[4

]

INTRODUCTION

CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Washington

Introduction
For as long as anyone alive can remember, there has always been a way to pick up some sort of phone for chats with distant relatives or with companies that offer customer support. The protocols for this have been ever changing since the invention of the telephone. The old days of human operators gave way to central office switches, which in turn saw the uptake of private branch exchange (PBX) use in companies. Telecommunication methods are ever changing to meet customer expectations and to generate new services (and thus money). In the early stages of voice communications, the rise of major telco companies brought numerous changes. For the most part, the changes proved to be beneficial to the growth of the industry. Among these benefits was the financial power to expand services to all parts of the world. Then, no matter where you lived, you probably had access to a phone. This almost universal access allowed providers to generate more revenue and reinvest in emerging technologies and research. The downside to this was that small companies could not compete with the giants of the field. When the smaller companies couldn’t get a foothold into the market, larger companies continued their dominance. This market lockout started a selfish trend: Companies could do what they wanted with their equipment with little regard for client needs or interoperability with other companies. This monopoly created an environment in which the equipment was proprietary. Proprietary equipment, such as a PBX, from one company is probably not going to be interoperable with another company’s PBX. The purchasing company is now tied to one brand of equipment. Telecommunication monopolies have been declining for years. Everywhere you look, smaller companies are evolving, while creating new services and functionality for voice communications. A safe guess is that a few hundred billion phone calls are completed every year in the world. With the customer pool consisting of hundreds of millions, companies are competing to add services and growing their client base. Because smaller companies can now enter the market and challenge the established companies, proprietary networks of the past will be just that: of the past. History shows that customer demand drives technology and new inventions. One demand has been for the intertwining of voice and data networks. But, most companies must answer to shareholders, and shareholders want a return on investment (ROI). The demand for the intertwining of voice and data networks, combined with the need to cut costs (and thus increase ROI), has helped spark the Voice over IP (VoIP) revolution. Modern telecommunications use a variety of protocols and devices. VoIP was one of the technologies created to help combine voice and data networks. VoIP is a method of sending voice and video over data networks. VoIP has emerged as the de facto way for companies to send calls. Within VoIP, there are a few protocols to choose from, as follows:
n n

H.323 SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

© 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details.

[5]

PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE

CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Washington

n n n

MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol) SGCP (Simple Gateway Control Protocol) H.248/MEGACO

Each of these protocols has its advantages and disadvantages. The protocols have different components to provide services. The components can be grouped by the function they serve. Examples of these components include gatekeepers (GK), gateways (GW), endpoints, circuits, call control, and different signaling types. Those who want to implement some type of VoIP need to understand which protocol best suits their voice needs.

As a tester, you must be able to decide which functions to configure based on the requirements. It is not this guide’s intention to try to explain or even mention all the possible options that can be configured with Cisco GKs and GWs. Instead, I try to give you the information you must have, presented in such a way that you gain a full understanding of the subject matter.

Who Should Read This Guide?
Anyone who wants to augment his or her study material for the GWGK exam is the target audience for this guide. However, my intention also is to provide a deeper level of understanding for those who want to read a concise document to gain a fundamental understanding of GW and GK operation in Cisco environments. This guide does not delve into GK/GW minutiae. Instead, it provides a solid foundation on which you can build. For those readers who plan to prepare for additional certifications, this short cut could supplement your study material for other voice-related certifications (including CCIE Voice). —Brion S. Washington

Purpose of This Guide
This guide is intended to help readers pass the Gateway Gatekeeper (GWGK) exam required for the Cisco Certified Voice Professional (CCVP) and other voice-related certifications. The CCVP certification is valid for three years. After passing the CCVP, you may continue on to Cisco Certified Internetwork Export (CCIE) Voice certification. I hope readers find this guide useful as a preparation tool if they choose to pursue the CCIE Voice certification. In this guide, you will find the necessary information to prepare for your exam, as outlined at http://www.cisco.com. The 642-452 Implementing Cisco Voice Gateways and Gatekeepers exam tests your ability to configure and set up various functions on these Cisco devices.

© 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details.

[6]

GATEKEEPERS

CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Washington

Gatekeepers
In the VoIP world of H.323, the GK plays a vital role if included in the network. The use of a GK is optional; if chosen, the GK must perform certain functions. Gatekeepers act like the brains in an H.323 network. They provide network access, bandwidth management, address translation, accounting, and dial plans. Gatekeepers allow the simple configurations of the majority of devices on your network, while requiring only a few devices to hold the majority of configurations. This architecture keeps call routing, security, and administration centralized to a few devices. Because the network only has a handful of devices that need to be configured when changes occur, the likelihood of errors is diminished. NOTE
I use VoIP in this short cut to simplify the concept. Gatekeepers will work on any VoXX network using the H.323 protocol suite. Gatekeepers do not concern themselves with the medium or underlying technologies. Gatekeepers only need to make path selections and know whether resources are available for allocation.

When GKs are used in your H.323 network, GKs must/may provide certain mandatory and optional functions. Some of the functions are automatically configured when the GK service is started; others must be configured manually.

Mandatory and Optional Gatekeeper Functions
Mandatory Functions
Admission control: Controls endpoint admission into the H.323 network using H.225 Registration, Admission, and Status (RAS) messages, as follows:
n n n

Admission Request (ARQ) Admission Confirm (ACF) Admission Reject (ARJ)

Admission control is automatically started when the GK is started. Address translation: Translation of IP addresses to an E.164 phone number and vice versa. Example 1: 44.44.1.31 = 402-555-5555 Example 2: 405-999-9978 = 192.168.1.109. Address translation must be configured manually.

Gatekeeper Communications
The GK operates on three different ports depending on whom it is communicating with. TCP port 1718 is used when communicating with other GKs. TCP port 1719 is used for H.323 devices to register with GK in their zones. The next port used is TCP port 1720 for call control.

© 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details.

[7]

GATEKEEPERS

CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Washington

Bandwidth control: Provides endpoint bandwidth management requirements using H.225 RAS messages. When an endpoint decides it needs a certain amount of bandwidth for the call, it sends a BRQ message to the GK asking for an amount of bandwidth to be set aside for the call. The GK responds with a BCF or BRJ message.
n n n

Optional Functions
Call authorization: The GK can restrict access for endpoints or GWs. Bandwidth management: Reject admission when the required bandwidth is not available. The GK can reject calls if there is not enough bandwidth to support the call. All active calls are recorded by the GK to manage the bandwidth within the zone. The GK use the following formula to decide whether it can accept or reject the call request. Available bandwidth = (Total allocated bandwidth) – (Bandwidth used locally) – (Bandwidth used by all alternates) Call authorization and bandwidth management must be configured manually. Call management: The GK maintains active call information. Used for resource allocation / route selection. Call management is automatically started. Use show commands to display this information. Call control signaling: The GK may route call signaling messages between endpoints using Gatekeeper Routed Call Signaling (GKRCS). Normally, the GK uses H.225 call signaling. The endpoints send messages directly to other endpoints without using GK signaling. Cisco gatekeepers do not support GKRCS.

Bandwidth Request (BRQ) Bandwidth Confirm (BCF) Bandwidth Reject (BRJ) NOTE
Messages appear in the order in which they will happen on a GK-controlled network.

Zone management: Manages all registered endpoints in the zone. This provides centralized control for many devices within the zone. Zone management is automatically started when the GK is started.

© 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details.

[8]

H.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL

CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Washington

H.323 Call Setup and Control
Now that you understand more about GKs, let’s cover in more depth how H.323 communicates.
Intrazone Call
Gatekeeper Infantry V
) DP (U
H. 22

One way to memorize steps of H.323 call setup using a GK:
1. You get RAS-ed by a 225-lb. bully (H.225), which you have no

control over (UDP) (port 1719). A. RAS messages are passed through the GK to each device. B. If no GK is present, H.225 messages are sent between endpoints.
2. You call 931 (Q.931) (H.225) to set up a call with your friends.

You do not control them (UDP).
5 RA

22 H.

5

S RA

3. Your 245-lb. friend (H.245) takes control of everyone on the call
S (U DP )

(TCP) (port 1720). Negotiations take place.
4. Your friends (RTP) over on the negotiated streets and talk to the

Gateway Bragg

H.225 (Q.931) Call Setup (UDP)

bully; you have no control over what happens next (UDP).
V Gateway Benning

V

H.245 Call Control (TCP) RTP (UDP)

IP

FIGURE 1.1

Call Control and Setup Using a Gatekeeper

© 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details.

The GK responds with a registration confirm or reject (RCF or Now that you know the communication process and the protocol used. All devices on an H. The endpoint sends a registration request to the GK (port 1718 UDP). All rights reserved.141.2 Gateway Bragg H . . it rejects new calls and attempts to find a GK. FIGURE 1. such as phones. Washington Steps 2 through 4 are direct between endpoints with no GK intervention. active (established) calls remain operational. A GK responds with a gatekeeper confirm (GCF) or gatekeeper rejection (GRJ) message. Multicast: The devices try to find a GK with the multicast IP 224. H 25 . faxes. There are two ways to discover a GK.0. Please see page 63 for more details. Regular endpoints. usually do not register directly to GKs.9 al (Q 5 C 25 4 . If a GW finds that a GK has gone down. let’s discuss how to locate and gain access to the network.2 . Unicast: The devices use UDP port 1718. This publication is protected by copyright.323 network are endpoints. Gatekeeper Routed Call Signaling Gatekeeper Infantry Gatekeeper Discovery Process Devices that want to participate on a network must first locate and then register with a GK. The GW sends a GRQ to the GK. Their requests are forwarded by their GWs.2 lS l H al tro ) C on 31 l C . Devices are preconfigured with the IP of the GK and can start with the registration process immediately.1.2 Example: GKRCS 2.2 2 H 5 (Q . During the registration process.2 H H Gateway V Benning IP Registration Process 1. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. RRJ). it is actually the GWs that register with the GK. The GK responds with GCF or no response at all.[9] H. and so on.2 . 45 93 C 1) al C l C al on l S tro etu l( p TC (U P) DP ) R AS (U D P) V RTP (UDP) P) D P) (U D (U ) AS R up P et (TC 25 .323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.

