an asphalt distributor.


crusted surface that will be fairly hard and Mixing equipment that can be used in-
free of dust. Most salts are corrosive to metal cludes—
and should not be stored in the vehicle used Rotary tillers.
for application. Magnesium chloride Rotary pulverizer-mixers.
(MgC12) controls dust on gravel roads with Graders.
tracked-vehicle traffic. Best results can be Scarifies.
expected in areas with occasional rainfall or Disk harrows.
where the humidity is above 30 percent. The Plows.
dust palliative selected and the quantity used
should not exceed local environmental protec- Admixing and/or blending should continue
tion regulations. until a uniform color of soil and dust palliative
mixture, both horizontally and vertically, is
Water. As a commonly used (but very tem- achieved. The most effective compaction
porary) measure for allaying dust, a soil equipment that can be used is a sheepsfoot or
surface can be sprinkled with water. As long rubber-tired rollers. The procedure for in-
as the ground surface remains moist or damp, place admixing closely resembles the soil
soil particles resist becoming airborne. stabilization procedure for changing soil
Depending on the soil and climate, frequent characteristics and soil strength used in road
treatment may be required. Water should construction. For dust control on a nontraffic
not be applied to clay soil surfaces in such area, adequate compaction can be achieved by
quantity that puddles forms since a muddy or trafficking the entire surface with a 5-ton
slippery surface may result where the soil dual-wheel truck. For all other traffic situa-
remains wet. tions, the procedure should follow TM
5-822-4. This procedure is time-consuming
Admix and requires the use of more equipment than
The admix method involves blending the the other three. Following placement, admix-
dust palliative with the soil to produce a ing, and compaction, a minimum of seven
uniform mixture. This method requires more days is required for curing.
time and equipment than either the penetra-
tion or surface blanket methods, but it has the Two cementing-type powders (portland ce-
benefit of increasing soil strength. ment and hydrated lime) are primarily used
to improve the strength of soils. However,
Normally, a minimum treatment depth of 4 when they are admixed with soils in rela-
inches is effective for traffic areas and 3 in- tively small quantities (2 to 5 percent by dry
ches for other areas. The admixture can be soil weight), the modified soil is resistant to
mixed in place or off site. Typical admixture dusting. Portland cement is generally suited
dust palliative include— to all soil types, if uniform mixing can be
Portland cement. achieved, whereas hydrated lime is ap-
Hydrated lime. plicable only to soils containing a high
Bituminous materials. percentage of clay. The compacted soil sur-
face should be kept moist for a minimum of 7
In-Place Admixing. In-place admixing is days before allowing traffic on it.
the blending of the soil and a dust palliative
on the site. The surface soil is loosened (if Bituminous materials are more versatile
necessary) to a depth slightly greater than than cementing materials in providing ade-
the desired thickness of the treated layer. quate dust control and waterproofing of the
The dust palliative is added and blended with soil. Cutbacks, emulsion asphalts, and road
the loosened surface soil, and the mixture is tars can all be used successfully. The quan-
compacted. Powders may be spread by hand tity of residual bituminous material used
or with a mechanical spreader; liquids should should range from 2 to 3 percent of dry soil

