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FOOD SAFETY & HACCP

TRAINING PROGRAMME for


Hotels and Restaurants
(11th, 12th and 13th May 2004)

HACCP IMPLEMENTATION
HACCP IMPLEMENTATION IN
HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS
ADOPT THE PROCESS APPROACH

• Focus on the Flow of Food


HACCP IMPLEMENTATION IN
HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS
THE GENERIC PROCESSES

‰Food Preparation with No Cook Step

¾ RECEIVE – STORE – PREPARE – COLD HOLD – SERVE

‰Food Preparation for the Same Day Service

¾ RECEIVE – STORE – PREPARE – COOK – HOT HOLD –


SERVE
HACCP IMPLEMENTATION IN
HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS

THE GENERIC PROCESSES

‰Food Preparation in advance / large volumes or for Next


Day Service

¾ RECEIVE – STORE – PREPARE – COOK – CHILL –


REHEAT – HOT HOLD – SERVE
HACCP IMPLEMENTATION IN
HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS
PROCESS 1 PROCESS 2 PROCESS 3
Examples: Examples: Examples:
•Veg.Sandwich •Vegetable dishes •Soups
•Cole Slaw •Dals •Gravies
•Green Salad •Chicken dishes –Makhani
Gravy
•Fruit Salad •Vermicilli upma
–White gravy
•Tossed Salad •Veg Biryani –Indian Masala
•Cucumber Raita •Veg Manchurian •Sauces
•Mayonnaise •Parathas –White sauce
•Tikkas –Brown Sauce
GROUP PRODUCTS TOGETHER
BY PROCESS
E.g.

‰COLD FOOD PROCESS


- COLD (RAW) FOOD
- COLD (COOKED) FOOD

‰HOT FOOD PROCESS


FLOW DIAGRAM
HOT FOOD PROCESS
1. RECEIVING

Perishable R.M. Ready to Eat Food Frozen R.M. Dry R.M.

2. STORAGE (CHILLER) – CCP 1 STORAGE STORAGE


( 5°C to 8 °C ) ( FREEZER) ( 25 °C to 27 °C )

4. PRE-PREPARATION 3. THAWING
(Washing / Sanitisation; Cutting / CCP 2
Mincing / Marrination)

6. CHILLING ( <5°C)
5. PREPARATION – CCP 3
& COLD
(Cooking > 75 °C)
HOLDING ( <5°C)

7. REHEATING (> 75°C) 8. PORTIONING &


CCP 4 GARNISHING

9. HOT SERVING ( > 60°C)

Banquet / Buffet
Room Service Restaurant / Poolside /
Service
Coffee Shop / Bar Outdoor
CCP 5
FLOW DIAGRAM
COLD FOOD PROCESS
1. RECEIVING

Perishable R.M. Ready to Eat Food Frozen R.M. Dry R.M.

2. STORAGE (CHILLER) – CCP 1 STORAGE STORAGE


( FREEZER) ( AMBIENT)

4. PRE-PREPARATION 3. THAWING
(Washing / Sanitisation; Cutting / CCP 2
Mincing / Marrination /Cooking)

5. COLD HOLDING 6. PREPARATION


( <5°C for not more than 36 hrs) (SEASONING & BLENDING)
In case Heat Treatment / Cooking is required (< 5 °C WITHIN 20 MIN)
in certain preparations
7. PORTIONING &
GARNISHING
8. Cold Holding
(< 5°C) 9. COLD SERVING (< 5°C)
For Finished Cold Meals

Banquet / Buffet
Room Service Restaurant / Poolside /
Service
Coffee Shop / Bar Outdoor
CCP 3
FLOW DIAGRAM
COLD (RAW VEG) FOOD PROCESS
(Cole Slaw / Green Salad / Tossed Salad )
1. RECEIVING

Perishable R.M.
(Cabbage, Capsicum, Carrot, Lemon,Spices) Dry R.M.
(Spices, Veg oil)
2. STORAGE (CHILLER)
( 5°C to 8 °C ) STORAGE
( 25 °C to 27 °C )
3. PRE-PREPARATION
(Cleaning , Cutting)
temp (max) 15 °C (SOP)

4. PREPARATION {Max 45 min, 15°C (SOP)}


Cut vegetables as per spec.(Juliennes) .
Mix Mayonnaise and season with salt, pepper.
Cold soak to bring down the temp.

5. PORTIONING &
GARNISHING
6. Cold Holding
(< 5°C) 7. COLD SERVING (< 5°C)
For Finished Cold Meals

Banquet / Buffet Restaurant / Poolside /


Room Service Service Coffee Shop / Bar Outdoor
CCP 1
FOOD HYGIENE AND HACCP
IMPLEMENTATION IN HOSPITALITY
PROCESSES

™CORE PROCESSES ™SUPPORT PROCESSES


• PURCHASE • HOUSEKEEPING
• RECEIVING • LAUNDRY
• STORES • ENGINEERING
• F&B PRODUCTION • HUMAN RESOURCES
• F&B SERVICE (TRAINING)
PURCHASE
Manage Your Suppliers
• Let vendors know what you expect of them and note
any deficiencies for further review & correction;

• Develop specifications for raw materials and put


food safety standards in your purchase specification
agreement;

• Suppliers should package foods in protective, leak


proof, durable packaging, wherever applicable.