This publication is protected by copyright. This device helps with Location Request (LRQ) messages. This is the first GK used on the network. GKs are categorized into different types. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. n Active GK—Controls all H. The endpoint responds with a UCF or URJ. backup/alternate.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.323 IDs (user-defined. The GK recognizes endpoints by the following: n n n Email IDs E. case sensitive) n If you are having registration issues. When deciding where to put your GKs. 2. you can save yourself a few headaches if you remember a few simple rules: n n n Only one active GK per zone. The GK types are active. make sure you have correctly configured your device with one of them. The GK sends a URQ. as follows: n (URQ). Washington Unregistration Process 1. The directory GK holds information on all zones. they are then passed on to other GKs as needed. because the directory GK knows the location of all zones and GKs.323 devices within a zone. 2. All rights reserved. The GK responds with an unregister confirm (UCF) or unregister reject (URJ). Please see page 63 for more details. Gatekeeper Unregisters Device 1. Each type allows the GK to handle certain mission-critical tasks.164 addresses (telephone numbers) H. Directory GK—Hierarchical GK used to promote scalable growth of the network. The endpoint starts the process by sending an unregister request Types of Gatekeepers To provide for the different requirements and functionalities needed. Alternate/backup GK—The second device that handles control of the zone in the event of the failure of the active GK. All messages go through this device. and directory. See the “Redundancy and Availability” section. It is recommended that each endpoint have at least one fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for interzone communication. . Use of a directory GK helps simplify the process of adding or updating GKs.[ 10 ] H. Use a directory GK when your network is big or has potential for large growth. Redundancy (backup GK) should always be used in case of failure.

army. This information is gathered by use of prefixes. Local zones are the ones that you have administrative control over or want to classify as local.com Syntax: zone local gatekeeper-name domain-name 3. We will go over a basic GK. Gatekeepers must be aware of their capabilities and where to send calls they cannot complete. you must consider many aspects.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. .bin Gatekeeper zone local Gk-Infantry my.army.123-4. from devices used to path selections.[ 11 ] H.. Zones are divided into local and remote zones. Set up the GK local zone: Gk-Infantry (config-gk) # zone local GK-Infantry my. Basic Intrazone Gatekeeper Configuration The steps involved in a basic configuration are as follows: 1. When planning your dial plan. The prefix could be the area code for Southern California (714). Cisco GKs support up to 100 local zones. services. Cisco GKs use technology prefixes to route calls when there is no match for E. Washington Gatekeeper Topology The GK has a topology that separates areas called zones. but only 1 local zone is mandatory. You can set up your GK to handle or complete any combination of numbers. or they could be zones you have picked to be remote for various other reasons. This type of prefix allows devices to be grouped together by types or services. The two types of prefixes are zone prefix and technology prefix.com © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.T7. or it could be an extension in the payroll department (3367). Zone prefixes state which numbers or area codes the device can complete calls to. The basic commands needed to set up a functional intrazone GK are not complicated. Start the GK: Gk-Infantry (config-gk) # no shutdown Gk_Infantry running-configuration Gk-Infantry# sh run Building configuration. All rights reserved.3 hostname Gk-Infantry ! boot system flash:c7200-js-mz. Examples of types are location. and functions.164 addresses to a specific GW. Current configuration : 54281 bytes ! version 12. Set up the GK service: Gk-Infantry # configure terminal Gk-Infantry (config) # gatekeeper Gk-Infantry (config-gk) # 2. and then move on to more complex configurations.. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details. Technology prefixes are another way to specify what the GK can and cannot do. Remote zones are zones that you have no administrative control over. The use of remote zones is optional (whereas local zones are not).

Washington No shutdown !!— Still under gatekeeper configuration !——Nonrelevant text has been omitted The zone remote command specifies the remote zone.com Gk-Infantry (config-gk) #zone remote Gk-Calvary my. All rights reserved.168.1 1719 Gk-Infantry (config-gk) # no shutdown n Gatekeeper Calvary Gk-Calvary # configure terminal Gk-Calvary (config) # gatekeeper Gk-Calvary (config-gk) # zone local Gk-Calvary my. The zone remote command is used to configure the remote zone.com Gk-Calvary (config-gk) # zone remote Gk-Infantry my.com 192.2. default is 50. default is 50. it forwards the request to another GK or queries the directory GK. calls can then take place across your network. This publication is protected by copyright. Foreign-domain—Sets the device to a different administrative domain. . If the local GK does not know where the remote endpoint is.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.168.army.com 192. and port to use: zone remote other-gatekeeper-name other-domain-name other-gatekeeper-ip-address [port-number][cost cost-value [priority priority-value]] [foreign-domain] After you have a GW or two configured. Priority—Sets the priority of the zone. IP address. Cost—Assigns cost to the zone.2.army. your GW sends your request to your local GK. You can use the following options with zone remote: n n n Port-number—Tells what port to use for RAS.[ 12 ] H. Please see page 63 for more details. Can use between 1 and 65535. Gatekeeper Infantry Gk-Infantry # configure terminal Gk-Infantry (config) # gatekeeper Gk-Infantry (config-gk) # zone local Gk-Infantry my. Value is 1 to 100. Can use between 1 and 100.3 1719 Gk-Calvary (config-gk) # no shutdown © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.army.army. Interzone Gatekeeper Configurations When you need to make calls outside of your zone.

3 Directory Gatekeeper © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. This type of design negates the need for full-mesh configurations between all the GKs. Washington Directory Gatekeepers A Cisco implementation is a device called a directory gatekeeper. On the other side. GK Infantry performs prefix lookup and finds a wildcard match on Dir-GK. The GKs are only set up knowing about their prefixes and where to send unknown prefix requests. GK-Dir performs lookup and finds a match for GK Calvary. The remaining steps are steps 4-10 in interzone scenario. which helps promote controllable growth in the network. User A Ext 4488 User B Ext 5577 Zone 1 Zone 2 FIGURE 1.[ 13 ] H. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. GK Infantry sends LRQ to GK-DIR and a RIP (Request In Progress) to GW-1. and the directory forwards the LRQ to the correct GK. 4. the directory GK knows and is configured with the prefixes for every GK under its influence. 3. When a GK lacks the information to find a remote endpoint. V 2 3 6 9 V 8 Directory Gatekeeper Configuration GW-2 7 GW-1 V 11 10 V 1 Directory GKs help create a hierarchical network. . 2.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. The directory GK allows for large VoIP networks without having to maintain full meshes between the GKs. with just a few changes: 1. The main thing that differs is the number of commands configured on each device. a lookup occurs. The differences between implementing a directory GK instead of intrazone or interzone are minor. User A dials 5577. Directory Gatekeeper Call Setup GK-DIR V 3 4 Directory Gatekeeper Call Setup The steps involved in completing a directory GK-assisted call are close to interzone. GK Infantry performs lookup and does not see User B registered. it sends the LRQ to the directory. sends Gatekeeper Cavalry Gatekeeper Infantry 5 an LRQ to GK Calvary. GW-1 sends GK Infantry ARQ for permission to make the call. Please see page 63 for more details.

calls starting with 212 and 202 are routed through the Calvary GK.168.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. zone prefix Gk-Calvary 212… zone prefix Gk-Calvary 202… zone prefix Gk-Calvary 312… lrq forward-queries no shutdown Gatekeeper Infantry Configuration zone local Gk_Infantry mycoolzone 192.202 zone remote Dir_GK myzone 192. The call is then sent to the Infantry GK.164 addresses are registered. zone prefix Gk-Infantry 661…. zone prefix Gk-Infantry 310…. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.101 zone remote Gk_Calvary mycoolzone 192.2.168.202 1719 zone prefix Gk-Infantry 714…. the GK sees that no zone prefix is configured specifically for 714. 661.3. When no E.168. The GK then uses the zone prefix wildcard * and routes the request to the directory GK.101 1719 foreign-domain zone prefix Gk-Infantry 714…. Washington Example: Directory Gatekeeper Configuration zone local Dir_GK myzone 192. If a call starting with 714 comes into the Calvary GK. calls starting with 714.168.168.[ 14 ] H. Please see page 63 for more details. The GK assigns default GWs for nonregistered addresses and uses default GWs matching the technology prefix assigned. the GK has two routing options: n n Gatekeeper Calvary Configuration zone local Gk_Calvary mycoolzone 192.2.101 1719 foreign-domain zone prefix Gk-Calvary 212… zone prefix Gk-Calvary 202… zone prefix Gk-Calvary 312… zone prefix Dir_GK * lrq forward-queries no shutdown Route using the technology prefix in the called number. and 310 are routed through the Infantry GK.2.201 zone remote Dir_GK myzone 192. All rights reserved.201 1719 zone remote Gk_Infantry mycoolzone 192. . We can see that the directory GK does have a zone prefix configured for 714 through GK Infantry.3.168.168.3. This publication is protected by copyright. zone prefix Gk-Infantry 310… zone prefix Dir_GK * lrq forward-queries no shutdown In the preceding example. zone prefix Gk-Infantry 661….3.

H.4 Zone Intrazone Topology Example. Gatekeepers will operate in an intrazone or interzone network. think of it as multiple Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) processes running on a single router. There is only one active GK per zone. but the rest are in backup mode. This communication process of GKs can be separated into logical and physical. it covers all devices associated with the GK regardless of location or network segmentation. Physical GK communication can involve two or more GKs.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. All rights reserved. More than one GK can be in a zone. V Intrazone Gatekeeper Infantry V V V V V V V V Zone 1 FIGURE 1. For those of you from the data world. The zone is not concerned with the network topology. . Logical communication can be one GK controlling multiple zones on the same device.323 devices that are within the control of a GK comprise a zone. Washington Gatekeeper Placement Now that we have found the GK and understand the call setup process. This publication is protected by copyright. Interzone communications are communications between two or more zones. All the devices in the zone use the services provided by the GK.[ 15 ] H. we’ll look at how and to whom the GK will be providing its services. Please see page 63 for more details. with Both Callers in the Same © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. physically separated. An intrazone network is all devices that are under the GK’s control.

5 Zones Interzone Topology Example. This adds to the complexity of your network. .323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. All rights reserved. Please see page 63 for more details. Endpoint 1 sends an ARQ to its GK-A. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. GK-A cannot locate the endpoint and sends an LRQ to GK-B. 3. Washington Interzone Gatekeeper Infantry V Gatekeeper Cavalry V Locating Endpoints The process of locating endpoints not native to your zone is a fairly straightforward process: 1.[ 16 ] H. This publication is protected by copyright. V V Zone 1 Zone 2 FIGURE 1. however. 4. trying to call another endpoint. GK-B responds with a location confirm (LCF) message. with Two Callers in Different The difference between intrazone and interzone is the number of GKs the call must go through and the paths GK messages take. V V 2. this cannot be helped if you are calling outside your zone or administrative authority. The LCF V V V V message includes the IP of the remote GW responsible for the remote endpoint. GK-A responds with an ACF to endpoint 1.

This publication is protected by copyright. GW-1 starts a Q. 8. GK Infantry sends an LRQ to GK Calvary and a RIP (Request In Progress) to GW-1.[ 17 ] H. Washington Interzone Call Setup The steps involved to complete an interzone call are similar in some ways to an intrazone call. GK Infantry returns with an ACF with the IP address of GW-2. with a few more steps required to complete the call. A prefix lookup is done. GW-1 sends an ARQ to GK Infantry for permission to make the call. Please see page 63 for more details. 3.6 Interzone Call Steps © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Plain old telephone service (POTS) call setup. GW-2 asks permission with an ARQ to accept the call from GW-1. 9. Interzone Call Setup 1.931 connect. V 11 V 9 1 User A Ext 4488 User B Ext 5577 Zone 1 Zone 2 FIGURE 1. 6. 10. and GK Calvary is selected. User A dials 5577. V 8 7 V 2 3 5 4 5. GK Calvary responds with an ACF with GW-1’s IP address.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. 2. Q. GW-2 6 GW-1 10 7. GK Infantry performs lookup and does not see User B registered. All rights reserved. GK Calvary finds User B registered and sends an LCF with GW-2’s IP address.931 call setup to GW-2 User B’s extension. . Gatekeeper Cavalry Gatekeeper Infantry 3 4.