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-60


FM 5-410

weight (for soils having less than 30 percent other bituminous materials. Road tar admix-
passing the Number 200 sieve) to 6 to 8 per- tures are susceptible to temperature changes
cent (for soils having more than 30 percent and may soften in hot weather or become brit-
fine-grained soils passing the Number 200 tle in cold weather.
sieve). The presence of mica in a soil is
detrimental to the effectiveness of a soil- Off-Site Admixing. Off-site admixing is
bituminous material admixture. There are generally used where in-place admixing is not
no simple guides or shortcuts for designing desirable and/or soil from another source
mixtures of soil and bituminous materials. provides a more satisfactory treated surface.
The maximum effectiveness of soil- Off-site admixing may be accomplished with
bituminous material admixtures can usually a stationary mixing plant or by windrow-
be achieved if the soil characteristics are mixing with graders in a central working
within the following limits: area. Processing the soil and dust palliative
The PI is 10. through a central plant produces a more
The amount of material passing the uniform mixture than in-place admixing.
Number 200 sieve is 30 percent by The major disadvantage of off-site operations
weight. is having to transport and spread the mixed
material.
This data and additional construction data
can be found in TM 5-822-4. Traffic should be Surface Blanket
detoured around the treated area until the The principle of the surface blanket method
soil-bituminous material admixture cures. is to place a “blanket” cover over the soil sur-
face to control dust. The three types of
Cutback asphalt provides a dust-free, materials used to form the blanket are—
waterproof surface when admixed into soil to Minerals (aggregates).
depths of 3 inches or more on a firm subgrade. Synthetics (prefabricated membranes
More satisfactory results are obtained if the and meshes).
cutback asphalt is preheated before using it. Liquids (bituminous or polyvinyl ace-
Soils should be fairly dry when cutback as- tate liquids).
phalts are admixed. When using SC or MC
types of cutback asphalt, aerate the soil- These materials may be used alone or in the
asphalt mixture to allow the volatiles to combinations discussed later.
evaporate.
The type of treatment used dictates the
Emulsified asphalts are admixed with a equipment required. However, in all cases,
conditioned soil that allows the emulsion to standard construction equipment can be used
break before compaction. A properly condi- effectively to place any of the blanket
tioned soil should have a soil moisture materials. Mechanized equipment should be
content not to exceed 5 percent in soils having used wherever possible to assure uniformity
less than 30 percent passing the Number 200 of treatment.
sieve. Emulsified asphalts, particularly the
cationics (CSS-1 or CSS-lb), are very sensi- The surface blanket method is applicable to
tive to the surface charge of the aggregate or nontraffic, occasional-traffic, and traffic
soil. When they are used improperly, the areas. Aggregate, prefabricated membrane,
emulsion may break prematurely or after and mesh treatments are easy to place and
some delay. The slow-setting anionic emul- can withstand considerable rutting. The
sions of grades SS-1 and SS-lh are less other surface blanket methods only
sensitive. withstand considerable rutting. Once a sur-
face blanket treatment is torn or otherwise
Road tars with RT and RTCB grades can be compromised and the soil exposed, sub-
used as admixtures in the same manner as sequent traffic or air blasts increase the

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-61


FM 5-410

damage to the torn surface blanket and edges in trenches and by using large U-
produce dust from the exposed soil. Repairs shaped staples that are driven flush with the
(maintenance) should begin as soon as pos- soil surface. A minimum overlap of 3 inches
sible to protect the material in place and keep should be used in joining rolls of mesh;
the dust controlled. covered soil should be sprayed with a
bituminous material. Trial applications are
Minerals (aggregates). Aggregate is ap- recommended at each site and should be ad-
propriate in arid areas where vegetative justed to suit each job situation.
cover cannot be effectively established. It is
effective as a dust palliative on nontraffic and Bituminous Liquid. Single- or double-
occasional-traffic areas. The maximum bituminous surface treatments can be used to
recommended aggregate size is 2 inches; ex- control dust on most soils. A medium-curing
cept for airfields and heliports. To prevent liquid asphalt is ordinarily used to prime the
the aggregate from being picked up by the soil before placing the surface treatment.
prop (propeller) wash, rotor wash, or air blast, Fine-grained soils are generally primed with
4-inch aggregate is recommended (see Table MC-30 and coarse-grained soils with MC-70.
9-28). After the prime coat cures, a bituminous
material is uniformly applied, and gravel,
Prefabricated Membrane. Membrane slag, or stone aggregate is spread over the
used to surface an area controls dust and even treated area at approximately 25 pounds per
acts as a surface course or riding surface for square yard. The types of bituminous
traffic that does not rut the soil. When sub- materials, aggregate gradations, application
jected to traffic, the membrane can be rates, and methods of placing surface treat-
expected to last approximately 5 years. ments are described in TM 5-822-8/AFM
Minor repairs can be made easily. For op- 88-6, Chapter 9. Single-or double-bituminous
timum anchorage, the membrane should be surface treatments should not be used where
extended into 2-foot-deep ditches at each edge turf is to be established.
of the covered area; then it should be staked in
place and the ditches backfilled. Further Polyvinyl Acetate (DCA 1295) (without
details on the use and installation of prefabri- reinforcement). DCA 1295 has a slight odor
cated membranes can be obtained from TM and an appearance similar to latex paint.
5-330/AFM 86-3, Volume II. The material is diluted 3 parts DCA 1295 to 1.
part water and cures in 2 to 4 hours under
Prefabricated Mesh. Heavy, woven jute ideal conditions of moderate to high tempera-
ture and low relative humidity. A clear,
mesh, such as commonly used in conjunction flexible film forms on the treated surface.
with grass seed operations, can be used for DCA 1295 can be sprayed with a conventional
dust control of nontraffic areas. The mesh asphaIt distributor provided modifications
should be secured to the soil by burying the are made to the pump to permit external

