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Shane Carey 2-26-09 PIB Euro 6th Period Africa, pgs. 495-515 Africa I. Introduction A.

Diverse experiences across the continent B. Northeast in Islamic power struggles C. Sub-Saharan Africa developed more without influences D. 1500 Africa was affected by Europeans II. North Africa and Egypt A. Played a central role in Islamic and Mediterranean history B. Sunni's and Shi'ite's leaders struggled for control C. Thirteenth century Shi'ites became minority D. Sunni revival in Egypt confirmed character of the country E. Wide ruling dynasties played influential roles F. Feisty religionalism characterized political zones G. By 1800 most Ottoman land on North Africa was independent H. Morocco was the only country to remain independent after 1700 III. The Spread Of Islam South Of The Sahara A. Influence below Sahara started as early as 8th century B. 1800 affected most of Sudanic belt and as far south as Zimbabwe C. Islam tended to blend with indigenous religions, but strongly affected them D. Agents of Islam brought changes politically and commercially via Qu'ran, practice, literature... E. Spread In East Africa 1. Muslim traders moved down coastline with ancient monsoon trade routes 2. 13th century onward Islamic trade routes and city states became important in the region F. Spread In West Africa 1. Penetrated through overland routes 2. The agents were traders who were mostly Berbers 3. Emigrants from Egypt on the Nile also brought the religion G. 985 marks first court (Kingdom of Gao) to convert to Islam H. 1030's militants or Almoravids began a conversion extending to western Sahel and Sahara I. Major west African groups strongly resisted Islamization IV. Sahelian Empires of the Western and Central Sudan A. Ghana 1. Established model for later western Sahel region 2. Esteemed by distant Islamic writers 3. North of modern Ghana 4. Kingdom originated in 400-600 AD but prospered as a power only by 1000 5. Capital well sited for trade 6. Rulers came from previous king's sister and ruled with a council of ministers 7. Power rested on an economic base 8. Tribute from chiefs and taxes on land and crops along with tariffs supported wealth 9. Trade between nearby empires included many goods (salt, cloth, metal, gold, kola nuts) 10. Although didn't convert to Islam, Ghana made much room for it in government 11. Ghana had a hierarchal society with slaves at the bottom and nobility at the top 12. A huge, well trained army allowed kings to be in control 13. Ghana took Awdaghast in 992 from Berbers but had it taken by Almoravids in 1054 14. Ghana toppled in late twelfth century by anti-Muslim Soso people from Kumbi B. Mali 1. Proselytizing zeal of Almoravids led to conversion of region's ruling classes 2. Half a century after Ghana was defeated came an equally as great of a nation 3. Keita clan of Mali (Ghana successor) forged a lasting empire

Muhammad Al-Turi was an enthusiastic Muslim and incorporated it into the empire 9. Individual chieftaincies were individual but looked up to the Mansa for sovereignty 12. domination ended in 1375 3. rose around 1100 2. Regions: Senegal Region. Christian states of Maqurra and Alwa in Nubia lasted more than six hundred years B. Islam teaching converted Alwa. West African Forest Kingdoms: Benin 1. which changed to Funj G. 15th century Benin became a large power under King Ewuare d. Civil strife led to the loss of power of Kanem by the Kanuri 10. Rise of Sonni dynasty brought a century of prosperity. Built up on Keita kings monopolizing the gold trade 5. Power shifted to Bornu after 1400. Began as a sub-Saharan confederation of black nomadic tribes 4. Keita Islamic kings went to Mecca and brought back new ideas for politics and war 9. Benin State and Society a. Broken up by long famine. lack of leadership. Expanded power into modern Libya and east to the Nile and Egypt 9. Benin represents the best of these forest kingdoms before 1500 3. Songhai collapsed at battle with Morrocans along with Gao D. After 1000 Maqurra and Alwa made treaties with powerful Egyptians C. Peoples of Songhai speaking Niger 11. Malinke people in Niger built large enclosures containing 15. southwest of Lake Chad 11. 11th or 12th century there was a Songhai kingdom in Gao 2. Edo speakers of Benin have occupied southern Nigerian region and Ibo speakers east of Lower Nigeria for millennia b. under him Songhai reached greatest point 10. Askia Duwad was last powerful leader. 1492 Sonni Ali dies succeeded by Askia Muhammed expanded empire to Atlantic 7. Islam entrenched itself within the Kanuri during the reign of Dibbalemi 7. Around 1300 Ebo asked for an Ife prince to rule. Ewuare rebuilt the capital and made a council that watched his rule e. a contemporary Sundiata from Mali 6. End of the sixteenth century Turkish weapons let Kanuri unify Kanem and Bornu 12. Both territories remained vulnerable to influence from arab-Muslim tribes D. Little evidence for societies flourishing in savannah or forestland 2. Mansa Musa made peace and made Timbuktu known for its intellectuality 13. became power under Sonni Ali 4. Funj flourished between the blue and white Nile VI. Cultivated Ghanian use of the caravan trade with North Africa 8. Agriculture and cattle farming were top occupations and was an economic mainstay 7. central Mande States. Songhai 1. King Sundiata was most prosperous and controlled all Mali's territory and materials 10. Mai Dunama Dibbalemi was the key leader. Kanuri group landed in Kanem and from there undertook military expansion 5. 17th century the Oba withdrew into the palace. Islam spread slowly into upper Nile region E. He took Jenne and Timbuktu through miltary boats and pushed Berbers up to N Sahara 6. 1352 Mansa Musa brought this region under control of Mali. Benin Art .4. Kanem and Kanem-Bornu 1. Fourth sizabel empire. Geographical location allowed for monopolies and military conquest for top power 6. invasion. The Eastern Sudan A.000 people and farmland 8. He used Islam to sanction his rule and expansion through jihad against polytheism 8. loss of trade control V. Began in the region northeast of lake Chad 3. The power of Mali decreased after Mansa Musa's time C. claiming he had mudfish feet 4. Christianity decreased because of its association with Coptic branch and its higher standing F. The Forestlands€ Coastal West and Central Africa A. but was limited by Edo c. Kanuri leader Idris Alawma's new empire lasted nearly a century 13. Sonni Ali made Songhai the most powerful imperial state on the continent of Africa 5.

