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1350

January–December

• May 23 – a number of supporters of William V found the Cod league


• August 29 – Battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer: An English fleet personally
commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet.
• September 5 – conservative noblemen in Holland found the Hook league.

Date unknown

• Hayam Wuruk becomes ruler of the Majapahit Empire.


• The Black Death first appears in Scotland.
• The city of Rapperswil is widely destroyed by Rudolf Brun, mayor of the city
of Zürich.

1351

January–December

• March 27 – Battle of the Thirty: Guillaume de Montauban defeats the English.


• May 1 – Zürich joins the Swiss Confederation.

Date unknown

• King Ramathibodi I ascends the throne in Ayutthaya (now Thailand). He


begins to propagate Theravada Buddhism as the state religion.
• King Gongmin ascends the throne in Goryeo.
• Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan succeeds Emperor Sukō, making them the third
and fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders, respectively.
• The Statute of Laborers is enacted by the English Parliament, to deal with a
labor shortage caused by the Black Death.
• Vantaa, Finland is first mentioned.
• Firuz Tughlaq succeeds Mohammad Tughlaq as Sultan of Delhi.
• The Mongolian-run Yuan Dynasty of China is permanently weakened by an
uprising known as the Red Turban Rebellion.
• The Samma Dynasty in Sindh (now part of Pakistan) breaks away from the
Delhi Sultanate.
• The Turks cross the Dardanelles into Europe for the first time.

1352

January–December

• June 4 – Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation.


• June 27 – Zug joins the Swiss Confederation.
• December 18 – Pope Innocent VI succeeds Pope Clement VI as the 199th
pope.
Date unknown

• Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reports the existence of the ngoni and balafon
instruments at the court of Mansa Musa.
• Dragoş becomes voivode of Moldova.
• Corpus Christi College is founded as a College of the University of
Cambridge, by the Guilds of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary.
• The Ottoman Turk army crosses the Bosporus, entering the Balkans.
• Lionel of Antwerp marries Elizabeth, daughter of William de Burgh, 3rd Earl
of Ulster.
• William de Ashlee becomes Rector of Maids Moreton, England.
• The town of Biel/Bienne, Switzerland finalizes its alliance with the city of
Bern.
• Reginald de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham becomes a Companion of the Most
Noble Order of the Garter of England.
• The Earldom of Kent becomes extinct.
• The Metropolitan of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, the Metropolitan
of Halych, begins to relocate back to Kiev, after having moved to Halych in
1299. Thereafter, the Metropolitan will hold the title of Metropolitan of Kiev-
Halych and All Rus.
• After years of begging and being a Buddhist monk, the penniless Chinese
peasant Zhu Yuanzhang joins the Red Turban Rebellion against the Mongol-
led Yuan Dynasty of China; he will later become the first emperor of the Ming
Dynasty.

1353

January–December

• March 3 – Bern signs an alliance with the Swiss Confederation.

Date unknown

• The Decameron is finished by Giovanni Boccaccio.

1354

January–December

• February 12 – The Treaty of Stralsund settles border disputes between the


duchies of Mecklenburg and Pomerania.
• October 8 – Cola di Rienzo, self-proclaimed "tribune" of Rome, is killed by an
angry mob.

Date unknown

• The reign of John VI Cantacuzenus as Byzantine Emperor is ended, after he


loses a battle to John V Palaiologos, who is restored as sole emperor.
• The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang is established.
• Sahab-ud-Din becomes Sultan of Kashmir.
• The Turks capture the cities of Kallipolis and Didymoteicho from the
Byzantine Empire.
• The sultan of Morocco appoints a scribe to write an account of the travels of
Ibn Battuta.
• Assassins struck down Sultan Hasan and his body is never returned.

1355

January–December

• January 7 – Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro,
beloved of his son prince Pedro – Pedro revolts and incites a civil war.
• February 10 – The St. Scholastica's Day riot broke out in Oxford, England,
leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead in two days.
• April – Philip of Anjou marries Mary of Naples, daughter of Charles of
Valois, duke of Calabria, and Mary of Valois.
• April 5 – Charles IV is crowned emperor in Rome.
• April 18 – In Venice, the Council of Ten beheads Doge Marin Falier for
conspiring to kill them.
• September 1 – Tvrtko I writes in castro nostro Vizoka vocatum from old town
Visoki.

Date unknown

• A small Scottish and French force invades Northumberland, loots the city of
Berwick-upon-Tweed and defeats a small English force in a skirmish at
Nisbet, Berwickshire.
• Ottoman Turks defeat Bulgarian Empire in the battle of Ihtiman.

1356

January–December

• January 20 – Edward Balliol surrenders his title as King of Scotland to


Edward III of England.
• September 19 – Battle of Poitiers: The English, commanded by the Edward,
the Black Prince, defeat the French in the Hundred Years' War, capturing the
King John II of France in the process.
• October 17 – Erik Magnusson proclaims himself king of Sweden, in
opposition to his father, king Magnus. Thus begins a civil war in Sweden
between father and son, which will last until Erik's death in 1359.
• October 18 – The Basel earthquake destroys the city of Basel in Switzerland.
• December 25 – Emperor Charles IV promulgates the Golden Bull, a sort of
medieval constitution for the Holy Roman Empire.

Date unknown

• The city of Lwów is granted Magdeburg rights by Casimir III of Poland.


• The majority of the Great Pyramid of Giza's limestone casing stones are
removed by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan to build fortresses
and mosques in the nearby city of Cairo, leaving the first of the Seven
Wonders of the Ancient World in the step-stone condition in which it remains
today.
• Burnt Candlemas: Edward III of England burns down every town and village
in Lothian, Scotland.
• The Hanseatic League, a trading alliance between many cities in northern
Europe, is officially founded.
• Ghazan II replaces Anusirvan as ruler of the Il-Khanate in Persia.
• Zhu Yuanzhang, one of the leaders in the Red Turban Rebellion, captures the
city of Nanjing from the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty in China; from then on it
becomes his base of power and the capital of a new dynasty he will establish
in 1368, the Ming Dynasty.
• Çimpe Castle (Gallipoli Peninsula), the first European territory conquered by
the Ottoman Empire.

1357

January–December

• April 28 – Erik Magnusson is recognized as king of most of Sweden, in


opposition to his father, king Magnus.
• May 28 – Peter I becomes King of Portugal after the death of his father,
Alfonso IV.
• July 9 – Charles Bridge in Prague is founded.

Date unknown

• King David II of Scotland is released by the English in return for a ransom.


• Berdibek succeeds Jani Beg as Khan of the Blue Horde.
• Sikandar I becomes Sultan of Bengal.
• Rao Kanhadev becomes Rathore ruler of Marwar (now part of India).
• Influenza is first identified as a disease.
• The first public exhibition of the Shroud of Turin is recorded.
• The Blue Horde unseat Ghazan II as the ruler of the Il-Khanate and appoint
their own governor.
• The Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat (Famous Wat Yai) Temple is constructed
in Phitsanulok, Thailand.
• In France, the States-General passes Étienne Marcel's Great Ordinance in an
attempt to impose limits on the monarchy, in particular in fiscal and monetary
matters.
1358

January–December

• March 16 – King Haakon VI Magnusson of Norway designates the city of


Skien as a city with trading privileges, making it the 6th town with city status
in the country.
• May 28 – The Jacquerie: A peasant rebellion begins in France during the
Hundred Year's War, which consumes the Beauvais and allies with Etienne
Marcel's seizure of Paris.
• June 27 – The Republic of Ragusa is founded.
• July 10 – Battle of Mello: The Jacquerie rebellion is defeated by a coalition of
nobles, led by Charles II of Navarre.

Date unknown

• Estimation: Nanjing in Mongolian China becomes the largest city of the


world, taking the lead from Hangzhou in Mongolian China.[1]
• Mubarazuddin Muhammad, leader of the Arab Muzaffarid tribe, expels the
Blue Horde from Il-Khanate territory in Persia. The Muzaffarid then release
control of the Il-Khanate after being marched on by the Mongol Jalayirid tribe
ruled by Shaikh Uvais. Shaikh Uvais becomes the new Il-Khan. The Il-
Khanate is effectively now disbanded and replaced by the Jalayirid dynasty of
Persia.
• Shah Shuja overthrows his father, Mubarazuddin Muhammad, as leader of the
Muzaffarid tribe.
• Mohammed Shah I becomes Bahmani Sultan of Deccan (now part of southern
India) after the death of Sultan Aladdin Hassan Bahman Shah.
• Muhammad II as Said becomes ruler of the Merinid Dynasty in present-day
Morocco after the assassination of Abu Inan Faris.

1359

January–December

• May 25 – The French States-General rejects the Second Treaty of London.


• June 21 – Upon the death of Erik Magnusson, his claims to the Swedish throne
die with him and power is restored undivided to his father, king Magnus.
• July 4 – Francesco II Ordelaffi surrenders to the Papal commander Gil de
Albornoz.

Date unknown

• Murad I (1359–1389) succeeds Orhan I (1326–1359) as sultan of the Ottoman


Empire.
• Berlin joins the Hanseatic League.
• Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, and her husband, Louis of Bavaria,
are absolved from excommunication.
• The Second Treaty of London is signed between England and France.
• Abu Salim Ali II overthrows Muhammad II as Said as ruler of the Merinid
Dynasty in present-day Morocco.
• Bogdan I becomes Prince of Moldavia (now Moldova) after freeing it from
Hungarian control.
• The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria.
• Shah Mahmud overthrows his brother, Shah Shuja, as leader of the Muzaffarid
tribe in Persia.
• Qulpa becomes Khan of the Blue Horde after the death of Berdi Beg.
• Ismail II overthrows his uncle, Muhammed V, as King of Grenada (in present-
day Spain).

1360

January–December

• October 24 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of


the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. Under its terms, Edward III gives
up his claim to the French throne and releases King John II of France in return
for French land, including Calais & Gascony.

Date unknown

• King Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark reconquers Scania, which has been in


Swedish possession since 1332.
• Shah Shuja regains rule of the Muzaffarid tribe in Persia after the death of his
brother, Shah Mahmud.
• Nawruz Beg overthrows his brother Qulpa as Khan of the Blue Horde.
• Muhammed VI overthrows his brother-in-law, Ismail II, as King of Grenada
(in present-day Spain); he is in turn overthrown this same year by the former
king, Muhammed V.
• Dmitri Konstantinovich is installed as ruler of Vladimir (now in eastern
Russia) by the Khan of the White Horde.

1361

January–December

• July 27 – Battle of Visby


• October 10 – Edward, the Black Prince, marries Joan, the 'Fair Maid of Kent'.

Date unknown

• The University of Pavia is founded in Italy.


• In the Marinid Empire in present-day Morocco, Abu Salim Ibrahim is
overthrown by Abu Umar, who is in turn overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
• The Blue Horde descends into anarchy. Between 1361 and 1378, over 20
khans succeed each other in different parts of the Blue Horde's territory.
• Chinese rebels capture the Koryo capital.
1362

January–December

• January 16 – The "Grote Mandrenke" storm tide strikes Holland, England,


Germany and Denmark, destroying the city of Rungholt in Nordfriesland,
Germany.
• February 15 – King Magnus Eriksson's son Haakon, who is already king of
Norway, proclaims himself king of Sweden, in opposition to his father.
However, later during the year, father and son reconciliate and rule Sweden
together.
• September 28 – Pope Urban V succeeds Pope Innocent VI as the 200th pope.

Date unknown

• The English Hospice of the Most Holy Trinity and St Thomas was founded in
Rome. It went on to become the English College, a centre for training English
priests in Rome.
• Under Edward III, English begins to replace French as England's official
national language, when Parliament is addressed in it for the first time
following the Norman Conquest of 1066.[1]
• Louis I of Hungary defeats and captures Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria; he
conquers northern Bulgaria, extending his control over the Balkans.
• The Ottomans capture Philippopolis and Adrianopole (now the city of Edirne)
from the Byzantine Empire, reducing it to the city of Constantinople.
• Waldemar Atterdag of Denmark defeats the Hanseatic League in a naval battle
off Helsingborg.
• Shahabuddin succeeds his brother, Alauddin Ali Sher, as Sultan of Kashmir.
• Constantine VI succeeds his cousin, Constantine V, as King of Armenia.
• Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas defeats the Tatars at the Battle of Blue
Waters and takes over Kiev.
• Purported date of the inscription of the Kensington Runestone.
• Eruption of the Öræfajökull volcano in Iceland, resulting in the destruction of
the district of Litlahérað by flood and tephra fall
• Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada starts to rule.

1363

January–December

• April 9 – Haakon VI of Norway marries Margaret I of Denmark.


• August 30–October 4 – the Battle of Lake Poyang is fought between the
Dahan rebel forces of Chen Youliang and the Red Turban Rebel forces of Zhu
Yuanzhang on Lake Poyang, during the final decade of Yuan Dynasty control
over China. Zhu's naval forces of 200,000 are pitted against Chen's naval
forces of 650,000 troops in what is not only the largest naval battle of the
medieval age, but also one of the largest naval battles in history.
Date unknown

• Magnus IV, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg.


