QUESTION 1: What is database?

ANSWER: A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning, representing some aspect of real world and which is designed, built and populated with data for a specific purpose. QUESTION 2: What is DBMS? ANSWER: ? Redundancy is controlled. ? Unauthorised access is restricted. ? Providing multiple user interfaces. ? Enforcing integrity constraints. ? Providing backup and recovery. QUESTION 4: What is a Database system? ANSWER: The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system. QUESTION 5: Disadvantage in File Processing System? ANSWER: ? Data redundancy & inconsistency. ? Difficult in accessing data. ? Data isolation. ? Data integrity. ? Concurrent access is not possible. ? Security Problems. . QUESTION 6: Describe the three levels of data abstraction? ANSWER: The are three levels of abstraction: ? Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored. ? Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction, describes what data are stored in database and what relationship among those data.

? View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database. QUESTION 7: Define the "integrity rules" ANSWER: There are two Integrity rules. ? Entity Integrity: States that ?Primary key cannot have NULL value? ? Referential Integrity: States that ?Foreign Key can be either a NULL value or should be Primary Key value of other relation. QUESTION 8: What is extension and intension? ANSWER: Extension -It is the number of tuples present in a table at any instance. This is time dependent. Intension - It is a constant value that gives the name, structure of table and the constraints laid on it. QUESTION 9: What is System R? What are its two major subsystems? ANSWER: System R was designed and developed over a period of 1974-79 at IBM San Jose Research Center . It is a prototype and its purpose was to demonstrate that it is possible to build a Relational System that can be used in a real life environment to solve real life problems, with performance at least comparable to that of existing system. Its two subsystems are ? Research Storage ? System Relational Data System. QUESTION 10: How is the data structure of System R different from the relational structure? ANSWER: Unlike Relational systems in System R ? Domains are not supported

? Enforcement of candidate key uniqueness is optional ? Enforcement of entity integrity is optional ? Referential integrity is not enforced QUESTION 11: What is Data Independence? ANSWER: Data independence means that ?the application is independent of the storage structure and access strategy of data?. In other words, The ability to modify the schema definition in one level should not affect the schema definition in the next higher level. Two types of Data Independence: ? Physical Data Independence : Modification in physical level should not affect the logical level. ? Logical Data Independence : Modification in logical level should affect the view level. NOTE: Logical Data Independence is more difficult to achieve QUESTION 12: What is a view? How it is related to data independence? ANSWER: A view may be thought of as a virtual table, that is, a table that does not really exist in its own right but is instead derived from one or more underlying base table. In other words, there is no stored file that direct represents the view instead a definition of view is stored in data dictionary. Growth and restructuring of base tables is not reflected in views. Thus the view can insulate users from the effects of restructuring and growth in the database. Hence accounts for logical data independence. . QUESTION 13: What is Data Model? ANSWER: A collection of conceptual tools for describing data, data relationships data semantics and constraints. QUESTION 14: What is E-R model? ANSWER: This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called entities and of

QUESTION 15: What is Object Oriented model? ANSWER: This model is based on collection of objects. and its primary key compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity. .relationship among these objects. QUESTION 18: What is an Entity set? ANSWER: It is a collection of all entities of particular entity type in the database. An object contains values stored in instance variables with in the object. QUESTION 19: What is an Extension of entity type? ANSWER: The collections of entities of a particular entity type are grouped together into an entity set. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. Objects that contain same types of values and the same methods are grouped together into classes. These bodies of code are called methods. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes. QUESTION 17: What is an Entity type? ANSWER: It is a collection (set) of entities that have same attributes. then it is said to be Weak Entity set. QUESTION 16: What is an Entity? ANSWER: It is a 'thing' in the real world with an independent existence. QUESTION 20: What is Weak Entity set? ANSWER: An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key.

QUESTION 23: What is degree of a Relation? ANSWER: It is the number of attribute of its relation schema. . An) is made up of the relation name R and the list of attributes Ai that it contains. tn). . t3. QUESTION 24: What is Relationship? ANSWER: It is an association among two or more entities. QUESTION 22: What is a Relation Schema and a Relation? ANSWER: A relation Schema denoted by R(A1.. Let r be the relation which contains set tuples (t1..v2. t2. A2. Each tuple is an ordered list of nvalues t=(v1. . A relation is defined as a set of tuples. which describes the entity. QUESTION 27: What is degree of Relationship type? ANSWER: It is the number of entity type participating. ?... QUESTION 26: What is Relationship type? ANSWER: Relationship type defines a set of associations or a relationship set among a given set of entity types. vn). QUESTION 25: What is Relationship set? ANSWER: The collection (or set) of similar relationships...QUESTION 21: What is an attribute? ANSWER: It is a particular property.

QUESTION 32: What is Query evaluation engine? ANSWER: It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler. QUESTION 31: What is DML Compiler? ANSWER: It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that the query evaluation engine can understand. QUESTION 33: What is DDL Interpreter? ANSWER: It interprets DDL statements and record them in tables containing metadata. QUESTION 30: What is VDL (View Definition Language)? ANSWER: It specifies user views and their mappings to the conceptual schema. .Definition Language? ANSWER: The storage structures and access methods used by database system are specified by a set of definition in a special type of DDL called data storage-definition language. ? Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and how to get those data. ? Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed without specifying how to get those data. QUESTION 29: What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)? ANSWER: This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised by appropriate data model.QUESTION 28: What is Data Storage .

e. QUESTION 36: What is Relational Algebra? ANSWER: It is procedural query language.g. variable whose only permitted values are tuples of that relation.e. E.. QUESTION 38: How does Tuple-oriented relational calculus differ from domain-oriented relational calculus ANSWER: The tuple-oriented calculus uses a tuple variables i. variables that range over the underlying domains instead of over relation. QUEL The domain-oriented calculus has domain variables i.F. Codd. This retrieve of a record is said to be Record-at-a-time.. QUESTION 37: What is Relational Calculus? ANSWER: It is an applied predicate calculus specifically tailored for relational databases proposed by E. ILL.g. E. E. QUEL. of languages based on it are DSL ALPHA. QUESTION 39: What is normalization? ANSWER: It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties . This retrieve of a record is said to be Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented.g. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as input and produce a new relation. DEDUCE. QUESTION 35: What is Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented? ANSWER: The High level or Non-procedural DML can specify and retrieve many records in a single DML statement.QUESTION 34: What is Record-at-a-time? ANSWER: The Low level or Procedural DML can specify and retrieve each record from a set of records.

? Minimizing redundancy ? Minimizing insertion. ? We cannot remove any dependency from F and still have set of dependency that is equivalent to F. ? We cannot replace any dependency X A in F with a dependency Y A where Y is a proper subset of X and still have a set of dependency that is equivalent to F. QUESTION 41: When is a functional dependency F said to be minimal? ANSWER: ? Every dependency in F has a single attribute for its right hand side. specifies the following constraint on any relation r of R: if two tuples t1 and t2 exist in r such that t1[X] = t2[X] then t3 and t4 should also exist in r with the following properties ? t3[x] = t4[X] = t1[X] = t2[X] ? t3[Y] = t1[Y] and t4[Y] = t2[Y] ? t3[Z] = t2[Z] and t4[Z] = t1[Z] where [Z = (R-(X U Y)) ] QUESTION 43: What is Lossless join property? . deletion and update anomalies. This means the value of X component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y. The constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if t1[X] = t2[X] then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. QUESTION 40: What is Functional Dependency? ANSWER: A Functional dependency is denoted by X Y between two sets of attributes X and Y that are subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuple that can form a relation state r of R. where X and Y are both subsets of R. QUESTION 42: What is Multivalued dependency? ANSWER: Multivalued dependency denoted by X Y specified on relation schema R.