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-62


FM 5-410

lubrications. The DCA 1295 can be used This treatment consists of the following
alone or over a fiberglass reinforcement. Ad- steps:
ding fiberglass does not affect the basic Place a layer of asphalt (0.33 to 0.50
application procedures or the curing charac- gallon per square yard) on the
teristics of the DCA 1295. This material is ground, and cover this with a layer
suitable for use on nontraffic, occasional- of polypropylene fabric.
traffic, and traffic areas. It is also effective Place 0,33 gallon per square yard of
when sprayed over grass seed to protect the asphalt on top of the polypropylene.
soil until grass occurs. Uniform soil coverage Apply a sand-blotter course.
is enhanced by sprinkling (presetting) the
surface with water. This system does not require any rolling or
further treatment and can be trafficked imm-
Polyvinyl Acetate (DCA 1295) (with rein- ediately.
forcement). A fiberglass scrim material is
recommended for use with the DCA 1295 Care should be taken during construction
when a reinforcement is desired. Fiberglass operations to ensure adequate longitudinal
scrirn increases the expected life of the dust- and transverse laps where two pieces of
control film by reducing the expansion and polypropylene fabric are joined. Lon-
contraction effects of weather extremes. The gitudinal joints should be lapped a minimum
scrim material should be composed of of 12 inches. On a superelevated section, the
fiberglass threads with a plain weave pattern lap should be laid so the top lap end is facing
of 10 by 10 (ten threads per inch in the warp downhill to help prevent water intrusion
direction and 10 threads per inch in the fill under the membrane. On a transverse joint,
direction) and a greige finish. It should weigh the minimum overlap should beat least 24 in-
approximately 1.6 ounces per square yard. ches. Additional emulsion should be on the
Using scrim material does not create any top side of the bottom lap to provide enough
health or safety hazards, and special storage emulsion to adhere to and waterproof the top
facilities are not required. Scrim materials lap. Figure 9-31, page 9-64, illustrates this
can be applied under any climatic conditions process on tangential sections. Applying
suitable for dispensing the DCA 1295. polypropylene on roadway curves requires
(Under special conditions, continuous cutting and placing the fabric as shown in
strands of fiberglass maybe chopped into l/2- Figure 9-32, page 9-64. The joints in curved
inch-long segments and blown over the area areas should be overlapped a minimum of 24
to be protected.) The best method of place- inches.
ment is for the fiberglass scrim material to be
placed immediately after presetting with SELECTION OF DUST PALLIATIVE
water, followed by the DCA 1295. There are many dust palliative that are ef-
fective over a wide range of soils and climatic
Polypropylene-Asphalt Membrane. The conditions. Engineering judgment and
polypropylene-asphalt membrane is recom- material availability play key roles in deter-
mended for use in all traffic areas. It has mining the specific dust palliative to select.
considerable durability and withstands rut- Tables 9-29 through 9-32, pages 9-65 through
ting up to approximately 2 inches in depth. 9-70, were developed from evaluation of their
This system is a combination of a actual perform ante to assist in the selection
polypropylene fabric sprayed with an asphalt process. The dust palliative and dust control
emulsion. Normally a cationic emulsion is methods are not listed in any order of effec-
used; however, anionic emulsions have also tiveness.
been used successfully. Several types of
polypropylene fabric are commercially avail- Where no dust palliative is listed for a par-
able. ticular dust control method, none was found