Known for its stone ruins in vast numbers 3. Three groups of society: nobility. Gold was only important in 15th century B. Islam had made its way down the coast 2. Affonso I supported Jesuits but then rejected them resulting in suppression of Portuguese by successor f. Society differed from capital to country and all over . East Africa A. and foreigners 7. After a century the population was lost almost completely due to slave trade d. commoners. The most valuable resource was the people of central Africa e. mountains. Portuguese attempts to name successor to the throne resulted in bloody uprisings g. The Kongo Kingdom a. Senegambia a. Southern Africa A. Portuguese collapsed economy and stopped trade at refusal to convert 5. Swahili had emerged as a common tongue 3. Portuguese play a great role in the art as characters in epic scenes d. Kongo was mostly dealt with by Portuguese after 1483 b. Internal trade helped but very little VII. Name derives from importance of the outlet of gold c.a. cotton. The Portuguese and The Omanis of Zanzibar 1. Escaped slave trade for several decades and didn't have slaves until after 1500 f. Most affected by maritime trade b. Kingdom is on a low fertile plateau c. After 1600 Europeans built forts to protect their gold from raiders and pirates d. Reached a high point in 14th and 15th centuries 6. Trade was fed by export of ivory 8. Ndongo kingdom flourished in 16th century b. Central Africa 1. Trade was primarily products like gold. Afterwards internal wars shattered Kongo state 3. Decline in Swahili culture linked to decline in trade 2. Eventually more gold came in than went out C. The nature of the language mimics the culture 4. desert and forest 2. Humanistic and naturalistic sculptures of metal and ivory c. 1571 Portuguese decided to make Angola a proprietary colony c. and hides c. Angola a. salt. Contact with Europe led to spread of European crops e. Similar art was found at the Nile Delta B. Arab state of Oman raided the East Coast and ejected all Portuguese 6. Southeastern Africa: "Great Zimbabwe" 1. The center of the sub-continent is swamp. First developed on the northern coast then moved south 5. European Arrivals On the Coast 1. The Gold Coast a. Earliest regions affected by Europe b. Portuguese and British came to control the trade 2. Omanis then shifted to Zanzibar which became a powerful home base VIII. Civilization purely African and never felt Islam 2. Swahili Culture and Commerce 1. States also provided a place for slaves to be purchased by Europeans d. Portuguese attacks on coast led to Christianization of small Islamic ports 4. Portuguese wanted control over southern seas 3. 1600 Kongo was half the size of England and specialized in many trades d. Significance of Benin lies in its court art b.

Settlers moved out and pushed away Khoikhoi people 7. Increases in farming led to need of more labor 5. The Portuguese in Southeastern Africa 1. Along Mediterranean was the influence of the Ottomans C. Developments in Africa varied by region B. Large scale importation of slaves met the colony's needs 6. Eastern and South Africa key was the arrival of Christian ships .B. Dutch planted first colonies there inadvertently 2. No evidence of Islam in West Africa E. Settlements became homes for slaves and indigenous peoples too 4. South Africa: The Cape Colony 1. Khoikhoi took up employment in the growing agriculture 8. Intrusion created quasi-tribal chiefdoms 4. First settlement built in 1862 by Dutch East India Company 3. The society of the cape was very diverse with intermarriage and roles for different groups IX. Islam reached across North Africa and to Sudan D. In World Perspective A. Portuguese took little gold from Zimbabwe 2. Led by mixed blood Portuguese landowners called Prazeros C. Established forts in Zambezi kingdom 3.