• Philip the Bold becomes duke of Burgundy.
• The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is completed in Cairo, Egypt.
• Al-Afdal al-Abbas succeeds Al-Mujahid Ali as Rasulid Sultan of Yemen.
• The Byzantine Empire wins a naval battle over the Ottoman Empire near
Megara, Greece.
• Bosnian nobles revolt against the occupying Serbs.
• An uprising occurs against the Venetian rulers in Crete.
• Dmitri Donskoi, ruler of Moscow, dethrones Dmitri Konstantinovich as ruler
of Vladimir.

1364

January–December

• February 15 – Joint kings Magnus Eriksson and Haakon Magnusson of


Sweden are both deposed by noblemen, who instead elect Magnus's nephew
Albrekt of Mecklenburg new king of Sweden.
• April 8 – Charles V becomes King of France.
• May 12 – The Jagiellonian University is founded in Kraków.
• July 28 – Battle of Cascina
• September 10 – Philip of Anjou becomes Titular Emperor of Constantinople
and Prince of Taranto.
• September 29 – Battle of Auray: The Breton War of Succession ends with the
victory of the House of Montfort over Charles of Blois.

Date unknown

• Rana Kshetra Singh succeeds Rana Hamir Singh as ruler of Mewar (now part
of western India).
• Anavema Reddy succeeds Anavota Reddy as ruler of the Reddy Dynasty in
Andhra Pradesh (now part of southern India).
• The Ava Dynasty establish rule in present-day northern Burma.

1365

January–December

• March 3 – The Battle of Gataskogen in Sweden.


• June 2 – The Hungarian occupation of Vidin begins with the capture of the
city by Louis I of Hungary's forces and the imprisonment of Ivan Sratsimir of
Bulgaria
• October – Alexandrian Crusade: The city of Alexandria in Egypt is sacked by
an allied force of Peter I of Cyprus and the knights of the Order of St. John of
Jerusalem.
Date unknown

• The University of Vienna is founded.


• Adrianopole (now Edirne) becomes the capital city of the Ottoman Empire.
• A revolt against the Venetian rulers in Crete fails.
• Mpu Prapanca writes the epic poem Nagarakretagama, about the Majapahit
Empire in Java.
• In present-day southern India, Bahmani Sultan Mohammed Shah I invades the
Vijayanagara Empire.
• The Sukhothai Kingdom in northern Thailand becomes a tributary state of the
Ayutthaya Kingdom.

1366

Date unknown

• Thomas Fraser obtains lands in Aberdeenshire, upon which he starts the


building of a towerhouse that will later be known as Muchalls Castle.
• Henry II deposes his half-brother, Pedro of Castile, to become King of Castile.
• Muhammed V builds the Granada Hospital in Granada (in present-day Spain).
• War continues between the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire and the Muslim
Bahmani Sultanate in present-day southern India. Tens of thousands of
civilians are massacred by each side.
• Dmitri Donskoi, ruler of Moscow & Vladimir, makes peace with Dmitri
Konstantinovich, former ruler of Vladimir.
• Abu Faris Abdul Aziz succeeds assassinated Abu Zayyan as Sultan of the
Marinid Empire in Morocco.
• The Stella Artois brewery is founded in present-day Belgium. they still brew
their Lager the same way to this very day.
• The Statutes of Kilkenny are passed in Ireland.
• Zhu Yuanzhang, leader of the Red Turban Rebellion that will overthrow the
Yuan Dynasty and establish the Ming Dynasty 2 years later, begins building
the walls for a new capital city at Nanjing.

1367

January–December

• January 18 – Ferdinand I becomes King of Portugal after the death of his


father, Peter I.
• April 3 – Battle of Nájera: Pedro of Castile is restored as King of Castile (now
in Spain) after defeating his half-brother, Henry II. Pedro is aided in the battle
by the English and Henry by the French.
• October 16 – Pope Urban V makes the first attempt to move the Papacy back
to Rome from Avignon. This move is reversed in 1370 when he is forced to
return to Avignon and shortly afterwards dies.
Date unknown

• Charles V creates the first royal library in France.


• Otto I, "the Evil", becomes Duke of the independent city of Göttingen (now in
Germany) after the death of his father, Ernst I.
• A stone wall is built around Moscow to resist invasion by Lithuania.
• A university is founded in pécs Hungary (not to be confused with the present
University of Pécs, which was founded in 1921)

1368

January–December

• March 29 – Emperor Chōkei accedes to the throne of Japan.

Date unknown

• Timur ascends to the throne of Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan).


• Hongwu (also known as Zhu Yuanzhang) establishes the Ming Dynasty in
China after the disintegration of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. He immediately
orders every county magistrate to set up four granaries, and halts government
taxation on books.
• Work begins on the current Great Wall of China.
• Mikhail Aleksandrovich becomes the sole ruler of Tver (now in eastern
Russia) after the death of co-ruler and rival Mikhailovich of Kashin.
• Moscow attacks Tver, which counter-attacks with the aid of Lithuania and the
Blue Horde.
• The King of Norway sends the last Royal Ship from Norway to the Greenland
Eastern Settlement. This event is part of both the Norse colonization of the
Americas and of the History of Greenland.
• The Bibliothèque nationale de France (National Library of France) is
established in Paris.
• Peace treaty between Norway and the Hanseatic League.

1369

January–December

• March 14 – Pedro of Castile loses the Battle of Montiel to an alliance between


the French and his half-brother Henry II.
• May – King Charles V of France renounces the Treaty of Brétigny and war is
declared between France and England. The French recapture most of
Aquitaine.
• December – Financed by Charles V of France, Welshman Owain Lawgoch
launches an invasion fleet against the English in an attempt to claim the throne
of Wales. A storm causes Owain to abandon the invasion.
Date unknown

• Venice repels a Hungarian invasion.


• Hugues Aubriot founds the Bastille in Paris.
• Tamerlane names the city of Samarkand as the capital of his empire.
• Košice becomes the first town in Europe to be granted its own coat of arms.
• The Turks invade Bulgaria.
• The Thai Kingdom of Ayutthaya conquers Cambodia for a second time.
• Duong Nhat Le succeeds Tran Hao as King of Vietnam.
• The Hongwu Emperor of the Chinese Ming Dynasty issues a decree ordering
every country magistrate in the empire to open a Confucian school of learning.

1370

January–December

• May 24 – The Treaty of Stralsund ends the war between Denmark and the
Hanseatic League.
• October 20 – Philip of Anjou, Titular Emperor of Constantinople, marries
Elisabeth of Slavonia, daughter of Stephen, duke of Transylvania and
Slavonia, and Margareta of Bavaria.
• December 20 – Pope Gregory XI succeeds Pope Urban V as the 201st pope.

Date unknown

• The steel crossbow is first used as a weapon of war.


• Carthusian monks build the Charterhouse in London.
• Xian City (Chang'an) is fortified against invasion.
• Timur completes his conquest of Central Asia and parts of Persia, establishing
the Timurid Empire.
• Tran Phu deposes Duong Nhat Le as King of Vietnam.
• For the second time since 1368, Moscow attacks Tver, which again counter-
attacks with the aid of Lithuania and the Blue Horde.
• Casimir III of Poland is succeeded jointly by his sister, Elisabeth of Kujavia,
and her son, Louis I of Hungary, beginning the rule of Poland by the Capet-
Anjou family.
• The Siege of Limoges is launched.

1371

January–December

• February 17 – Rival brothers Ivan Sratsimir and Ivan Shishman become co-
Emperors of Bulgaria after the death of their father, Ivan Alexander. Bulgaria
is weakened by the split.
• February 22 – Robert II becomes the first Stuart king of Scotland after the
death of his uncle, David II.
• April 9 – Emperor Go-En'yu of Japan succeeds Emperor Go-Kōgon of Japan,
becoming the 5th and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders.
• September 21 – John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III of England, marries
Constance of Castile, daughter of King Pedro of Castile, giving John of Gaunt
a claim to the throne of Castile.

Date unknown

• Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery is founded in Aldersgate, London.


• Battle of Baesweiler, Brabant unexpectedly defeated.
• The first widely accepted historical reference is made to playing cards (in
Spain).
• Zhao Bing Fa becomes King of Mong Mao (in present day south China/north
Myanmar) after the death of his father, Si Ke Fa.
• Lazar succeeds his distant cousin, Stefan Uroš V, as ruler of Serbia after most
of the nobility in Serbia are killed by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa.
Lazar declines the title of Tsar.
• Edward, the Black Prince, gives up the administration of Aquitaine because of
his poor health and heavy debts.
• Kalamegha claims the vacant title of King of Cambodia after the power of the
Thai invaders from Ayutthaya begins to weaken. The Ayutthayans are finally
expelled in 1375.
• Byzantine co-emperor John V Palaiologos pledges loyalty to the Ottoman
Empire to prevent the Turks from invading Constantinople.
• The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China introduces the census
registration system of lijia, or the hundreds-and-tithing system, throughout the
Yangzi valley. This system groups households into units of ten and groups of
one hundred, whereupon their capacities for paying taxes and providing the
state with corvée labor service can be assessed. The system becomes fully
operational in 1381, when it counts 59,873,305 people living in China (the
historian Timothy Brook asserts that the number was much higher, somewhere
between 65 million and 75 million).

1372

January–December

• May – Owain Lawgoch makes a second attempt to take the throne of Wales.
Whilst attacking the island of Guernsey, Owain abandons the invasion in order
to fight for France at La Rochelle.
• June 22 – Battle of La Rochelle: The French & the Castilians defeat the
English. The French gain control of the English Channel for the first time
since 1340.

Date unknown

• The city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini
date to a few of its coins, the first city in the world to do so.
• Encounter of Sintra. 20 Portuguese knights, route 400 Castillians infantrymen
of the country.
• Four-year-old Muhammad as-Said succeeds his father, Abu l-Fariz Abdul
Aziz I, as Marinid Sultan of Morocco.
• Newaya Maryam succeeds his father, Newaya Krestos, as ruler of Ethiopia.
• Peace is declared between the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples.
• The Kingdom of Chūzan (now in southern Japan) enters tributary relations
with Ming Dynasty China.

1373

January–December

• March 24 – The Treaty of Santarém is signed between D. Fernando of


Portugal and Henrique II of Castile, ending the second war between the two
countries.
• May 13 – Julian of Norwich receives the sixteen Revelations of Divine Love.

Date unknown

• Bristol is made an independent county.


• The Anglo-Portuguese alliance is signed (currently the oldest active treaty in
the world).
• The city of Phnom Penh (now the capital city of Cambodia) is founded.
• Philip II of Taranto & Achaea hand over the rule of Achaea (now southern
Greece) to his cousin Joan I of Naples.
• Leo VI succeeds his distant cousin, Constantine VI, as King of Armenian
Cilicia (now southern Turkey).
• A city wall is built around Lisbon, Portugal to resist invasion by Castile.
• Tran Kinh succeeds Tran Phu as King of Vietnam.
• Byzantine co-emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebels against his father,
John V Palaiologos, for agreeing to let Constantinople become a vassal of the
Ottoman Empire. After the rebellion fails, Ottoman Emperor Murad I
commands John V Palaiologos to blind his son.
• The death of Sultan Muhammad as-Said begins a period of political instability
in Morocco.
• Merton College Library is built in Oxford, England.
• The Adina Mosque is built in Bengal.
• The Chinese emperor of the Ming Dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor, suspends
the traditional civil service examination system after complaining that the 120
new jinshi degree-holders are too incompetent to hold office; he instead relies
solely upon a system of recommendations until the civil service exams are
reinstated in 1384.

1374

January–December

• April 23 – In recognition of his services, Edward III of England grants the


English writer Geoffrey Chaucer a gallon of wine a day for the rest of his life.
• June 24 – The illness dancing mania begins in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen),
possibly due to ergotism.
• November 25 – James of Baux succeeds his uncle, Philip II, as Prince of
Taranto (now eastern Italy) and titular ruler of the Latin Empire (now northern
Greece and western Turkey).

Date unknown

• King U of Goryeo ascends to the throne of Goryeo (now in Korea) after the
assassination of King Gongmin.
• Leu Thai becomes King of Sukhothai (now in northern Thailand) after the
death of King Lithai.
• Rao Biram Dev succeeds Rao Kanhadev as ruler of Marwar (now the Jodhpur
district of India).
• Hasan succeeds his father, Shaikh Uvais, as ruler of the Jalayirid sultanate in
present-day Iraq and western Iran. Hasan proves to be an unpopular ruler and
is executed in the same year. Hasan's brother, Husain, succeeds him as ruler.
• Musa II succeeds his father, Mari Djata II, as Mansa of the Mali Empire (now
Mali & Senegal).
• Robert de Juilly succeeds Raymond Berenger as Grand Master of the Knights
Hospitaller.
• Princes from the Kingdom of Grenada choose Abu al-Abbas Ahmad to
succeed Muhammad as-Said as Sultan of the Marinid Empire in Morocco. The
Empire is split into the Kingdom of Fez and the Kingdom of Marrakech.
• The Château de Compiègne royal residence is built in France.