All rights reserved.[ 18 ] H. or securing resources.1 Access-list 55 remark *** Taylor’s Access-list 55 permit ip 88. Lrq reject-unknown-prefix—Forces GKs to reject LRQs from nonconfigured zones. while serving a dual purpose of optimization and securing your network. but I do write about ways to tighten resources. can help secure your network a little more. The following commands provide resource-saving techniques and help secure your devices at a basic level. finely-tuned dial plans. Please see page 63 for more details. n n n Security acl answerarq—Sets up tokenless call authorization for devices outside the GK’s zone.2. allowed IPs. Washington Advanced Gatekeeper Configuration Options VoIP networks need to be able to adapt to the constantly changing demands of the telecommunication world. Securing a network is a vague term. which. All other nonconfigured subnets are rejected. . in turn.com default enable Zone subnet Dir_GK myzone.88. The needs of your network might include better resource management.88. This is not necessarily the case in VoIP. This command calls on an access control list (ACL) from matching. A few commands will further your ability to work with a Cisco GK. Zone subnet—Specifies that discovery and registration messages are only accepted from endpoints on the configured subnets. VoIP security is beyond the scope of this guide. The best way to make sure that your calls are going across as smoothly as possible is to limit unwanted (unknown) endpoints and messages from traversing your network.99. Syntax: zone subnet local-gatekeeper-name {default | subnetaddress {/bits-in-mask | mask-address}} enable n Example: Security Configuration Access-list 55 permit ip 99.168. This publication is protected by copyright. The world in which we live today has caused networks to be designed more securely.1 Access-list 55 remark *** Brittney’s VoIP Network*** Gatekeeper Security acl answerarq 55 No zone subnet Dir_GK myzone.99. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.com 192.323 CALL SETUP AND CONTROL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Some people think that to provide security for a network that a massive security plan is needed.0 /24 enable VoIP Network*** Arq reject-unknown-prefix—Forces GKs to reject unknown prefixes from zones not configured. I will say that securing a network is a multistage plan that should be implemented as simply as possible.

The GK has triggers configured for each external application it will use. GKTMP Messages All GKTMP messages are either requests or responses. Format is tag=value. If the messages match a trigger. Some of the incoming requests for the GK are sent to the external application to fulfill the request. The message header is a few lines that contain the external application name. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Washington Gatekeeper Transaction Messages Protocol (GKTMP) GKTMP is used for communications between GKs and external applications where added functions or services are required beyond the capabilities of the GK. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details. These triggers are based on RAS tags and values. Format is field:value. Your triggers can be manually configured or dynamically configured through API. and the external application sends the response. and messages are sent to the requesting endpoint. the results are sent to the GK for further processing. Static triggers are configured via the command line. The main point to remember here is that GKTMP and API are both used to provide this functionality. whereas dynamic triggers are configured via an external application. Blank space is probably used to help with problem resolution. . GK name. The message body contains the triggers. This works in a straightforward manner. All rights reserved. The GK creates the request. GKTMP passes information between Cisco IOS GKs and the external application using ASCII response/request messages based on RAS by way of an application programming interface (API) or over TCP connections. Example: Registration Request message line message header 1 message header 2 message header 3 message body line 1 message body line 2 message body line 3 message body line 4 n n n n The message line states what kind of request is being sent. When the external application is finished processing. and version ID. The message body is optional. the GK then repackages the message and forwards it to the correct external application. Incoming RAS messages are checked against the triggers.[ 19 ] GATEKEEPER TRANSACTION MESSAGES PROTOCOL (GKTMP) CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.

[ 20 ] GATEKEEPER TRANSACTION MESSAGES PROTOCOL (GKTMP) CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Gatekeepers are not immune to hardware or software failures. This addition to H. the application server can use a command URQ to send untriggered. each cluster member receives a GRQ from all the other members. it is provided with two alternate GKs that can take over when the primary GK fails. RAI. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. they are ACF. The clusters communicate with Gatekeeper Update Protocol (GUP). This publication is protected by copyright. Gatekeeper Clustering Gatekeeper clustering provides redundancy for zones in the event of a GK failure. When a device registers with its GK. and RRJ. All rights reserved. ARJ. Washington GKTMP Messages ACF (Admission Confirm) ARJ (Admission Reject) ARQ (Admission Request) BCF (Bandwidth Confirm) BRJ (Bandwidth Reject) BRQ (Bandwidth Request) DRQ (Disengage Request) IRR (Information Request) LCF (Location Confirm) LRJ (Location Reject) LRQ (Location Request) RIP (Request In Progress) RAI (Resource Availability Indication) RCF (Registration Confirm) RRJ (Registration Reject) RRQ (Registration Request) URQ (Unregistration Request) Some messages are only sent as a response from the external application. and UQ. Redundancy and Availability Now that we have covered the basic and advanced GK functions. RCF. Clusters can have up to five GKs per clusters. BCF. . The GRQ contains the alternate GK information. The GK sends the following messages as requests: DRQ. BRJ. The GK opens TCP connections to all cluster members. unsolicited URQs to unregister an endpoint from a GK. so alternative methods must be engineered. Also. Most networks contain some kind of redundancy and availability to cope with network or device failures. When the GK starts. Please see page 63 for more details. let’s turn to ways to keep your network resources available for users. Here are a few ways to help with this task.323 allows multiple GKs to control a single zone.

CPU utilization. or when a new endpoint registers. all GKs within the zone know about all endpoints within the cluster. endpoint load. The GK will terminate the GUP connection with the sender. which helps with LRQs. n © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Local Zone Clustering zone cluster local cluster-name local-zone-name GUP Messages GUP uses messages to help exchange control and management information within the cluster. or when an endpoint unregisters. number of active calls. The GK updates information on call capacity. Here are the messages and when they are used: n Remote Zone Clustering zone cluster remote cluster name [cost cost-value [priority priority-value]] [foreign-domain][invia inbound-gatekeeper] | [outvia outbound gatekeeper] AnnouncementIndication—Sent every 30 seconds by default. This publication is protected by copyright. The GK’s CPU utilization and memory are used for resource management. Please see page 63 for more details. Specify devices to participate in with local or remote zone element gatekeeper-name ip-address [port]. AnnouncementReject—Sent if a configuration mismatch exists. One of the important things to remember about clustering is that all GKs share registered endpoint information. GK memory. by all cluster members. All rights reserved. Therefore. memory usage. UnregistrationIndication—Sent when a GK is down or an endpoint is aged out. and the number of endpoints registered.[ 21 ] GATEKEEPER TRANSACTION MESSAGES PROTOCOL (GKTMP) CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. it asks the endpoint to use another GK with the lowest resources used. The information included is available and used bandwidth. n n n RegistrationIndication—Sent when a connection is made with a new alternate GK. . ResourceIndication—Sent when the GW sends the GK an RAI message. Washington Gatekeeper Update Protocol GUP is used to pass information between GKs in a cluster. If the GK is overloaded. CPU load. and number of registered endpoints received from the sending GK.

0.0.0 Standby 2 ip 75. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.3 as their GK IP. must be identical** standby 2 timers 5 15 ! ! **Infantry config** Hostname Infantry-GK Interface Ethernet 0 ip address 75. Hello packets are multicast (224.0. it is your default GW. this is achieved by setting up a virtual IP address instead of using the real IP of the device.0. The primary GK is in active mode (accepts new requests). You may skip adding the authentication command. This publication is protected by copyright. and the secondary GK is in standby mode (waiting for the active GK to fail). This will provide backup in the event of device failure. and Cisco routers automatically select the virtual MAC address.0. HSRP uses UDP port 1985.0. a virtual MAC address. and a minimum of two devices that belong to this newly created group.0.0.0.0. HSRP allows devices on your network to reach a secondary GW. Please see page 63 for more details.0.0.[ 22 ] HOT STANDBY ROUTER PROTOCOL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. In the voice world. router. For those of you from the data arena.1 255. **unencrypted authentication standby 2 authentication pepsi string.0 standby 2 ip 75. Cisco recommends using clustering with GKs. virtual **Not recommended for GKs** **highest priority will become active. creates group 2.0. All rights reserved. which maintains state information. Basic HSRP has a virtual IP address.2 255. or GK if the primary cannot be communicated with.0. Example: Basic Two-GK HSRP Configuration **Calvary config** hostname Calvary-GK interface Ethernet 0 ip address 75. HSRP has different levels of complexity and protection. .0. it can be your GK or GW. We will look at the minimum commands needed to enable HSRP. you are probably already overly familiar with HSRP.3 Standby preempt Standby authentication pepsi Standby 2 timers 5 15 ! ! The devices on your network would be configured to use 75. Washington Hot Standby Router Protocol The second method you might think of implementing is Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP). in the data world. The main point is that no state information is maintained when failure occurs. this was added to close any security holes on the GK. HSRP is recommend for GWs and directory GKs. You must know a few important things when implementing HSRP on your voice network.2). HSRP is invisible to the end user.0.3 IP** No standby 2 preempt standby 2 priority 110 default is 100** **enables HSRP.

show gatekeeper zone status Shows zone and configuration values. Make sure the GK service has been defined. or mismatched values.164 prefixes are routed to which zones. show gatekeeper gw-type-prefix Shows GWs that have registered with a tech prefix and how the GK treats the tech prefixes. show gatekeeper cluster Shows which cluster are configured. The key to any verification process is to know which commands to use and then look at the output slowly line by line. problems can arise at any time during the life of your network. show gatekeeper endpoints Shows which GWs are registered with the GK. All rights reserved.com. Issue no shutdown under the GK configuration. errors. The same philosophy is at play here. You can use a number of Cisco IOS commands to check your configurations for typos. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. refer to http://www. 3. show gatekeeper status Shows GK status (authorization and authentication) and zone status. . Here are some of the main commands to use first: n n n n n n Problem Resolutions for Gatekeepers Even with the most detailed planning. 2. Is your GK working as expected? If your GK shows no endpoints registered or your endpoints cannot locate a GK. Will give information based on GK RAS messages. Verification can provide some quality control and assist with resolving issues. Please see page 63 for more details. n n n show gatekeeper zone prefix Shows which E. I will assume that you are familiar with the Cisco ideology on troubleshooting. Check your GK and domain names for typos. and quality checks. it is good practice to make sure everything is configured correctly.cisco. show gatekeeper calls Shows active calls GK is aware of.[ 23 ] HOT STANDBY ROUTER PROTOCOL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. If you need a more complex configuration or more information. This publication is protected by copyright. clear h323 gatekeeper statistics Resets statistics period. you need to check your GK configuration: 1. Verifying Gatekeeper Functions After going through the lengthy process of setting up your network. step-by-step implementation. show gatekeeper performance statistics Shows information on accepted and rejected calls. Washington Note This example is a simple HSRP configuration. Associated command is clear h323 gatekeeper statistics.

SCCP. to a few hundred lines for the more complex configurations. sausage. Washington Voice Gateways The GW is probably one of the most important devices on a VoIP network. Here are a few that we discuss: H. you have your pizza. Call control and call routing Call setup and teardown Complexity with H. dial planner. We need to face the facts. The moral of this is that to ensure proper functionality. All of this depends on the protocol your company decides to implement. SIP. and anchovies (although you will probably have heartburn afterward). H. . know exactly what you are adding to your network. the majority of configurations are located on the GWs.323. it should be considered mandatory. and MGCP. Your configuration can be as little as a few lines for an easy configuration. Please see page 63 for more details. the choice depends on your needs. Imagine the protocol available as a pizzeria. It must take into consideration the special needs of the network and how your GWs will function.323 was built to use TCP/IP and take advantage of its robustness. The next major point to consider is the number of options that most of the commands offer to further fine-tune the network to the required specs. for instance). GWs. You can implement GWs with just a few commands on the end devices. others support many connection lines. Gateways act as the translator between different types of networks. Cisco offers a few different platforms for GWs. depending on the requirements of your network. In the end.323 H. and connectivity director to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and voice/data networks. This is the same as with your voice network: adding or changing functions and options add to the heartburn. The other functions GWs provide include the following: n n Protocol selection is an important process. there are many pizza places to order from.323 is a complex protocol from its inception. security enforcer.[ 24 ] VOICE GATEWAYS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. The components in H. You can choose to add sardines. All rights reserved. Some support only a few connection lines. There are lesscomplex protocols (SIP. This publication is protected by copyright. The process of setting up a GW can be either extremely easy or very complex depending on what functionality the network needs. multipoint control units (MCU). the protocol was built to accomplish a job. mushrooms. Although the use of a GW is an option on a network. Gateways come in analog or digital.323 are terminals. you really do not have a real network. Protocols Used by Gateways Gateways can use a few of the main VoIP protocols on the scene today. and GKs. Gateways at the most basic level route calls to the PSTN or network depending on the destination of the call. Does the place offer delivery or only take-out? Think of the options as if you are ordering a pizza. So. If you do not use them. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.