• Food supplies should meet the PFA standards;

• Suppliers should use clean delivery trucks with


close body / adequate insulation / refrigeration as
per the product requirements
RECEIVING
Check It Out, Before You Check It In

• Plan ahead for deliveries to ensure sufficient space


in refrigerators and freezers;

• Mark all items for storage with the date of arrival or


the "use by" date or perhaps a color coded label
system;

• Keep the receiving area well lit and free of empty


containers, packing material, food particles, and
debris;

• Make sure delivery trucks look and smell clean and


are equipped with proper food storage equipment;

• Check the temperature of refrigerated and frozen


foods;
RECEIVING
Check It Out, Before You Check It In

• Check expiration dates of milk & milk products and


other perishable goods;

• Reject thawed and refrozen food. Look for signs


such as ice crystals, solid areas of ice, or
excessive ice in food containers;

• Reject cans with swollen sides or ends, flawed


seals & seams, rust, or dents. Reject / discard any
cans whose contents are foamy or bad-smelling;

• Look for content damage and insect infestations;

• Reject dairy, bakery, and other foods delivered in


crates that are dirty.
STORES
Store raw food, processed food and
dry stores safely
Dry
• Dry stores and canned foods should be stored in dry, Stores
cool (10 - 21°C), well lit, ventilated, vermin proof
storage room. Follow the labeling instructions for
proper storage.

• Food items should be stored 8 " above the floor and 6


" from the wall. Racks / pallets should be used
appropriately.

• Perishables like fruits and vegetables should be stored


in walk-ins / chillers at a temperature less than 5 °C.

• All raw foods should be stored separately from mise-


en-place and cooked food. If unavoidable, cooked
food should be on top shelves, mise-en-place in
middle and raw food at the bottom
STORES
Store raw food, processed food and
dry stores safely
• High-risk food such as meat and poultry should be
stored in Deep Freezers at a temperature of –18 °C
or less. Eggs should be preferably stored in separate
walk-in / chillers at a temperature less than 5 °C

• High-risk food such as fish and seafood should be


stored in separate deep freezer at a temperature of –
18 °C or less.

• Milk and milk products should be preferably stored


in separate walk-ins / chillers at a temperature less
than 5 °C.

• If the above is not possible always store foods in this


order: ready-to-eat and cooked foods on the top
shelf; below that should be fish; followed with whole
raw meats, then ground raw meats; raw chicken is
STORES
“FIRST- IN FIRST- OUT”

• Store products with the


earliest dates in front of
the products with later
dates.

• Use those stored in the


front first.
F&B PRODUCTION
Thawing
• It is very important to completely thaw frozen meat, poultry and seafood
before cooking.

• Thawing of frozen raw meat and poultry should be done in an area


entirely separate from other foods which may be exposed to risk of
contamination from thawed liquid.

• Fish and seafood should be thawed separately from meat and poultry.

• Thawing should be carried out in walk-in / thawing cabinet at a


temperature of 5 – 8 °C for max 36 hours or in a microwave.

• Do not refreeze the thawed raw food – Cook it as soon as possible.

• Thawing with running water should be avoided on account of surface


temperature increase and cross-contamination.

• Food surface temperature should be maximum 8 °C during thawing


i d
F&B PRODUCTION
Pre-processing
• Use different colour chopping boards for vegetables,
fruits, meat, poultry and seafood.

• Use clean and sanitized chopping boards and keep


them separately as per the colour codes.

• Ensure that the work tables, knives, mincers, bone


cutters, potato and onion peelers, juicers etc. are
thoroughly cleaned and disinfected (e.g. 200 ppm
chlorine 5 % solution)

• Use a disinfection box with 200 ppm chlorine water for


disinfection of knives, spoons and small implements.
Change water twice a shift.

• Always wash hands before and after handling raw


food. Use disposable gloves while processing high
risk foods and `ready to eat food’ and change gloves
after a particular work is over
F&B PRODUCTION
PREPARATION
Cook food thoroughly !
Minimum Internal Cooking Temperatures Chart