1375

January–December

• April 14 – The Mamluks from Egypt complete their conquest of the Armenian
Kingdom of Cilicia. Levon V Lusignan of Armenia is imprisoned for several
years in Cairo until a ransom is paid by King John I of Castile.
• October – Margaret I of Denmark becomes Regent of Denmark after the death
of her father Valdemar IV.

Date unknown

• Coluccio Salutati is appointed Chancellor of Florence.


• Heirin-ji Temple is built near Tokyo.
• Hundred Years' War: The English, weakened by the plague, lose so much
ground to the French that they agree to sign the Treaty of Bruges, leaving
them with only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne.
• Petru I succeeds his father, Costea, as ruler of Moldavia (now Moldova &
eastern Romania).
• The Russian town of Kostroma is destroyed by the ushkuinik pirates from
Novgorod.
• Mujahid Shah succeeds his father, Mohammad Shah I, as Sultan of the
Bahmanid Empire in Deccan, southern India.
• Moscow & Tver sign a truce. Tver agrees to help Moscow fight the Blue
Horde.
• In Nanjing, capital of the Ming Dynasty of China, a bureau secretary of the
Ministry of Justice, Ru Taisu, sends a 17,000 character-long memorial to the
throne, to be read aloud to the Hongwu Emperor. By the 16,370th character,
the emperor has been offended by several passages, and has Ru Taisu
summoned to court and flogged for the perceived insult. The next day, having
had the remaining characters read to him, he likes four of Ru's
recommendations, and instates these in reforms. Ru is nevertheless castigated
for having forced the emperor to hear thousands of characters before getting to
the part with true substance. The last 500 characters are elevated in court as
the model-type memorial that all officials should aspire to create while writing
their own.[1]

1376

January–December

• March – The peace treaty between England and France is extended until April
of 1377.
• March 31 – Pope Gregory XI excommunicates all members of the government
of Florence and places the city under an interdict.
• April 28 – The start of Good Parliament in England, so called because its
members attempted to reform the corrupt Royal Council.
• May 3 – Olav IV Haakonsson is elected King Oluf II of Denmark, following
the death of his grandfather, Valdemar IV, in 1375.
• June 7 – The dying Prince Edward summons his father Edward III and brother
John of Gaunt and makes them swear to uphold the claim to the throne of his
son Richard.
• June 8 – Edward, the Black Prince dies, becoming the first English Prince of
Wales to not rule as king.
• July 10 – The Good Parliament is dissolved. At that time, it was the longest
Parliament to have sat in England.
• August 12 – With the help of the Genoese, Byzantine co-emperor Andronicus
IV Palaeologus invades Constantinople and dethrones his father, John V
Palaeologus, as co-emperor. John V Palaeologus is taken prisoner.
• September – John of Gaunt summons religious reformer John Wyclif to
appear before the Royal Council.
• November 20 – Richard of Bordeaux, son of the Black Prince, is created
Prince of Wales in succession to his father.
• December 25 – John of Gaunt presents his nephew, Richard of Bordeaux, to
the feudatories of the realm and swears to uphold Richard's right to succeed
Edward III.

Date unknown

• Catherine of Siena visits Pope Gregory XI in Avignon to attempt to persuade


him to make peace with Florence and move the Papacy back to Rome.
• The city of Sredets in Bulgaria is renamed Sofia after the Church of St Sophia
• Khan Qamar al-din of Mongolistan unsuccessfully invades Timur’s eastern
province of Farghana.
• Timur leads his army against troops of the White Horde which have arrived at
Sighnaq. However, winter sets in, preventing an immediate battle.
• Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow raids Mongol-ruled Volga Bulgaria (now in
Russia).
• Acamapichtli is elected Tlatoani of the Aztec empire after the death of
Tenoch, the first Aztec ruler.
• Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Nasir-ad-Din Shaban II is succeeded by Alah-ad-Din
Ali.
• Qutbuddin succeeds his brother, Shahabuddin, as Sultan of Kashmir.

1377

January–December

• January 17 – Pope Gregory XI moves the Papacy back from Avignon to


Rome.
• January 27
o The Bad Parliament begins sitting in England. Influenced by Prince
John of Gaunt, it undoes the work done by the Good Parliament, the
previous year, to reduce corruption in the Royal Council. It also
introduces a poll tax.
o Fourteen-year-old Mary of Sicily succeeds her father, Frederick III the
Simple.
• February – The Pope's representative in northern Italy, Robert of Geneva (the
future antipope Clement VII), pillages Cesena and 4,000 antipapal rebels are
massacred.
• March 2 – The Bad Parliament dissolved.
• May
o Continuous riots in Rome induce Pope Gregory XI to move
temporarily back to Avignon.
o Władysław II Jagiello succeeds his father, Algirdas, as Grand Duke of
Lithuania. Jagiello removes his uncle, Kęstutis, as co-ruler.
• May 22 – Pope Gregory XI issues five Bulls condemning the opinion of John
Wycliffe that Catholic priests should live in poverty like the twelve disciples
of Jesus.
• July 16 – Coronation of 10-year-old Richard II, grandson of Edward III. A
minority government was established and a series of continual councils ruled
on his behalf until 1381.
• August – the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China scraps the
Office of Reports Inspection established in 1370 for a new Office of
Transmission, in his efforts to create a more efficient communicatory system
in the empire. A month before this he noted that anyone could send petitions
to the throne; commoners often did, although the only times their petitions
were read aloud to the emperor was when they called for the impeachment of
local officials that were not up to par with their official duties.
• August 2 – Battle on Pyana River. The Russians are defeated, while their
commander drowns in the river.
• October 13 – Richard II’s first parliament meets.
• October 26 – Coronation of Tvrtko I of Bosnia.

Date unknown

• A sermon by a German monk states "the game of cards has come to us this
year" and prohibitions against cards are issued by Prince John of Castile and
the cities of Florence and Basel.
• Radu I succeeds Vladislav I as Prince of Wallachia (now southern Romania).
• The Trezzo sull'Adda Bridge is completed, and becomes the longest arch
bridge in the world to be built for four centuries
• Sayf ad-Din Berkuk leads a revolt against the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Alah-
ad-Din Ali.
• Harihara II succeeds Bukka as ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire (now in
southern India).
• Informed that Khan Urus of the White Horde has died, Timur of the Timurid
Empire sends Tokhtamysh to take the Horde throne, but is defeated by Urus'
son, Timur Malik.
• King U of Goryeo adopts the Ming calendar and begs to be invested by the
Hongwu Emperor.
• Tran Hien succeeds Tran Kính as King of Vietnam.
• A rebellion against the Majapahit Empire is quashed in Sumatra.

1378

January–December

• March – In England, John Wycliffe tries to promote his ideas for Catholic
reform by laying his theses before parliament and making them public in a
tract. He is subsequently summoned before Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon
of Sudbury, at the episcopal palace at Lambeth to defend his actions.
• April 9 – Following the death of Pope Gregory XI and riots in Rome calling
for a Roman pope, the cardinals, who are mostly French, elect Pope Urban VI
(Bartolomeo Prignano, Archbishop of Bari) as the 202nd Pope.
• July – Revolt of the Ciompi – discontent wool carders briefly take over the
government of Florence. For the first time, a European government represents
all social classes.
• August 4 – Gian Galeazzo Visconti succeeds his father, Galeazzo II Visconti,
as ruler of Milan.
• September 20 – Unhappy with Pope Urban's critical attitude towards them, the
majority of the cardinals meet at Fondi and elect Clement VII as antipope and
establish a rival papal court at Avignon. This split within the Catholic Church
becomes known as the Western Schism.
• November 10 – Estimated appearance date of Halley's Comet.
• November 29 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, is succeeded by his son,
Wenceslaus.
Date unknown

• Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV visits his nephew Charles V of France to


publicly celebrate the friendship between their two nations.
• The Papacy makes a permanent move back from Avignon to Rome, ending the
Avignon Papacy.
• France, Aragon, Castile and León, Cyprus, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples and
Scotland choose to recognise Antipope Clement VII. Denmark, England,
Flanders, the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, northern Italy, Ireland, Norway,
Poland and Sweden continue to recognise Pope Urban VI.
• Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow & Vladimir resists a small invasion by the
Mongol Blue Horde.
• Tokhtamysh dethrones Timur Malik as Khan of the White Horde.
• Kara Osman establishes the Turkomans of the White Sheep dynasty at
Diyarbakır in present-day southeast Turkey.
• The Turks capture the town of Ihtiman in west Bulgaria.
• Uskhal Khan succeeds his father, Biligtü Khan, as ruler of the Yuan Dynasty
in Mongolia.
• Balša II succeeds his father, Durađ I, as ruler of Zeta (now Montenegro).
• Tai Bian succeeds Zhao Bing Fa as King of Mong Mao (now northern
Myanmar).
• Da'ud Shah succeeds his assassinated nephew, Aladdin Mujahid Shah, as
Bahmani Sultan in present-day southern India. Da'ud Shah is assassinated in
the same year and is succeeded by Mohammed Shah II.
• Sa'im al-Dahr is hanged for blowing the nose off the Sphinx.

1379

January–December

• May 29 – John I succeeds his father, Henry II, as King of Castile and King of
León.
• September 9 – Treaty of Neuberg signed, splitting the Austrian Habsburg
lands between brothers Albert III and Leopold III. Albert III retains the title of
Duke of Austria.

Date unknown

• The Venetians and Ottomans invade Constantinople and restore John V


Palaiologos as Byzantine co-emperor. Andronikos IV Palaiologos is allowed
to remain as Byzantine co-emperor but is confined to the city of Silivri for the
remainder of his life.
• Bairam Khawaja establishes the independent principality of the Turkomans of
the Black Sheep Empire in present day Armenia.
• Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow raids Estonia.
• Foundation of New College, Oxford.
• Foundation of Wisbech Grammar School in England.
1380

January–December

• February – Olaf II of Denmark becomes Olaf IV of Norway, with his mother


Margaret as regent. Iceland and the Faroe Islands, as parts of Norway, pass
under the Danish crown.
• May 31 – Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila signs the secret Treaty of
Dovydiškės with the Teutonic Knights. This sparks a civil war with his uncle
Kęstutis.
• June 21 – Battle of Chioggia: the Venetian fleet defeats Genoeses.
• July 27 – Henry Bolingbroke marries Mary de Bohun at Arundel Castle.
• September 8 – Battle of Kulikovo: Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri
Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and
Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo.
• September 16 – Charles V of France is succeeded by his twelve year old son,
Charles VI.

Date unknown

• Sir William Walworth, a member of the Fishmongers Guild, becomes Lord


Mayor of London for the second time.
• Khan Tokhtamysh of the White Horde dethrones Khan Mamai of the Blue
Horde. The two hordes unite to form the Golden Horde.
• Karim Al-Makhdum arrives in Jolo and builds a Mosque.
• The Hongwu Emperor purges the chancellor of China, Hu Weiyong, and
abolishes that office as he imposes direct imperial rule over the six ministries
of central government for the Ming Empire.
• The last islands of Polynesia are discovered and inhabited.
• The Companhia das Naus is founded by King Ferdinand I of Portugal.

1381

January–December

• June 12 – Peasants' Revolt: In England, rebels from Kent and Essex, led by
Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, meet at Blackheath. There the rebels are
encouraged by a sermon, by renegade priest John Ball.
• June 14 – Peasants' Revolt: Rebels destroy John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace and
storm the Tower of London, killing the Archbishop of Canterbury and the
Lord Chancellor. King Richard II of England meets the leaders of the revolt
and agrees to reforms such as fair rents and the abolition of serfdom.
• June 15 – Peasants' Revolt: During further negotiations, Wat Tyler is
murdered by the King's entourage. Noble forces subsequently overpower the
rebel army. The rebel leaders are eventually captured and executed and
Richard II revokes his concessions. The revolt is discussed in John Gower's
Vox Clamantis and Froissart's Chronicles.
• August – Kęstutis overthrows his nephew, Jogaila, as Grand Duke of
Lithuania. Jogaila is allowed to remain as governor of eastern Lithuania. This
marks the beginning of the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–1384).