. Please see page 63 for more details.7 Simple Gateway Life IP In the preceding diagram. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.8 GW-to-GW dating This diagram shows a more complex GW network with a connection to another GW and a PBX. This publication is protected by copyright. FIGURE 1. the GW is not connected to another GW or GK.[ 25 ] VOICE GATEWAYS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. All rights reserved. Washington IP IP IP IP Gateway Bragg V NYC IP Gateway Bragg Chicago Gateway V Benning V FIGURE 1.

you can use GWs in a variety of network layouts. and terminate calls. unicast. Washington V V As you can tell from these diagrams. SIP can be used by other VoIP protocols to start. the server (user agent server) provides the service and sends a response. or a proxy. how many devices it is communicating with. It is built on the client/server model. FIGURE 1. or multiple ports. a single port. The client (user agent client) sends the invites. SIP uses multicast. RFC 2543 defines SIP as a signaling protocol for creating. Proxy servers (user agents) act like both a client and a server.[ 26 ] VOICE GATEWAYS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. V Session Initiation Protocol IP V V IP IP Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a simple protocol that uses TCP or UDP. it makes requests for others. and terminating Internet multimedia or Internet telephony sessions. These requests are handled by the proxy or sent to another server to fulfill the request. modifying. or a combination of the two for communications. This publication is protected by copyright. . Keep in mind that these connections can be over a single interface. The only difference is who the GW connects to.9 The Nightmare © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. server. SIP can interoperate with other VoIP protocols on devices that allow this. All rights reserved. locate. and how many commands you need to configure to accomplish it. Please see page 63 for more details. All devices on this type of network are a client. multiple interfaces.

SIP can be used for connections to the PSTN. . Please see page 63 for more details.5 | 714555@sm4. This publication is protected by copyright. The format is host @ network address or domain. All rights reserved. including the following: n n n n n n n SIP Call Flow Setup INVITE Call Proceeding Setup 100 Trying Call Proceeding Alerting 180 Ringing Alerting Fax support Call transfer Endpoint locating Conferencing Media capability determinations Dynamic endpoint registration Toll bypass 1-Way Voice 2-Way RTP Channel 1-Way Voice Connect 200 OK Connect Connect ACK ACK 2-Way Voice 2-Way RTP Channel 2-Way Voice Disconnect BYE Disconnect Release 200 OK Release Complete Release Complete FIGURE 1.1. When a SIP client needs to locate a server. voicemail. and application servers.10 SIP Call Flow © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Washington SIP URL addresses follow the user-at-host style (Brion@Wash. SIP offers a variety of services that many companies could find useful.1.com | Brion@1. SIP addresses must be unique.com).[ 27 ] VOICE GATEWAYS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. it does so by the server IP and port number in the Request URI or the locally configured proxy server.

Washington SIP Server SIP Call steps using a single SIP redirect server: 1. UAC IP 2. All rights reserved. 4. SIP Server A-1 SIP Server B-1 Call steps on a single-proxy-server network: 1.12 Call Steps to a Remote Network © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. 2. The redirect server ask the location server to find the path for the SIP called party. Please see page 63 for more details. 7. The request is sent via the SIP server (proxy or redirect). 4. The calling party sends an invite to the redirect server. V User A V User B FIGURE 1. The calling party sends an acknowledgment of receipt to the V PBX PSTN redirect server. The called party responds. 5. 5. 3. RTP 3. The redirect server sends information to the calling party. The calling party sends a request to the called party. This publication is protected by copyright. The server forwards an invite to the called party. The end user registers with a registrar server. . The called party responds. FIGURE 1. The server forwards the called party’s response to the calling IP IP party.[ 28 ] VOICE GATEWAYS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. The call is initiated by caller. An RTP session is finally opened.11 Simple SIP Network 6.

4xx: Client Error—The request contains bad syntax or cannot be done on this server. . 2. BYE—Terminates a call. Please see page 63 for more details. Washington 1. CANCEL—Cancels pending searches.[ 29 ] VOICE GATEWAYS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Proxy server A-1 contacts proxy server B-1. 4. 5xx: Server Error—The server failed to fulfill the request. REGISTER—Registers the address with a server. User A sends an invite to proxy server A-1. SIP GW and SIP endpoint create RTP session. 2xx: Success—The action was successful. 6xx: Global Failure—The request cannot be fulfilled at any server. call that is currently in progress continues. SIP works by using simple messages to communicate. SIP request types: n n n n n n The location server could also be used to locate User B. The location server could also be used here. proxy A-1. Connection to a PSTN: 1. An RTP session is established between User A and User B. 3. INVITE—Invites to participate in a call. 3xx: Redirection—Further action needed. All steps are repeated. This publication is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. POTS signaling is translated into SIP messages. The SIP message format: n n n n n n n n A start line One or more header fields An empty line A message body (optional) © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. OPTIONS—Queries the capabilities of servers. processing the request. DNS is used by ACK—Confirms the client has received a response to the INVITE request. 5. 3. Proxy server B-1 contacts user B. 2. Here are the messages: n n 1xx: Informational—Received request. User A and User B trade responses and acknowledgments.

You can use this protocol between H. like other VoIP protocols.323 GWs. Call agents are the external control devices. Endpoints are voice ports on GWs controlled by MGCP. a secure token-based signature is used to certify that the call is authorized.323 GKs. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. accounting. MGCP. The next components are call agents. IP phones must be configured with the IP address of the default GW and the IP address of a TFTP server and must have an IP address for SCCP to work. The server creates a secure link for the transfer of information. The purpose of OSP is to manage access control. and interdomain routing. Open Settlement Protocol The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Project TIPHON (Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks) Open Settlement Protocol (OSP) provides a way for VoIP service providers to use services provided by OSP clearinghouses. If changes are made. They are endpoints and call agents. has components that make up the network. Clearinghouses provide best route and least cost path selections based on subscriber requirements. Washington Skinny Client Control Protocol Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) is a Cisco proprietary VoIP protocol used for communications between Cisco CallManagers and IP phones. H. and usage information. The call agents contain all of your dial plans. Cisco CallManager uses MGCP on UDP port 2427 to communicate with GWs. you can realize large. it uses TCP to communicate with the CallManager and UDP between the endpoints. Skinny has a reduced overhead because most of the processing happens on the CallManager. scalable VoIP environments.[ 30 ] OPEN SET TLEMENT PROTOCOL CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Skinny has a simple architecture. . RFC 2705 defines this protocol as a master/slave arch. When the link is established. most of your configuration is done on a few devices while others have bare configurations. softswitches. authorization. Please see page 63 for more details. and SIP proxies. Media Gateway Control Protocol Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) is a simple VoIP text protocol used to control GWs. they are made in one area rather than multiple areas. This publication is protected by copyright. This client/server protocol is used to exchange accounting. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is used to provide secure services. where call control devices take a specific port on a GW under control. Therefore. This protocol offers centralized GW administration. All rights reserved. When centralized administration is used.

1.323 interface: GW1(config-if)# h323-gateway voip configuration mode interface **under interface Configuring SIP User Agents Setting up SIP is extremely easy: 1. Washington Getting a Gateway Up and Running with H. Enable SIP.323 To set up a functional GW with GK support.323 ID: GW1(config-if)# h323-gateway voip h323-id 2.5. . Create the H.com This command manually sets up connections to other control devices (GW or GK).323 CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Set up alternate SIP servers (optional). Create the H.323 ID for the device. 3. Set up GK and GW registration: GW1(config)# gateway Example: Gateway Interface Configuration interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 5. This ID is used on the network for identification and connectivity.50. Dial-peer voice 12 voip Session target sip-server © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.255.5. sip-ua sip-server ipv4:75. 4. follow these steps: 1.1.[ 31 ] GET TING A GATEWAY UP AND RUNNING WITH H. Set up dial peers.1 1719 h323-gateway voip h323-id GW-1 2.69 This command assigns a unique H. Please see page 63 for more details. This publication is protected by copyright. Manually configure GK information (optional): GW1(config-if)# port h323-gateway voip id (name) ipaddr or IP address sip-server dns:my-sip.75.255.128 h323-gateway voip interface h323-gateway voip id Gk-Infantry ipaddr 75. You may leave out this command if you need only a basic GW. All rights reserved.98 255. 3.

DSPs provide the most important job of anything on the network. and which platform the card will work in. this seems like the logical place to start tuning resources to your requirements. Cisco has an extensive list of products that can and do provide voice support. and dial peer. The voice card naming convention will give you an idea of how many calls it can support. there are bound to be tons of options for fine-tuning. This guide does not cover any of the actual cards specifically. port. Let’s go over the resources that DSPs provide to Cisco voice networks. Select the voice card. Voice Card Codec Options Because the voice card is where the DSPs are located. your voice channels available will decrease. . Washington Advanced Gateway Options Media Resources Digital signal processors (DSP) are the heart of any VoIP network. DSP Codec Functions If the DSP is the heart of the network. Enter the codec complexity you want: GW-1(config) # voice-card 1 GW-1(config-voicecard) # codec complexity [high | medium | flex] ** Flex is available on C5510 DSP** © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Please see page 63 for more details. Codec configuration can be divided into four groupings: global. they would not be able to provide voice support. 2. all is for naught. If your network is set up 100 percent correctly. There are many codec flavors to choose from. The higher the complexity. it can be said that codecs are the blood. There are quite a few types and configurations of cards. The main components are the voice cards. With so many choices for codecs. Codec complexity is a compression technique that states the amount of processing required for voice compression. All rights reserved. When you are using high complexity. but you have a bad DSP located at the beginning or end of a voice path. This publication is protected by copyright. without having this hardware. DSPs are where the encoding and decoding of your voice between analog and digital devices takes place. All Cisco voice products have some sort of DSPs. Steps required: 1. They encode and decode incoming analog signals into digital signals and vice versa. Voice cards are what hold the DSP and are made to fit any voice platform. it uses general terms and hardware.[ 32 ] ADVANCED GATEWAY OPTIONS MEDIA RESOURCES CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. the fewer number of calls the DSP can process. voice card.

We go over dial peers in more detail later.82. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details.245 negotiation process. The codec command is entered under dial-peer configuration.T codec g723r63 session target ipv4:18. so this is just to give you an idea of where the codec command fits: Dial-peer dial-peer voice 417001 voip destination-pattern 417[4.6-9]. Washington The dial peer uses the codec command to specify which codec to use.12 Assign voice class to dial peer: GW-1(config)# dial-peer voice 50 voip GW-1(config-dial-peer)# voice-class codec 1 GW-1# Show running-config **all output removed except voice class and dial peer voice class codec 1 codec preference 1 g729r8 codec preference 2 g729br8 codec preference 3 g723r63 codec preference 4 g723r53 codec preference 5 g723ar63 codec preference 6 g723ar53 codec preference 7 g711ulaw codec preference 8 g711alaw ! ! dial-peer voice 50 voip description My_house [402] destination-pattern 402. you may configure a global class to handle all the negotiations not specifically configured under individual dial peers. If this is your preference. The global command voice class codec enables you to configure the preference of codec once for any dial peers you want to associate: GW-1(config)# voice class codec 1 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 1 g729r8 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 2 g729br8 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 3 g723r63 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 4 g723r53 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 5 g723ar63 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 6 g723ar53 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 7 g711ulaw GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 8 g711alaw © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.T voice-class codec 1 session target ras ! You might also decide to just let the two parties involved negotiate the codec used during the H. .16. All rights reserved.[ 33 ] ADVANCED GATEWAY OPTIONS MEDIA RESOURCES CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.