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-63


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-64


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-65


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-66


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-67


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-68


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-69


FM 5-410

to be effective under those conditions. For ex- palliative, retreatment of the failed area is
ample, for the agronomic method, a dust relatively simple, involving only a distributor
palliative is not recommended for a loose, and operator. A second application is en-
sandy soil with no binder, nor is a dust pallia- couraged as soon as it is determined that the
tive recommended for the surface penetration initial application rate is not achieving the
of a firm, clay soil (see Table 9-29, page 9-65 desired results.
and Table 9-30, page 9-66). Also, the
agronomic method of dust control is not Placement
recommended for any traffic area (see Table No treatment is suggested for areas con-
9-31, page 9-67).
taining large dense vegetation and/or large
In Table 9-32, page 9-68 through 9-70, num- debris. Loose soil in a wet or slurry condition
bers representing dust palliative are listed and firm soil that is wet should not be treated.
in numerical order and separated by the dust- Dust problems should not exist in any of these
control method. This table includes the sug- areas; however, if the areas are known dust
producers when dry, they should be dried or
gested rates of application for each dust- conditioned and then treated.
palliative; for instance, gallon per square
yard for liquid spray on applications or gallon
per square yard per inch for liquid (or pound Dilution
per square yard per inch for powders) admix Several dilution ratios are mentioned for
applications. some liquid dust palliatives. The ratios are
presented as volume of concentrate to volume
of water and should be viewed as a necessary
Application Rates procedure before a particular liquid can be
The application rates should be considered sprayed. The water is a necessary vehicle to
estimates, as stated above. Unfortunately, get the dust palliative on the ground. The
the admix method and some surface-blanket stated application rate is for the dust pallia-
methods represent a full commitment. tive only. When high dilution ratios are
Should failure occur after selection and place- required to spray a dust palliative, extra care
ment, the only recourse is to completely should be taken to prevent the mixture from
retreat the failed area, which is a lengthy and flowing into adjacent areas where treatment
involved process. However, should failure may be unnecessary and/or into drainage
occur on a section treated with a liquid dust ditches. Two or more applications may be

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-70


FM 5-410

necessary to achieve the desired application control flight operations and represents a sig-
rate. Considerable time can be saved by first nificant safety hazard. Adequate dust
determining the minimum dilution that per- control for the heliport is essential for safe
mits a dust palliative to be sprayed. and efficient flight operations. Figure 9-33,
page 9-73, illustrates heliport areas requiring
Prewetting dust control and lists the dimensions of the
areas to be treated based on aircraft type,
All liquid dust palliative present a better Table 9-34, page 9-74, lists dust palliative
finished product when they are sprayed over suitable for use around helipads and aircraft
an area that has been prewet with water. The maintenance areas.
actual amount of water used in presetting an
area varies but usually ranges from 0.03 to
0.15 gallons per square yard. The water C0NTROL OF SAND
should not be allowed to pond on the surface, Operation Desert Storm highlighted the
and all exposed soil should be completely problems of stabilizing airborne and migrat-
dampened. The performance of brine ing sand. Airborne sand reduces the life
materials is enhanced by increasing the expectancy of mechanical parts exposed to its
amount of water to two to three times the abrasive effects. From a construction
usual recommendation. However, the water standpoint, migrating sand poses a sig-
should not be allowed to pond, and the fine- nificant engineering problem— how to
sized particles should not be washed away. prevent dune formation on facilities.