Date unknown

• Due to Joan I of Naples' support for Antipope Clement VII, Pope Urban VI
bestows Naples upon Charles of Durazzo. With the help of the Hungarians,
Charles advances on Naples and captures Joan.
• The Ming Dynasty of China annexes the areas of the old Kingdom of Dali, in
what is now modern-day Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, inhabited by the
Miao and Yao people. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese (including military
colonists) will migrate there from the rest of China.
• James of Baux, the ruler of Taranto and the Latin Empire, claims the
Principality of Achaea after the imprisonment of Joan I of Naples.
• Sonam Drakpa deposes Drakpa Changchub as ruler of Tibet.
• Hajji I succeeds Alah-ad-Din Ali as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. The Egyptian
government continues to be controlled by rebel leader Berkuk.
• After a naval battle, Venice wins the three year War of Chioggia against
Genoa. The Genoans are permanently weakened by the conflict.
• Timur conquers east Persia, ending the rule of the Sarbadar Dynasty.
• In Ming Dynasty China, the lijia census registration system begun in 1371 is
now universally imposed during the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. The
census counts 59,873,305 people living in China in this year. This depicts a
drastic drop in population since the Song Dynasty, which counted 100 million
people at its height in the early 12th century. The historian Timothy Brook, in
his The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China, states
that the Ming census was inaccurate, as China in the late 14th century had at
least 65,000,000 inhabitants, if not 75,000,000.[1]

1382

January–December

• May 12 – Charles of Durazzo executes the imprisoned Joan I of Naples and


succeeds her as Charles III of Naples.
• August – The iconic painting The Black Madonna of Czestochowa is brought
from Jerusalem to the Jasna Góra monastery in Poland.
• September – Following the death of Louis I of Hungary and Poland:
o Louis' daughter Mary becomes Queen of Hungary.
o The Poles, who do not wish to be ruled by Mary's fiancee, the future
Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, choose Mary's younger sister,
Jadwiga, to become ruler of Poland. After two years of negotiations,
Jadwiga is eventually crowned "King" in 1384.
• September 30 – The inhabitants of Trieste (now in northern Italy) donate their
city to Duke Leopold III of Austria.
• October – James I succeeds his nephew, Peter II, as King of Cyprus.
• November 27 – At the Battle of Roosebeke, a French army under Louis II of
Flanders defeats the Flemings led by Philip van Artevelde.
Date unknown

• Khan Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde overruns Moscow, as punishment for


Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi's resistance to Khan Mamai of the Blue Horde
in the 1370s. Dmitri Donskoi pledges his loyalty to Tokhtamysh and is
allowed to remain as ruler of Moscow & Vladimir.
• John Wyclif's teachings are condemned by the Synod of London.
• The Ottomans take Sofia from the Bulgarians.
• After a five year revolt, Berkuk deposes Hajji II as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt,
marking the end of the Bahri dynasty and the start of the Burji dynasty.
• Ibrahim I is selected to succeed Husheng as Shah of Shirvan (now
Azerbaijan).
• Kęstutis, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, is taken prisoner by former Grand
Duke Jogaila whilst meeting him to hold negotiations. Kęstutis is subsequently
murdered and Jogaila regains rule of Lithuania.
• Ahmad deposes his brother, Husain, as ruler of the Jalayirid dynasty in
western Persia.
• Rana Lakha succeeds Rana Kshetra Singh as ruler of Mewar (now part of
western India).
• Konrad III Zöllner von Rotenstein succeeds Winrich von Kniprode as Grand
Master of the Teutonic Knights.
• Balša II of Zeta (now Montenegro) conquers Albania.
• Dawit I succeeds his brother, Newaya Maryam, as Emperor of Ethiopia.
• Winchester College is founded in England.

1383

January–December

• January 22 – King Richard II of England marries Anne of Bohemia.


• May 17 – King John I of Castile and Leon marries Beatrice of Portugal
• July 7 – The childless James of Baux, ruler of Taranto and Achaea and titular
Latin Emperor, dies. As a result:
o Charles III of Naples becomes ruler of Achaea (now southern Greece).
o Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, the widower of Joan I of
Naples, becomes ruler of Taranto (now eastern Italy).
o Duke Louis I of Anjou inherits the claim to the Latin Empire (now
western Turkey) but never uses the title of Emperor.
• October 22 – King Fernando I of Portugal dies and is succeeded by his
daughter, Beatrice of Portugal. A period of civil war and anarchy, known as
the 1383-1385 Crisis, begins in Portugal due to Beatrice being married to the
King John I of Castile and Leon.

Date unknown

• The Teutonic Knights recommence war against pagan Lithuania.


• Rao Chanda succeeds Rao Biram Dev as Rathore ruler of Marwar (now in
western India).
• Löwenbräu beer is first brewed.
• Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep Temple is built in present-day Thailand by King
Kuena of Lanna.
• Construction of the Bastille is completed in Paris.

1384

January–December

• May–September 3 – Lisbon is besieged by the Castilian army, during the


1383-1385 Crisis.
• August 16 – The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China hears a case of a couple
who tore paper money bills while fighting over them—a case considered equal
to the act of destroying stamped government documents, which by law
necessitates 100 floggings by a bamboo rod. However, the Hongwu Emperor
decides to pardon them, on the grounds that it was not intentional.
• November 16 – Jadwiga is crowned "King" of Poland following the death of
her father, King Louis, in 1382.

Date unknown

• The Hongwu Emperor of China reinstates the civil service examination system
for drafting officials after suspending the examination system since 1373 in
favor of a recommendation system to office.
• The Nasrid princes of Granada replace Abu al-Abbas with Abu Faris Musa ibn
Faris as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in present day Morocco.
• Zain Al-Abidin succeeds his father, Shah Shuja, as ruler of the Muzaffarids in
central Persia.
• Shortly before his death, John Wycliffe sends out tracts against Pope Urban
VI, who had not turned out to be the reformist Wycliffe had hoped.
• Qara Muhammad succeeds Bairam Khawaja as ruler of the Turkomans of the
Black Sheep Empire in present day Armenia and northern Iraq.
• Timur conquers northern territories of the Jalayirid Empire in western Persia.
• Katharine Lady Berkeley's School is founded in Gloucestershire, England.

1385

January–December

• July 17 – Charles VI of France marries Isabeau of Bavaria


• August 14
o Battle of Aljubarrota: John of Aviz defeats John I of Castile in the
decisive battle of the 1383-1385 Crisis. John of Aviz is crowned King
John I of Portugal, ending Queen Beatrice's rule, and Portugal's
independence from Castile is secured.
o The Union of Krewo establishes the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland
and Lithuania through the proposed marriage of King Jadwiga of
Poland and Grand Duke Jagiello of Lithuania, and sees the acceptance
of Roman Catholicism by the Lithuanian elite.
• September 18 – Battle of Savra: Serbian forces under Balša II and Ivaniš
Mrnjavčević are defeated by Ottoman commander Hayreddin Pasha near
Berat.
• October 15 – The Battle of Valverde is fought between the armies of Portugal
and Castile.

Date unknown

• The marriage of Charles VI of France and Isabella of Bavaria-Straubing is


celebrated with France's first court ball.
• A group of Hungarian nobels help Charles III of Naples to overthrow Queen
Mary as ruler of Hungary and Croatia.
• Scotland resists a small invasion force from England led by Richard II.
• Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde conquers parts the Jalayirid Empire in
western Persia, causing a rift between himself and Timur of the Timurid
Empire, who had also wanted to conquer Persia.
• Olav IV of Norway is elected as King of Sweden, in opposition to the
unpopular King Albert.
• Construction of:
o Castello Estense in Ferrara (present-day Italy)
o Bodiam Castle (East Sussex, England)
• The Hongwu Emperor of China's Ming Dynasty relents after eighteen tribute
missions over the previous eight years and agrees to invest King U of Goryeo.

1386

January–December

• February 24 – Elizabeta Kotromanic, the mother of the overthrown Queen


Mary of Hungary and Croatia, arranges the assassination of Charles of
Durazzo, the ruler of Hungary, Naples, Achaea and Croatia, with the result
that:
o Mary is reinstated as Queen of Hungary and Croatia.
o Charles' son, Ladislas, becomes King of Naples.
o A period of interregnum begins in Achaea, lasting until 1396. The rule
of Achaea is sought by numerous pretenders, none of whom can be
considered to have reigned.
• May 9 – King John I of Portugal and King Richard II of England ratify the
Treaty of Windsor.
• May 20 – The city of Piteşti, now in Romania, is first mentioned.
• July 9 – Battle of Sempach: The Swiss safeguard independence from
Habsburg rule.
• September 23 – Dan I of Wallachia (now southern Romania) is killed in battle
against the Bulgarians and is succeeded by Mircea the Old.
• October 18 – Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, the oldest university in
Germany, is founded.
Date unknown

• The mother and sister of Queen Jadwiga of Poland are kidnapped by Jadwiga's
brother-in-law.
• Abu al-Abbas is reinstated as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in present day
Morocco.
• John of Gaunt leaves England to make good his claim to the throne of Castile
by right of his second marriage to Constanza of Castile in 1371.
• The Timurid Empire raids Georgia and takes King Bagrat V prisoner. Bagrat
is subsequently freed by an army led by his son, George.
• Hundred Years War – Battle of Margate: The English defeat an invading
French and Castilian naval force.
• The Venetians take control of the island of Corfu.
• Construction begins on the Brancacci Chapel in Florence.
• Rozhdestvensky monastery is built in Muscovy.

1387

January–December

• January – Sigismund, the future Holy Roman Emperor and husband of Queen
Mary of Hungary, orders the murder of his mother-in-law, Elizabeta
Kotromanic, and declares himself joint ruler of Hungary.
• January 1 – Charles III ascends to the throne of Navarre after the death of his
father, Charles II.
• January 5 – John I succeeds his father, Peter IV, as King of Aragon and
Valencia, and forms an alliance with France and Castile.
• March 11 – Battle of Castagnaro between the Italian cities of Verona and
Padua: Padua, led by John Hawkwood, is victorious over Giovanni Ordelaffi
of Verona.
• June 2 – John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is
created Earl of Huntingdon.
• August 22 – Olaf, King of Norway and Denmark and claimant to the throne of
Sweden, dies. The vacant thrones come under the regency of his mother
Margaret I of Denmark, who will soon become Queen in her own right.
• December 19 – Battle of Radcot Bridge: Forces loyal to Richard II of England
are defeated by a group of rebellious barons known as the Lords Appellant.
Richard II is imprisoned until he agrees to replace all the councillors in his
court.

Date unknown

• Timur conquers the Muzaffarid Empire in central Persia and appoints three
puppet rulers.
• Khan Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde invades the Timurid Empire but has to
soon after withdraw due to heavy snow.
• Magha II succeeds his brother, Musa II, as Mansa of the Mali Empire.
1388

January–December

• February – The entire court of Richard II of England are convicted of treason


by the Merciless Parliament, under the influence of the Lords Appellant, and
are all either executed or exiled. Richard II effectively becomes a puppet of
the Lords Appellant.
• August – Battle of Otterburn: A Scottish army, led by James Douglas, defeats
an English army, capturing the their leader, Harry Hotspur. Douglas is killed
during the battle.
• August 27 – Battle of Bileća: Bosnians check Ottoman advance.

Date unknown

• The Wyclif Bible is completed by John Purvey, and Wyclif's followers, known
as the Lollards, begin to be persecuted.
• John of Gaunt, the uncle of Richard II of England, makes peace with Castile
and gives up his claim to the Castilian throne by allowing his daughter
Katherine of Lancaster to marry Prince Henry, the eldest son of John I of
Castile.
• Ramesuan is reinstated as King of Ayutthaya (now southern Thailand) after
dethroning and executing 17 year-old King Thong Chan.
• Goryeo Revolution: General Yi Seonggye begins a four year revolution in
Goryeo (now Korea) after being ordered by King U of Goryeo to attack the
superior Chinese army.
• Goryeo Revolution: King U of Goryeo is forced from power and replaced by
his son Chang.
• A Chinese invasion force under General Lan Yu defeats a large Mongolian
army under Khan Toghus Temur and captures 100 members of the Yuan royal
family. Toghus Temur is killed whilst trying to escape and is succeeded as
Khan of Mongolia by his rival, Jorightu.
• An invading Chinese army destroys Karakorum, the capital city of the
Mongolian Empire.
• Tran Ngung overthrows Tran Hien as King of Vietnam.
• Omar I is succeeded by Sa'id as King of the Kanem-Bornu Empire (now east
Chad and Nigeria). Sa'id is succeeded in the same year by Kade Alunu. Omar
and Sa'id are both killed by Bilala invaders from the west.
• Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II succeeds Firuz Shah Tughluq as Sultan of Delhi.
• Charles VI of France takes full control of government, ending the regency of
his uncle, Philip the Bold.
• The University of Cologne is established (now the largest university in
Germany).
• Cozia Monastery is built in Wallacia.
• Ljubostinja Monastery is built in Serbia.
1389

January–December

• February 24 – Queen Margaret of Norway and Denmark defeats Albert of


Sweden in battle and becomes ruler of all three kingdoms. Albert is deposed
from the Swedish throne and taken prisoner.
• June 15 – Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and their Christian allies against
Ottoman Turks: Both Emperor Murad I and the Serbian Prince Lazar are killed
in battle.
o Beyazid I (1389–1402) succeeds his father Murad I (1359–1389) as
Ottoman Emperor.
o Stefan III succeeds his father as ruler of Serbia.
• May 19 – Vasili I becomes Grand Prince of Moscow after the death of his
father, Dmitri Donskoi.
• November 2 – Pope Boniface IX succeeds Pope Urban VI as the 203rd pope.