The voice GW uses SCCP to communicate with the Cisco CallManager. Enable DSP farming: GW-1(config)# dspfarm Configuring Conferencing and Transcoding This section covers how to configure the two likely DSP types you will find on the exam. This publication is protected by copyright. Enable SCCP: GW-1(config)# sccp 2. NM-HDV (C549) setup: 1. These profiles allow control of resources and let the GW register with multiple CallManager groups. the same can be said about VoIP communications. The two types are C549. Set up the SCCP interface: GW-1(config)# sccp local interface 2. 4. 1. Set up the SCCP interface: GW-1(config)# sccp local interface 7.[ 34 ] TRANSCODING AND CONFERENCING CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Set up the CallManager IP: GW-1(config)# sccp ccm ipaddr [priority priority-level] 3. or the C5510. Set up the CallManager IP: GW-1(config)# sccp ccm ipaddr identifier identifier [version ccm version] © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Set the number of sessions: GW-1(config)# dspfarm confbridge maximum sessions number GW-1(config)# dspfarm transcoder maximum sessions number 6. which controls the DSP farm. All rights reserved. Washington Transcoding and Conferencing What would the world be like without the ability to talk to multiple people simultaneously? Would the United Nations General Assembly be able to resolve global problems if there were no translators on staff? Well. Please see page 63 for more details. Configure the voice card for conferencing and transcoding sessions: GW-1(config-voicecard)# dsp services dspfarm 5. found on Network Modules (NM). Media resources is the term for DSPs responsible for providing the resources to handle conferencing and transcoding. . found on the Packet Voice DSP Modules (PVDM). Set up the resources for conferencing and transcoding on CallManager. Setting Up Enhanced Conferencing and Transcoding (C5510) Enhanced conferencing and transcoding enables you to create multiple profiles.

Configure the voice card for conferencing and transcoding sessions: GW-1(config)# voice-card 0 GW-1(config-voicecard)# dsp services dspfarm 8. All rights reserved. Please see page 63 for more details.[ 35 ] TRANSCODING AND CONFERENCING CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Set up the DSP farm profile for transcoding: GW-1(config)# dspfarm profile profile transcode **profile is a number range of 1 to 65535 GW-1(config-dsp-profile)#associate application sccp GW-1(config-dsp-profile)#maximum sessions number GW-1(config-dsp-profile)#no shutdown 9. This publication is protected by copyright. Set up the DSP farm profile for conferencing: GW-1(config)# dspfarm profile profile conference **profile is a number range of 1 to 65535 GW-1(config-dsp-profile)#associate application sccp GW-1(config-dsp-profile)#maximum sessions number GW-1(config-dsp-profile)#no shutdown 7. . Washington 3. Set up resources in CallManager. Initialize SCCP: GW-1(config)# sccp GW-1(config-dsp-profile)# associate application sccp GW-1(config-dsp-profile)# maximum sessions {hardware | software} sessions GW-1(config-dsp-profile)# no shutdown 4. Associate profiles with CallManager groups: GW-1(config)# sccp ccm group number GW-1(config-sccp-ccm)# associate ccm identifier priority priority GW-1(config-sccp-ccm)# associate profile profile register devicename **profile is a number range of 1 to 65535 GW-1(config-sccp-ccm)# bind interface interface 5. Set up the DSP farm profile for MTP: GW-1(config)# dspfarm profile profile mtp **profile is a number range of 1 to 65535 © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. 6.

and some newer models echo cancellation modules. These modules support data and voice. Washington Drop and Insert Multiplexing The needs of modern businesses have made advances in options that networks provide.10 255. Now with a Voice WAN Interface Card (VWIC). . card type t1 0 0 ! no network-clock-participate wic 0 ! controller t1 0/0 framing esf linecode b8zs channel-group 1 timeslots 1-12 speed 64 tdm-group 2 timeslots 13-24 ! controller t1 0/1 framing esf linecode b8zs channel-group 1 timeslots 1-12 speed 64 tdm-group 2 timeslots 13-24 ! ! interface Serial0/0:1 ip address 75.255. Drop and insert hardware allows companies to buy a single network module. Example: Drop and Insert for T1 GW-3# show run Building configuration. Voice support can be used only for DS0 or PRI modes.0 ! interface Serial0/1:1 ip address 75.75. there is no need to pull the module out to adapt to network changes. When they install the VWICs..255. Cisco devices can offer a better value for companies by requiring only a single module to be purchased. others in the form of hardware. One of these is drop and insert multiplexing.0. they can do both data and voice simultaneously.0 ! connect t1-xconnect T1 0/0 2 T1 0/1 2 Insert between ports **configures Drop and **specify group slots **VWIC won’t use network timing **configures card type © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. The VWIC can help prevent issues from arising..[ 36 ] DROP AND INSERT MULTIPLEXING CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Please see page 63 for more details.255.0. After the module is in.75. All rights reserved.255. They include an integrated channel service unit / data service unit (CSU/DSU). This publication is protected by copyright.11 255. Some come in the form of protocols.

Washington Analog Connectivity Since the day the telephone was invented. Analog waves are converted by the phone into electrical signal to cross the network. An important part to remember is that analog uses CAS (Channel Associated Signaling). line is busy. . E&M is used in analog trunking. depending on what you require. We discuss the types of signaling you can use and how to get them working on Cisco GWs throughout the rest of this section. This publication is protected by copyright. and so on. CAS sends the control signaling on the same channel as the data. There are a few technologies that have been born in the analog communication world. more efficient signaling. Signals include information such as the phone is ringing. Please see page 63 for more details. 1 Used in the United States Used in the United States M lead connected to ground E lead open E and M lead open E lead to ground M lead to battery M lead connected to CO E lead to PBX ground M lead to CO battery E lead to ground N/A M lead to PBX ground E lead to ground 2 3 Older signaling M lead to CO ground E lead open N/A E and M open 4 5 Not supported by Cisco Used in the United States and Europe © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. E&M performs the on-hook and off-hook signaling to confirm when the handset is picked up or put down. Signaling is the call control messages sent between devices on the PSTN.[ 37 ] ANALOG CONNECTIVIT Y CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. All rights reserved. or for inter-PBX. as described in the following table. incoming call. These are the connections between central office switches and private branch exchange (PBX). Signaling of the handle’s on-hook and off-hook helps reduce the chance of two people picking up the phone at the same time. as discussed in the following subsections. Some of the older signaling types have been mostly replaced be newer. E&M Most people in the telephony world have heard of Earth and Magnet. analog has been the method used by phones. it is converted back to analog at the destination. or Ear and Mouth (E&M). E&M comes in five variations. Type Information On-Hook Off-Hook Analog Signaling There are a few choices for analog signaling. Analog has been around for a long time.

Lead Description Pin Number Setting Up E&M Trunking E&M ports connect to PBXs. Audio Input / Output Tip. Washington E&M signaling connect PBXs using eight-wire circuits. Audio Input Signaling Output Signaling Ground 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Select voice port: GW-2(config)# voice-port Voice-port 2/1/1 nm-module/vic-module/port-number Configure signaling: GW-2(config-voiceport)# signaling [delay-dial | immediate | winkstart] Configure interface type: GW-2(config-voiceport) # type [1 | 2 | 3 | 5] ** Type 4 is not supported on Cisco devices Configure country code: GW-2(config-voiceport) # country country code © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.[ 38 ] ANALOG CONNECTIVIT Y CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. . Audio Input / Output Tip. Please see page 63 for more details. All rights reserved. so you must configure the port to match the PBX brand you are using: n n n n n Call progress tone Impedance Operation Signal type Type SB M R R1 T1 T E SG -48V signaling battery Signaling input Ring. Audio Input Ring. The breakdown of the wire is four wires for signaling and two or four wires for the voice. This publication is protected by copyright. as shown in the following table. Each wire has a different responsibility.

These devices can be a telephone. Ports provide connection to analog and digital devices. FXS. and power. FXS and FXO ports signal [loop-start | ground-start] Voice Ports The most basic connection type is the port. This publication is protected by copyright. . dial-type [dtmf | pulse | mf] Configure PBX termination impedance: GW-2(config-voiceport) # impedance [600c | 600r | 900c | complex1 | complex2] ring number Number of rings. supervisory disconnect Enables supervisory disconnect signal. Without these ports. PBX. The ports you need to be familiar with are FXO. You can configure a few options for FXS ports. no communications would take place. FXS ports must supply voltage. supervisory disconnect FXS Ports FXS ports connect your telephones and fax machines to your GW. The commands used are as follows: description Sets description for the port. and DID. These ports must provide the same functionality as PBXs. Washington Configure cabling to use: GW-2(config-voiceport) # operation [ 2 wire | 4 wire] dial-type Type of out signaling to use for port. IP phone. cptone [locale] *** country location description Sets description for port. ring tone. and so on. description [description] © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.[ 39 ] ANALOG CONNECTIVIT Y CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. as follows: busyout Allows busyout of port. All rights reserved. The FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) is what your analog devices are connected to. description [description] cptone Sets call-progress tone for country. ring number number signal Type of signaling for port. busyout FXO Ports FXO ports connect GWs to the PBX. The FXO (Foreign Exchange Office) is connected to the PSTN. The FXO and FXS are the ports used in VoIP. These connections to the port act like telephones connected to the PBX. Please see page 63 for more details. fax.

callerid connection Specifies connection type. Cisco GWs can be outfitted with a variety of modules and cards for connection to almost any type of network connection. ring frequency [frequency] signal Type of signaling for port. ring cadence {pattern-number | define pulse interval} Set up direct inward dial: Direct-inward-dial ring frequency Sets ring frequency. All rights reserved.[ 40 ] ANALOG CONNECTIVIT Y CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. When you call an office. Configure POTS dial peer: dial-peer voice 34 pots callerid Enables caller ID. or the PBX can bypass the operator and perform the task itself. only few modules support it. The next point is DID works on incoming calls only. Washington disconnect-ack Removes line power. and returns acknowledgment of disconnect signal. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 63 for more details. FXS and FXO ports signal [loop-start | ground-start] Digital Connections to the PSTN The voice gateway needs to interface with an assortment of devices over various connections. The key points to remember about DID is Cisco offers limited support for DID functionality. station id number [number] n © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. The connections can range from small trunks’ DS0 to DS-3. disconnect-ack DID It allows calls to bypass an operator. connection {plar | tie-line | plar-opx} digits | {trunk digits [answer-mode]} ring cadence Sets ring cadence (cptone overrides this command). station id name[name] ISDN PRI ISDN BRI station id number Caller ID information sent to caller. The main connections you must have knowledge of and be able to configure are as follows: n E&M ports signal {wink-start | immediate | delay-dial | lmr} station id name Caller ID information sent to caller. you can either ask the human operator to connect you to the extension. Gateways without connections are not of much use to a network. . All the connections have the same purpose: to provide a travel medium and connectivity to other devices.

