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By the end of this lesson, students should be able to understand: The concept of machining Cutting mechanism Chip types and characteristics Cutting forces and their significance Cutting tool materials and their properties Inserts, their advantages and their shape characteristics Cutting fluids: advantages, types and applications
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Lesson Outcomes (cont.)
• Cutting tool materials and their properties • Inserts, their advantages and their shape characteristics • Cutting fluids: advantages, types and applications
The process of material removal from the surface of a workpiece by chip formation
Machining and finishing processes .
Dimensional tolerances of various machining processes .
the chip slides directly up the face of the tool. in oblique cutting. called the inclination angle (a) Orthogonal cutting with a well-defined shear plane (b) Orthogonal cutting without a well-defined shear plane .Cutting Models Orthogonal Cutting (2D model) Oblique cutting (3D model) In orthogonal cutting. the chip is helical and at an angle i.
3. .Chip formation (2D Model) 1. 4. to Shearing occurs along shear plane Chip is formed Chip pushed up the rake face by the chip forming below Chip breaks 2. Tool move to left at velocity V. 5. Fig (a) shows the schematic illustration of the basic mechanism of chip formation by shearing. and depth of cut. (b) Velocity diagram showing angular relationships among the three speeds in the cutting zone.
4 types of chips produced: 1. Continuous chip Built up edge Serrated or segmented chip Discontinuous chip . 3. 2. 4.
– Produce good surface finish – Chips tend to tangle around tool holder. fixtures – Change cutting parameters or use chip breakers to reduce chip length . Continuous chip – Continuous chips usually are formed with ductile materials. machined at high cutting speeds (V) and/or high rake angles ( ).Type of chips produced 1.
Type of chips produced 2. some deposited on workpiece – Reduces quality of surface finish and dulls tool point – A thin & stable BUE can protect rake face and reduce tool wear – Can be reduced by: Increase cutting speed. increase rake angle. use cutting fluid. use a sharp tool. Built up edge – Workpiece material deposited on tool tip – As it gets large. it BUE breaks away: some carried by chip. use cutting tool that has low chemical affinity with workpiece material . decrease depth of cut.
Type of chips produced 3. Serrated or segmented – Semi-continuous chips – Occurs in metals with low thermal conductivity and strength that decrease sharply with temperature (eg: titanium) .
Discontinuous chip • Chip is segmented • May be due to: – Brittle workpiece material. or materials that contain hard inclusions – Very low or very high cutting speeds – Large depths of cuts – Low rake angles – No cutting fluid – Vibration/chatter due to low stiffness .Type of chips produced 4.
Cutting Forces and Power Why study cutting forces and power? • Machine tool design • Workpiece selection • Machine tool selection .
• The resultant force can be resolved into two components on the tool face: a friction force. perpendicular to it. and a normal force. • Note also that the resultant force is balanced by an equal and opposite force along the shear plane and is resolved into a shear force. R. along the tool-chip interface and a normal force. . N. as can be seen from the force circle. • These two forces produce the resultant force.Cutting Forces and Power • The thrust force. acts in a direction normal to the cutting speed. F.
Tool wear and tool failure • Adverse conditions (due to cutting) affect tool wear lead to tool failure • Adverse conditions are: – High temp along rake face – Contact stresses Chip sliding along rake face Where is temp highest? Why? Localized stress at tip Rubbing along workpiece .
plastic deformation change in shape • Effect on workpiece: dimensional change part accuracy.Effects of elevated temperatures • Effect on cutting tool: lower strength/hardness/stiffness/wear resistence. material properties .
Nose wear 4. Crater wear 3.Notching 5. Chipping. Plastic deformation of the tool tip 6.Flank wear 2.Tool wear and tool failure 1. and gross fracture Types of tool wear/failure: .
Tool wear and tool failure Flank wear and crater wear: .
Flank wear – Due to : high temp and rubbing along workpiece that leads to abrasive/adhesive wear – Described by the Taylor equation: VT n d x f y = C speed tool life depth of cut feed A constant The time required to develop a certain wear stage. Crater wear – Due to: high temp and chemical affinity with workpiece . VB (allowable wear land) 2.Tool wear and tool failure 1.
and for a carbide tool. it is 30 to 60 min.Tool wear and tool failure Equation for tool wear: VT d f = C n x y Tool life curves The recommended cutting speed for a high-speed steel tool is generally the one that yields a tool life of 60 to 120 min. 1 Vα n T .
because these layers are hard and abrasive. Notching. affects chip formation. due to mechanical and thermal effects. It dulls the tool. and causes rubbing of the tool over the workpiece. 4. . Nose wear is the rounding of a sharp tool. raising its temperature and possibly inducing residual stresses on the machined surface.Tool wear and tool failure 3. Scale and oxide layers on a workpiece surface contribute to notch wear.