Date unknown

• Goryeo Revolution 1388–1392: King Chang of Goryeo is forced from power


and replaced by King Gongyang. The ten year-old Chang and his predecessor,
U, are both assassinated later in the year.
• Hadji II is restored as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt after overthrowing Sultan
Barquq.
• Hundred Years' War: England and France sign a truce, ending the second
phase of the war.
• Supported by Antipope John XXIII, Louis II overthrows the underage King
Ladislas as King of Naples.
• Wikramawardhana succeeds Hayam Wuruk as ruler of the Majapahit Empire
(now Indonesia).
• The unpopular Sultan Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II of Delhi is murdered and
succeeded by his brother, Abu Baker.
• Biri II succeeds Kade Alunu as King of the Kanem-Bornu Empire (now
eastern Chad and Nigeria) and the Empire loses its land in present-day Chad to
the Bilala.
• Sandaki overthrows Magha II as Mansa of the Mali Empire.
• Abd ar-Rahmân II succeeds Musa II as ruler of the Ziyanid Dynasty in
present-day western Algeria.
• Abu Tashufin II succeeds his nephew, Abu Hammu II, as ruler of the
Abdalwadid Dynasty in present-day eastern Algeria.
• Carmo Convent is built in Lisbon.

1390

January–December

• April 14 – John VII Palaiologos overthrows his grandfather, John V


Palaiologos, as Byzantine Emperor.
• April 19 – Robert III succeeds his father, Robert II, as King of Scotland.
• September 17 – John VII Palaiologos seeks refuge with the Ottoman sultan
Bayezid I after John V Palaiologos is restored by his son, Manuel, and the
Republic of Venice.
• October 9 – Henry III succeeds his father, John I, as King of Castile and León.

Date unknown

• The Ottomans take Philadelphia, the last Byzantine enclave of any


significance in Anatolia.
• With the help of the Teutonic Knights, Vytautas begins a revolt against his
cousin, Jogaila the Supreme Prince of Lithuania.
• The Earl of Derby (the future King Henry IV of England) supports the
Teutonic Knights at the siege of Vilnius.
• Barquq is restored as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt after overthrowing Sultan Hadji
II.
• Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III overthrows his brother, Abu Baker, as
Sultan of Delhi.
• Manuel III succeeds his father, Alexios III, as Emperor of Trebizond (now
north eastern Turkey).
• Sikandar But-shikan succeeds Sikandar Shah as Sultan of Kashmir.
• Ko Cheng succeeds Che Bong Nga as King of Champa (now eastern
Vietnam).
• Mahmud succeeds Sandaki as Mansa of the Mali Empire.
• N'Diklam Sare succeeds Sare N'Dyaye as ruler of the Jolof Empire (now part
of Senegal).
• The Kingdom of Kaffa is established in present day Ethiopia (approximate
date).
• Templo Mayor, the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (now
Mexico City), is built.
• The Candi Surawana Temple is built in the Majapahit Kingdom (now
Indonesia).
• Construction begins on San Petronio Basilica in Bologna.

1391

January–December

• June 6 – Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Seville, Spain. Many thousands of Jews are
massacred and the violence spreads throughout Spain and Portugal.
• July 18 – Tokhtamysh-Timur War: Battle of the Kondurcha River – Timur
defeats Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde in present day southeast Russia.
• August 5 – Anti-Jewish riots spread to Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. Many
Jews leave Barcelona after the following massacres, though a large number
remain in the city.
Date unknown

• Manuel II Palaiologos becomes Byzantine Emperor after his father, John V


Palaiologos, dies of a nervous breakdown due to his continued humiliation by
the Ottoman Empire.
• Yusuf II succeeds Muhammed V as Nasrid Sultan of Granada (now southern
Spain).
• Stephen Dabiša succeeds Stephen Tvrtko I as King of Bosnia.
• Shah Mansur becomes leader of the Timurid occupied Muzaffarid Empire in
central Persia.
• A group of Muzaffarids under Zafar Khan Muzaffar establish a new Sultanate
at Gujarat in western India.
• Vytautas the Great, claimant to the throne of Lithuania, forms an alliance with
Muscovy.
• Roman I succeeds Petru I as Prince of Moldavia (now Moldova and eastern
Romania).
• Konrad von Wallenrode succeeds Konrad Zöllner von Rotenstein as Grand
Master of the Teutonic Knights.
• Bridget of Sweden is canonized by Pope Boniface IX.
• Ushkuinik pirates from Novgorod sack the Muscovy towns of Zhukotin and
Kazan.
• The Chinese invent toilet paper for use by their emperors.
• Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, takes control of the Shetland Islands and the
Faroe Islands.
• The University of Ferrara is founded in present-day Italy.
• Ming government orders 50 million trees planted in Nanjing area.

1392

January–December

• December 16 – Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival


claimant Go-Komatsu, in order to end the nanboku-cho period of conflict
between the Northern and Southern imperial courts.

Date unknown

• Goryeo Revolution 1388–1392: In present-day Korea, rebel leader General Yi


Seonggye with the support of the Ming overthrows King Gongyang and
crowns himself King Taejo, ending the Goryeo Dynasty and establishing the
Joseon Dynasty. King Gongyang is exiled and later secretly murdered.
• Taejo of Joseon turns the fortress and trade center at Seoul into capital.
• King Jogaila of Poland and Lithuania appoints his cousin Vytautas the Great
as regent of Lithuania in return for Vytautas giving up his claim to the
Lithuanian throne. Vytautas replaces Jogaila's unpopular brother Skirgaila as
regent.
• King Charles VI of France, later known as Charles the Mad, begins
experiencing bouts of psychosis which will continue throughout his life.
• Muhammed VII succeeds Yusuf II as Nasrid Sultan of Granada (now southern
Spain).
• Franciscan friar James of Jülich is boiled alive for impersonating a bishop and
ordaining his own priests.
• Queen Mary of Sicily defeats an army of rebel barons.
• William le Scrope succeeds William II de Montacute as King of Mann.
• Seoan mac Pilib succeeds Tomas mor mac Mathghamhna as King of East
Breifne in present day north-central Ireland.
• The city of Afyonkarahisar (now in western Turkey) is conquered by Sultan
Beyazid I of the Ottoman Empire.
• Louis de Valois is created the 1st Duke of Orléans, the second time this title is
created.
• Erfurt University is founded in Erfurt, central Germany.
• Penistone Grammar School, later to be one of the first community
comprehensive schools in England, is founded near Barnsley, England.
• Each family holding colonized land in Anhui province has to plant 200 each of
mulberry, jujube and persimmon trees
• Entire military force of China – 1.2 million men, with 531,000 on the northern
frontier in China.

1393

Date unknown

• In central Persia, the Muzzafarid Empire, led by Shah Mansur, rebels against
their Timurid occupiers. The rebellion is squashed and the Muzaffarid nobility
are executed, ending the Muzaffarid Dynasty in Persia.
• George VII succeeds his popular father, Bagrat V, as King of Georgia.
• Abdul Aziz II becomes Sultan of the Marinid dynasty in present-day Morocco
after the death of Sultan Abu Al-Abbas.
• Raimondo del Balzo Orsini succeeds Otto of Brunswick as Prince of Taranto
(now south-eastern Italy).
• Samsenethai succeeds his father, Fa Ngum, as King of Lan Xang (now Laos).
• King James I of Cyprus inherits the title of King of Armenia after the death of
his distant cousin Leo VI (although the Mamluk conquerors from Egypt
remain the true rulers).
• A Ming Dynasty Chinese record states that 720,000 sheets of toilet paper (two
by three ft. in size) alone have been produced for the various members of the
imperial court at Beijing, while the Imperial Bureau of Supplies also reports
that 15,000 sheets of toilet paper alone have been designated for the royal
family (made of fine soft yellow tissue and perfumed).
• Bosnia resists an invasion by the Ottoman Empire.
• The Ottoman Turks capture Turnovgrad (now Veliko Tarnovo), the capital
city of east Bulgaria. Emperor Ivan Shishman is allowed to remain as puppet
ruler of east Bulgaria.
• Sikander Shah I succeeds Muhammad Shah III as Sultan of Delhi. Sikander
Shah I is succeeded two months later by Mahmud II.
• Abu Thabid II succeeds Abu Tashufin II as ruler of the Abdalwadid dynasty in
present-day eastern Algeria. Abu Thabid II is succeeded in the same year by
his brother, Abul Hadjdjadj I.
• Konrad von Jungingen succeeds Konrad von Wallenrode as Grand Master of
the Teutonic Knights.
• Maelruanaidh MacDermot succeeds Aedh MacDermot as King of Moylurg in
north-central Ireland.
• King Stjepan Dabiša of Bosnia signs the Contract of Djakovice, establishing
peace with King Sigismund of Hungary.
• Byzantium loses Thessaly to the growing Ottoman Empire.

1394

January–December

• September 17 – King Charles VI of France orders the expulsion of all Jews


from France.
• September 28 – Pope Benedict XIII succeeds Pope Clement VII.

Date unknown

• Battle of Karanovasa – Wallachia (now southern Romania) resists an invasion


by the Ottomans and their Serb and Bulgarian vassals.
• The Ottomans begin an eight-year siege of Constantinople in the Byzantine
Empire.
o The Anadoluhisarı fortress is built by the Ottomans to defend
themselves during the siege.
• Ashikaga Yoshimitsu retires as shogun of Japan and is succeeded by his son,
Ashikaga Yoshimochi.
• The capital city of the Joseon Dynasty in present-day Korea is moved from
Gaegyeong (now Gaeseong) to Hanseong (now Seoul).
o Gyeongbokgung Palace and the Jongmyo royal ancestral shrine are
built in Hanseong (now Seoul).
• After the death of Sultan Mahmud II, civil war breaks out in the Delhi
Sultanate, splitting the state between east and west.
• Battle of Ros-mic-Triuin: The Kingdom of Leinster, led by King Art mac Art
MacMurrough-Kavanagh, defeats an invading army from England, led by
King Richard II of England and Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March.
• Ştefan I succeeds Roman I as Prince of Moldavia (now Moldova and eastern
Romania).
• Abu Zayyan II succeeds his brother, Abul Hadjdjadj I, as ruler of the
Abdalwadid dynasty in present-day eastern Algeria.
• Yûsuf I succeeds Abd ar-Rahmân II as ruler of the Ziyanid Dynasty in
present-day western Algeria.
• The Ottomans conquer Thessaly (now eastern Greece).
• Abd al-Aziz II succeeds Abu al-Abbas Ahmad II as ruler of the Hafsid
dynasty in present-day Tunisia.
• Richard II of England grants Geoffrey Chaucer 20 pounds a year for life for
his services as a diplomat and Clerk of The King's Works.
• The Allgäuer Brauhaus brewery is founded in present-day Germany.
• The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China orders the Ministry of
Public Works to issue a public notice that every 100 households in the lijia
system are to set aside 2 mu (1,390 m2) of land for planting mulberry and
jujube trees.

1395

January–December

• May 17 – Battle of Rovine: With the help of the Hungarians, Wallachia resists
an invasion by the Ottomans and their Serb and Bulgarian vassals.

Date unknown

• Tokhtamysh-Timur war: Timur defeats Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde at


the Volga. The Golden Horde capital city, Sarai, is razed to the ground and
Timur installs a puppet ruler on the Golden Horde throne. Tokhtamysh
escapes to Lithuania.
• Mary of Hungary dies, ending of the reign of Hungary by the Capet-Anjou
family. Her co-reigning estranged husband, King Sigismund, becomes sole
ruler of Hungary.
• Sultan Bayezid I of the Ottoman Empire beheads Emperor Ivan Shishman of
Ottoman-occupied eastern Bulgaria after Shishman is accused of collaborating
with the Wallachians during the 1394 Battle of Karanovasa.
• Jelena Gruba is elected as Queen of Bosnia after the death of her husband,
King Stjepan Dabiša. However, after Stjepan's death most of the Bosnian land
is taken by King Sigismund of Hungary.
• Huitzilíhuitl succeeds his father, Acamapichtli, as ruler of the Aztecs.
• Albert IV succeeds his father, Albert III, as Duke of Austria.
• The Principality of Monaco expels their Genoese occupiers and Jean I and
Louis are crowned as joint Lords of Monaco. Later in the year, the Genoese
regain control and depose the Lords.
• Rama Ratchathirat succeeds Ramesuan as King of the Ayutthaya kingdom
(now southern Thailand).
• Muhammad II succeeds Yûsuf I as ruler of the Ziyanid Dynasty in present-day
western Algeria.
• The Duchy of Milan is created after Lord Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan
buys the title of Duke from Wenceslaus, the Holy Roman Emperor.
• Battle of Cruachain: The Kingdom of Ui Falighe (now in Ireland) resists an
English invasion.
• Bunei succeeds his father, Satto, as King of Chūzan (now central Okinawa,
Japan).
• The Gwanghwamun gate and the Jogyesa temple are built in present-day
Seoul.
• John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, was a transvestite
prostitute working mainly in London (near Cheapside), but also active in
Oxford. He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated. The
records have survived, the only surviving legal records from that age which
mentions same-sex intercourse.
1396

January–December

• May 19 – Martin I succeeds his brother, John I, as King of Aragon (now


north-east Spain).
• July 23 – Queen Margaret of Norway, Denmark and Sweden makes her
adopted son Eric of Pomerania joint ruler of Sweden. Eric had already been
made joint ruler of Norway.
• September – The Battle of the North Inch takes place in Perth, Scotland.
• September 25 – Battle of Nicopolis: The Ottomans defeat a joint crusade by
Hungary, France, the Holy Roman Empire, England and Wallacia, led by King
Sigismund of Hungary. This is the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages.
• November 24 – Transit of Venus – the last not to be part of a pair. Possibly
observed by Aztec astronomers.
• November 29 – Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, marries Joan
Beaufort.