Associate the dial list. ISDN comes in two configurations: Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Basic Rate Interface (BRI). or companies to the PSTN. GW-1(config-controller)# clock source line secondary 1 GW-1(config-controller)# pri-group timeslots 1-24 © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. . GW-1(config)# isdn switch-type basic-5ess ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a digital transport technology used to connect small office. 2. The Data channel (D channel) is responsible for transporting control protocols. 5. Configure SPIDs (optional).5.544 Mbps for T1 and 2. 2. 3. Configure the D channel. The Bearer channel (B channel) is the channel that data uses to move across the network. GW-1(config)# isdn switch-type primary-5ess GW-1(config)# controller T1 1 GW-1(config-controller)# GW-1(config-controller)# framing esf linecode b8zs BRI Configuration 1. ISDN is a circuit switching technology composed of two types of channels. GW-1(config)# dialer-list 2 protocol ip permit GW-1(config)# int bri 0 GW-1(config-if)# ip address 5. 6.6.[ 41 ] ANALOG CONNECTIVIT Y CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Create a dial map. home office (SOHO). Configure the controller (T1-E1). Configure the BRI.255. Configure the ISDN switch type.128 GW-1(config-if)# isdn spid1 74798964631312 8884710 GW-1(config-if)# isdn spid1 74798964631315 8884714 GW-1(config-if)# dialer-group 2 PRI Configuration 1. The method of sending call control messages over a different channel than the D channel is known as Common Channel Signaling (CCS). Configure the ISDN switch type. This publication is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Washington n n n Analog CAS Drop and Insert 4.048 Mbps for E1. PRI is a DS1 that has a capacity of 1. Configure the IP address.12 255. Please see page 63 for more details. BRI has a capacity of between 54 kbps and 128 kbps.255. 3.

cisco. ISDN cause codes are present in numerous voice and ISDN command outputs. The show isdn status command displays Layer 1 through Layer 3 information. or to resolve issues that pop up. GW-5(config)# controller T1 0 GW-5(config-controller)# framing esf GW-5(config-controller)# clock source line primary GW-5(config-controller)# linecode b8zs GW-5(config-controller)#ds0-group 0 timeslots 1-24 type fxo-groundstart Now that we have ISDN BRI and PRI set up. All rights reserved. Syntax: ds0-group ds0-group-number timeslots timeslot-list type {e&m-delay-dial | e&m-fgd | e&m-immediate-start | e&m-winkstart | fxs-ground-start | fxs-loop-start | fxo-ground-start | fxo-loopstart} © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. This publication is protected by copyright. Also. we turn our attention to verification and troubleshooting.[ 42 ] ANALOG CONNECTIVIT Y CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. all channels are still available for carrying the data. You can use some good commands to help verify your configuration. CAS is also known as robbed-bit signaling. Washington D-Channel Configuration GW-1(config)# interface Serial1:23 GW-1(config-if)# no ip address GW-1(config-if)# isdn switch-type primary-5ess GW-1(config-if)# isdn incoming-voice modem GW-1(config-if)# isdn send-alerting CAS Configuration Channel associated signaling is sent over the same channels as the data/voice.com. . you need to check your connection. You can find an extensive list of ISDN cause codes at www. It is used primarily with PBXs over E1 or T1 lines. because some of the bits used to carry data information are robbed for signaling purposes. Although some bits are stolen for signaling. check to make sure MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED is present. If status is not active. Please see page 63 for more details. One extremely vital area of ISDN is the cause codes.

data protection. CEoIP has a few optional features. Washington Circuit Emulation Circuit Emulation over IP (CEoIP) is an end-to-end circuit emulation service for time-sensitive data over an IP network. This transparent transport is used by applications that need a constant bit rate. When and why you should use CEoIP: n n n n n or GW-5 (config-controller)# framing {crc4 | no-crc4 | unframed} framing **E1 GW-5 (config-controller)# clock source {internal | line | adaptive channel-number} GW-5 (config-controller)# cablelength {long | short} {attenuation | length} GW-5 (config-controller)# crc-threshold value GW-5 (config-controller)# description text GW-5 (config-controller)# loopback{local {line | payload} | network} Automated industrial environments Crypto tunneling Legacy services and applications Radar data Satellite data Creating CEM channels on the T1/E1 line: GW-5 (config-controller)# timeslots timeslot [speed {56 | 64}]} cem-group group-number {unframed | Configuring the connection using xconnect: GW-5(config)# cem slot/port/channel GW-5(config-cem)# encapsulation encapsulation-type GW-5(config-cem-xconnect)# local ip address ip-address GW-5(config-cem-xconnect)# local udp port port-number GW-5(config-cem-xconnect)# remote udp port port-number xconnect remote-ip-address virtual-connect-ID Configuring CEoIP Configuring the NM-CEM-4TE1 card: GW-5# configure terminal GW-5(config) # card type {t1 | e1} slot Configuring the T1 /E1: GW-5 (config) # controller {t1 | e1} slot/port GW-5 (config-controller)# framing {esf | sf | unframed} framing **T1 © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. and payload compression. This publication is protected by copyright. such as CAS. . The endpoints can use adaptive clocking to sync the clocks.[ 43 ] CIRCUIT EMUL ATION CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Please see page 63 for more details. All rights reserved.

Modem pass-through uses the same transparent connection. with no Voice Activity Detection (VAD). converted to TIFF. and then sends it to the remote fax machine. On-ramp GWs do the conversions and sending of faxes. T. . To save bandwidth. The document is scanned.6 kbps. expenses can be high for longdistance faxing. no conversions take place.37 is by way of GWs. Modem Pass-Through This method is like fax pass-through except there are modems at both ends of the connection. The supported protocols are H.323. MGCP. and is less sensitive to jitter and clocking issues than modem pass-through. It treats the fax like a voice call with no special fax capabilities. A key point to know is why a fax cannot be treated like a normal call. Fax Pass-Through This method uses a transparent IP connection to transport the fax. because otherwise the GW will miss the fax signaling and continue to treat the call as a normal voice call. with no VAD. Modem relay is a method built to deal with overhead.711. MGCP. SPRT uses the UDP protocol. It uses Simple Packet Relay Transport (SPRT) to transport modem signals over IP.323. Modem Relay Cisco Fax Relay This Cisco proprietary protocol was created to send faxes over a VoXX network. Each of them was developed for specific situations.37 uses Multi-Media over IP (MMoIP) dial peers.37 is the way to send faxes across your network like email attachments.37 Fax Store and Forward T.323. and SIP. Washington Faxing The same reasons for running voice over data are the same reasons for faxing over data. T. and then sent to a receiver’s email address using Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). There are a few ways to get that important fax across a voice network. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. The Cisco way of implementing T. In this mode. The codec used is G. This publication is protected by copyright. Although faxing probably does not take as long to complete as a phone conversation. and supports H. All rights reserved. it uses 9. The supported protocols are H. converts the signal back to its original form. and G. and SIP. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) applications are used for on-ramp and off-ramp functions. and SIP. Please see page 63 for more details. MGCP. the off-ramp GWs are where the messages are received or held until forwarded. The SPRT GW converts analog to digital. When a fax comes into the GW. it cannot be treated like a normal voice call. The DSP acts like a virtual fax machine.711.[ 44 ] FA XING CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.

This means that you do not need to compile anything to use it. there is an industry standard.cisco. The supported protocols are H. Please see page 63 for more details.38 is the industry standard for fax relay. Next. Configure Auto Attendant. Describe usage (billing. The main difference is that T. . and then there is the Cisco way. T. you’ll be able to narrow down the extensive list of things you’re able to do and concentrate on only a few things. You need to make sure your Cisco IOS release supports this functionality.cisco. you can use extension sets to augment commands.pl/ip-iostsp © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. AAA). Download Tcl Downloading the Tcl software is fairly simple. you need a CCO login to download Tcl from http://www. Tcl Scripts Tool Command Language (Tcl) is an interpreted scripting language. On the GWGK exam. If more advanced or specialized functions are required.38 Fax Relay Like all things in life. Washington T. and SIP. radius.pl/tclware http://www.38 GW on both ends of the connection. Well. What you need to do for your exam is as follows: n n n Download Tcl scripts. The two ways are similar. This protocol uses VoIP dial peers.com: http://www.38 needs to have a T. The language provides a set of commands that give the basic functions.38 allows faxing to virtual fax machines compatible with T.323. but T. Cisco has created an extension set for IVR functionality.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.cisco. You can accomplish a lot of things when you have access to a scripting language. All rights reserved.38. This publication is protected by copyright. MGCP.[ 45 ] TCL SCRIPTS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild. A Tcl IVR script is activated when a call comes into the GW.

© 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. 2.75. 2. Plan the call flow. how many queues do you have? You must make routing decisions. You can also use Auto Attendant to provide information and help to begin problem resolution. When calls come in.75. the Auto Attendant can provide a greeting. 1. You must consider options to offer callers. This publication is protected by copyright.tar flash: Configure Dial Peers Call Flow Design You must determine how to handle incoming calls. Washington Get scripts from a TFTP server: archive tar /xtract tftp://75. 5. Uncompress files in privilege mode: GW-4# archive tar /xtract tftp://75.240/cmeyourscript. 3. Choose a name for the call-queue service. You configure Auto Attendant in a three-step process: 1.10. 2. Download the audio files and Tcl scripts. When a call comes in.100. Customize your prompts. Configure incoming dial peers.[ 46 ] TCL SCRIPTS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Decide how many authentication. 7. Download files to a TFTP server accessible by CallManager. 4.tar flash: 3. Choose the number and type of call routing (menu) options. Choose a name and pilot number to use by every AA application. 6. . authorization (AA) applications dial-peer voice 44 pots service my_cool_script incoming called-number 40255511 port 1/1/0 are needed. Set up call-retry parameters. followed by prompts to help direct the call to the right group. Please see page 63 for more details. All rights reserved. Choose where to send unanswered calls or full-queue calls. Auto Attendant Auto Attendant is configuring your CallManager or CallManager Express to auto-answer incoming calls.240/cme-mytcl. Download the Audio Files and Tcl Scripts 1.

With interprotocol networking. and session border controller. Company A is a small company of five employees. interprotocol networking. When a WVR terminates calls between two other WVRs. the GWs in the middle do not. Billing can be simplified with the addition of IPIPGWs. IPIPGWs offer services such as video support. 3. Company A buys a route from Company D to Chicago. All rights reserved. They would like to enter the wholesale VoIP / ITSP market. and H. H. you translate one type of VoIP protocol used by the calling party into a different protocol used by the called party. address hiding. H. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. 2. Please see page 63 for more details. The originating and terminating GWs see the call setup and release messages. . IPIPGW can hide IP addresses of your service providers from customers.13 WVR Example 1. Another functionality of these types of GWs is the capability to support video calls. kind of like “tomayto or tomahto. The reason I say this is your company can now offer more destinations to clients without the fear of clients acquiring the destinations from your service provider. the middleman misses out on billing opportunities because it does not control the terminating PSTN GW.323 or SIP and require special Cisco IOS (IPIPGW Image) software to perform these functions. making your network look larger than it actually is.” It’s all in how you perceive them. Company A is assigned a tech prefix of 333313# by Company D. This type of address hiding is widely used by wholesale VoIP companies. Company A buys a Cisco MultiService Gateway. This publication is protected by copyright.261.[ 47 ] IP-TO-IP GATEWAY (IPIPGW ) CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Address hiding can be a useful tool to expand your company’s size without actually buying more equipment. There are many names used to refer to this type of device: IP-to-IP gateway. border element. Sometimes you need to bypass the PSTN and send VoIP between two VoIP networks. IPIPGWs work with H. IPIPGWs are used like other voice GWs in providing interprotocol networking. Video codecs supported are Far-End Camera Control (FECC).263. Washington IP-to-IP Gateway (IPIPGW) The main points you need to understand about IPIPGWs are the services they provide for your network and the key reasons they are not considered normal voice GWs. IPIPGW Company A V Chicago V Company Z V Company D FIGURE 1. Both WVRs and ITSPs basically do the same thing. Wholesale VoIP resellers (WVR) or Internet telephony service providers (ITSP) use this method to connect to other VoIP resellers. One of the main reasons for implementing this kind of connection is for billing. The following figure shows an example and the likely steps used to provide IPIPGW in a real-world VoIP network.264. and better billing capabilities.

