Professor Margarita EstévezAbe Email: mestevez@fas.harvard.

edu Office: CGIS North #210 1737 Cambridge Street Phone: 617- 496-3590 Office Hours: Wednesday 2pm- 4pm Government 90gc Fall 2007 Harvard University Gender, Markets and Politics

Class Meets: Tuesday 24pm in CGIS N 109 For classroom changes and other class updates, please consult the course website:

Why are men and women treated differently within the family, at work and in politics? Why do women in some countries appear to do better than others? This courses aims at answering these questions by examining the relative importance of societal norms, religion, public policy and economic decisions of rational actors. Requirements: Participation in a weekly seminar (15% of the overall grade); 2 reading memos (3-4 pages) on selected topics (10% each); in class “fact finding” assignments (15%); and a research paper (50%). Final paper is due on January 10. Books in The Coop: Gosta Esping-Andersen. 1999. Social Foundations of Post-Industrial Societies. Lawrence Kahn. The Economics of Women, Men and Work. Joan Peters. Not Your Mother’s Life. Ruth Milkman. Gender at Work. Week 1 (Sep 18) Introduction Week 2 (Sep 25) Under-representation of Women in Politics Jane Mansbridge (1999) “Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes’,” The Journal of Politics, 61(3):628-657. Andrew Reynolds (1999) “Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling,” World Politics 51(4).


Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart (2001) “Women and Democracy: Cultural Obstacles to Equal Representation,” Journal of Democracy, 12(3):126-140. Richard Matland and Donley Studlar (1996) “The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single-Member District and Proportional Representation Electoral Systems,” The Journal of Politics 58(3). Richard Matland (1993) “Institutional Variables Affecting Female Representation in National Legislatures: The Case of Norway,” Journal of Politics 55:737-755. Week 3 (Oct 2) A Quick Background: A History of Women’s Work Ruth Milkman. Gender at Work, read Chapters 2, 3, 6 & 7 (and skim Chapters 4 & 5). This seems a lot of reading, but the book is very readable! Week 4 (Oct 9) Beyond the Patriarchal Welfare State and the “Male” Perspective on the Welfare State Carole Pateman, (1988) “The Patriarchal Welfare State,” Amy Gutmann ed. Democracy and the Welfare State. Ann Orloff (1993) “Gender and the Social Rights of Citizenship: State Policies and Gender Relations in Comparative Perspective,” American Sociological Review, 58(3):303-328. Dana Carol Davis Hill and Leann Tigges. 1995. “Gendering Welfare State Theory: A Cross-National Study of Women’s Public Pension Quality.” Gender and Society 9(1): 99-119. Janet Gornick’s Chapter. 1999. in Diane Sainsbury ed. Gender and Welfare State Regimes. Gøsta Esping-Andersen, Social Foundations of Post-Industrial Societies, Chapters 3, 4 &5. Week 5 (Oct 16) Fact Finding: Realities of Cross-National Variations in Different Types of Gender Inequality A special session based on students’ presentation. Detailed instructions to be provided. Week 6 (Oct 23) Economic Theories of Gender Inequality 1: Wage Gap and Occupational Segregation The Economics of Women, Men and Work, Chapters 5, 6 & 7. Week 7 (Oct 30) Economic Theories of Gender Inequality 2: Family Dynamics


The Economics of Women, Men and Work, Chapter 3. Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz (2002) “The Power of the Pill: Oral Contraceptives and Women’s Career and Marriage Decisions,” Journal of Political Economy, 110(4): 730-770. Casey Mulligan and Yona Rubinstein (2002) “Specialization, Inequality and the Labor Market for Married Women,” unpublished paper. Chiappori, Pierre-Andre. 2002. “Marriage Market, Divorce Legislation and Household Labor Supply,” Journal of Political Economy 110/1. Week 8( Nov 6) Biological of Cultural Differences? Muriel Niederle and Lise Vesterlund (2005) “Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?,” NBER Working Paper 11474. Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart (2001) “Women and Democracy: Cultural Obstacles to Equal Representation,” Journal of Democracy, 12(3):126-140. Alberto Alesina and Paola Giuliano. “The Power of the Family,” NBER working paper. Barbara Reskin and Debra McBrier (2000) Why Not Ascription? Organizations’ Employment of Male and Female Managers, American Sociological Review, 65 (April 210-233). Shelley Cornell (2001) “Gender and the Career Choice Process,” AJS 106(6):1691-1730. Week 9 (Nov 13) Institutional Theories of Gender Inequality Margarita Estévez-Abe. 2006. Gendering the Varieties of Capitalism: A Comparative Study of Occupational Segregation in Advanced Industrial Societies, World Politics. Estevez-Abe and Katerina Linos. “Women versus Women: Effects of Wage Inequality on Women’s Employment.” Haya Stier, Noah Lewen-Epstein, Michael Braun. 2001. Welfare Regimes, Family-Supportive Policies and Women’s Employment along the Life-Course, American Journal of Sociology 106(6): 1731-1760. Francine Blau and Lawrence Kahn. 1992. “The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons.” The American Economic Review 82(2): 533538.


