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“In the name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful”
Lab 06 : Marcet Boiler BMM 3531 Eng. Thermodynamics Lab
Lab Instructors Muhamad Zuhairi Sulaiman Idris Bin Mat Sahat Prof. Dr. K. V. Sharma Amir Bin Abdul Razak Mohd Razali Bin Hanipah Lab Location Thermodynamics Laboratory, FKM Lab Outcomes By the end of this lab, students should be able to: 1. Analyze the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water. 2. Analyze the vapor pressure curve.
Due Date: Delivered Date:
The saturation pressure curve can be determined at the pressure within 10 bar (150 lb/in2). The ideal gas law was originally determined empirically and is simply. and work of a system. The state of equilibrium depends on the pressure between the water surface and steam.0 Introduction Marcet Boiler is a bench top unit designed to study the basic principal in Thermodynamics which associated with boiling phenomenon. Thermodynamics is a branch of physics. the molecules become easier leaving the water surface while less energy required in achieving the state of equilibrium (boiling point). The measured value of the slope of the graph (dT/dP) SAT obtained from the practical results can be compared with corresponding values calculated from the data in steam tables.0] If a gas behaves exactly as the ideal gas laws would predict it to behave in terms of volume. and temperature. At lower pressure. and absolute temperature (T). the gas deviates from Ideal Gas behavior. Marcet Boiler has been developed for investigating the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam. Students will be able to study the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water. volume (V).Page 2 of 6 1. which deals with the energy. at all pressures between atmospheric and 10 bar(abs) (147 lb/in²). Thermodynamics deals only with the large-scale response of a system that we can observe and measure in experiments. Small-scale gas interactions are described by the kinetic theory of gasses. An ideal gas can be characterized by three state variables: absolute pressure (P). pressure. in equilibrium with water. On the other hand. then the gas is said to be an ideal gas. The temperature where equilibrium occurs at a given pressure level is called saturated temperature. Clausius-Clapeyron states: . The relationship between them may be deduced from kinetic theory and is called the Ideal Gas Law. then the gas is said to be acting like a "real gas". PV=nRT Where: P V n R T = Absolute pressure = Volume = Amount of substance (moles) = Ideal gas constant = Absolute temperature (K) [Equation 1. which is a compliment to thermodynamics. When energy increases within water. the increasing of activities among the molecules enables the increase in the number of molecule escape from the surface until an equilibrium state is reached. moles.
hf dT dP SAT h fg T (v f v g ) T (v g ) h fg [Equation 6.1 Pressure Vessel Capacity Material Design Pressure Operating Pressure Certification : 5 Liter : Stainless Steel 304 : 30 bar : 10 bar : DOSH Certified .0] [Equation 4. Water inlet valve is installed to allow water charging. The water heater is protected from burnout by setting the maximum operating temperature with a temperature controller. 2.0 Unit Design The unit consists of a stainless steel pressure vessel fitted with high pressure immersion electrical heater.0] T (v f v g ) dT h f hg dP SAT [Equation 3. temperature and pressure measuring devices. The unit also comes together with a safety relief valve.1.1 Description and Assembly Marcet Boiler (Model: HE169) consists of mainly the following items: 2.0] [Equation 5. The unit comes with temperature and pressure transducers so that students will be able to read the respective values on the digital indicator easily.Page 3 of 6 Tv fg dT h fg dP SAT [Equation 2. hfg = hg .0] And hf + hfg = hg Hence.0] As vg >> vf In which: vf vg hf hg hfg = specific volume of saturated liquid = specific volume of saturated vapor = enthalpy of saturated liquid = enthalpy of saturated vapor = latent heat of vaporization 2.
Page 4 of 6 2.2 Pressure Gauge Type Range : Bourdon Tube : 0 – 25 Bar(g) Pressure Transducer Wetted Material Case Material Range : Stainless Steel : Stainless Steel : 0 – 16 Bar(g) 2.0°C) 2.4 Temperature Sensor Type Range : RTD (Class A) : 0 – 200°C Safety Features!! ** Pressure Relief Valve (Set at 10 bar). Temperature Controller (Set at 126.96.36.199 Equipment and unit construction 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 5 10 Figure 1: Unit Construction for Marcet Boiler (Model: HE169) .
Then. . Retain the water next use. 3. Now you are ready to carry on the experiment. 9. 7.0 3. Turn on the power supply switch. 10.3 Switch off the main switch and power supply. Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge Temperature Sensor Pressure Relief Valve Water Inlet Port & Valve Heater Experimental Procedure General Start-up Procedures i) ii) iii) iv) v) Perform a quick inspection to ensure that the unit is in proper operating condition. let the boiler to cool down until room temperature.Page 5 of 6 Table 1: Components of HE169 Marcet Boiler 1.2 General Shut-down Procedures i) Switch off the heater switch and allow the boiler temperature to drop to around 50°C. Open the valve at the water inlet port and fill the boiler with 3 liters of deionized water if there is no water in the boiler. Wait for the steam output through the valve to ensure that there is no air trapped in the boiler.1 Pressure Transducer Temperature Controller/Indicator Pressure Indicator Control Panel Bench 6. Then. close the valve immediately. Continue heating until the maximum gauge pressure reaches 9 bars(g). 8. Note: Do not open the valve at the water inlet port as when the boiler is heated. 4. vi) vii) Then. 5. ii) iii) 3. 2. Connect the unit to the nearest power supply. Open the valve at the water inlet port and switch on the heater switch. close the valve. Record all temperature readings at different pressure settings of the boiler when the boiler is heated and cooled. 3. Set the temperature 'set point' to 1790C. 3. Experimental Set-up i) ii) iii) iv) v) Check with the lab technician and make sure that the boiler is filled with water. Note: Do not open the valve at the water inlet port as high pressure steam may cause severe injury.
6. 8. Restore the system to operating conditions after any repair job.my iv.0 Conclusion Based on the experiment. 4.edu.4 Precaution Steps a) b) c) d) e) f) g) All operating instructions supplied with the unit must be carefully read and understood before attempting to operate the unit. Mohd Fairusham bin Ghazali .myusof@ump. If the unit is not to be run for long period. Mohd Yusof bin Taib . Acknowledgement Thanks to the following staffs for their contributions in preparing the laboratory sheet: ii.edu. It is not necessary to top up the water after this.. draw your own conclusion. Muhamad Zuhairi Bin Sulaiman – firstname.lastname@example.org . T and absolute pressure.Page 6 of 6 3. State and briefly explain 3 of the applications of the boiler in industry 7. Consult the manufacturer for any replacement parts. The unit requires no major maintenance. Do not touch the hot components of the unit. a) Discuss the relation between temperature.0 Question i. b) Discuss and elaborate the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water.fairusham@ump. replace a new gasket if necessary.0 References Write down your references accordingly with appropriate format. then clean the heater element with cloth. Maintenance and repair must be done by a well trained technician.my iii. always consult the manufacturer for any maintenance or repair work. To prevent unnecessary damage to the unit.edu. Always check and rectify any leak. Be extremely careful when handling liquid at high temperature. drain all water from the heater flange. Always make sure that the boiler vessel is filled with sufficient water to cover the heater element (3 liters of water).0 Results Record required data for analysis 5.0 Discussions List the results in the form of statements and numerical values. P.