without the need to have equipment located in every destination they want to offer. Any-to-POTS and POTS-to-any are enabled by default. Company Z has end users (callers) with family calling the Windy IPIPGW H. Company A’s IPIPGW strips off 55# and forwards digits with 2. Please see page 63 for more details. 6. Advantages Disadvantages By default. There are advantages and disadvantages to this style of business.[ 48 ] IP-TO-IP GATEWAY (IPIPGW ) CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. This publication is protected by copyright. Company A sells VoIP minutes to Company Z for calls to Chicago. Company Z is assigned a tech prefix of 55# by Company A.323 connections are disabled. Calls are sent to Company A’s IPIPGW IP address with a tech prefix of 55#. Company A now looks like a big WVR or ITSP. The tech prefixes are assigned only once. Centralized billing Centralized security Low investment to start up Unlimited growth potential No control of remote networks Limited quality of service support Test every new route Constantly changing providers © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Enter voice services configuration: GW-1(config)# voice services voip City. The only thing that will stay constant is the tech prefixes assigned. Specify allowed connections: GW-1(config-voi-serv)# allow connections [h323 | sip] to [h323 | sip] 333313# appended to Company D’s IPIPGW. Washington 4. when the first route is added. Call detail records (CDR) are checked on all minutes from Company A’s IPIPGW for billing. So. H. and remain the same throughout the business relationship. 7. 8. . All rights reserved. You can repeat Steps 2 through 8 as many times as necessary for each new route or company you add.323-to-H.323 or SIP Setup 1. 5.

you can get up and running with some basic configurations. Washington Advanced IPIPGW Commands Like any other technology.T voice-class codec 1 session target ras ! Assign the voice class to dial peers: GW-1(config)# dial-peer voice 50 voip GW-1(config-dial-peer)# voice-class codec 1 You can use the same scenario with a GK. Following here are some of the options available for IPIPGW. the only differences are new commands and terminology. Because the middleman can now see the call setup and call release. Via zone-enabled GKs send transient traffic to the IPIPGW. All rights reserved. calls that normally would have been unbilled or not allowed are completed and billed. When a GK is used. This publication is protected by copyright. Configure the voice class. This command is the same as for normal GWs. Set the preferences of codecs. 1. Assign the voice class to dial peers. 2. Via zones are zones that have IPIPGW and via zone-enabled GKs. 3. . GW-1(config)# voice class codec 1 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 1 g729r8 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 2 g729br8 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 3 g723r63 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 4 g723r53 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 5 g723ar63 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 6 g723ar53 GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 7 g711ulaw GW-1(config-class)# codec preference 8 g711alaw voice class codec 1 codec preference 1 g729r8 codec preference 2 g729br8 codec preference 3 g723r63 codec preference 4 g723r53 codec preference 5 g723ar63 codec preference 6 g723ar53 codec preference 7 g711ulaw codec preference 8 g711alaw ! ! dial-peer voice 50 voip description My_house [402] destination-pattern 402. Codec transparency is used to pass codec capabilities between endpoints. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. The IPIPGW terminates the call and then re-originates the call to the destination.[ 49 ] ADVANCED IPIPGW COMMANDS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. but you always have other options to help tweak your network. Please see page 63 for more details.

Enter the GK configuration: Gk-Calvary (config) # gatekeeper V V Company Z V Company D 2.91 zone remote zone-name domain-name ip-address gatekeeper name | outvia gatekeeper name [port number][invia © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Enter the GK configuration: Gk-Calvary (config) # gatekeeper 2. I did not place the remote GKs in here to help simplify the theory. Washington Company A Gatekeeper V Chicago Via Zone Gatekeeper Setup Local zone: 1. Remote zone: 1.97 11719 invia Gk-Ranger outvia Gk-Ranger zone remote zone-name domain-name ip-address gatekeeper name | outvia gatekeeper name [port number][invia FIGURE 1.com 75. Configure the local zone: Gk-Calvary(config-gk)# zone local cope mydomain. This publication is protected by copyright.14 Via Zone Gatekeeper Example Note This example is a basic via zone topology.[ 50 ] ADVANCED IPIPGW COMMANDS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S.com 75. .86. Configure the remote zone: Gk-Calvary (config-gk)# zone remote pepsi 11719 invia Gk-Rebel outvia Gk-Rebel mydomain.86.75.75. All rights reserved. Please see page 63 for more details.

.50.5. HSRP. and Redundant CallManager. Use the No form to disallow. I will go over a few of the commands I believe are important for the GWGK exam: GW1(config)# Voice service [voip | voatm | pots | vofr] **used to apply voice services globally*** GW1(config-voi-serv)# Allow connections from-type [any | h323 | sip | pots] to to-type [any | h323 | sip | pots] ** this option under voice service command decides which VoIP connections the GW will allow. and aid in problem solving. Alternate Gatekeepers A GW can be configured with up to two alternate GKs: Interface FastEthernet0/0 Ip address 5. You can configure literally hundreds of commands for a GW.128 h323-gateway voip interface h323-gateway voip id Gk-Infantry ipaddr 75.255.1 1719 h323-gateway voip id Gk-Calvary ipaddr 75.75. but you do need to know them for realworld applications. help reduce chances of errors.1 1719 h323-gateway voip h323-id GW-1 Note Alternate GK is here because the configuration is done on the GW and not the GK. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.66. Gateway Redundancy Gateways also need to be configured with redundancy in case the primary GK or CallManager fails to diminish issues from arising. We cover three ways to accomplish this: Alternate GK. This publication is protected by copyright. It can be argued that it can also go in the GK section.75.[ 51 ] GATEWAY REDUNDANCY CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Washington Advanced Gateways Options The ability to fine-tune the network can lead to better resource usage. Please see page 63 for more details.98 255.5. You do not need to know all of them for the test. All rights reserved.255.

Please see page 63 for more details.[ 52 ] SUR VIVABLE REMOTE SITE TELEPHONY CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. . all phone service returns to normal. The first question you would be asked as the designer is what happens if we lose our network? How will we make and receive calls? Your response can be this: Because a Cisco solution was installed. 0 is the default. You need to repeat this for all CallManagers.1.3 Preference 3 Survivable Remote Site Telephony If you were to design a modern VoIP network. The preference range is 0 to 10. there is no problem in the event of network failure. remote sites. but only if they are connected to a local Cisco device.1.12 Preference 2 Dial-peer voice 201 voip Session target ipv4:192. When IP phones lose connectivity to all CallManagers. SRST makes sure your employees have at least basic phone service.168. When communications have been reestablished with a Cisco CallManager.11 Preference 1 Dial-peer voice 200 voip Session target ipv4:192. Remember that the preference command is important to the order in which they are selected.168. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Washington Redundancy to CallManager Clusters You must configure a dial peer for each CallManager in the cluster you want to use. The phones must wait three times the keepalive period and try all your other CallManagers. In the event SRST failover occurs. All rights reserved. connections to the PSTN. Here is what it looks like. your IP phones will periodically check whether a Cisco CallManager is available starting after two minutes of being in SRST mode. SRST uses the GW until connectivity to a CM can be reestablished.168. your client would probably ask for a voicemail system. Survivable Remote Site Telephony (SRST) provides Cisco IP phones a backup path in the event of network failure. Dial-peer voice 199 voip Session target ipv4:192. This publication is protected by copyright.1. Your phones will kick into SRST in about two to three minutes. and so on.

You can configure both of these features on the same device in later Cisco IOS releases. You should pick the protocol that best fits your survivability needs. If your addresses are assigned by the CallManager.[ 53 ] SUR VIVABLE REMOTE SITE TELEPHONY CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. This publication is protected by copyright. Washington PSTN CM 1 IP IP to make sure that you’re running DHCP off your GW and not the CallManager. . The unofficial workaround to this is no h225 timeout keepalive.168. MGCP Fallback and SRST are both configured (MGCP only). It is also recommended that for faster failover. Each of the protocols has special requirements that you must address. Check command reference guide for some max-dn.15 SRST When SRST is configured. This might help to keep calls active in the event of a link failure. SRST can be set up and will work if your network meets the following criteria: V V SRST Router n n n Cisco IP phones are connected to a Cisco device capable of SRST. SIP requires that the GW act as a registrar server during SRST. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. different protocols respond differently to the loss of Cisco CallManager connectivity. This value depends on the Cisco IOS version and platform you are running. you will lose your lease. You need SRST for H. This is also platform dependent.323 will not keep active calls up if there is no signal from a Cisco CallManager. CM 2 IP DHCP commands for the SRST router: Remote Office ip dhcp pool pool-name network ip-address mask option 150 ip ip-address default-router ip-address **Creates DHCP pool to assign IPs from** prefix-length **IP of DHCP pool** **IP of TFTP server to download image** **IP of router phones are connected to** Central Office FIGURE 1. An MGCP has its own form of SRST called MGCP Fallback. H.323 and SIP are getting call control and dial plans from the GW. Please see page 63 for more details. H.1. GW1(config-cm-fallback)#max-dn 8 **states the number of directory numbers supported. All rights reserved.323: GW1(config)# call-manager-fallback GW1(config-cm-fallback)# ip source address 192. SIP should register with both the proxy and registrar server.90 GW1(config-cm-fallback)# max-ephones 10 ** states how many calls will be allowed.

There are more things that must be considered for phone functionality during SRST. In addition.323 SRST Reminders 1. Auto Attendant is provided by Tcl scripts. Washington SIP SRST When SIP goes into SRST mode. I picked these because of their high daily usage. show gateway Shows the list of GKs configured. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. The last few places to check are H. 3. you can make sure that you have general network connectivity. Specify allowed connections. You can verify which GKs are configured by one of two commands. H. . All rights reserved.[ 54 ] GATEWAY PROBLEM SOLVING CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. show interface Show the VoIP interface and its configuration. 2. Voicemail during SRST must be planned. Please see page 63 for more details.323 configurations on the GW. You need to configure POTS dial peers to allow direct extension. GW1(config)# voice service voip GW1(config-voi-serv)# allow-connections h323 to sip GW1(config-voi-serv)# allow-connections sip to h323 GW1(config-voi-serv)# allow-connections sip to sip GW1(config-voi-serv)# sip GW1(config-serv-sip)# registrar server SRST on MGCP Gateways MGCP requires that both SRST and MGCP Fallback be configured. Next. you must also create a dial peer with basic PSTN connectivity. Set up the GW as registrar. You will need to check the interface and that your GK information was entered correctly. GW1(config-)# ccm-manager fallback-mgcp GW1(config)# service [alternate | default] service-name location GW1(config)# exit Gateway Problem Solving Verifying and resolving issues with GWs can be accomplished with some of the commands you are already familiar with. There are a few ways of doing this. phones registered with a proxy server can use the voice GW acting like a SIP registrar. This publication is protected by copyright. 1. along with their priority values. 2.

