Government 90dn Mapping the Census

Lecture 3: More on GIS; Spatial Data Structures;TIGER
Sumeeta Srinivasan ssrinivasan@cga.harvard.edu
Reference: Unlocking the Census, Ch 2; TIGER documentation www.census.gov; Introduction to GIS (Huxhold); Geographic Information Systems and Science, Longley, Goodchild, et al.

Outline
What is GIS? GIS Data types
Raster vs Vector

Data structures
TIGER data structure for address matching

Geographic Information
Multidimensional Has volume Requires projection to flat surface Analyses require data integration Unique analysis methods

Geographic Information System (Definitions)
Container of maps Computerized tools for solving geographic problems Mechanized inventory of geographically distributed features and facilities Method for revealing patterns and processes in geographic information

Geographic Information System
Container of maps

Geographic Information System
Mechanized inventory of geographically distributed features and facilities

Geographic Information System
Computerized tools for solving geographic problems

dotdgis.dotd.louisiana.gov dotdgis.dotd.louisiana.gov/website/GIS-T2006.ppt

Geographic Information System
Method for revealing patterns and processes in geographic information

Spills in Boston, Cambridge, Somerville
Mean Population Weighted Center
(close to intersection of Fenway and Forsyth in Boston)

Hazardous and Oil Spills Center
(close to intersection of Main and Portland in Cambridge)

Directional Ellipse for Population

Directional Ellipse for Spills

Geographic Information System (Definitions)
Container of maps Computerized tools for solving geographic problems Mechanized inventory of geographically distributed features and facilities Method for revealing patterns and processes in geographic information

Why Represent?
“Almost all human activities require knowledge of the Earth” “Representations help us assemble far more knowledge than is possible on our own” “The world is infinitely complex but computer systems are finite. Representations must limit detail”

GIS Data Models
Discretize Geographical Reality
field view (regions) vs. object view (objects in a plane)

Data Model implies spatial sampling and spatial errors

Rasters and Vectors
How to digitally represent phenomena conceived as fields or discrete objects?
Field View: Raster Object View: Vector

“Real World”

Raster vs Vector Data Structure
Raster Representation
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 R R R R R R R R R R T T T T H 6 7 R T T H 8 9

Vector Representation point line

polygon

Lab Exercise 2
Step by step creation of data structures
Point, line and polygon tables Topology tables

Topology in Data Structures
Defined as the spatial relationships between neighboring features Implemented within data structure by defining: connectivity: Which arcs meet at a node? area definition: Which arcs make up the polygon? contiguity: Which polygons are on the left and right?

Lab Exercise 1
How to use TIGER data to match up Tuscaloosa school addresses?

TIGER Files
Lines
streets, railroads, rivers

Areas
zip codes, census blocks, tracts, places, counties, etc.

Points
landmarks such as churches, schools, and other cultural features represented in TIGER as points

Linear Address Matching (Streets)
Urban street maps
Four street address numbers ranging from low to high for each side of a street segment.
Left_from 101 Left_to 199 Right_from 100 0105 0107 Right_to 198 100 101
(80.731, 40.025)

Street_name OAK

Type ST 198 199
(80.729, 40.025)

Oak St.

Address Matching Major Steps
Schools file
ID 1437 402 855 Address 123 Oak St 333 Pine Av 18 Bay Dr Class A A B

Address Matching Major Steps Schools
ID 1437 402 855 Address 123 Oak St 333 Pine Av 18 Bay Dr Class A A B

Attributes of Streets
From 2 1 100 101 To 98 99 198 199 Street Oak Oak Oak Oak Type St St St St Side R L R L Parity E O E O Street_ 5950 5950 6011 6011

Address Matching Major Steps schools
StoreID 1437 402 855 Address 123 Oak St 333 Pine Av 18 Bay Dr Class A A B 5950 Pine Av Oak St
100 101 123 198 199

6011

Attributes of Streets
From 2 1 100 101 To 98 99 198 199 Street Oak Oak Oak Oak Type St St St St Side R L R L Parity E O E O Street_ 5950 5950 6011 6011

Converting Georeferences
GIS applications often require transforming data so that they line up
These are standard functions in popular GIS packages

Street addresses must be converted to coordinates for mapping and analysis
Using geocoding functions

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