Curing There are many ways to control migrating


Most liquid dust palliative require a sand and prevent sand-dune formation on
curing period. DCA 1295 dries on the soil roads, airfields, and structures. There are
surface to form a clear film. The curing time certain advantages and disadvantages in
is around 4 hours but may vary with each one. The following methods for the
weather conditions. Brine materials do not stabilization and/or destruction of wind-
require a curing period, making them imme- borne sand dunes are the most effective:
diately available to traffic. Bituminous Fencing.
materials may be ready to accept traffic as Paneling.
soon as the material temperature drops to Bituminous materials.
the ambient temperature. Vegetative treatment.
Mechanical removal.
DUST CONTROL ON ROADS Trenching.
AND CANTONMENT AREAS Water.
Controlling dust on roads and in and Blanket covers.
around cantonment areas is important in Salt solutions.
maintaining health, morale, safety, and
speed of movement. Table 9-33, page 9-72, These methods may be used singularly or in
lists several dust palliative suitable for con- combination.
trolling dust on roads and in cantonment
areas, the equipment required to apply the Fencing
palliative, the level of training required, and
the life expectancy of the dust palliative. This method of control employs flexible,
portable, inexpensive fences to destroy the
symmetry of a dune formation. The fence
DUST CONTROL FOR HELIPORTS does not need to be a solid surface and may
Dust control for heliports is essential for even have 50 percent openings, as in snow
safety reasons. Because of the nature of fencing. Any material, such as wood slats,
heliborne operations, many aircraft are likely slender poles, stalks, or perforated plastic
to be arriving or departing simultaneously. sheets, bound together in any manner and at-
Obscuration of the airfield due to dust tached to vertical or horizontal supports is
reduces air traffic controllers’ ability to adequate. Rolled bundles that can be

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-71


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-72


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-73


FM 5-410

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-74


FM 5-410

transported easily are practical. Prefabri- is eliminated, migration accelerates and dune
cated fencing is desirable because it can be volume decreases. As the dune migrates, it
erected quickly and economically. Because may move great distances downwind before it
the wind tends to underscore and undermine completely dissipates. An upwind fence may
the base of any obstacle in its flow path, the be installed to cut off the new sand supply if
fence should be installed about 1 foot above the object to be protected is far downwind of
ground level. To maintain the effectiveness the dune. This distance usually should beat
of the fencing system, a second fence should least four times the width of the dune.
be installed on top of the first fence on the
crest of the sand accumulation. The entire Paneling
windward surface of the dune should be stabi- Solid barrier fences of metal, wood, plastic,
lized with a dust-control material, such as
bituminous material, before erecting the first or masonry can be used to stop or divert sand
fence. The old fences should not be removed movement. To stop sand, the barriers should
during or after the addition of new fences, be constructed perpendicular to the wind
Figure 9-34 shows a cross section of a stabi- direction. To divert sand, the panels should
lized dune with porous fencing. As long as the be placed obliquely or nearly parallel to the
fences are in place, the sand remains trapped. wind. They may be a single-slant or V-shaped
If the fences are removed, the sand soon pattern (see Figure 9-36, page 9-76). When
moves downwind, forming an advancing first erected, paneling appears to give excel-
dune. The proper spacing and number of fen- lent protection. However, panels are not
ces required to protect a specific area can only self-cleaning, and the initial accumulations
be determined by trial and observation. Fig- must be promptly removed by mechanical
ure 9-35 illustrates a three-fence method of means. If the accumulation is not removed,
control. If the supply of new sand to the dune sand begins to flow over and around the