ANSWER: It guarantees that the spurious tuple generation does not occur with respect to relation schemas after decomposition. X must be a candidate key. QUESTION 44: What is 1 NF (Normal Form)? ANSWER: The domain of attribute must include only atomic (simple. A functional dependency X Y is full functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any more. indivisible) values. In other words. QUESTION 48: What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)? ANSWER: A relation schema R is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and satisfies an additional constraint that for every FD X A. QUESTION 46: What is 2NF? ANSWER: A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on primary key. QUESTION 45: What is Fully Functional dependency? ANSWER: It is based on concept of full functional dependency. QUESTION 47: What is 3NF? ANSWER: A relation schema R is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for every FD X A either of the following is true ? X is a Super-key of R. if every non prime attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key. ? A is a prime attribute of R. .

Rn} that holds R. R2. ? The join dependency is implied by the set of FD.QUESTION 49: What is 4NF? ANSWER: A relation schema R is said to be in 4NF if for every Multivalued dependency X Y that holds over R. one of following is true ? X is subset or equal to (or) XY = R. . RDBMS Concepts ... QUESTION 50: What is 5NF? ANSWER: A Relation schema R is said to be 5NF if for every join dependency {R1. one the following is true ? Ri = R for some i. ? X is a super key.. over R in which the left side is key of R.

6. ? Enforcing integrity constraints. Define the "integrity rules" There are two Integrity rules. What is DBMS? It is a collection of programs that enables user to create and maintain a database. What is a Database system? The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system. ? Security Problems. What is extension and intension? Extension It is the number of tuples present in a table at any instance. What is database? A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. 2. Intension It is a constant value that gives the name. Describe the three levels of data abstraction? The are three levels of abstraction: ? Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored. ? View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database. ? Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction. ? Providing backup and recovery. . 4. constructing and manipulating the database for various applications. ? Unauthorised access is restricted.1. 3. Advantages of DBMS? ? Redundancy is controlled. representing some aspect of real world and which is designed. ? Difficult in accessing data. 8. This is time dependent. built and populated with data for a specific purpose. 5. structure of table and the constraints laid on it. ? Concurrent access is not possible. Disadvantage in File Processing System? ? Data redundancy & inconsistency. ? Providing multiple user interfaces. describes what data are stored in database and what relationship among those data. 7. ? Data integrity. ? Entity Integrity: States that “Primary key cannot have NULL value” ? Referential Integrity: States that “Foreign Key can be either a NULL value or should be Primary Key value of other relation. ? Data isolation. In other words it is general-purpose software that provides the users with the processes of defining.

Hence accounts for logical data independence. Two types of Data Independence: ? Physical Data Independence: Modification in physical level should not affect the logical level. Its two subsystems are ? Research Storage ? System Relational Data System. An object contains values stored in instance . In other words. What is E-R model? This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called entities and of relationship among these objects. Growth and restructuring of base tables is not reflected in views. 15. What is System R? What are its two major subsystems? System R was designed and developed over a period of 1974-79 at IBM San Jose Research Center. NOTE: Logical Data Independence is more difficult to achieve 12. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes. that is. What is a view? How it is related to data independence? A view may be thought of as a virtual table. In other words. data relationships data semantics and constraints. with performance at least comparable to that of existing system. 13. there is no stored file that direct represents the view instead a definition of view is stored in data dictionary. How is the data structure of System R different from the relational structure? Unlike Relational systems in System R ? Domains are not supported ? Enforcement of candidate key uniqueness is optional ? Enforcement of entity integrity is optional ? Referential integrity is not enforced 11. What is Data Independence? Data independence means that “the application is independent of the storage structure and access strategy of data”. Thus the view can insulate users from the effects of restructuring and growth in the database. ? Logical Data Independence: Modification in logical level should affect the view level. It is a prototype and its purpose was to demonstrate that it is possible to build a Relational System that can be used in a real life environment to solve real life problems. What is Data Model? A collection of conceptual tools for describing data.9. The ability to modify the schema definition in one level should not affect the schema definition in the next higher level. What is Object Oriented model? This model is based on collection of objects. 14. 10. a table that does not really exist in its own right but is instead derived from one or more underlying base table.

. 16. These bodies of code are called methods.variables with in the object. Each tuple is an ordered list of nvalues t=(v1. What is Relationship type? Relationship type defines a set of associations or a relationship set among a given set of entity types. A relation is defined as a set of tuples. …. 20.. 27. What is Relationship? It is an association among two or more entities. tn). What is Weak Entity set? An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key.. Let r be the relation which contains set tuples (t1. 23. What is an attribute? It is a particular property. t3. What is an Extension of entity type? The collections of entities of a particular entity type are grouped together into an entity set. 19. A2. What is an Entity type? It is a collection (set) of entities that have same attributes.. What is degree of a Relation? It is the number of attribute of its relation schema. What is an Entity? It is a 'thing' in the real world with an independent existence. . What is a Relation Schema and a Relation? A relation Schema denoted by R(A1. 18. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. 17.. . 22. 21. t2. 25.v2. What is Relationship set? The collection (or set) of similar relationships. vn).. which describes the entity. . What is an Entity set? It is a collection of all entities of particular entity type in the database. An) is made up of the relation name R and the list of attributes Ai that it contains. 24. 26. then it is said to be Weak Entity set. and its primary key compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity. Objects that contain same types of values and the same methods are grouped together into classes. What is degree of Relationship type? It is the number of entity type participating.

This language may specify the mapping between two schemas. ? Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and how to get those data. 36.Definition Language? The storage structures and access methods used by database system are specified by a set of definition in a special type of DDL called data storage-definition language. 26. 27. . What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)? This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised by appropriate data model. What is DML Compiler? It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that the query evaluation engine can understand. What is Relational Algebra? It is procedural query language. ? Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed without specifying how to get those data. 29. What is VDL (View Definition Language)? It specifies user views and their mappings to the conceptual schema. This retrieve of a record is said to be Record-at-a-time. What is Data Storage . What is Query evaluation engine? It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler. This retrieve of a record is said to be Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented. 28. What is DDL Interpreter? It interprets DDL statements and record them in tables containing metadata. 34. What is SDL (Storage Definition Language)? This language is to specify the internal schema. What is DDL (Data Definition Language)? A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called DDL. 31. 32. 35. What is Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented? The High level or Non-procedural DML can specify and retrieve many records in a single DML statement. 33.25. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as input and produce a new relation. What is Record-at-a-time? The Low level or Procedural DML can specify and retrieve each record from a set of records.

