‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺫ ‪.‬ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻳﺰﺍﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻴﻴﻦ‬

‫‪ pH (I‬ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (1.1‬ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺑﺮﻭﻧﺸﺘﺪ ‪Brönsted‬‬

‫ﺣﻤﺾ ﺑﺮﻭﻧﺸﺘﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ‪ H+‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ : CH3COOH‬ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ‪HCOOH‬‬

‫‪ : HCl‬ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺮﻭﻧﺸﺘﺪ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺰﻉ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ‪ H+‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ : HO-‬ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬

‫‪ : CH3COO-‬ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫‪ : NH3‬ﺃﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ‬

‫‪ (2.1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ – ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﻱ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻪ‬
‫‪ (1.2.1‬ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺩﻭﺟﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ – ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﻱ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ‪:‬‬
‫ادو ‪CH3CH2COOH / CH3CH2COO- :‬‬
‫) ان و ن (‪CH3CH2COOH  CH3CH2COO- + H+‬‬
‫‪H3O+ / H2O‬‬
‫ادو ‪:‬‬
‫‪H3O+‬‬

‫‬

‫‪ ) H2O + H+‬اآ ب ون‬

‫(‬

‫ا د‬
‫‪+‬‬

‫‪CH3CH2COO- + H3O‬‬

‫‬

‫‪CH3CH2COOH + H2O‬‬

‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻘﻮﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ pH (3.1‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (1.31‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ‪pH‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ . 10-2 mol.L-1‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻤﺮﻛﻲ ‪Sorensen‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﻢ ﻟﻮﻏﺎﺭﻳﺘﻤﻲ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ‪H3O+.‬‬

‫]‪pH = –log [H3O+‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ‪[H3O+] = 4,8 10-5 mol.L-1‬‬

‫ن ‪ pH‬ها ال ‪:‬‬
‫×‬

‫‪–log [H3O+] = -log (4,8 10-5) = 4,32‬‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺣﻮﺍﺭﻱ ‪:‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ‪ pH‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﻤﻀﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﻩ ‪ H3O ] = 2,5. 10 mol.L‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ‪ pH‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ؟‬

‫‪pH = –log [H3O+] = –log (2,5 .10-3) = 2,6‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻏﺮﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺼﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺺ ‪pH‬‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺣﻮﺍﺭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﺴﺒﺘﻚ ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ]‪ [H3O+‬إذا  أن ‪pH = 3.52 :‬‬

‫‪=10−3,52‬‬

‫‪[H O ] =10‬‬
‫‪+‬‬

‫‪−pH‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝ ‪ casio fx 82MS‬ﻭﻣﺜﻴﻠﺘﻬﺎ ) ‪( SVPAM‬‬
‫‪(schift) --- (log)--- (- )---(3,52) --- = 3,0199.10-4mol.L-1‬‬

‫‪ ( 231 .‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ pH‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫‪ %‬ا‪$‬ان رق ‪)* ( &' &( pH‬‬
‫  (‪ )+‬ل ‪pH‬‬

‫‪-./‬ز ‪ 0' pH‬أآ‪ 2‬د*) '& ورق ‪& pH‬‬
‫(‪ 4 5 67‬ل ‪-‬ر ذو ‪ 5' pH‬وف‬
‫@? >(=< ‪-‬س د*‪ 0 :‬آ‪H3O+ 9‬‬

‫(& ر ‪-* &' &( (logiciel) %A + B‬س‬
‫ =‪-‬ة ا‪-‬ب )‪(EXAO‬‬

‫‪ (II‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ (1.2‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻠﻲ )ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ (‬
‫ﻧﺬﻳﺐ ﻏﺎﺯ ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﺤﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻟﻴﻦ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ‪C 0 = 1,00.10-1 mol. L-1‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ‪C 1= 1,00.10-2 mol .L-1‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ pH‬ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪pH‬‬

‫اآ ) ‪(mol / L‬‬

‫ ارر‬

‫‪# 1,1‬‬

‫‪1,00 x 10 –1‬‬

‫ا آ‪9‬‬

‫‪# 2,0‬‬

‫‪1,00 x 10 –2‬‬

‫ا‪EFG‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻒ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬
‫‪ Xmax‬ﻭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﺴﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ‪HCl‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺨﻂ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ‪):‬ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ ‪(V = 1L‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫)‪Cl - (aq) + H 3O (aq‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬

‫)‪HCl (g) + H 2O (l‬‬

‫ام‬
‫)‪x (mol‬‬

‫ا‪)-‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫  ة‬

‫آ  ا دة ا‬
‫‪n app‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ا‪ )-‬ا‪)H+‬‬
‫)‪(mol‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫  ة‬