Date unknown

• The Ottomans capture the Bulgarian fortress of Vidin and Tsar Ivan Sratsimir,
ending the Second Bulgarian Empire. The Bulgarian state is reestablished in
1878 as the Principality of Bulgaria.
• Temporary peace is declared between England and France with the marriage
of Richard II of England and Isabella of Valois, the daughter of Charles VI of
France.
• France conquers the Republic of Genoa.
• After a 14-year period of interregnum, Peter of Saint Superan is declared as
ruler of the Principality of Achaea (now southern Greece).
• In the "Battle of the Thirty", a mass trial by combat, the Clan Cameron defeat
the Clan Mackintosh on the North Inch of Perth, Scotland.
• Abu Amir succeeds Abdul Aziz II as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in present-
day Morocco.
• Timur appoints his son Miran Shah as Timurid viceroy of present-day
Azerbaijan.
• The Kartid Dynasty is brought to an end in east Persia after its remaining
rulers are murdered at a banquet by Miran Shah, son of Timur Lenk.
• Philibert de Naillac succeeds Juan Fernández de Heredia as Grand Master of
the Knights Hospitaller.
• The Ulu Camii mosque is built in Bursa by the Ottomans.
• The Ming Dynasty court of China sends two envoys, Qian Guxun and Li
Sicong, to the Ava Kingdom of Burma and the Tai polity of the Mong Mao in
order to resolve a dispute between these two. The travels of the Chinese
ambassadors are recorded in the historical text of the Bai Yi Zhuan.
• Tamerlane orders the construction of a garden in a meadow, House of
Flowers.
• Peasants in the present-day provinces of Hunan and Hupeh in the east plant 84
million fruit trees.
• Taejo of Joseon ends to rule.
• University of Zadar founded, first University in Croatia
1397

January–December

• February 10 – John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset.


• July 20 – Queen Margaret forms the Kalmar Union, uniting the three
kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland and Greenland) and Sweden
(including Finland).
• September 29 – John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon is created Duke of Exeter
by his half-brother Richard II of England.

Date unknown

• The Ottomans capture the Vidin Empire, the only remaining independent
Bulgarian state. Emperor Ivan Sratsimir of Vidin is taken prisoner and later
disappears.
o Constantine II becomes Emperor of Vidin after his father's
imprisonment.
• Richard II of England attempts to reassert authority over his kingdom by
arresting members of a group of powerful barons known as the Lords
Appellant.
• Temur Qutlugh is crowned as the Khan of Golden Horde with the help of
general Edigu. Although, Edigu continues to hold the real power.
• Thomas Arundel succeeds William Courtenay as Archbishop of Canterbury.
• Richard Whittington (aka Dick Whittington) is elected Lord Mayor of
London.
• Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery is founded in north-west Russia.
• Sretensky Monastery is founded in Moscow.
• Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, John's brother, is created Duke of Surrey
by King Richard.

1398

Date unknown

• Timur conquers the Delhi Sultanate, which had been weakened after 4 years of
civil war. Timur's Islamic troops sack the city of Delhi and proceed to
massacre hundreds of thousands of the state's Hindu inhabitants.
• Jianwen succeeds his grandfather, Hongwu, as Emperor of Ming Dynasty
China.
• King Richard II of England exiles his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (the future
Henry IV of England) for 10 years in order to end Henry's feud with Thomas
de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, who is also exiled.
• France withdraws its support for Antipope Benedict XIII.
o An army led by Geoffrey Boucicaut occupies Avignon and starts a 5-
year siege of the papal palace.
• The Teutonic Knights recommence their raids of Lithuania.
• The Bosnian nobility dethrone Queen Jelena Gruba and replace her with King
Stjepan Ostoja.
• Janus succeeds his father, James I, as King of Cyprus and claimant to the
throne of Armenian Cilicia.
• Abdullah succeeds Abu Amir as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in present-day
Morocco.
• The Teutonic Knights conquer the island of Gotland, near Sweden, which had
previously been run by a group of pirates.
• Martin I of Aragon launches a crusade against the Moors in North Africa.
• Yi Bangsuk, heir to the throne of the Joseon Dynasty in present-day Korea, is
murdered during a coup by his older half-brother, Yi Bangwon.
o King Taejo of Joseon abdicates in disgust at his sons' rivalry. Taejo's
eldest son Jeongjong succeeds to the throne.
• Trần Ngung is forced to abdicate as ruler of the Tran Dynasty in present-day
Vietnam. Trần An succeeds as ruler.
• The Stecknitz Canal is constructed in present-day north Germany (now one of
the oldest artificial waterways in the world).
• Glendalough monastery in Wicklow, Ireland is destroyed by English troops.
• Ferapontov Monastery is built in present-day north-west Russia.
• The Munmyo Confucian shrine and Sungkyunkwan University are built in
present-day Seoul.
• Mount Grace Priory is established in Yorkshire, England.
• According to some historians, the Scottish explorer Henry I Sinclair, Earl of
Orkney reaches North America.

1399

January–December

• February 3
o John of Gaunt, uncle of King Richard II of England and father of
Henry Bolingbroke, dies.
o Richard II cancels the legal documents allowing the exiled Henry
Bolingbroke to inherit his father's land.
o While Richard II is away on a military campaign in Ireland, Henry
Bolingbroke, with exiled former Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas
Arundel as an advisor, returns to England and begins a military
campaign to reclaim his confiscated land.
• After regaining his power, Henry Bolingbroke is urged to take the crown from
the unpopular Richard II. Richard is taken prisoner upon his returns from
Ireland and eventually forced to abdicate. Parliament then charges Richard
with committing crimes against his subjects.
• August 12 – Battle of the Vorskla River: Mongol Golden Horde forces led by
Khan Temur Qutlugh and emir Edigu annihilate a crusading army led by
former Golden Horde Khan Tokhtamysh and Grand Duke Vytautas of
Lithuania.
• September 30 – Parliament accepts Henry Bolingbroke as the new king of
England.
• October 13 – Henry IV of England is crowned.
• November 1 – John VI, Duke of Brittany begins his reign.
Date unknown

• Thomas Arundel is restored as Archbishop of Canterbury, replacing Roger


Walden.
• Faraj succeeds his father, Barquq, as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt.
• Sultan Bayezid I of the Ottoman Empire invades Mamluk-occupied Syria. A
rift forms between Sultan Bayezid and Timur of the Timurid Empire, who also
wanted to conquer Syria.
• Ladislas regains the throne of Naples after overthrowing King Louis II.
• King Jogaila becomes sole ruler of Poland after the death of his co-ruling wife,
Queen Jadwiga.
• Abu Said Uthman III succeeds Abdullah as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in
present-day Morocco.
• The Principality of Achaea (now southern Greece) resists an invasion by the
Ottoman Empire.

1400

January–December

• January – Henry IV quells the Epiphany Rising and executes the Earls of
Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury and the Baron le Despencer for their attempt
to have Richard II of England restored as King.
• February 14 – Richard II of England dies by means unknown in Pontefract
Castle. It is likely that King Henry IV ordered the death of Richard by
starvation to prevent further uprisings.
• August – The princes of the German states vote to depose Wenceslaus as Holy
Roman Emperor due to his weak leadership and his mental illnesses.
• August 21 – Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, is elected as Holy Roman
Emperor.
• September 16 – Owain Glyndŵr is proclaimed Prince of Wales by his
followers and begins attacking English strongholds in north-east Wales.
• December – Manuel II Palaiologos becomes the first (and last) Byzantine
Emperor to visit England.

Date unknown

• Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg is declared as a rival to Holy Roman


Emperor Wenceslaus. However, Frederick is murdered shortly after.
• Timur defeats both the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt to
capture the city of Damascus in present-day Syria. Much of the city's
inhabitants are subsequently massacred by Timur's troops.
• Timur conquers the Empire of The Black Sheep Turkomans, in present-day
Armenia, and the Jalayirid Dynasty in present-day Iraq. Black Sheep ruler
Qara Yusuf and Jalayirid Sultan Ahmad flee and take refuge with the Ottoman
Sultan Bayezid I.
• Scotland resists an English invasion led by Henry 'Hotspur' Percy.
• Newcastle-upon-Tyne created County Corporate by Henry IV.
• In present-day Korea, King Jeongjong of Joseon abdicates in fear of an attack
by his ambitious younger brother, Taejong. Taejong succeeds to the throne.
• Prince Parameswara establishes the Malacca Sultanate in present-day western
Malaysia and northern Sumatra.
• Five year old Tran An is forced to abdicate as ruler of Dai Viet (now Vietnam)
in favour of his maternal grandfather Ho Quy Ly, ending the Tran Dynasty
and starting the Hồ Dynasty. Ho Quy Ly subsequently changes the country's
name to Dai Ngu.
• Hananchi succeeds Min as King of Hokuzan in present-day north Okinawa,
Japan.
• Wallachia (now southern Romania) resists an invasion by the Ottomans.
• Jean Froissart completes his Chronicles detailing the events of the 14th
Century in France.
• The Medici family becomes powerful in Florence.
• Europe is reported to have around 52 million inhabitants.
• The Kingdom of Kongo begins.

1401

Date unknown

• Timur raids the city of Baghdad in the Jalayirid Empire.


• The De heretico comburendo Act is passed in England, as the Archbishop of
Canterbury pressures King Henry IV of England into outlawing as heretics
anyone owning an English translation of the Bible.
• Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India.
• Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania is granted increased autonomy by King
Jogaila of the Poland–Lithuania union.
• Emperor Ho Quy Ly of Dai Ngu (now Vietnam) passes the throne to his son,
Thai Thuong Hoang.
• A civil war, lasting four years, breaks out in the Majapahit Empire in present-
day Indonesia.
• The Joseon Dynasty in present-day Korea officially enters into a tributary
relationship with Ming Dynasty China.
• Japan re-enters into a tributary relationship with Ming Dynasty China.

1402

January–December

• June 22 – Battle of Bryn Glas: The Welsh rebels defeat the English on the
England/Wales border.
• June 26 – Battle of Casalecchio: Gian Galeazzo Visconti, the Duke of Milan,
crushes the forces of Bologna and Florence, but he dies from a fever later this
year and is succeeded by his son Gian Maria Visconti.
• July 12 – The rebel army of Zhu Di occupies the Ming Dynasty China capital
Fengtian. Emperor Jianwen is either lost or killed and Zhu Di is crowned as
Emperor Hongwu. This marked the end of Jingnan campaign.
• July 20 – Battle of Ankara: An invading Timurid Dynasty force defeats the
Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, who is captured. A period of interregnum begins in
the Ottoman Empire with the future Mehmed I as one of the leading claimants
to the throne.
• September – Penal Laws against Wales The English Parliament pass the Penal
Laws against Wales. The Laws stopped the Welsh from gathering together,
obtaining office, carrying arms and living in English towns. Any Englishman
who married a Welsh woman also came under the Penal Laws of 1402.
• September 14 – Battle of Homildon Hill: Northern English nobles led by Sir
Henry "Hotspur" Percy defeat a Scottish raiding army under the Earl of
Douglas.