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-75


FM 5-410

barrier and soon submerges the object to be and soil. Most vegetative treatments are ef-
protected. Mechanical removal is costly and fective only if the supply of new sand is cut off.
endless. This method of control is unsatisfac- An upwind and water, fertilizers, and mulch
tory because of the inefficiency and expense. are used liberally. To prevent the engulfment
It should be employed only in conjunction of vegetation, the upwind boundaries are
with a more permanent control, such as protected by fences or dikes, and the seed may
plantings, fencing, or dust palliative. Equal- be protected by using mulch sprayed with a
ly good protection at less cost is achieved with
the fencing method. bituminous material. Seed on slopes maybe
anchored by mulch or matting. Oats and
other cereal grasses may be planted as a fast-
Bituminous Materials growing companion crop to provide protection
Destroying dune symmetry by spraying while slower-growing perennial vegetation
bituminous materials at either the center or becomes established. Usually the procedure
the ends of the dune is an inexpensive and is to plant clonal plantings, then shrubs (as an
practical method of sand control. Petroleum intermediate step), followed by long-lived
resin emulsions and asphalt emulsions are ef- trees. There are numerous suitable vegeta-
fective. The desired stickiness of the sand is tive treatments for use in different
obtained by diluting 1 part petroleum resin environments. The actual type of vegetation
emulsion with 4 parts waters and spraying at selected should be chosen by qualified in-
the rate of 1/2 gallon per square yard. dividuals familiar with the type of vegetation
Generally, the object to be protected should be that thrives in the affected area. Stabiliza-
downwind a distance of at least twice the tip- tion by planting has the advantages of
to-tip width of the dune. The center portion of permanence and environmental enhance-
a barchan dune can be left untreated, or it can ment wherever water can be provided for
be treated and unstabilized portions allowed growth.
to reduce in size by wasting. Figure 9-37
shows destruction of a typical barchan dune
and stabilization depending on the area Mechanical Removal
treated. In small areas, sand maybe removed by
heavy equipment. Conveyor belts and power-
driven wind machines are not recommended
Vegetative Treatment because of their complexity and expense.
Establishing a vegetative cover is an excel- Mechanical removal may be employed only
lent method of sand stabilization. The after some other method has been used to
vegetation to be established must often be prevent the accumulation of more deposits.
drought resistant and adapted to the climate Except for its use in conjunction with another

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-76


FM 5-410

method of control, the mechanical removal of mats, membranes, aggregates, seashells, and
sand is not practical or economical. saltwater solutions. After placement of any
of these materials, a spray application of
Trenching bituminous material may be required to
A trench maybe cut either transversely or prevent blanket decomposition and sub-
sequent dust.
longitudinally across a dune to destroy its
symmetry. If the trench is maintained, the
dune will be destroyed by wastage. This Salt Solutions
method has been used successfully in the Water saturated with sodium chloride or
Arizona Highway Program in the Yuma other salts can be applied to sand dunes to
Desert, but it is expensive and requires con- control dust. Rainfall leaches salts from the
stant inspection and maintenance. soil in time. During periods of no rainfall and
low humidity (below approximately 30 per-
Water cent), water may have to be added to the
treated area at a rate of 0.10 to 0.20 gallon per
Water may be applied to sand surfaces to square yard to activate the salt solution.
prevent sand movement. It is widely used
and an excellent temporary treatment.
Water is required for establishing vegetative Section IV. Construction
covers. Two major disadvantages of this Procedures
method are the need for frequent reapplica-
tion and the need for an adequate and
convenient source. MECHANICAL SOIL STABILIZATION
This section provides a list of construction
Blanket Covers procedures, using mechanical stabilization
methods, which will be useful to the engineer
Any material that forms a semipermanent in the theater of operations.
cover and is immovable by the wind serves to
control dust. Solid covers, though expensive, On-Site Blending
provide excellent protection and can be used
over small areas. This method of sand control On-site blending involves the following
accommodates pedestrian traffic as well as a steps:
minimum amount of vehicular traffic.
Blanket covers may be made from bituminous Preparation.
or concrete pavements, prefabricated landing Shape the area to crown and grade.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-77


FM 5-410

Scarify, pulverize, and adjust the Determine the moisture content of


moisture content of the soil, if neces- the placed, blended material. Adjust
sary. the moisture content, if necessary.
Reshape the area to crown and grade.
Lime Stabilization
Addition of Imported Soil Materials. Use Lime stabilization involves the following
one of the following methods: steps:
Distribute evenly by means of an im-
proved stone spreader. Preparation.
Use spreader boxes behind dump Shape the surface to crown and
trucks. grade.
Tailgate each measured truck, load- Scarify to the specified depth.
ing to cover a certain length. Partially pulverize the soil.
Dump in equally spaced piles, then
form into windrows with a motor Spreading. Select one of the following
grader before spreading. methods; use about 1/2 of the total lime re-
quired.
Mixing. Spot the paper bags of lime on the
Add water, if required, to obtain a runway, empty the bags, and level
moisture content of about 2 percent the lime by raking or dragging.
above optimum and mix with either a Apply bulk lime from self-unloading
rotary mixer, pulvimixer, blade, scari- trucks (bulk trucks) or dump trucks
fier, or disk. with spreaders.
Continue mixing until the soil and ag- Apply the lime by slurry (1 ton of lime
gregate particles are in a uniform, to 500 gallons of water). The slurry
well-graded mass. can be mixed in a central plant or in a
Blade to crown and grade, if needed. tank truck and distributed by stand-
ard water or asphalt tank trucks with
Compaction. or without pressure.
Compact to specifications determined
by the results of a CE 55 Proctor test Preliminary Mixing, Watering, and
Curing.
performed on the blended soil ma-
terial. Mix the lime and soil (pulverize soil
Select the appropriate type(s) of com- to less than a 2-inch particle size ex-
paction equipment, based on the gra- clusive of any gravel or stone).
dation characteristics of the blended Add water.
soil.
CAUTION
Off-Site Blending The amount of water need to be in-
Off-site blending involves the following creased by approximately 2 percent for
steps: lime stabilization purposes.