40. of languages based on it are DSL ALPHA.e. Codd. What is Relational Calculus? It is an applied predicate calculus specifically tailored for relational databases proposed by E. where X and Y are both subsets of R. E. variable whose only permitted values are tuples of that relation. variables that range over the underlying domains instead of over relation. deletion and update anomalies. 42. specifies the following constraint on any relation r of R: if two tuples t1 and t2 exist in r such that t1[X] = t2[X] then t3 and t4 should also exist in r with the following properties ? t3[x] = t4[X] = t1[X] = t2[X] ? t3[Y] = t1[Y] and t4[Y] = t2[Y] ? t3[Z] = t2[Z] and t4[Z] = t1[Z] where [Z = (R-(X U Y)) ] 43. What is Functional Dependency? A Functional dependency is denoted by X Y between two sets of attributes X and Y that are subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuple that can form a relation state r of R.. What is Multivalued dependency? Multivalued dependency denoted by X Y specified on relation schema R.e. 39. How does Tuple-oriented relational calculus differ from domain-oriented relational calculus The tuple-oriented calculus uses a tuple variables i. 41. What is 1 NF (Normal Form)? .g. E. ? We cannot remove any dependency from F and still have set of dependency that is equivalent to F. E. The constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if t1[X] = t2[X] then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. What is normalization? It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties ? Minimizing redundancy ? Minimizing insertion. This means the value of X component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y.g.g. QUEL.37. ? We cannot replace any dependency X A in F with a dependency Y A where Y is a proper subset of X and still have a set of dependency that is equivalent to F.F. What is Lossless join property? It guarantees that the spurious tuple generation does not occur with respect to relation schemas after decomposition. 38. QUEL The domain-oriented calculus has domain variables i. When is a functional dependency F said to be minimal? ? Every dependency in F has a single attribute for its right hand side. 44. DEDUCE.. ILL.

46. What are partial. 52. What is 5NF? A Relation schema R is said to be 5NF if for every join dependency {R1. one of following is true ? X is subset or equal to (or) XY = R. one the following is true ? Ri = R for some i.. What is 4NF? A relation schema R is said to be in 4NF if for every Multivalued dependency X Y that holds over R. 51. What is Domain-Key Normal Form? A relation is said to be in DKNF if all constraints and dependencies that should hold on the the constraint can be enforced by simply enforcing the domain constraint and key constraint on the relation.. indivisible) values. What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)? A relation schema R is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and satisfies an additional constraint that for every FD X A.The domain of attribute must include only atomic (simple. 50. A functional dependency X Y is full functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any more. alternate. compound and natural key? Partial Key: It is a set of attributes that can uniquely identify weak entities and that are related to same owner entity. What is 3NF? A relation schema R is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for every FD X A either of the following is true ? X is a Super-key of R. 49. 48. over R in which the left side is key of R. Artificial Key: . artificial. if every non prime attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key. Rn} that holds R. X must be a candidate key.. What is 2NF? A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on primary key. ? X is a super key.. 45. ? The join dependency is implied by the set of FD. R2. What is Fully Functional dependency? It is based on concept of full functional dependency. Alternate Key: All Candidate Keys excluding the Primary Key are known as Alternate Keys. ? A is a prime attribute of R. . 47. It is sometime called as Discriminator. In other words.

If no obvious key, either stand alone or compound is available, then the last resort is to simply create a key, by assigning a unique number to each record or occurrence. Then this is known as developing an artificial key. Compound Key: If no single data element uniquely identifies occurrences within a construct, then combining multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as creating a compound key. Natural Key: When one of the data elements stored within a construct is utilized as the primary key, then it is called the natural key. 53. What is indexing and what are the different kinds of indexing? Indexing is a technique for determining how quickly specific data can be found. Types: ? Binary search style indexing ? B-Tree indexing ? Inverted list indexing ? Memory resident table ? Table indexing 54. What is system catalog or catalog relation? How is better known as? A RDBMS maintains a description of all the data that it contains, information about every relation and index that it contains. This information is stored in a collection of relations maintained by the system called metadata. It is also called data dictionary. 55. What is meant by query optimization? The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that has the least estimated cost is referred to as query optimization. 56. What is join dependency and inclusion dependency? Join Dependency: A Join dependency is generalization of Multivalued dependency.A JD {R1, R2, ..., Rn} is said to hold over a relation R if R1, R2, R3, ..., Rn is a lossless-join decomposition of R . There is no set of sound and complete inference rules for JD. Inclusion Dependency: An Inclusion Dependency is a statement of the form that some columns of a relation are contained in other columns. A foreign key constraint is an example of inclusion dependency. 57. What is durability in DBMS? Once the DBMS informs the user that a transaction has successfully completed, its effects should persist even if the system crashes before all its changes are reflected on disk. This property is called durability. 58. What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation? Atomicity:

Either all actions are carried out or none are. Users should not have to worry about the effect of incomplete transactions. DBMS ensures this by undoing the actions of incomplete transactions. Aggregation: A concept which is used to model a relationship between a collection of entities and relationships. It is used when we need to express a relationship among relationships. 59. What is a Phantom Deadlock? In distributed deadlock detection, the delay in propagating local information might cause the deadlock detection algorithms to identify deadlocks that do not really exist. Such situations are called phantom deadlocks and they lead to unnecessary aborts. 60. What is a checkpoint and When does it occur? A Checkpoint is like a snapshot of the DBMS state. By taking checkpoints, the DBMS can reduce the amount of work to be done during restart in the event of subsequent crashes. 61. What are the different phases of transaction? Different phases are ? Analysis phase ? Redo Phase ? Undo phase 62. What do you mean by flat file database? It is a database in which there are no programs or user access languages. It has no crossfile capabilities but is user-friendly and provides user-interface management. 63. What is "transparent DBMS"? It is one, which keeps its Physical Structure hidden from user. 64. Brief theory of Network, Hierarchical schemas and their properties Network schema uses a graph data structure to organize records example for such a database management system is CTCG while a hierarchical schema uses a tree data structure example for such a system is IMS. 65. What is a query? A query with respect to DBMS relates to user commands that are used to interact with a data base. The query language can be classified into data definition language and data manipulation language. 66. What do you mean by Correlated subquery? Subqueries, or nested queries, are used to bring back a set of rows to be used by the parent query. Depending on how the subquery is written, it can be executed once for the parent query or it can be executed once for each row returned by the parent query. If the subquery is executed for each row of the parent, this is called a correlated subquery. A correlated subquery can be easily identified if it contains any references to the parent

subquery columns in its WHERE clause. Columns from the subquery cannot be referenced anywhere else in the parent query. The following example demonstrates a non-correlated subquery. E.g. Select * From CUST Where '10/03/1990' IN (Select ODATE From ORDER Where CUST.CNUM = ORDER.CNUM) 67. What are the primitive operations common to all record management systems? Addition, deletion and modification. 68. Name the buffer in which all the commands that are typed in are stored ‘Edit’ Buffer 69. What are the unary operations in Relational Algebra? PROJECTION and SELECTION. 70. Are the resulting relations of PRODUCT and JOIN operation the same? No. PRODUCT: Concatenation of every row in one relation with every row in another. JOIN: Concatenation of rows from one relation and related rows from another. 71. What is RDBMS KERNEL? Two important pieces of RDBMS architecture are the kernel, which is the software, and the data dictionary, which consists of the system-level data structures used by the kernel to manage the database You might think of an RDBMS as an operating system (or set of subsystems), designed specifically for controlling data access; its primary functions are storing, retrieving, and securing data. An RDBMS maintains its own list of authorized users and their associated privileges; manages memory caches and paging; controls locking for concurrent resource usage; dispatches and schedules user requests; and manages space usage within its tablespace structures . 72. Name the sub-systems of a RDBMS I/O, Security, Language Processing, Process Control, Storage Management, Logging and Recovery, Distribution Control, Transaction Control, Memory Management, Lock Management 73. Which part of the RDBMS takes care of the data dictionary? How Data dictionary is a set of tables and database objects that is stored in a special area of the database and maintained exclusively by the kernel. 74. What is the job of the information stored in data-dictionary? The information in the data dictionary validates the existence of the objects, provides access to them, and maps the actual physical storage location. 75. Not only RDBMS takes care of locating data it also determines an optimal access path to store or retrieve the data