Rachel Rosenfeld and Arnel Kallenberg (1990) “A Cross-National Comparison of the Gender Gap in Income,” American Journal of Sociology, 69-106. Week 10 (Nov 20) Fertility Rate Frances Rosenbluth, Matthew Light and Claudia Schrag). 2004. “The Politics of Gender Equality: Explaining Variation in Fertility Levels in Rich Countries,” Women and Politics 26/2: 1-25. Alicia Adsera. 2004. “Changing Fertility Rates in Developed Countries: The Impact of Labor Market Institutions.” Journal of Population Economics 17: 1743. Tomas Koegel. 2004. “Did the Association between fertility and Female Employment within OECD Countries Really Change Its Sign?” Journal of Population Economics 17: 45-65. Anna d’Addio and Marco d’Ercole. 2005. “Trends and Determinants of Fertility Rates,” OECD Social Employment and Migration Working Papers, no.27. Week 11(Nov 27) (no class) Reading Not Your Mother’s Life Detailed instructions about this week’s assignment will be provided in class. Week 12 (Dec 4) Back to Politics 1: Gender and Voting Behavior Torben Iversen and Frances Rosenbluth. 2004. “The Political Economy of Gender: Explaining Cross-National Variation in Household Bargaining, Divorce, and the Gender Voting Gap.” American Journal of Political Science 50(1): 1-19. Edlund, Lena, and Rohini Pande. 2001. “Why Have Women Become Left-Wing? The Political Gender Gap and the Decline in Marriage.” Working Paper, Columbia University Department of Economics. Andrew Oswald and Nattavudh Powdthavee. 2005. “Daughters and Left-wing Voting.” Carole Chaney, Michael Alvarez and Jonathan Nagler. 1998. “Explaining the Gender Gap in US Presidential Elections, 1980-1992,” Political Research Quarterly 51(2):311-339. Ted Jelen, Sue Thomas and Clyde Wilcox. 1994. “The Gender Gap in Comparative Perspective,” European Journal of Political Research 25 (2): 171186. Donley Studlar, Ian McAllister and Bernadette Hayes. 1998. “Explaining the Gender Gap in Voting: A Cross-National Analysis,” Social Science Quarterly 79(4): 779-798.


Week 13 (Dec 11) Back to Politics 2: How did Different Policies Come About? Theda Skocpol et al. (1993) “Women’s Associations and the Enactment of Mothers’ Pension in the United States,” APSR 87(3). Kimberly Morgan. 2006. Working Mothers and the Welfare State, Chapter 2.jj Erin Kelly and Frank Dobbin (1999) Civil Rights Law at Work: Sex Discrimination and the Rise of Maternity Leave Policies, American Journal of Sociology 105(2): 455-492. Evelyn Huber and John Stephens (2000) “Partisan Governance, Women’s Employment and the Social Democratic Service State,” American Sociological Review, 65 (June: 323-342) Mary Katzenstein and Carol Mueller eds. (1987) The Women’s Movements of the United States and Western Europe, Ch 11. Julia O’Connor, Ann Orloff and Sheila Shaver (1999) States, Markets, Families, Ann Orloff et al, TBA. Week 14 (Dec 18) Going Beyond Rich Countries: Women and Development Arvonne Fraser and Irene tinker eds. Developing Power: How Women Transformed International Development, selections. Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, Laurie Nisonoff and Nan Wiegersma 1997. The Women, Gender and Development, selections. Richard Matland and Kathleen Montgomery, selections. (Check Matland’s syllabus that I have. Order the book.)


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