15 million people were enslaved in African societies E. The slave economy was detrimental to Africa as a whole 3. The Background of Slavery 1. Southern Africa 1.Shane Carey 3-2-09 PIB Euro 6th Period Africa. New States and Power Centers A. West Africa 1. First quarter of 19th century saw devastating internal warfare 2. European interest in other goods matched that of slaves 3. Slave trade to Asia and middle east from Africa referred to as oriental 2. Indigenous slave trade in Africa did not end until 1928 in Sierra Leone C. Result of this was creation of many individual states 4. When a region lacked sufficient population for trade. The 18th century accounted for the most slave trade 2. Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade A. Slave trade was stopped slowly 2. suffered horrible consequences socially B. and firearms 3. The slave trade immensely drained population in Africa 6. Trade involved ivory. Trade managed by Europeans is known as occidental 3. The Extent of Slave Trade 1. Slave trade took many of the strong young men and women from societies 2. Consequences of the Slave Trade for Africa 1. The increase in slavery brought by the transatlantic trade was what hurt Africa II. Slavery and Slaving in Africa 1. As demand for slaves sunk the prices dropped quickly 8. as slave supplier. Before slave trade in 1650 slavery was no less significant anywhere else 5. All societies relied on slavery to some extent 3. 535-541 & 866-873 Africa I. Africa lost some 13 million people to the Transatlantic slave trade 4. Portuguese developed plantation system 4. Europeans acquired slaves from African middlemen 2. New state building was but off by British and Boer expansion B. Depopulation and forced migration of peoples 3. All slavery involved forceful degradation of humans to some extent 4. External trade was basis for forming of several strong states 2. Some societies chose to take part in the slave trade and others did not 5. Slavery's origin can not be traced 2. pgs. beads. The African Side of the Transatlantic Trade 1. gold. Despite anti-slavery campaign in Europe. Traders naturally went where the prices and supply were good D. Regional kingdoms rose but fell due to colonization and internal dissent III. East and Central Africa 1. The demographic impact was extremely bad 4. 19th century significant for militant reform in jihad . Europeans moved 4. Demand dropped mostly due to outlawing of slavery 9. Islamic Reform movements A. Vitality of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa was an agent of change before colonization B. Africa. Portugal shipped millions to Brazil 3. The goods bartered varied from alcohol. copper going out C. In 18th century the trade became developed and Africans were regarded as products 7.

This colonization and conquest is the more ugly eras in history V. African states wanted to use diplomacy to work with Europeans and use them to advantages B. Exploration 1. The increase in education and development of society made nationalism increase to WWII D. They described culture and religion as degraded 3. Great Britain and France were the vanguards of African Conquest 5. Missionaries really got to know the African people 2. The takeover was possible due to the technological advancement of the West 4. 1880¶s Europe started to negotiate claims on African land 6. 1850 only Europe to Africa conflict was in South Africa and Algeria 2. Rivers and mountains and fabled places were searched for 3. Increasing European Involvment A. Christian Missions 1. 19th century explorers discovered µsecrets¶ of Africa 2. Other reforms aimed to give a similar message to the masses IV. Conquest was supported by influence in Europe and public views on exploration 3. Africa often drew off of Western ways to handle local business in Africa E. African Resistance to Colonialism: The Rise Of Nationalism A. The role of Africans in European dominance was not very good C. Most important reform was a military act where the Hausa Lands of Nigeria were captured D. The Colonial Scramble For Africa 1.C. They aimed to run themselves one day . Importance of explorers is opening up for colonization and traders B. After WWI nationalism greatly rose across the continent C.

1059-1066 Africa I. pgs. The South African Case a. Decolonization in Africa B. After WWII new states appeared b. Forging new relationships between nations C. The Union of South Africa was governed by racist apartheid c. The Nigerian Case a. was overtaken in a military coup f. Most countries still have to overcome underdevelopment e. Most states have not achieved peace and prosperity b. The Middle East. Burdens of the past post obstacles for future development d. Apartheid's segregation was stopped in 1991 d. 1950-1980 almost all of Africa was independent c. Africa. and market competition . The Postcolonial Era A. Many people opposed military rule and called for civilian rule 3. The challenge is to achieve a civil society and health and stability in the midst of division. The white minority rule caused tragedy b. 1986 many other nations responded to apartheid f. Aftermath of independence bloodiest in all Africa c. Internal opposition to apartheid made South Africa isolated e. The transition to independence a. views of prosperity are not entirely bleak c. Every nation had a different experience after WWII e. Postcolonial Africa 1. population growth. Gov. Departure of Europeans led to harsh civil conflicts d. Nonracial constitution of 1996 made a path for a better South African future 4. Civil society and participatory government gained ground II. After struggle. Some aspects were bloody but not most 2. And Asia A. Republic of Nigeria most populous in Africa b. Government appeared after civil conflict e. The African Future a.Shane Carey 3-5-09 PIB Euro 6th Period Africa. Most powerful state d.