if there is one. 79. The combination of the SGA and the Oracle background processes is known as an Oracle instance 80. Depending on their sizes. These are ? Database files ? Control files ? Redo logs The most important of these are the database files where the actual data resides. All the files are binary. control files and log files. and the database administrator might have to recover some or all of the database using a backup. SMON (System Monitor). Without these files. you cannot access the database. All three sets of files must be present. The data and control structures in the SGA are shareable. What are the four Oracle system processes that must always be up and running for the database to be useable The four Oracle system processes that must always be up and running for the database to be useable include DBWR (Database Writer). 81. the system global area or shared global area. What are database files. and PMON (Process Monitor). Name the three major set of files on disk that compose a database in Oracle There are three major sets of files on disk that compose a database. How many of these files should a database have at least? Why? Database Files The database files hold the actual data and are typically the largest in size. also known as Oracle background processes. the tables (and other objects) for all the user accounts can go in one database file—but that's not an ideal situation because it does not make the database structure very . What is an Oracle Instance? The Oracle system processes. The primary difference between SQL and other conventional programming languages is that SQL statements specify what data operations should be performed rather than how to perform them. LGWR (Log Writer). How do you communicate with an RDBMS? You communicate with an RDBMS using Structured Query Language (SQL) 77. and available to Oracle for any data on the database to be useable. provide functions for the user processes—functions that would otherwise be done by the user processes themselves Oracle database-wide system memory is known as the SGA. The control files and the redo logs support the functioning of the architecture itself. Define SQL and state the differences between SQL and other conventional programming Languages SQL is a nonprocedural language that is designed specifically for data access operations on normalized relational database structures. 78. and all the Oracle background processes and user processes can use them.76. open.

the date and time it was created. If any type of failure occurs. and the synchronization information to ensure that all three sets of files are always in step. You must have at least one database file but usually. it never changes until the row is deleted or the table is dropped. the redo logs record all changes to the user objects or system objects. Every time you add a new database or redo log file to the database. putting the database on different disk drives. the location of the database and redo logs. What is ROWID? The ROWID is a unique database-wide physical address for every row on every table. which contains the block with the rows ? Oracle block address. Application developers also use it in SQL statements as a quick way to access a row once they know the ROWID 83. Oracle can apply the information in the redo logs automatically without intervention from the DBA. ? Oracle database file number. The control file records the name of the database. Oracle takes up some space to manage the contents of the block. In the case of non-data loss failure. Regardless of the block size. The block size should be a multiple of the operating system block size. These are the journals for the database. although you typically have more than one to guard against loss. Increasing the Oracle block size can . but it can grow. In terms of accessing and using the data in the tables and other objects. the information is recorded in the control files. Redo Logs Any database must have at least two redo logs. the combination of which uniquely identifies the physical storage location of the row. the entire block is not available for holding data. the changes recorded in the redo logs can be used to bring the database to a consistent state without losing any committed transactions. The database files are fixed in size and never grow bigger than the size at which they were created Control Files The control files and redo logs support the rest of the architecture. Any database must have at least one control file. Once assigned (when the row is first inserted into the database). The ROWID consists of the following three components. These Oracle blocks are the smallest unit of storage. which contains the row ? The row within the block (because each block can hold many rows) The ROWID is used internally in indexes as a quick means of retrieving rows with a particular key value. or backing up and restoring just part of the database. The redo log files are fixed in size and never grow dynamically from the size at which they were created. more than one files are used.flexible for controlling access to storage for different users. the number (or location) of the files is immaterial. 82. This block header has a minimum size. What is Oracle Block? Can two Oracle Blocks have the same address? Oracle "formats" the database files into a number of Oracle blocks when they are first created—making it easier for the RDBMS software to manage the files and easier to read data into the memory areas.

and inserts the data If Export and Import are used as a means of backing up and recovering the database. The Export utility dumps the definitions and data for the specified part of the database to an operating system binary file. but it should be done only when the database is first created. A stored procedure executes the SQL commands and returns the result to the client. The exception handler must be defined within a subprogram specification. A database trigger can call database procedures that are also written in PL/SQL. After the exception handler executes.improve performance. The Import utility reads the file produced by an export. Along with the RDBMS software. The best you can do is recover the database to the time when the export was last performed. the exception name is ot_failure. Oracle provides two utilities that you can use to back up and restore the database. 87. Two blocks can have the same block address if they are in different database files. Name two utilities that Oracle provides. 85. Use of this mechanism enables execution to continue if the error is not severe enough to cause procedure termination. Each Oracle block is numbered sequentially for each database file starting at 1. which are use for backup and recovery. How are exceptions handled in PL/SQL? Give some of the internal exceptions' name PL/SQL exception handling is a mechanism for dealing with run-time errors encountered during procedure execution. control returns to the caller. In this case. update. there are twelve events for which you can define database triggers. User accomplishes this by naming an exception as in the following example: ot_failure EXCEPTION. control returns to the block in which the handler was defined. A stored procedure can have a set of compound SQL statements. These utilities are Export and Import. Stored procedures are database objects that perform a user defined operation. and delete statements against a table. What is database Trigger? A database trigger is a PL/SQL block that can defined to automatically execute for insert. 84. The trigger can e defined to execute once for the entire statement or once for every row that is inserted. updated. Stored procedures are used to reduce network traffic. User-Defined Exceptions PL/SQL enables the user to define exception handlers in the declarations area of subprogram specifications. all the changes made to the database cannot be recovered since the export was performed. or deleted. recreates the definitions of objects. Code associated with this handler is written in the EXCEPTION specification area as follows: EXCEPTION when OT_FAILURE then . For any one table. What are stored-procedures? And what are the advantages of using them. If there are no more executable statements in the block. 86. Errors cause the program to raise an exception with a transfer of control to the exception-handler block.

Prefacing a procedure or function name with the package name fully qualifies any procedure or function reference. The count and data types of formal parameters are also considered. Table below gives a complete list of internal exceptions. Exception Name Oracle Error CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN ORA-06511 DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX ORA-00001 INVALID_CURSOR ORA-01001 INVALID_NUMBER ORA-01722 LOGIN_DENIED ORA-01017 NO_DATA_FOUND ORA-01403 NOT_LOGGED_ON ORA-01012 PROGRAM_ERROR ORA-06501 STORAGE_ERROR ORA-06500 TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE ORA-00051 TOO_MANY_ROWS ORA-01422 TRANSACTION_BACKED_OUT ORA-00061 VALUE_ERROR ORA-06502 ZERO_DIVIDE ORA-01476 In addition to this list of exceptions. 88. NO_DATA_FOUND is a system-defined exception. however. . PL/SQL does not look only at the referenced name. To further ensure calling the proper procedure. System-Defined Exceptions Exceptions internal to PL/SQL are raised automatically upon error. you can use the dot notation. RAISE ot_failure.out_status_code := g_out_status_code. This technique of raising the exception is used to invoke all userdefined exceptions. out_msg := g_out_msg. Does PL/SQL support "overloading"? Explain The concept of overloading in PL/SQL relates to the idea that you can define procedures and functions with the same name. The following is an example of a subprogram exception: EXCEPTION when NO_DATA_FOUND then g_out_status_code := 'FAIL'. PL/SQL also attempts to resolve any procedure or function calls in locally defined packages before looking at globally defined packages or internal functions. PL/SQL internal exceptions. Within this exception is the RAISE statement that transfers control back to the ot_failure exception handler. there is a catch-all exception named OTHERS that traps all errors for which specific error handling has not been established. to resolve a procedure or function call.