Date unknown

• After Serbia is freed from Ottoman rule, Stefan Lazarević is crowned as


Despot of Serbia.
• After the Christian Knights of Saint John, who are ruling Smyrna, refuse to
convert to Islam or pay tribute, Timur has the entire population massacred.
The Knights of Saint John subsequently begin building Bodrum Castle in
Bodrum to defend against future attacks.
• David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, heir to the throne of Scotland, dies while
being held captive by his uncle, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany.
• King Henry III of Castile sends French explorer Jean de Béthencourt to
colonize the Canary Islands ( Conquest of the Canary Islands ). Béthencourt
receives the title King of the Canary Islands, but recognizes King Henry III as
his overlord. This marked the beginning of the Spanish Empire.
• The Genoese regain control of Monaco.
• King Jogaila of the Poland–Lithuania union answers the rumblings against his
rule of Poland by marrying Anna of Celje, a granddaughter of Casimir III of
Poland.
• Maria II Zaccaria succeeds Peter of Saint Superan as ruler of the Principality
of Achaea (now southern Greece).
• Moldavia becomes a vassal of Poland in order to protect itself from an
invasion by Hungary.
• After the death of Queen Mary of Sicily, her husband Martin I of Sicily
becomes sole ruler.
• The Kangnido map of the world is completed in Joseon Dynasty Korea.
• Conchobar an Abaidh mac Maelsechlainn O Cellaigh succeeds Maelsechlainn
mac William Buidhe O Cellaigh as King of Hy-Many in present day County
Galway and County Roscommon in Ireland.
• The University of Würzburg, Germany is founded.
• The White Sheep Turkmen Empire, in present-day northern Iraq and Iran,
moves its capital from Amida to Diyarbakır.[citation needed]
• The Great Comet of 1402 is sighted.
1403

January–December

• February 7 – King Henry IV of England marries Joanna of Navarre, the


daughter of Charles d'Évreux, King of Navarre.
• March 12 – As King Martin I of Aragon helps to end the siege by the French
of the papal palace in Avignon, Antipope Benedict XIII flees to Aragon.
• April – Balša III succeeds his father Đurađ II as ruler of the Principality of
Zeta (now the Republic of Montenegro).
• Before July 21 – Harry "Hotspur" Percy forms an alliance with Welsh rebel
Owain Glyndŵr.
• July 21 – Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats a rebel
army led by "Hotspur" Percy, who is killed in the battle by an arrow in his
face.

Date unknown

• Jan Hus begins preaching Wycliffite ideas in Bohemia.


• Ming Emperor Yongle moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing.
• The Gur-e Amir Mausoleum is built by Timur after the death of his grandson
Muhammad-Sultan, and eventually becomes the family mausoleum of the
Timurid dynasty.
• While the Ottomans are at civil war, the Byzantine Empire reclaims the
European coast of the Sea of Marmara and Thessalonica. The emperor's son
Andronikos Palaiologos is given the title of Lord of Thessalonike.
• The world's first quarantine station is built in Venice to quarantine against the
Black Death.
• Battle of Modon: The French under Jean Le Maingre defeat the Venetians.
• Grand Duke Vytautas ends his alliance with Muscovy and captures Vyazma
and Smolensk.
• The Yongle Encyclopedia (then one of the world's earliest and largest known
general encyclopedias) is commissioned by the Chinese Ming Dynasty
emperor Yongle.
• Stefan Lazarević establishes Belgrade as the capital of the Serbian Despotate.
• The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers (better known
as the Stationers' Company) is founded in England (currently one of the
Livery Companies of the City of London).
• Georgia makes peace with Timur but has to recognise him as a suzerain and
pay him tribute.
• Tadgh Ruadh mac Maelsechlainn O Cellaigh succeeds Conchobar an Abaidh
mac Maelsechlainn O Cellaigh as King of Hy-Many in present-day County
Galway and County Roscommon in Ireland.
• Maolmhordha mac Con Connacht succeeds Giolla Iosa mac Pilib as King of
East Breifne, in present-day County Leitrim and County Cavan, Ireland.
• The Temple of a City God is constructed in Shanghai, China.
• Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, an ambassador from the king of Castile, arrives in
Samarkand.
• Yongle orders his coastal provinces to build a vast fleet of ships, with
construction centered at Longjiang near Nanjing; the inland provinces are to
provide wood and float it down the Yangzi River.
• probable – Ououso becomes King of Nanzan in present-day south Okinawa,
Japan.

1404

January–December

• June 14 – Rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr, having declared himself Prince of


Wales, allies with the French against the English. He later begins holding
parliamentary assemblies.
• October 17 – Pope Innocent VII succeeds Pope Boniface IX as the 204th
pope.
• November 19 – St. Elizabeth's flood devastates parts of Flanders, Zeeland and
Holland.

Date unknown

• Stephan Tvrtko II succeeds Stefan Ostoja as King of Bosnia.


• Peace is declared between Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights after they agree
to exchange land and form an alliance against Muscovy.
• The University of Turin is founded.
• Timur is hit by a fever while preparing to invade China.
• Centurione II Zaccaria succeeds Maria II Zaccaria as ruler of the Principality
of Achaea.
• Virupaksha Raya succeeds Harihara Raya II as ruler of the Vijayanagara
Empire in present-day southern India.
• Narayana Ramadhipati succeeds Ponthea Yat as King of Cambodia.
• Ruaidri Caech MacDermot succeeds Conchobair Og MacDermot as King of
Moylurg in present-day north-east Connacht, Ireland.
• The city of Vicenza comes under the rule of the Venetians.

1405

January–December

• May 29 – Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, meets Archbishop Richard


le Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor,
tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them.
• June 8 – Archbishop Richard le Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of
Norfolk, is executed in York on Henry IV's orders.
• October 5 – Christine de Pizan writes letter to Queen Isabeau urging her to
intervene in political struggle between dukes of Burgundy and Orleans.

Date unknown
• Early feminist Christine de Pizan writes The Book of the City of Ladies.
• Bath Abbey is built in England.
• Bellifortis, a book on military techonology, is published by Konrad Kyeser.
• Chinese fleet commander Zheng He sets sail to explore the world for the first
time.
• First written record of whiskey being consumed recorded in Ireland, where it
was distilled by Catholic monks.
• Ming Dynasty troops attacked Lanna Kingdom with Sipsongpanna support.

1406

January–December

• November 30 – Pope Gregory XII succeeds Pope Innocent VII as the 205th
pope.
• December 25 – John II becomes King of Castile.

Date unknown

• Construction of the Forbidden City begins in Beijing during the Chinese Ming
Dynasty.
• Richard Whittington becomes Lord Mayor of London.
• Eric of Pomerania marries Philippa, daughter of Henry IV of England.
• James I becomes King of Scotland, after having been captured by Henry IV of
England.
• Richard, Earl of Cambridge, marries Anne Mortimer.
• Pisa is subjugated by Florence.

1407

January–December

• April 10 – After several invitations by the Yongle Emperor of China since


1403, the fifth Karmapa of the Karma Kagyu sect of Tibetan Buddhism, the
lama Deshin Shekpa, finally visits the Ming Dynasty capital, then at Nanjing.
In his twenty-two day visit, he thrilled the Ming court with alleged miracles
that were recorded in a gigantic scroll translated into five different languages.
In a show of mystical prowess, Deshin Shekpa added legitimacy to a
questionable succession to the throne by Yongle, who had killed his nephew
the Jianwen Emperor in the culmination of a civil war. For his services to the
Ming court, including his handling of the ceremonial rites of Yongle's
deceased parents, Deshin Shekpa was awarded with the title Great Treasure
Prince of Dharma (大寶法王).
• November 20 – A solemn truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy
and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John,
Duke of Berry.
• November 23 – The Duke of Orleans is assassinated; war breaks out again
between the Burgundians and his followers.
Date unknown

• Rudolfo Belenzani leads a revolt against Bishop Georg von Liechtenstein in


Trento, Italy.
• The Ming Dynasty of China under the Yongle Emperor invades and conquers
Vietnam, after ditching its support effort for reestablishing the Tran Dynasty
over the Ho Dynasty; yet a rebel movement will push the Chinese out by
1428, during the establishment of the Le Dynasty.

1408

January–December

• September 16 – Thorstein Olafssøn marries Sigrid Bjørnsdatter in Hvalsey


Church, in the last recorded event of the Norse history of Greenland.
• December 13 – The Order of the Dragon is founded under King Sigismund of
Hungary.

Date unknown

• Henry, Prince of Wales (later Henry V of England) retakes Aberystwyth from


Owain Glyndŵr.
• The Moldavian town of Iaşi is first mentioned.
• The Yongle Encyclopedia is completed.
• Gotland passes under Danish rule.
• Zheng He delivers 300 virgins from Korea to the Chinese emperor.

1409

January–December

• January 1 – The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English.


• March 25 – The Council of Pisa opens.
• July – Martin I of Aragon succeeds his own son as King of Sicily.
• December 2 – The University of Leipzig opens.

Date unknown

• Ulugh Beg becomes governor of Samarkand.


• Venice buys the port of Zadar from Hungary.
• Cheng Ho (or Zheng He), admiral of Ming empire fleet, deposes the king of
Sri Lanka.
• Louis II of Anjou founds the University of Aix.
1410

January–December

• March 29 – The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the Giudicato di


Arborea in Sardinia.
• July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Žalgiris): Polish
and Lithuanian forces under cousins Jogaila and Vytautas the Great decisively
defeat the forces of the Teutonic Knights, whose power is broken.

Date unknown

• Jan Hus is excommunicated by the Archbishop of Prague.


• Antipope John XXIII is elected.
• Construction begins on Castle Woerden in the Netherlands.
• The Prague Astronomical Clock (also known as Prague Orloj) was built by
Mikuláš of Kadaň and Jan Šindel in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic.

1411

January–December

• February 11 – The First Peace of Thorn is signed in Thorn, Monastic State of


the Teutonic Knights
• July 24 – The Battle of Harlaw is fought between Donald of Islay, Lord of the
Isles and an army commanded by Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar.
• September 21 – King Henry IV of England calls his ninth parliament.
• November 30 – Henry IV dismisses Prince Henry and his supporters from the
government.

Date unknown

• The University of St. Andrews is founded by a papal bull.


• Under the Yongle Emperor of Ming China, work begins to reinstate the
ancient Grand Canal of China, which fell into disuse and dilapidation during
the previous Yuan Dynasty. Between 1411 and 1415, a total of 165,000
laborers dredge the canal bed in Shandong, build new channels, embankments,
and canal locks. Four large reservoirs in Shandong are also dug in order to
regulate water levels instead of resorting to pumping water from local tables.
A large dam is also constructed to divert water from the Wen River southwest
into the Grand Canal.

1412

January–December

• January 16 – The Medici family are made official bankers of the Papacy.
• October 5 – Emperor Go-Komatsu abdicates and Emperor Shoko accedes to
the throne of Japan.
• October 28 – Eric of Pomerania becomes sole ruler of the Kalmar Union
(Sweden, Denmark and Norway) upon the death of Queen Margaret.

Date unknown

• John II of Castile declares the Valladolid laws that restrict the social rights of
Jews. Among many other restrictions the laws force Jews to wear distinctive
clothes and denies them administrative positions.
• Years after its publication in the 14th century, the Ming Dynasty Chinese
artillery officer Jiao Yu adds the preface to his classic book on gunpowder
warfare, the Huolongjing.

1413

January–December

• March 21 – Henry V becomes King of England.


• October 2 – Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania sign the Union
of Horodło

Date unknown

• The Annals of Joseon Dynasty is begun.


• The University of St. Andrews is chartered by papal bull.
• Yishiha builds a Buddhist temple at Tyr, Russia, and puts up a stele describing
his expedition to the lower Amur
• End of Ottoman interregnum (after 1402). Mehmet I is the new sultan.

1414

January–December

• January 7 – Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg becomes the 28th Grand


Master of the Teutonic Order.
• August 6 – Joan II succeeds her brother Ladislas as Queen of Naples.
• November 16 – The Council of Constance begins.

Date unknown

• The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron (1377–1424) is the last duke to be
enthroned according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on
the Duke's Stone.
• Alien priory cells are suppressed.
• The Tibetan lama Je Tsongkhapa of the Gelug Buddhist sect declined the offer
of the Yongle Emperor of China to appear in the capital at Nanjing, although
he sent his disciple Chosrje Shākya Yeshes, who was given the title "State
Teacher". The later Xuande Emperor granted Yeshes the title of a king upon a
return visit to China, only he traveled to the new capital at Beijing.
• Sayyid dynasty starts to rule Delhi.

1415

January–December

• April 30 – Frederick I becomes Elector of Brandenburg.


• July 4 – Pope Gregory XII officially opens the Council of Constance and then
abdicates.
• June 5 – The Council of Constance condemns the writings of John Wycliffe
and asks Jan Hus to recant in public his heresy; after his denial, he is tried for
heresy, excommunicated, then sentenced to be burned at the stake.
• July 6 – Jan Hus is burned at the stake in Konstanz.
• July 31 – Henry V of England is informed of the Southampton Plot against
him; he has the leaders arrested and executed before invading France.
• August 14 – Portugal conquers the city of Ceuta from the Moors, initiating the
Portuguese Empire and European expansion and colonialism.
• October 25 – Battle of Agincourt: Archers of Henry V of England are
instrumental in defeating a massed army of French knights.