ƒ 140°F (60°C) for all foods that will be held hot prior to service.
ƒ 145°F (63°C) for 15 seconds for fish; seafood; lamb; mutton;
pork; pork roasts and cured pork (e.g. ham);and any fish and meat
not specifically mentioned below.
ƒ 155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds for ground beef, ground fish or
ground meat (e.g. pork, beef); raw eggs not prepared for
immediate service;
ƒ 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds for poultry; stuffed fish; stuffed
meat;stuffed pasta; stuffed poultry; stuffing containing fish, meat
or poultry. Also, any dishes containing previously cooked foods.
ƒ 165°F (74°C) for all raw animal foods cooked in a microwave.
The food should be rotated or stirred at least midway through
cooking process, covered to retain moisture, and allowed to stand
covered for two minutes following cooking to allow for post
cooking heat to rise.
F&B PRODUCTION
PREPARATION
Cook food thoroughly !
•Avoid interrupted cooking.
Never refrigerate partially
cooked products to later
finish cooking on the grill or in
the oven. Fish, seafood,
poultry, meat and meat
products must be cooked
thoroughly the first time and
then they may be refrigerated
and safely reheated later.
STORAGE
Chill the cooked foods rapidly !
• For cooked foods which are not to be served immediately,
chill the foods rapidly.

• Pour the cooked food in a spacious bowl within a


maximum of 30 minutes after cooking.

• The height of the food in the cooling bowl should not


exceed 5 cm in order to expedite the cooling process.

• Once the core temperature of cooked food comes to 60


°C, chill the food rapidly in a refrigerator / blast chiller to a
core temperature less than 5 °C within 4 hours.

• While cooked food may be kept at temperature less than 5


°C in a refrigerator / chiller, it should be preferably
consumed within 24 hours and that too after reheating it
properly to 75 °C .
F&B PRODUCTION
When in doubt, Throw It Out
!
•Avoid keeping leftovers.
•Never taste food which you think may be
spoiled. If you are uncertain as to whether or not
a food is still safe to eat, do not eat it.

•Even reheating foods cannot destroy the toxins


of some bacteria if a food has been handled
incorrectly.

•Never eat canned food if the can is bulging or


looks like it has had a leak, or is badly dented.
F&B SERVICE
SAFE FOOD SERVICE

Keep hot foods hot !


•Use the food thermometer (probes) to
check the temperatures

• If
a food is cooked and put out to serve,
make sure that you keep the food hot at a
temperature above 60 °C and that it is
consumed within 3 hours.
F&B SERVICE
SAFE FOOD SERVICE
Keep cold foods cold !

•Cold salads, sandwiches, meat


products, dairy products, desserts and
other foods which require refrigeration
should always be kept cold (below 5°C).

•If they are allowed to warm up,


bacteria may be able to grow to
dangerous levels.
F&B SERVICE
SAFE FOOD SERVICE
• Maintain temperatures of cold beverages between 3 °C
to 7 °C
– Soft drinks
– Juices
– Beer
– White wine
– Champagne
– Red Wine
• Process and handle the bar garnish viz. slices, wedges,
fruits hygienically.
• Ensure that the ice used is made from potable water and
handle it safely.
• Ensure that the glasses, pitchers,mugs, tongs, stirrer etc
are clean prior to usage.
HOUSEKEEPING
"CLEAN AS YOU GO!"

• Guests expect the Hotel to be clean and they


assume that you handle the food hygienically.
• Clean and organized workplaces create a
good impression and help to make a safe,
pleasant environment for everyone.
• The obvious such as floors, walls, ceilings,
windows, fixtures and restrooms should
always be clean, but just remember that even
though something looks clean it can get
contaminated easily.
• This is "Clean As You Go" cleaning. It
involves cleaning up immediately after every
task, with some allowance for busy periods.
HOUSEKEEPING
LAUNDRY & TABLE LINEN

• Detergents act as surfactants and loosen


and lifts the soil from the cloth fibers
• Chlorine bleach if used has bactericidal
and viricidal activity
• Rinsing creates mechanical action which
induces soil removal
• Temperatures of 60ºC or higher has
bactericidal activity on non-spore forming
organisms
• Drying and ironing completes the
destruction of organisms.
GOOD SANITARY PRACTICES & HOUSEKEEPING
Sanitizing
• Sanitizing is the reduction of bacteria to a low, safe
level.

• It can be achieved by the use of steam, hot water


(≥82°C) or chemical sanitizers.

• Chemical sanitizers such as chlorine or quaternaries


may be used for for equipment sanitizing (200 ppm).

• They destroy enough bacteria to safeguard health,


even though they cannot kill all pathogenic bacteria
and their spores.

• Remember -- you cannot sanitize a dirty surface!


Sanitizers must be used after cleaning and rinsing,
because they cannot remove grease and dirt.
PEST CONTROL
• Pests require food, shelter and security.
Denial of these environmental factors will
prevent their survival
• Environmental Control may be considered as
denial of :
• Access –
– By care in design, maintenance and proofing of
buildings
– Doors and windows should be kept closed or if
open should be screened with a fine mesh.
– Installation of air curtains, plastic strips and rubber
cladding at bottom of floor.
• Food and harborage – by good housekeeping
ENGINEERING

• Utilities – Water, electricity,


steam, refrigeration, air
conditioning, fuel,cooking gas
• Maintenance which falls into
following categories:
– Preventive maintenance of utilities
machinery, fittings and equipment.
– Breakdown maintenance