89. A B C is a set of attributes. The functional dependency is as follows AB -> B AC -> C C -> B a) is in 1NF b) is in 2NF c) is in 3NF d) is in BCNF (a) is in 1NF since (AC)+ = { A. where neither C is a Key nor B is a prime attribute. Theta joins iii. C} hence AC is the primary key. Further B is not functionally dependent on key AC thus it is not in 2NF. this it is not in 3NF. Since C B is a FD given. 91. Tables derived from the ERD a) Are totally unnormalised b) Are always in 1NF c) Can be further denormalised d) May have multi-valued attributes (b) Are always in 1NF 90. Thus the given FDs is in 1NF. A dominant entity is the entity a) on the N side in a 1 : N relationship b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship c) on either side in a 1 : 1 relationship d) nothing to do with 1 : 1 or 1 : N relationship . 92. Spurious tuples may occur due to i. B. In mapping of ERD to DFD a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD b) entity in DFD is converted to attributes of an entity in ERD c) relations in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to processes in DFD d) relationships in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to flows in DFD (a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD 93. Bad normalization ii. Updating tables from join a) i & ii b) ii & iii c) i & iii d) ii & iii (a) i & iii because theta joins are joins made on keys that are not primary keys.

97. CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS Where REGION = 'E' Order By CUSTOMER The above is a) Not an error b) Error . which manages the allocation of space on disk storage and data structure used to represent information stored on a disk. 96. Select 'NORTH'. 99. What is Authorization and Integrity manager? It is the program module.the ORDER BY clause. 100.(b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship 94. These types of procedures are not available for reference from other Oracle tools. application programs and queries submitted to the system. CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS Where REGION = 'N' Order By CUSTOMER Union Select 'EAST'. which tests for the satisfaction of integrity constraint and checks the authority of user to access data. What is Buffer Manager? It is a program module. Another limitation of stand-alone procedures is that they are compiled at run time. A good example of a stand-alone procedure is one written in a SQL*Forms application. 101. 98. which slows execution.the string should be in double quotes d) Error . What is Transaction Manager? It is a program module. What is Storage Manager? It is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in database. The language supports the use two types of cursors ? Implicit ? Explicit . What are stand-alone procedures? Procedures that are not part of a package are known as stand-alone because they independently defined.the string in single quotes 'NORTH' and 'SOUTH' c) Error . PL/SQL uses cursors for all database information accesses statements. What are cursors give different types of cursors. What is File Manager? It is a program module. which is responsible for fetching data from disk storage into main memory and deciding what data to be cache in memory.ORDER BY clause (d) Error . remains in a consistent state despite system failures and concurrent transaction execution proceeds without conflicting. Since ORDER BY clause cannot be used in UNIONS 95. which ensures that database.

For finding the minimal key it is required to find the closure that is the set of all attributes that are dependent on any given set of attributes under the given set of functional . that the files of the tablespace are to backed up. ? Union or Additive rule: If {X Y. The users can continue to make full use of the files. They are sound because it is enough if a set of FDs satisfy these three. and control file) when the instance is shut down. Issue a SQL command to indicate to Oracle. on a tablespace-by-tablespace basis. X Z} then X YZ. So different means of backing up database must be used — the hot backup.102. Of these the first three are known as Amstrong Rules. What is cold backup and hot backup (in case of Oracle)? ? Cold Backup: It is copying the three sets of files (database files. the only option available in the event of data file loss is restoring all the files from the latest backup. usually from the disk directly to tape. including making changes to the data. ? Hot Backup: Some sites (such as worldwide airline reservations systems) cannot shut down the database while making a backup copy of the files. WY Z} then WX Z. This is a straight file copy. ? Transitive rule: If {X Y. What are Armstrong rules? How do we say that they are complete and/or sound The well-known inference rules for FDs ? Reflexive rule : If Y is subset or equal to X then X Y. 103. The database must be running in ARCHIVELOG mode for the hot backup option. All work performed on the database since the last backup is lost. Y Z} then X Z. The cold backup is not an available option. How can you find the minimal key of relational schema? Minimal key is one which can identify each tuple of the given relation schema uniquely. ? Decomposition rule : If X YZ then X Y. ? Pseudo Transitive rule : If {X Y. You must shut down the instance to guarantee a consistent copy. If a cold backup is performed. ? Augmentation rule: If X Y then XZ YZ. redo logs. The database is restored to the most consistent state without any loss of committed transactions. They are called complete because using these three rules we can generate the rest all inference rules. 104. If a data loss failure does occur. Once the user has indicated that he/she wants to back up the tablespace files. the lost database files can be restored using the hot backup and the online and offline redo logs created since the backup was done. he/she can use the operating system to copy those files to the desired backup destination.

dependency. If (K – A)+ = R then set K = (K – A)+ 105. ((?R1(F)) U … U (?Rn(F)))+ = F+ if decomposition is not dependency preserving. For each FD Y Z in F and if Y belongs to X+ then add Z to X+ 4.. 107. given set of FDs F 1. I Determining X+. dependency preservation states that the closure of the union of the projection of F on each decomposed relation Ri is equal to the closure of F. Simulatneous Update: The updates that are applied to database at the same time when it becomes effective in real world . Set X+ = X 2. Set Old X+ = X+ 3. closure for X. Compute (K – A)+ with respect to F b. What are the different types of JOIN operations? Equi Join: This is the most common type of join which involves only equality comparisions. then some dependency is lost in the decomposition. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until Old X+ = X+ Algo. What is meant by Proactive. Retroactive Update: The updates that are applied to database after it becomes effective in real world . For each attribute A in K a. i. The disadvantage in this type of join is that there .II Determining minimal K for relation schema R. Set K to R that is make K a set of all attributes in R 2. given set of FDs F 1. Proactive Update: The updates that are applied to database before it becomes effective in real world .e. What do you understand by dependency preservation? Given a relation R and a set of FDs F. Algo. 106. Retroactive and Simultaneous Update.

order by controls the presentation of the columns for the results of the SELECT statement. . What is the difference between group by and order by? Group by controls the presentation of the rows.Sql What is a subselect? Is it different from a nested select? A subselect is a select which works in conjunction with another select. A nested select is a kind of subselect where the inner select passes to the where criteria for the outer select.

first position and string length used as arguments. What are some SQL aggregates and other built-in functions? The common aggregate. COUNT and DISTINCT. SUM.g. MAX. The % sign is used as a wildcard. . E. built-in functions are AVG. How is the SUBSTR keyword used in SQL? SUBSTR is used for string manipulation with column name.What keyword does an SQL SELECT statement use for a string search? The LIKE keyword allows for string searches. MIN.

1 3) refers to the first three characters in the column NAME. What is referential integrity? Referential integrity refers to the consistency that must be maintained between primary and foreign keys. . i.e. Explain the EXPLAIN statement? The explain statement provides information about the optimizer's choice of access path of the SQL. every foreign key value must have a corresponding primary key value.SUBSTR (NAME.

it requires extra coding for an application program to handle this situation. What is a synonym? How is it used? A synonym is used to reference a table or view by another name. It's the DB2 equivalent of TBD on an organizational chart and often correctly portrays a business situation. Unfortunately. The other name can then be written in the .What is a NULL value? What are the pros and cons of using NULLS? A NULL value takes up one byte of storage and indicates that a value is not present as opposed to a space or zero value.

designed for a distributed environment to avoid having to use the location qualifier of a table or view. .application code pointing to test tables in the development stage and to production entities when the code is migrated. The synonym is linked to the AUTHID that created it. The alias is not dropped when the table is dropped. What is an alias and how does it differ from a synonym? An alias is an alternative to a synonym.

