Government 90dn Mapping the Census

Lecture 5: Cartography

Sumeeta Srinivasan ssrinivasan@cga.harvard.edu

Outline
Map Audiences Vector GIS representation Graphic Elements – based on vectors Colors Graphical Hierarchy Map Types Normalizing Data Map Layouts Exporting Maps

Map Audiences
Map Use:
Audience:

Exploration
Trained Analyst

Presentation
General Public

Map Audiences
Map Use:
Audience: Purpose:

Exploration
Trained Analyst Visual Thinking

Presentation
General Public Communication

Map Audiences
Map Use:
Audience: Purpose:

Exploration
Trained Analyst Visual Thinking

Presentation
General Public Communication Believable

Advantages: Graphical

Map Audiences
Map Use:
Audience: Purpose:

Exploration
Trained Analyst Visual Thinking

Presentation
General Public Communication Believable Coarse

Advantages: Graphical Granularity: Fine

Map Audiences
Map Use:
Audience: Purpose:

Exploration
Trained Analyst Visual Thinking

Presentation
General Public Communication Believable Coarse Mimetic

Advantages: Graphical Granularity: Fine Symbols:
capital railroad

Abstract

Vector GIS
Point Line Polygon

Points
Data Attached to Points

Points
Same data displayed as different points

Lines

Polygons
Point Line Polygons Green Spaces Buildings Census Blocks

Jacques Bertin
“What should be printed to facilitate “communication”, that  is, to tell others what we know without a loss of  information”
‐Jacques Bertin, Paris, February 1983

Bertin’s Graphic Variables
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Point Symbols
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Use Solid Point Markers

Use Three to Seven Categories Max

Orientation
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Texture
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Texture
Black and White Prints Polygons Large Areas

Texture
Brings object to the front (figure)
long wavelength hues coarse texture

Size
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size
0-25 4-9 >9

More Value

Saturation

Size
Graduated Symbols Show Size or Amount

Elevated Blood Levels
( !

1 - 25 26 - 50 51 - 150

! (

( !

Value
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Value
Increase/Decrease Contrast The greater the difference in value between an object and its background, the greater the contrast

Value
By creating a pattern of dark to light values, even when the objects are equal in shape and size, it leads the eye in the direction of dark to light

Value

Value

Hue
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Value
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Saturation
Shape Orientation Value Hue

Texture

Size

More Value

Saturation

Saturation
You can change the saturation of a hue by adding black (shadow) or white (light). The amount of saturation gives us our shades and tints.

Percentage Female-Headed Households with Children
0% to 4% 4% to 8% 8% to 12 % Grea ter than 12%

Saturation
Customize the Properties…of a layer

Color Hues and Values
Each of individual color is a hue Colors have meaning (i.e. cool colors, warm colors, etc) -Cool colors calming
-Warm colors exciting visually recede on the page so red can visually overpower and stand out over blue even if used in equal amounts

-Cool colors appear smaller than warm colors and they

www.colormatters.com www.colorbrewer.org

Color Wheel
red orange violet

yellow green

blue

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
orange red violet

yellow green

blue

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
orange red violet

yellow green

blue

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
orange red violet

yellow green

blue

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
orange red violet

Contrast
two hues with one hue skipped in between

yellow green

blue

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
orange red violet

Contrast
two hues with one hue skipped in between

yellow green

blue

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
orange red violet

Contrast
two hues with one hue skipped in between

yellow green

blue

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
orange red violet

Contrast
two hues with one hue skipped in between

yellow green

blue

Non-Contrasting vs. Contrasting

Color Wheel
Harmony
two adjacent hues
red orange violet

Contrast
two hues with one hue skipped in between Clash Opposites
yellow green blue

Double-Ended Scales
Extremes Emphasized
critical value of zero regression residuals, blue and red contrast white center is ground
red

<-4

white

blue

-4 to -2 time change -2 to 2 2 to 4 <=4

Change Map Example

Color Spot
White background allows yellow color spot to be visualized

0903 0604 0605 0802 0804 0507 0810 0809

Color Spot Ramps

Graphical Hierarchy
Goal
direct attention toward or away from available Information

Graphical Hierarchy
Goal
direct attention toward or away from available Information

Figure-Ground
visual separation of a scene into recognizable figures and inconspicuous background (ground)

Graphical Hierarchy
Ground
larger of two contrasting areas

Graphical Hierarchy
Ground
grays, light browns, heavily saturated hues

Graphical Hierarchy
Figure
long wavelength hues coarse texture

Graphical Hierarchy
Ground

Figure
long wavelength hues coarse texture strong edge

Maps (Types)
1. 2. 3. 4. Choropleth maps Isopleth maps Proportional symbol maps Dot maps

Maps (Isopleth)

Proportional symbol maps
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/course s/geog_3053_s05/Lectures/Proportional%2 0Symbol%20Maps.htm

Maps (Dot density)

Cartograms
(2004 Elections by County)

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/

Choropleth Maps

Classifications
Process of placing data into groups that have a similar characteristic or value

Classifications
Natural Breaks
Classes are based on natural groupings inherent in the data Looks for where there are big jumps in data

Quantiles
Each class contains an equal number of features Good for linearly distributed data

Equal Interval
Divides the range of attribute values into equal-sized Subranges (e.g. 0–100, 101–200, and 201–300)

Standard Deviation
Calculates mean and then maps 1-2standard deviations above / below mean

Custom Scales
Know your data!

Custom Scales
Edit the classifications and layer properties

Original Map

Legend
State s

Total Population
POP2003
-99 - 124,013 124,014 - 447,485 447,486 - 1,12 9,78 8 1,129,789 - 2,498,338 2,498,339 - 5,393,431 5,393,432 - 9,873,548

Custom Map

Total U.S. Population, 2003
0 - 9,99 9 10,000 - 24,999 25,000 - 49,999 50,000 - 99,999 100 ,000 - 499 ,999 500 ,000 - 9,873,548

Normalizing Data
Divides one numeric attribute by another in order to minimize differences in values based on the size of areas or number of features in each area Examples:
Dividing the 5 to 17 year-old population by the total population yields the percentage of people aged 5-17 Dividing a value by the area of the feature yields a value per unit area, or density

Normalizing Data

Normalizing Data

Percent Population 5-17
6.9% - 1 2.4 % 12.5% - 17.9% 18.0% - 23.4% 23.5% - 28.9% 29.0% - 34.4%

Map Layouts

Printed Map Layouts
Concise Title
Topic, place, time

Legend
Word “Legend” or “Key” not needed

Data Source
Source and date data was obtained

U.S. Population by County

Total U.S. Population, 2003
0 - 9,99 9 10,000 - 24,999 25,000 - 49,999 50,000 - 99,999 100 ,000 - 499 ,999 500 ,000 - 9,873,548

Data obtained from U.S. Census

Map Elements
Scale Direction Indicator Photos / Images Neat-lines

Example of a bad map...

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