Preparation. Shape area to crown and Mix the lime, water, and soil using
grade. rotary mixers (or blades).
Shape the lime-treated layer to the
Addition of Blended Soil Materials. approximate section.
Spread blended material evenly, Compact lightly to minimize evapora-
using one of the methods discussed tion loss, lime carbonation, or exces-
for on-site blending. sive wetting from heavy rains.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-78


FM 5-410

Cure lime-soil mixture for zero to 48 Mixing.


hours to permit the lime and water to Add water and mix in place with a
break down any clay clods. For ex- rotary mixer.
tremely plastic clays, the curing Perform by processing in 6- to
period may be extended to 7 days. 8-foot-wide passes (the width of
the mixer) or by mixing in a windrow
Final Mixing and Pulverization. with either a rotary mixer or motor
Add the remaining lime by the ap- grader.
propriate method.
Continue the mixing and pulveriza- Compaction.
tion until all of the clods are broken Begin compaction immediately after
down to pass a l-inch screen and at the final mixing (no more than 1 hour
least 60 percent of the material will should pass between mixing and
pass a Number 4 sieve. compaction), otherwise cement may
Add water, if necessary, during the hydrate before compaction is
mixing and pulverization process. completed.
Use pneumatic-tired and sheepsfoot
Compaction. rollers. Finish the surface with
Begin compaction immediately after steel-wheeled rollers.
the final mixing.
Use pneumatic-tired or sheepsfoot Curing. Use one of the following methods:
rollers. Prevent excessive moisture loss by
applying a bituminous material at a
Final curing. rate of approximately 0.15 to 0.30
Let cure for 3 to 7 days. gallon per square yard.
Keep the surface moist by periodically Cover the cement with about 2 inches
applying an asphaltic membrane or of soil or thoroughly wetted straw.
water.
Fly-Ash Stabilization
Cement Stabilization The following construction procedures for
stabilizing soils apply to fly ash, lime-fly ash
Cement stabilization involves the following mixtures, and lime-cement-fly ash mixtures:
steps:
Preparation.
Preparation.
Shape the surface to crown and
Shape the surface to crown and grade.
grade. Scarify and pulverize the soil, if
Scarify, pulverize, and prewet the necessary.
soil, if necessary. Reshape the surface to crown and
Reshape the surface to crown and grade.
grade.
Spreading. Use one of the following:
Spreading. Use one of the following
methods: Spot the bags of fly ash on the road or
Spot the bags of cement on the run- airfield; empty the bags into
way, empty the bags, and level the ce- individual piles; and distribute the fly
ment by raking or dragging. ash evenly across the surface with a
Apply bulk cement from self- rake or harrow.
unloading trucks (bulk trucks) or Apply fly ash or a fly ash mixture in
dump trucks with spreaders. bulk from self-unloading trucks (bulk