For dynamic SQL the program must dynamically allocate memory to receive the query results. . What is the difference between static and dynamic SQL? Static SQL is hard-coded in a program when the programmer knows the statements to be executed.When can an insert of a new primary key value threaten referential integrity? Never. However. And updates of primary key values may require changes in foreign key values to maintain referential integrity. the values of foreign key inserts must have corresponding primary key values in their related tables. New primary key values are not a problem.

Joins are usually more efficient as join rows can be returned immediately. What is the difference between IN subselects and EXISTS subselect? If there is an index on the attributes tested an IN is more efficient since DB2 uses the index for the IN. but not vice versa. subselects require a temporary work area for inner selects results while processing the outer select.Compare a subselect to a join? Any subselect can be rewritten as a join. (IN for index is .

What is a tuple? A tuple is an instance of data within a relational database. It is a row in the results for every combination in the join tables. What is the difference between static and dynamic SQL? .the mnemonic). What is a Cartesian product? A Cartesian product results from a faulty query.

Which of the following are those data types ? (Check all that apply) A). Any SQL implementation covers data types in couple of main categories. DATE AND TIME . NUMERIC B). CHARACTER C).Static SQL is compiled and optimized prior to its execution. dynamic is compiled and optimized during execution.

C. BLOBS E.B. We apply a ">" row comparison between this field and another CHARACTER field in another table. We have a table with a CHARACTER data type field. What will be the results for records with field value of NULL? (Check one that applies the best) TRUE . Not all SQL implementations have a BLOB or a BIT data types. BIT A.D).

NULL in a row when compared will give an UNKNOWN result. E. The normalization process is done . Any database needs to go through a normalization process to make sure that data is represented only once. Those records will be ignored C. This will eliminate problems with creating or destroying data in the database.B. FALSE C. Error. UNKNOWN D.

second and third normal forms. Which best describes the process to obtain the third normal form? (Check one that applies the best) Each table should have related columns. If a table has columns not dependent on the primary keys. All columns that are dependent on only one or on some of the keys should be moved in a different table. they need to be moved in a separate table.usually in three steps which results in first. Each separate table should have a primary key. We have a table with multi-valued key. .

E. All columns in a table should be dependent on the primary key. D. and B depends on C. . This will eliminate transitive dependencies in which A depends on B. SQL can be embedded in a host program that uses a relational database as a persistent data repository. but we're not sure how C depends on A. Some of the most important pre-defined structures for this mechanism are SQLDA ("SQL Descriptor Area") and SQLCA ("SQL Communications Area") SQLCA contains two structures SQLCODE and SQLSTATE. Primary key is always UNIQUE and NOT NULL.

SQLSTATE is a standard set of error messages and warnings in which the first two characters defines the class and the last three defines the subclass of the error. 22xxx . Which of the following SQLSTATE codes is interpreted as "No data returned"?(Check one that applies the best) A). 02xxx D). 01xxx C). 00xxx B).

22 . 2Axxx C. 00 .E).is successful completion. What are common SQL abend codes? (e. : 0. The SQLSTATE code format returned for "No data returned" is "02xxx".g.) -818 time stamp mismatch -180 wrong data moved into date field ..is data exception and 2A is syntax error.warnings. 01 .100 etc.

The SQL source is contained in host variables rather than being hard coded into the program.What is meant by dynamic SQL? Dynamic SQL are SQL statements that are prepared and executed within a program while the program is executing. What is meant by embedded SQL? They are SQL statements that are embedded with in application program and are prepared during the program . The SQL statement may change from execution to execution.

html#ixzz1GrWOgPni What is normalization? Explain different levels of normalization? Check out the article Q100139 from Microsoft knowledge base and of course. J. After it is prepared. it will be okay if you can explain till third normal form. the statement itself does not change(although values of host variables specified within the statement might change). Most of the times. Date. especially the one by C.preparation process before the program is executed.com/sql-interview-questions(2550). What is denormalization and when would you go for it? . Read more: http://www.ittestpapers. there's much more information available in the net. It'll be a good idea to get a hold of any RDBMS fundamentals text book.

and format to the database. One-to-Many relationships are implemented by splitting the data into two tables with primary key and foreign key relationships. one-to-many and many-to-many relationships while designing tables? One-to-One relationship can be implemented as a single table and rarely as two tables with primary and foreign key relationships. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column. In this case you could create a user defined datatype called Flight_num_type of varchar(8) and use it across all your tables. Many-to-Many relationships are implemented using a junction table with the keys from both the tables forming the composite primary key of the junction table. It's the controlled introduction of redundancy in to the database design. . In all these tables it should be varchar(8).As the name indicates. in your database. Another major difference is that. It will be a good idea to read up a database designing fundamentals text book. primary key doesn't allow NULLs. What's the difference between a primary key and a unique key? Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. Take for example. It helps improve the query performance as the number of joins could be reduced. where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. but unique key allows one NULL only. How do you implement one-to-one. What are user defined datatypes and when you should go for them? User defined datatypes let you extend the base SQL Server datatypes by providing a descriptive name. there is a column called Flight_Num which appears in many tables. denormalization is the reverse process of normalization.

A candidate key is one that can identify each row of a table uniquely. bit datatype can represent a third state. What are defaults? Is there a column to which a default can't be bound? A default is a value that will be used by a column. Generally a candidate key becomes the primary key of the table. Durability.See sp_addtype.0 onwards. alternate key. which is NULL. ACID stands for Atomicity. But from SQL Server 7. Until SQL Server 6. one of them will become the primary key. See CREATE DEFUALT in books online. and the rest are called alternate keys. A key formed by combining at least two or more columns is called composite key. If the table has more than one candidate key.5 bit datatype could hold either a 1 or 0 and there was no support for NULL. These are the properties . composite key. Isolation. IDENTITY columns and timestamp columns can't have defaults bound to them. if no value is supplied to that column while inserting data. What is a transaction and what are ACID properties? A transaction is a logical unit of work in which. What is bit datatype and what's the information that can be stored inside a bit column? Bit datatype is used to store Boolean information like 1 or 0 (true or false). all the steps must be performed or none. Consistency. sp_droptype in books online. Define candidate key.

see SQL Server books online or any RDBMS fundamentals text book. Read Committed. Important thing to note: By default a clustered index gets created on the primary key. Serializable. Explain different isolation levels An isolation level determines the degree of isolation of data between concurrent transactions. See SQL Server books online for an explanation of the isolation levels. Check out SQL Server books online for the page titled: "Maximum Capacity Specifications". Repeatable Read. Be sure to read about SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL. Don't be surprised with questions like 'what is the maximum number of columns per table'. Explain Active/Active and Active/Passive cluster configurations .of a transaction. unless specified otherwise. The default SQL Server isolation level is Read Committed. CREATE INDEX myIndex ON myTable(myColumn) What type of Index will get created after executing the above statement? Non-clustered index. which lets you customize the isolation level at the connection level. Here are the other isolation levels (in the ascending order of isolation): Read Uncommitted. For more information and explanation of these properties. What's the maximum size of a row? 8060 bytes.