‫‪n app - x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪IJ‬ل ا‪0‬ل‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫  ة‬

‫‪n app – xf‬‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫ا‪0‬م ا@‪KH-.‬‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫  ة‬

‫‪n app - xmax = 0‬‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫ا‪0‬م ا‪N‬ي‬

‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻱ ‪ X max‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ – pH‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ‪ pH = 2‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ X f‬ﻭ ‪ X max‬ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻛﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫‪3‬‬

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‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ‪ X f‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ‪ X max‬ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ‪ τ = 1‬أي أن ا‪ O-F0‬آ‪K‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪:‬‬

‫'‪ &( : )P‬إ از م ‪ O-F‬أ(‪-A‬ت ا‪$‬وآ=‪A‬م‪ ) H3O+‬ا‪ ST &' ) U‬ار(ر(‪( R‬‬
‫وأ(‪-A‬ت ارور ‪ ) Cl-‬ا‪ <' &' ) U‬ا‪-5V‬م ( وذ‪  R‬ا*‪ pH )+‬ال ‪IJ‬ل إ‪ )-W‬ا< (‬
‫إذن ‪ ST O-F‬ار(ر(‪ Z' R‬ا‪-‬ء ل (ث ‪ [@' K‬وا‪T‬‬
‫‪ (2.2‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﻠﻲ‬
‫‪ (122‬ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻀﺮ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺤﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻢ ﻧﺨﻔﻔﻪ ﻭﻧﻘﻴﺲ ‪ pH‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻟﻴﻦ ‪:‬‬
‫‪pH‬‬

‫اآ‬
‫‪mol / L‬‬

‫‪# 2,9‬‬

‫‪1,00 x 10 –1‬‬

‫ا آ‪9‬‬

‫‪# 3,4‬‬

‫‪1,00 x 10 –2‬‬

‫ا‪EFG‬‬

‫ا‪$‬ل ا "!‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ‪ pH‬ﻭﺑﺎﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻳﺆﻭﻝ ‪ pH‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪7‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ) ﻧﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﺒﺴﻄﺔ ﻭﻣﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫)ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ ‪(V = 0,5L‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫)‪(aq‬‬

‫‪CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3O‬‬

‫)‪CH 3 COOH (l) + H 2O (l‬‬

‫‪Équation‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ‪x‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ﺑﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬

‫‪n app‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫ﺑﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬

‫‪n app - x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫ﺑﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬

‫‪n app – x f‬‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫ﺑﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬

‫‪n app - x max = 0‬‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻱ‬

‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ‪n app = C. V = 10-2 . 0,5 = 5.10-3 mol :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻱ ‪ : X max‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬

‫‪ n app - x max = 0‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ‪x max = 5.10-3 mol‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ – pH‬ﻣﺘﺮ ‪:‬‬
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‫‪X f = 10-pH .V = 10-3,4.0,5 = 2.10-4 mol‬‬
‫‪Xf = 2.10-4mol X max = 5.10-3 mol‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ X f‬ﻭ ‪ X max‬ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﻠﻲ‬
‫‪2.10 −4‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪ .‬ﻉ ‪= 0.04 = 4° / 0‬‬
‫‪5.10 −3‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫=‪τ‬‬

‫‪ (2.2.2‬ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﺍﺕ )‪CH 3 COO - (aq‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ )‪H 3O+(aq‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ‪ :‬ﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﻛﺄﺳﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 50ml‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﻩ ‪C = 10-2 mol.L-1‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻴﺲ ‪ pH‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ )ﻧﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪ ( 3,4 :‬ﺛﻢ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﺮﺍﻙ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ‪ pH‬ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻂ ﻳﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ ﻧﻤﺜﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ (3.2‬ﻧﻤﺬﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﻠﺨﺺ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﻴﻦ ‪:‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﻴﻦ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻪ )ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﻛﺒﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ( ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺔ )ﻟﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺃﻱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ( ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻧﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪CH3COO- + H3O+‬‬

‫‪CH3COOH + H2O‬‬

‫‪ (3.2‬ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ (1‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﻭﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻱ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺗﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬
‫‪ : τ = 0‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬
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‫‪ :τ = 1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻛﻠﻲ‬
‫‪ : 0 < τ < 1‬ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺠﻬﺮﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﻟﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺗﺞ‬
‫‪ (4‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﺩﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﺩﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺗﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻳﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ )ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺔ (‬

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