• Small: Microchipping/macrochipping • Large: Gross chipping/fracture and catastrophic failure -Due to : mechanical shock. thermal fatigue* .Tool wear and tool failure 6. and gross fracture -A small fragment from the cutting edge of the tool breaks away. Chipping.
Chip control . Tool life – most important factor 3. Surface finish and surface integrity of part Geometric feature Material properties: eg: Fatigue life. Corrosion resistance 2. Force and power requirements 4.Machinability of materials Factors that affect machinability of materials: 1.
Machine at various cutting speeds until obtain T=60 min 2.Machinability of materials How is tool life rating determined? 1. The cutting speed at T=60min is used as the tool life rating .
Wear resistance Chemical stability: does not react with workpiece material .Cutting Tools Types of material used as cutting tools: • Carbon & medium alloy steels • High speed steel • Cast cobalt alloys • Carbides • Coated tools • Alumina ceramics • Cubic boron nitride • Diamond Cutting tool properties: 1. Hot hardness: resistance to permanent deformation Toughness: resistance to impact. 3. 4. Ability to absorb energy without failure Thermal shock resistance. 5. 2.
Cutting tool properties .
Trends in cutting tool properties .
Cutting tool property trend .
• . Fig 22.Cutting Tools • High-speed steel tools are shaped in one piece and ground to impact various geometric features such tools include drill bits and milling and gear cutters. The holes in the inserts are standardized for interchangeability in toolholders.2 shows the typical carbide inserts with various shapes and chipbreaker features.
Inserts Tool wear Need to change tool Take tool from tool room Time consuming Use insert instead: -Multiple cutting points -Can easily change to a different cutting point Carbon steel & HSS tools machined to desired shape .
.The figure below shows the relative edge strength and tendency for chipping of inserts with various shapes. Insert shapes The figure below shows the edge preparation for inserts to improve edge strength. Strength refers to the cutting edge indicated by the included angles.
Higher resistance to wear and cracking 4.Advantages of coatings: 1. Diamond coatings 6. Higher hot hardness and impact resistance Types of coatings: 1. Acting as a diffusion barrier 5. Higher adhesion 3. Etc. Titanium carbide 3. Ceramics 4. Coated tools . Titanium nitride 2. Multiphase coatings 5. Lower friction 2.
thus improving tool life and reducing the temperature and thermal distortion of the workpiece. Cool the cutting zone. 5. Reduce forces and energy consumption. and thus prevent the chips from interfering with the cutting process. Protect the machined surface from environmental corrosion. 4. Reduce friction and wear. . Flush away the chips from the cutting zone. 3. particularly in operations such as drilling and tapping. 2.Cutting Fluids Advantages: 1. thus improving tool life and the surface finish of the workpiece.
diluted in water. compounded. 4. The presence of water makes emulsions very effective coolants. Semisynthetics are chemical emulsions containing little mineral oil. Synthetics are chemicals with additives. Emulsions (also called soluble oils) are a mixture of oil and water and additives. generally are used for high-speed operations because temperature rise is significant. . 2. and contain no oil. making them more effective. and synthetic oils typically are used for low-speed operations where temperature rise is not significant. and with additives that reduce the size of oil particles. vegetable. Oils (also called straight oils) including mineral. diluted in water. animal. 3.Cutting Fluids Types of cutting fluids: 1.
the tendency for built-up edge formation.Methods of cutting fluid applications The need for a cutting fluid depends on the severity of the particular machining operation. . which may be defined as the level of temperatures and forces encountered. the ease with which chips produced can be removed from the cutting zone. and how effectively the fluids can be applied to the proper region at the tool–chip interface.
Methods of cutting fluid applications • Depending on the type of machining operation. such as the type of machining operation. a lubricant. or both. • The effectiveness of cutting fluids depends on a number of factors. the cutting fluid needed may be a coolant. cutting speed. tool and workpiece materials. and the method of application: – – – – Flooding Mist High pressure systems Through the cutting tool system .
Application of cutting fluids .
workpiece selection and machine tool selection . serrated chips and discontinuous chips • Studies of cutting forces are important in machine tool design.Summary • Machining: The process of material removal from the surface of a workpiece by chip formation • When tool moves along a workpiece at a certain depth of cut plastic deformation and shearing leads to chip formation. built up edges. • 4 major chip types are continuous chips.
toughness.) • A great variety of cutting tool materials exists with varying degrees of hardness. Inserts with larger included angles are stronger and less likely to break • Cutting fluids reduce friction & wear.Summary (cont. reduce cutting forces. remove chips and protect workpiece against corrosion • Cutting fluids must be applied correctly to harness its advantages . wear resistance and chemical stability • Inserts allow easy change when worn out.
What’s next? Conventional Lathe .