Read up the chapter dedicated to SQL Server Architecture. at least be familiar with the way clustering works and the two clusterning configurations Active/Active and Active/Passive. page locks) into higher level locks (like table locks). But if you don't. TRUNCATE TABLE also deletes all the rows in a table. which makes it slow. Every lock is a memory structure too many locks would mean. but it won't log the deletion of each row. so the deletion of each row gets logged in the transaction log.5. but from SQL Server 7. SQL Server books online has enough information on this topic and there is a good white paper available on Microsoft site. To prevent this from happening. Explain the storage models of OLAP . TRUNCATE TABLE can be rolled back. SQL Server escalates the many fine-grain locks to fewer coarse-grain locks.Hopefully you have experience setting up cluster servers. Lock escalation threshold was definable in SQL Server 6. SQL Server books online is the best place to read about SQL Server architecture.0 onwards it's dynamically managed by SQL Server. What is lock escalation? Lock escalation is the process of converting a lot of low level locks (like row locks. Of course. more memory being occupied by locks. which makes it faster. Explain the architecture of SQL Server This is a very important question and you better be able to answer it if consider yourself a DBA. What's the difference between DELETE TABLE and TRUNCATE TABLE commands? DELETE TABLE is a logged operation. instead it logs the deallocation of the data pages of the table.

Generally there is a section in the beginning of the books online titled "What's New". Types of constraints: NOT NULL.Check out MOLAP. Constraints enable the RDBMS enforce the integrity of the database automatically. FOREIGN KEY For an explanation of these constraints see books online for the pages titled: "Constraints" and "CREATE TABLE". Of course. PRIMARY KEY. reading just that is not enough. ROLAP and HOLAP in SQL Server books online for more information. UNIQUE. rule or defaults. "ALTER TABLE" Whar is an index? What are the types of indexes? How many clustered indexes can be created on a table? I create a separate index on each column of a table. you should have tried those things to better answer the questions. which has all such information. What are the new features introduced in SQL Server 2000 (or the latest release of SQL Server at the time of your interview)? What changed between the previous version of SQL Server and the current version? This question is generally asked to see how current is your knowledge. Also check out the section titled "Backward Compatibility" in books online which talks about the changes that have taken place in the new version. What are constraints? Explain different types of constraints. what are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach? . without needing you to create triggers. CHECK.

What is RAID and what are different types of RAID configurations? RAID stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. They help SQL Server retrieve the data quicker. When you craete a clustered index on a table. table scans. check out the RAID advisory board's homepage What are the steps you will take to improve performance of a poor performing query? This is a very open ended question and there could be a lot of reasons behind the poor performance of a query. missing or out of date statistics. Clustered indexes and non-clustered indexes. depending up on the absence or presence of clustered index on the table. there can be only one clustered index per table. Non-clustered indexes are stored as B-tree structures (so do clustered indexes). If you create an index on each column of a table. UPDATE. the more indexes you have. DELETE) will become slow. as the query optimizer can choose from all the existing indexes to come up with an efficient execution plan. There are six RAID levels 0 through 5 offering different levels of performance. So. The row located could be the RID or the Clustered index key. Indexes are of two types. At the same t ime. poorly written . data modification operations (such as INSERT. procedures and triggers without SET NOCOUNT ON. as every time data changes in the table. all the indexes need to be updated. Non-clustered indexes have their own storage separate from the table data storage. Another disadvantage is that. all the rows in the table are stored in the order of the clustered index key.Indexes in SQL Server are similar to the indexes in books. But some general issues that you could talk about would be: No indexes. it improves the query performance. MSDN has some information about RAID levels and for detailed information. with the leaf level nodes having the index key and it's row locater. indexes need disk space. blocking. more disk space is used. excess recompilations of stored procedures. fault tolerance. used to provide fault tolerance to database servers.

using an unguessable SA password. Each process would wait indefinitely for the other to release the lock. restricting physical access to the SQL Server. disabling the Guest account. Some of the tools/ways that help you troubleshooting performance problems are: SET SHOWPLAN_ALL ON. setting up firewalls. SQL Server Profiler. Graphical execution plan in Query Analyzer. Read the white paper on SQL Server security from Microsoft website. enabling auditing. Download the white paper on performance tuning SQL Server from Microsoft web site. . attempt to acquire a lock on the other's piece. Here are some things you could talk about: Preferring NT authentication. if you are tasked with securing an SQL Server? Again this is another open ended question. too much normalization. unless one of the user processes is terminated. renaming the Administrator account on the SQL Server computer. each having a lock on one piece of data. using multiprotocol encryption. Windows NT /2000 Performance monitor. isolating SQL Server from the web server etc. Also check out My SQL Server security best practices What is a deadlock and what is a live lock? How will you go about resolving deadlocks? Deadlock is a situation when two processes. excess usage of cursors and temporary tables. SET STATISTICS IO ON. using server. SET SHOWPLAN_TEXT ON. SQL Server detects deadlocks and terminates one user's process.query with unnecessarily complicated joins. Don't forget to check out sql-server-performance.com What are the steps you will take. setting up SSL. securing the physical database files using NTFS permissions. database and application roles to control access to the data.

A livelock is one. What is blocking and how would you troubleshoot it? Blocking happens when one connection from an application holds a lock and a second connection requires a conflicting lock type. forcing a write transaction to wait indefinitely. A livelock also occurs when read transactions monopolize a table or page. SQL Server detects the situation after four denials and refuses further shared locks. Also check out the article Q169960 from Microsoft knowledge base. How to restart SQL Server in single user mode? How to start SQL Server in minimal configuration mode? . But what if you have to create a database with two filegroups. Read up the following topics in SQL Server books online: Understanding and avoiding blocking. Coding efficient transactions. Check out SET DEADLOCK_PRIORITY and "Minimizing Deadlocks" in SQL Server books online. blocked on the first. This forces the second connection to wait. Explain CREATE DATABASE syntax Many of us are used to craeting databases from the Enterprise Manager or by just issuing the command: CREATE DATABAE MyDB. one on drive C and the other on drive D with log on drive E with an initial size of 600 MB and with a growth factor of 15%? That's why being a DBA you should be familiar with the CREATE DATABASE syntax. Check out SQL Server books online for more information. where a request for an exclusive lock is repeatedly denied because a series of overlapping shared locks keeps interfering.

DBCC SHRINKDATABASE. What are statistics. Check out SQL Server books online for more parameters and their explanations. STATS_DATE. changed. -m is used for starting SQL Server in single user mode and -f is used to start the SQL Server in minimal confuguration mode. As a part of your job. Check out SQL Server books online for more information. or the table has been truncated using the TRUNCATE TABLE statement and then repopulated 3) Database is upgraded from a previous version Look up SQL Server books online for the following commands: UPDATE STATISTICS. if the distribution of key values has changed). under what circumstances they go out of date. as opposed to an index with non-unique values. This EXE has some very important parameters with which a DBA should be familiar with. DBCC CHECKCATALOG. DBCC CHECKALLOC. If an indexed column has unique values then the selectivity of that index is more. . or removed (that is. DBCC SHOW_STATISTICS. using the SQLSERVR. DBCC SHOWCONTIG.SQL Server can be started from command line. But there are a whole load of DBCC commands which are very useful for DBAs.EXE. Query optimizer uses these indexes in determining whether to choose an index or not while executing a query. Some situations under which you should update statistics: 1) If there is significant change in the key values in the index 2) If a large amount of data in an indexed column has been added. how do you update them? Statistics determine the selectivity of the indexes. DBCC SHRINKFILE etc. CREATE STATISTICS. what are the DBCC commands that you commonly use for database maintenance? DBCC CHECKDB. DBCC CHECKTABLE.