Dial plans are created using a combination of commands to perform call routing. If you assign the same number to dial peers. Dial peers are picked by the longest matching number dialed. Dial strings are mapped to a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) or a switched virtual circuit (SVC). CallManagers. The responsibility the dial plan carries means your dial plan should undergo an extensive design and planning process to fulfill all requirements and functions. The basic configuration on these dial peers are similar. Voice over Frame Relay (VoFR). MMoIP dial peers are used mainly for fax capabilities. They enable you to do almost anything you could think of to do with incoming or outgoing calls. they vary in only a few commands and wording of the commands. the last configured dial peer overwrites/changes dial-peer parameters. dial-peer voice (#) MMoIP dial-peer voice (#) VoFR dial-peer voice (#) VoATM no shutdown The number range (#) is from 1 to 2147483647. POTS dial peers are used to send calls to telephony devices or to the PSTN. Most VoIP protocols can use dial peers. All rights reserved. and softswitches. They tell the GWs where to send the call and how to treat the digits dialed. Dial strings are mapped to an IP address or remote IP. Note Not all Cisco platforms support all five types of dial peers. or mail servers.[ 55 ] DIAL PEERS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. and SIP. Voice over ATM (VoATM). the PSTN. Washington Dial Plans Dial plans are an essential part of completing a call. VoATM dial peers are used with AAL5 over ATM networks. Please see page 63 for more details.323. They allow the GW to provide connectivity to the different network topologies. SMTP messages are forwarded to a server. The main components of dial plans are dial peers and their subcommands. VoFR dial peers define connections that will use FRF. and VoIP. They are H. . VoIP dial peers are used for connections on packet voice networks. Dial Peers Dial peers come in a few types: MMoIP. All dial peers must be in the UP operational state to be considered for matching. This publication is protected by copyright. PBXs. SCCP. POTS. Dial strings are mapped to a virtual circuit (VC). Dial strings are mapped to voice ports.11 on a Frame Relay network. Dial peers are probably the most important aspect of your network configuration. Dial plans can be located on GWs. Each dial peer must have a unique number assigned to it. Dial-peer syntax and types: dial-peer voice (#) VoIP dial-peer voice (#) POTS © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.

Inbound legs are the calls coming into the device. By knowing how the GW sees the call. voice-port (that has dial peer port configured). With the flexibility to match either call leg. Dial peer 0 will be used. used). so no in-depth explanation is given. This publication is protected by copyright. you will be able to set up your dial peers according to the network requirements. . Please see page 63 for more details. Destination-pattern with session-target or a voice-port. You might want to store this tidbit in your memory for possible future problem solving. All rights reserved. Inbound calls use the entire string and are checked against configured dial peers in the following order: 1. 3. When designing your dial peers. 2. Let’s go over how a GW matches inbound and outbound dial peers. outbound legs are calls sent from the GW. and the call will be treated like a modem call. There are three combinations that can be used to place peers in operational state: n n n Dial Peer Matching Understanding how dial peers are matched to call legs is essential to a properly functioning voice network. To make sure all your dial peers are in the operational state you want them in. 4. Outbound dial peer matching is much easier to remember.[ 56 ] CALL LEGS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. These two legs are used to match which dial peer to use for completion of the call. It is assumed that you are familiar with how telephony works. the VoIP peer sends the call to the value specified in the session-target. Incoming-called-number configured. All outbound dial peers are matched on the destination-pattern. the inbound and outbound legs. The choices are limited to only two options. The POTS peer then sends the call out the configured port. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. destination-pattern (calling number “ANI” information used). the dial plan should be able to handle most dial scenarios with ease. Note AS5xxx series GWs stop after Step 3. All calls have two call legs. you must know which subcommands can be used together without adversely affecting the dial peer. Call Legs Calls processed by the GW are categorized in one of two groups: inbound call leg or outbound call leg. Washington Valid and Invalid Dial Peers All dial peers must be in operational state to be considered for matching. enter show dial-peer voice summary command. incoming-called-number (called number “DNIS” information An answer-address is configured. answer-address (calling number “ANI” information used).

Wildcard matches any digits entered. Default POTS dial peer configuration: n destination-pattern command This command can decide which dial peer to use and the destination. A pattern that is the same as the regular expression rule. The string can consist of 0 through 9. Preceding digit occurred zero or one time.164 or user-defined number. Preceding digit occurred zero or more times.). variable digit string. Circumflex (ˆ). a match to the beginning of the string.). . places a pause between digits. Parentheses (( )). No IVR applications Default VoIP dial peer configuration: n n n n n Any codec Fax-rate voice IP precedence 0 No Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) VAD enabled An easy way to remember this is that the default values can be used on default dial peers. All rights reserved. let’s look at default dial peers. Brackets ([ ]). The variable can be an E. That is where the default peers come into practice. A through D. Please see page 63 for more details. matches the character. followed by a single character. Question mark (?). When no matches can be found. Null string at the end of the input string. A range is a sequence of characters in the brackets.[ 57 ] CALL LEGS CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Backslash symbol (\). Washington Default Dial Peers While we are on the subject of dial peer selection. similar to wildcard usage. Plus sign (+). and a few special characters. This publication is protected by copyright. Special characters: n n n n n n n n n n n n The asterisk (*) and pound sign (#) are on touchtone dial pads. Dollar sign ($). Router will wait until all digits are entered. and you must sacrifice all the bells and whistles to complete a generic call. Percent sign (%). Comma (. Period (. only 0 to 9 are allowed. Preceding digit occurred one or more times. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. the GW has two choices: drop the call or try to complete the call any way that it can. (T).

Syntax: dtmf-relay [cisco-rtp] [h245-alphanumeric] [h245-signal] [rtp-nte] [sip-notify] Digit Manipulation Digit manipulation is something that you will definitely use at some point in your network. Comma (. POTS calls are associated with the port the call came in on: n n n n Hunt Groups Hunt groups are used to add redundancy or routing choices to dial plans. The commands to configure hunt groups and assign dial peers are as follows: hunt group (configured in global configuration mode). Your GW receives digits from an outside source. All rights reserved. Period (. variable digit string. The asterisk (*) and pound sign (#) are on touchtone dial pads.323 and SIP GWs relay dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) tones between the telephony interface and the IP network. Router will wait until all digits are entered. Washington answer-address command Identifies the incoming dial peer associated with the VoIP call. Wildcard matches any digits entered (T). dtmf-relay command How H. .[ 58 ] DIGIT MANIPUL ATION CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. hunt group (configured under each dial peer you want to assign to a hunt group). huntstop (stops dial peer hunting if call fails). They work by grouping dial peers that can complete specific calls into a hunt group. This publication is protected by copyright.) places a pause between digits.). The idea behind this is pretty straightforward. and you want to do one of the following to the received digits: n n n progress-ind command This command allows progress indicators to be sent during a call to help with signaling. Syntax: progress_ind {setup | connect | progress | alert} {enable pinumber | disable} Change digits Add digits Subtract digits © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Please see page 63 for more details.

0 to 9. virtual private networks [VPNs].. n num-exp Sometimes companies want to make dialing numbers easier for customers or employees. Match none or more occurrences. We manipulate digits for various reasons (for example. Please see page 63 for more details.[ 59 ] VOICE TRANSL ATION RULES AND PROFILES CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. this command is enabled by default. plus they allow the redirecting number to be changed. [0-9] * + ? Any single digit.#809/ /809/ © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. The num-exp command can take dialed digits and translate them into a different length of digits. Voice Translation Rules and Profiles Voice translation rules and profiles provide a powerful way to translate digits. .. Match one or more occurrences. That is the trade-off you must make. Commands for Digits Manipulation n digit-strip Used only on POTS dial peers only. the matched numbers are stripped. *. When a call comes in on a POTS dial peer. and the GW can change the digits according to administrator wishes. Examples: num-exp 402…… 1402…… **1 is added to beginning **incoming number changed to 8080 num-exp 17142638080 8080 Syntax: rule precedence /match pattern/ /replacement pattern/ Example: voice translation-rule 1 rule 1 /^9. Any range or sequence of characters. Users can enter a few digits. Voice translation profiles use voice translation rules and can change everything the rules can. but will add to the complexity of the configurations. All rights reserved. . This publication is protected by copyright. Configured under POTS dial peer. # Any specific character. Usage: dial-peer voice 300 pots digit-strip Voice Translation Rule Wildcard patterns are used to help augment the pattern matching. and accounting). Manipulation of digits can make calling easier for the end users. billing. The translation rules allows the called number and dialed number identification services (DNIS) digits to be manipulated. least cost routing. Match none or one occurrence. Washington These are the main ways to manipulate digits. and the remaining numbers are forwarded on. path selection.

This publication is protected by copyright.. Create at least one voice translation rule. Apply profile: n n n n n n Globally Dial peer Interface Source IP group Trunk group Voice port Cisco offers a test command to see whether your rule is working correctly: test voice translation-rule name-tag input-number Global example: Voice Translation Profile When you use this.#1/ /1/ rule 5 /^35681876/ /876/ rule 6 /^3568011/ // rule 7 /^9. n voice translation-profile VOIP-out translate called 1 Dial peer example: dial-peer voice 9003 voip incoming called-number 9003#. and redirected called numbers). you need to follow three steps: 1. 15 translations per rule 2.#/ // 3.. Washington rule 2 /^9.T translation-profile incoming VOIP-out voice-class codec 1 dtmf-relay h245-signal h245-alphanumeric 128 rules max..#1809/ /809/ rule 3 /^35681809/ /809/ rule 4 /^9..[ 60 ] VOICE TRANSL ATION RULES AND PROFILES CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. Please see page 63 for more details. . Create at least one voice translation profile and associated rules to the profile: n n n 1000 profiles supported Unique name for each profile You can apply one rule for each (calling numbers.. called numbers. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved..

.. Apply the COR list to dial peers: Dial-peer cor list InternationalAccess Member International dial-peer voice 1 pots corlist outgoing LocalAccess destination-pattern [2-9]. port 1/0 ! dial-peer voice 20 pots corlist outgoing LongAccess destination-pattern 1.. b. port 1/0 a.. Inbound dial peers. Define the COR label... use corlist incoming.. This publication is protected by copyright...[ 61 ] COR CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S....... Build the permission groups... All rights reserved. 3. Outbound dial peers... Define the COR Label Dial-peer cor custom Name local Name LongDistance Name international ! dial-peer voice 30 pots corlist outgoing InternationalAccess destination-pattern 0. . use corlist outgoing. 1. 2. port 1/0 ! Build Permission Groups Dial-peer cor list LocalAccess Member Local Dial-peer cor list LongAcess Member LongDistance © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc.... Please see page 63 for more details. Washington COR Class Of Restriction (COR) enables you to restrict incoming and outgoing calls......

giving the company administrative authority over the devices used. These companies usually have no reason to implement voice messaging. Enterprise networks usually use Internet service provider circuits to complete their calls. Toll bypass is one of the leading factors for these kinds of networks. Please see page 63 for more details. Billing and accounting information are of utmost importance in provider networks. The equipment used are GWs. Washington Enterprise Versus Service Provider Two main types of VoIP networks are in use today: enterprise and service provider. . Like enterprise networks. © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. Service provider networks are networks built to provide a service to others for profit. because their main income is generated by their telephony services. All rights reserved. and each has differences. Service provider networks usually have a device located locally to terminate the call.[ 62 ] ENTERPRISE VERSUS SER VICE PROVIDER CCVP GWGK Quick Reference Sheets by Brion S. from centralized control to distributed control. Most of the equipment is owned by the company. Enterprise networks are built by companies trying to cut costs and leverage VoIP to help accomplish their business goals. Each has similarities with the other. they can be a single site or multiple sites. they transparently route the call to another ITSP device. GKs. This publication is protected by copyright. and softswitches. The layout of the networks can range from a single site to multiple sites. They only go out on the PSTN when in failover mode or after the call has reached a switch local to the destination. If they do not own the termination equipment.

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