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-79


FM 5-410

trucks) or dump trucks with placed. A prime coat should be ap-


spreaders. plied on the roadbed and allowed to
cure. Excess asphalt from the prime
Mixing. coat should be blotted with a light ap-
Begin mixing operations within 30 plication of dry sand.
minutes of spreading the fly ash. Haul aggregate to the job and wind-
Mix the soil and fly ash thoroughly by rowed by hauling trucks, a spreader
using a rotary mixer, by windrowing box, or a blade.
with a motor grader, or by using a Add asphalt to the windrow by an
disk harrow. asphalt distributor truck or added
Continue to mix until the mixture within the traveling plant mixer.
appears uniform in color. Use one of the several types of
single- or multiple-pass shaft mixers
Compaction. that are available.
Add water to bring the soil moisture Work the material until about 50
content to 2 percent above the OMC. percent of the volatiles have escaped.
Begin compaction immediately follow- A blade is often used for this
operation.
ing final mixing. Compaction must be Spread the aggregate to a uniform
completed within 2 hours of mixing. grade and cross section.
Minimum compactive effort for soils Compact.
treated with fly ash is 95 percent of
the maximum dry density of the Rotary Mixer.
mixed material.
Reshape to crown and grade; then Prepare the roadbed as explained
finish compaction with steel-wheeled above for the traveling plant mixer.
rollers. Spread the aggregate to a uniform
grade and cross section.
Curing. After the fly ash treated lifts have Add asphalt in increments of about
been finished, protect the surface from drying 0.5 gallon per square yards and mix.
to allow the soil material to cure for not less Asphalt can be added within the
than 3 days. This maybe accomplished by— mixer or with an asphalt distributor
truck.
Applying water regularly throughout Mix the aggregate by one or more
the curing period. passes of the mixer.
Covering the amended soil with a 2- Make one or more passes of the mixer
inch layer of soil or thoroughly wetted after each addition of asphalt.
straw. Maintain the surface to the grade and
Applying a bituminous material at cross section by using a blade during
the rate of approximately 0.15 to 0.30 the mixing operation.
gallon per square yard. Aerate the mixture.
Bituminous Stabilization Blade Mixing.
In-place stabilization using bituminous Prepare the roadbed as explained
materials can be performed with a traveling above for the traveling plant mixer.
plant mixer, a rotary-type mixer, or a blade. Place the material in a windrow.
The methods for using these mixers are out- Apply asphalt to the flattened
lined below: windrow with a distributor truck. A
multiple application of asphalt could
Traveling Want Mixer. be used.
Shap and compact the roadbed on Mix thoroughly with a blade.
which the mixed material is to be Aerate the mixture.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-80


FM 5-410

Move the mixed windrow to one side Curing. Provide an asphaltic membrane for
of the roadway. cement-stabilized soil and an asphaltic
Spread the mixture to the proper membrane or water for lime-stabilized soils.
grade and crown.
Compact the mixture. Surface Waterproofing
Surface waterproofing involves the follow-
Central Plant Construction Methods ing steps:
Although central plant mixing is desirable
in terms of the overall quality of the stabilized Preparation.
soil, it is not often used for theater-of- Shape the area to crown and grade.
operations construction. Stabilization with Remove all deleterious materials,
asphalt cement, however, must be ac-
complished with a central hot-mix plant. such as stumps, roots, turf, and
sharp-edged soil-aggregate particles.
The construction methods for central plant
mixing that are common for use with all types Mixing.
of stabilizers are given below: Adjust the water content to about op-
timum to 2 percent below optimum,
Storing. and mix with a traveling mixer, pul-
Prepare storage areas for soils and vimixer, blade, scarifier, or plow.
aggregates. Blade to the crown and grade.
Prepare storage area for stabilizer.
Prepare storage area for water. Compaction.
Begin compaction after mixing.
Mixing. Use pneumatic-tired or sheepsfoot
Prepare the area to receive the rollers.
materials.
Prepare the mixing areas. Membrane Placement.
Grade the area to the crown and
Hauling. Use trucks. grade and cut anchor ditches.
Use a motor grader.
Placing. Use a spreader box or bottom - Roll the area with a steel-wheeled
dump truck, followed by a blade to spread to a
uniform thickness. roller or a lightweight, pneumatic-
tired roller.
Compacting. Use a steel-wheeled, Place a neoprene-coated nylon fabric
pneumatic-tired, or sheepsfoot roller, or a polypropylene-asphalt membrane
depending on the material. on the area.

Soil Stabilization for Roads and Airfields 9-81