Be prepared to write the commands in your interview.DROP STATISTICS. Books online also has information on detailed backup/restore architecture and when one should go for a particular kind of backup. you have to choose your option depending upon your requirements. creating INSERT scripts to generate data. What is database replicaion? What are the different types of replication you can set up in SQL Server? Replication is the process of copying/moving data between databases on the same or different servers. DTS.SELECT. differential database backup. sp_updatestats What are the different ways of moving data/databases between servers and databases in SQL Server? There are lots of options available. BCP. with queued updating subscribers) * Merge replication . replication.. Explian different types of BACKUPs avaialabe in SQL Server? Given a particular scenario.. transaction log backup. Some of the options you have are: BACKUP/RESTORE.. SELECT. SQL Server supports the following types of replication scenarios: * Snapshot replication * Transactional replication (with immediate updating subscribers. Check out the BACKUP and RESTORE commands in SQL Server books online.. logshipping.0+ are Full database backup. INSERT. filegroup backup. how would you go about choosing a backup plan? Types of backups you can create in SQL Sever 7.INTO. sp_autostats. dettaching and attaching databases. sp_createstats.

Disadvantages of cursors: Each time you fetch a row from the cursor. Furthere. however large the resultset is. Types of cursors: Static. set based operations can be used instead of cursors. How to determine the service pack currently installed on SQL Server? The global variable @@Version stores the build number of the sqlservr. What are cursors? Explain different types of cursors. Forward-only. it results in a network roundtrip.exe.See SQL Server books online for indepth coverage on replication. there are restrictions on the SELECT statements that can be used with some types of cursors. Here is an example: If you have to give a flat hike to your employees using the following criteria: . Dynamic. To know more about this process visit SQL Server service packs and versions. what are the main system tables used in replication etc. Most of the times. Be prepared to explain how different replication agents function. See books online for more information. Cursors are also costly because they require more resources and temporary storage (results in more IO operations). Keyset-driven. which is used to determine the service pack installed. What are the disadvantages of cursors? How can you avoid cursors? Cursors allow row-by-row prcessing of the resultsets. where as a normal SELECT query makes only one rowundtrip.

You don't have to use cursors for this.5000 hike Salary between 40000 and 55000 -. SELECT select_list [INTO new_table_] FROM table_source [WHERE search_condition] [GROUP BY group_by__expression] [HAVING search_condition] [ORDER BY order__expression [ASC | DESC] ] . as long as there is a unique key to identify each row. Write down the general syntax for a SELECT statements covering all the options. check out the 'My code library' section of my site or search for WHILE. Here's the basic syntax: (Also checkout SELECT in books online for advanced syntax).7000 hike Salary between 55000 and 65000 -.9000 hike In this situation many developers tend to use a cursor.Salary between 30000 and 40000 -. determine each employee's salary and update his salary according to the above formula. But the same can be achieved by multiple update statements or can be combined in a single UPDATE statement as shown below: UPDATE tbl_emp SET salary = CASE WHEN salary BETWEEN 30000 AND 40000 THEN salary + 5000 WHEN salary BETWEEN 40000 AND 55000 THEN salary + 7000 WHEN salary BETWEEN 55000 AND 65000 THEN salary + 10000 END Another situation in which developers tend to use cursors: You need to call a stored procedure when a column in a particular row meets certain condition. This can be achieved using WHILE loop. For examples of using WHILE loop for row by row processing.

sp_OAGetProperty. Joins also let you select data from a table depending upon data from another table. you can instantiate a COM (written in languages like VB. C++ using Open Data Services (ODS) API) that can be called from TSQL. OUTER JOINs. ROLLBACK. RIGHT OUTER JOINS and FULL OUTER JOINS. For more information see pages from books online titled: "Join Fundamentals" and "Using Joins". COMMIT. For an example of creating a COM object in VB and calling it from T-SQL. See books online to learn how to create extended stored procedures and how to add them to SQL Server. Also see books online for sp_OAMethod. just the way we call normal stored procedures using the EXEC statement. CROSS JOINs.What is a join and explain different types of joins? Joins are used in queries to explain how different tables are related. Types of joins: INNER JOINs. SAVE TRAN and @@TRANCOUNT What is an extended stored procedure? Can you instantiate a COM object by using T-SQL? An extended stored procedure is a function within a DLL (written in a programming language like C. see 'My code library' section of this site. OUTER JOINs are further classified as LEFT OUTER JOINS. Yes. very much. Can you have a nested transaction? Yes. sp_OASetProperty. VC++) object from TSQL by using sp_OACreate stored procedure. . sp_OADestroy. Check out BEGIN TRAN.

But in 7. SESSION_USER. DELETE) happens on the table on which they are defined. triggers fire only after the data modification operation happens. SUSER_SID(). . UPDATE or DELETE operation takes place on a table. but wherever possible. Search SQL Server 2000 books online for INSTEAD OF triggers. this restriction is gone. Triggers are generally used to implement business rules. In SQL Server 6. In SQL Server 2000 you could specify which trigger fires first or fires last using sp_settriggerorder Triggers can't be invoked on demand. What are triggers? How many triggers you can have on a table? How to invoke a trigger on demand? Triggers are special kind of stored procedures that get executed automatically when an INSERT. USER. auditing.What is the system function to get the current user's user id? USER_ID(). Till SQL Server 7. they are called post triggers. HOST_NAME(). From SQL Server 7. CURRENT_USER.0 there's no way to control the order in which the triggers fire. UPDATE. instead of triggers.0 onwards. SYSTEM_USER. one for INSERT. Also check out other system functions like USER_NAME(). But in SQL Server 2000 you could create pre triggers also. So in a way.5 you could define only 3 triggers per table. one for UPDATE and one for DELETE. use constraints for this purpose. as constraints are much faster. and you could create multiple triggers per each action. They get triggered only when an associated action (INSERT.0. Triggers can also be used to extend the referential integrity checks.

and have a job which periodically checks this table and does the needful. Sponsored Links What is a self join? Explain it with an example. in an OLTP system. it slows down the data insertion process.'Vyas' INSERT emp SELECT 2. What do you think of this implementation? Can this be implemented better? Instantiating COM objects is a time consuming process and since you are doing it from within a trigger.'Mohan' . except that two instances of the same table will be joined in the query. CREATE TABLE emp ( empid int. The trigger is written to instantiate a COM object and pass the newly insterted rows to it for some custom processing. to find out the managers of all the employees. Same is the case with sending emails from triggers.Also check out books online for 'inserted table'. Here is an example: Employees table which contains rows for normal employees as well as managers. you need a self join.3. mgrid int. empname char(10) ) INSERT emp SELECT 1. Self join is just like any other join. So. This scenario can be better implemented by logging all the necessary data into a separate table. 'deleted table' and COLUMNS_UPDATED() There is a trigger defined for INSERT operations on a table.2.

2.empid Here's an advanced query using a LEFT OUTER JOIN that even returns the employees without managers (super bosses) SELECT t1.mgrid = t2. emp t2 WHERE t1.'Sourabh' SELECT t1. COALESCE(t2.INSERT emp SELECT 3.empid .'Shobha' INSERT emp SELECT 4.2.empname [Employee].'Shridhar' INSERT emp SELECT 5.empname [Manager] FROM emp t1.mgrid = t2. 'No manager') [Manager] FROM emp t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN emp t2 ON t1. t2.empname [Employee].NULL.empname.