Date unknown

• Avignon Pope Benedict XIII orders all Talmuds to be delivered to the diocese
and held until further notice.
• The Swiss Confederation takes the territory of Aargau from the house of
Habsburg.
• The Grand Canal of China is reinstated by this year after it had fallen out of
use; restoration began in 1411, and was a response by the Yongle Emperor of
the Ming Dynasty to improve the grain shipment system of tribute traveling
from south to north towards his new capital at Beijing. Hence, the problem
with lack of food supply is sufficed by this year.
• The Orthodox Church in the lands of the tsardom of Muskovy (actual Russia)
separates from the one in Ukraine and Byelorussia, both claiming to be the
true Kiev patriarchate.

1416

January–December

• January 27 – The Republic of Ragusa is the first state in Europe to outlaw


slavery.
• May 30 – The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic.

Date unknown

• The Trezzo sull'Adda Bridge (the longest arch bridge in the world at the time)
is destroyed.
• Ottoman–Venetian maritime treaty (1416)

1417

January–December

• June 24 – The Isle of Man holds the first known Tynwald Day; the annual
meeting of its parliament (Tynwald) which has continued every year until the
present.
• July 27 – Avignon Pope Benedict XIII is deposed, bringing to an end the
Great Western Schism.
• August 12 – King Henry V of England begins using English in
correspondence (back to England from France whilst on campaign), marking
the beginning of this king's continuous usage of English in prose, and the
beginning of the restoration of English as an official language for the first time
since the Norman Conquest, some 350 years earlier.
• November 11 – Pope Martin V succeeds Pope Gregory XII (who abdicated in
1415) as the 206th pope.

Date unknown

• The use of street lighting is first recorded in London, when Sir Henry Barton,
the mayor, orders lanterns with lights to be hung out on the winter evenings
between Hallowtide and Candlemas.

1418

January–December

• May 19 – Paris is captured by John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.


• September – The English Siege of Rouen begins.

Date unknown

• Mircea I of Wallachia is succeeded by Michael I of Wallachia.


• The first Portuguese settlers move to the Madeira Islands.
• The Council of Constance ends.

1419

January–December

• January 19 – Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England,


which brings Normandy under the control of England.
• June 20 – The Oei Invasion of Tsushima Island in Japan by Joseon Korea
begins.
• July 30 – The first Defenestration of Prague occurs.
• September 10 – John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy is assassinated by
adherents of the Dauphin.

Date unknown

• Portuguese sea captains João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, at the
service of Prince Henry the Navigator, discover the Madeira islands.
• The University of Rostock is established as the oldest university of northern
Europe.
• The Timurid ruler of Persia, Mirza Shahrukh (r. 1404–1447), sends a large
embassy to the Ming Dynasty of China during the reign of the Yongle
Emperor (r. 1402–1424). One of the Persian envoys, Ghiyasu'd-Din Naqqah,
keeps a diary of his travels throughout China, some of the contents of which
are preserved in court documents thanks to the court historian Hafiz Abru.
Naqqah writes about China's wealthy economy and huge urban markets, its
efficient courier system as compared to that in Persia, the hospitality of his
hosts at the courier stations in providing comfortable lodging and food, and
the fine luxurious goods and craftsmenship of the Chinese.

1420

January–December

• May 21 – Treaty of Troyes: With the Burgundian faction dominant in France,


King Charles VI of France acknowledges Henry V of England as his heir and
as virtual ruler of most of France.
• May 25 – Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Order of Christ.
• June 7 – Troops of the Republic of Venice capture Udine after a long siege,
ending the independence of the Patriarchal State of Friuli, run by the Patriarch
of Aquileia.
• October 22 – Ghiyasu'd-Din Naqqah, an envoy of the embassy sent by the
Timurid ruler of Persia, Mirza Shahrukh (r. 1404–1447), to the Ming Dynasty
of China during the reign of the Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424), records his
sight and travel over a large floating pontoon bridge at Lanzhou (constructed
earlier in 1372) as he crosses the Yellow River on this day. He writes that it
was: "...composed of twenty three boats, of great excellence and strength
attached together by a long chain of iron as thick as a man's thigh, and this was
moored on each side to an iron post as thick as a man's waist extending a
distance of ten cubits on the land and planted firmly in the ground, the boats
being fastened to this chain by means of big hooks. There were placed big
wooden planks over the boats so firmly and evenly that all the animals were
made to pass over it without difficulty."

Date unknown

• The Madeira Islands are discovered by the Portuguese João Gonçalves Zarco.
• Hussite Wars: Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor fails at the Battle of
Vysehrad and is ejected from Bohemia.
• Catherine of Valois marries Henry V of England.
• Henry V of England commences construction of Grace Dieu (ship).
• Construction begins on the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, China while the
palace complex of the Forbidden City is completed. In this year the Yongle
Emperor confers the title "Beijing" ("Northern Capital") for the Ming
Dynasty's new capital city, replacing Nanjing.
• The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore's dome construction is started after
Filippo Brunelleschi wins the commission for his "double shell" design.

1421

January–December

• March 21 – Battle of Baugé: A small French force surprises and defeats a


smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V
of England, in Normandy.
• May 26 – Mehmed I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, dies and is succeeded by
his son Murad II.
• November 17–November 19 – St. Elizabeth flood: The coastal area near
Dordrecht in the Netherlands is flooded due to the extremely high tide of the
North Sea; 72 villages are drowned, killing about 10,000 people.

Date unknown

• John III of Dampierre, Marquis of Namur, sells his estates to Philip the Good,
Duke of Burgundy.
• The first patent is issued by the Republic of Florence.[1]

1422

January–December

• January 10 – Hussite Wars: Battle of Nemecky Brod: The Hussites defeat


2,000 Royalist Crusaders.
• March 21 – The Siege of Meaux begins.
• August 31 – Henry VI becomes King of England.
• September 27 – the Teutonic Knights sign the Treaty of Melno with the
Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania after the brief Gollub War.
The Prussian–Lithuanian border established by the treaty remained unchanged
until World War I.
• October 21 – With the death of King Charles VI of France, Henry VI of
England is proclaimed King of France in Paris, while the Dauphin, Charles, is
proclaimed King Charles VII of France in Bourges.

Date unknown

• Venice has a population of 84,000 of which 200 men rule the city.
• Florence has a population of 40,000 of which 600 men rule the city.
• Ottoman forces overrun the last domains of Constantine II of Bulgaria, who
dies in exile at the Serbian court; end of the Bulgarian Empire.

1423

January–December

• April 27 – Hussite Wars – Battle of Horic: The Taborites decisively beat the
Utraquists.
• July 31 – Hundred Years' War- Battle of Cravant: The French army is defeated
at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne.

Date unknown

• According to the 1421 theory, Zheng He's fleets return to China.


• The three independent boroughs of Pamplona are united into a single town by
royal decree after centuries of feuds.

1424

January–December

• June 2 – Battle of L'Aquila: Jacopo Caldora and Micheletto Attendolo for the
Kingdom of Naples defeat Braccio da Montone for Alfonso V of Aragon.
• August 17 – Battle of Verneuil: An English force under John, Duke of
Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John
Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. Alençon is captured and Douglas
killed.

1425

Date unknown

• Beijing, capital of China, becomes the largest city in the world, taking the lead
from Nanjing (estimated date).[2]
• The Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium is founded.
• By this year, paper currency in China is worth only 0.025% to 0.014% its
original value in the 14th century; this and counterfeiting of copper coin
currency will lead to a dramatic shift to using silver as the common medium of
exchange in China.

1426

January–December
• March 6 – Battle of St. James (near Avranches): An English army under John,
Duke of Bedford defeats the French under Arthur de Richemont, forcing the
Duke of Brittany to recognize English suzerainty.
• June 16 – Hussite Wars – Battle of Usti nad Labem: The Hussites decisively
beat the crusading armies in the Fourth Anti-Hussite Crusade.
• July 7 – The Battle of Chirokitia is fought.

Date unknown

• "Castello Orsini-Odescalchi" is built in Bracciano, Italy by the Orsini family.


• Eunuch-dominated secret police start to control the palace guards and imperial
workshops, infiltrate the civil service and head all foreign missions in China.

1427

January–December

• August 4 – Hussite Wars – Battle of Tachov: The Hussites decisively beat the
crusader armies, ending the Fourth Anti-Hussite Crusade.
• August 17 – The first band of Gypsies visits Paris, according to an account of
the citizen of Paris.

Date unknown

• Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded.


• The House of Balsic's rule of Montenegro comes to an end.
• Bhaktapur Royal Palace in Nepal is built by King Yaksa Malla.
• Gabriel V is elected Patriarch of the Coptic Church for the second time.
• Minrekyansa becomes King of Ava (ancient Burma).
• The Conflict of Druimnacour occurs in Sutherland, Scotland.
• The first witch hunts begin, in Switzerland.
• Celestine Order established in France.
• The Celebration of Sant Jordi (Saint George) begins in Catalonia (he will later
become its patron saint).
• Bremen is expelled from the Hanseatic League.
• Diogo de Silves, Portuguese navigator, discovers seven islands of the Azores
archipelago.

1428

January–December

• August 30 – Emperor Go-Hanazono accedes to the throne of Japan.


• October 12 – English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury,
besiege Orléans. Jean de Dunois, the Bastard of Orléans, commands the
defenders.
• October 24 – Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, is mortally wounded
in an unsuccessful assault on Orléans. He is succeeded in command by
William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk.
Date unknown

• Itzcóatl becomes ruler of the Aztecs. He eventually begins the construction of


Tenochtitlan.
• The Aztec Triple Alliance (also known as The Aztec Empire) forms with the
alliance of three Aztec city-states—Tenochtitlán, Texcoco, and Tlacopán—
and defeats Azcapotzalco to win control of the Valley of Mexico.
• A serious fire occurs at Baynard's Castle in London.
• Voices tell Joan of Arc that Charles VII of France must be crowned and the
English expelled from France.

1429

January–December

• February 12 – Battle of Rouvray (or "of the Herrings"): English forces under
Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of
William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at Orléans from attack by the Comte de
Clermont and John Stuart.
• April 29 – Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orléans.
• April 30 – Siege of Orléans: Joan of Arc enters Orléans with a relief
expedition.
• May 7 – The Tourelles, the last English siege fortification at Orléans, falls.
Joan of Arc becomes the hero of the battle by returning wounded to lead the
final charge.
• May 8 – The English, weakened by disease and lack of supplies, depart
Orléans.
• June 18 – Battle of Patay: French forces under Joan of Arc smash the English
forces under Lord Talbot and Sir John Fastolf, forcing the withdrawal of the
English from the Loire Valley.
• July 17 – Charles VII of France crowned in Rheims.
• September 8 – Joan of Arc leads an unsuccessful attack on Paris and is
wounded.
• November 24 – Joan besieged La Charité.

Date unknown

• Fire destroys Turku.


• A series of seven customs offices and barriers are installed along the Grand
Canal of China, during the reign of the Ming Dynasty ruler Emperor Yongle.

1430

January–December

• May 14 – The French first attempt to relieve the Siege of Compiègne.


• May 23 – Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army
to relieve Compiègne.
• June 14 – William Waynflete becomes vicar of Skendleby, Lincolnshire.
• July 11 – The Battle of Trnava, Hussite victory on the Hungarian-Moravian-
Serbian army.

Date unknown

• The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians.


• The Order of the Golden Fleece is founded by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy to
celebrate his marriage.
• Bratislava Castle is converted to a fortress under Sigismund of Luxemburg.
• Švitrigaila succeeds his cousin as ruler of Lithuania.
• Optical methods are first used in the creation of art.
• The Janissaries are created.
• Patras, capital of Achea, finally falls to the Byzantine Despotate of Morea.

1431

January–December

• January 9 – Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France


under English occupation.
• March 3 – Pope Eugene IV succeeds Pope Martin V as the 207th pope.
• March 26 – The trial of Joan of Arc begins.
• May 30 – Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake.
• June 16 – the Teutonic Knights and Švitrigaila sign the Treaty of
Christmemel, creating anti-Polish alliance
• September – Battle of Inverlochy: Donald Balloch defeats the Royalists.
• December 16 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France.

Date unknown

• The University of Poitiers is founded.


• The Thai sack the Khmer capital of Angkor Thom.
• Nezahualcoyotl is crowned Tlatoani of the Kingdom of Texcoco.

1432

January–December

• Spring – An Albanian revolt, led by Gjergj Arianit Komneni, breaks out


against the Ottoman Empire and spreads through most of Albania.
• April – At the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut
and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all
her estates in his favour, ending Hainaut and Holland as independent counties.
• June 1 – Battle of San Romano: Florence defeats Siena.
• August 31 – Sigismund Kęstutaitis attempts a capture or murder of Švitrigaila,
his rival for the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Švitrigaila manages
to escape.
• December 8 – the first battle between the forces of Švitrigaila and Sigismund
Kęstutaitis is fought near the town of Oszmiana (Ashmyany), launching the
most active phase of the civil war in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Date unknown

• The Université de Caen is founded.

1433

January–December

• Winter – Much of the English town of Alnwick in Northumbria is burnt by a


Scottish raiding party.
• September – Cosimo de' Medici, later the de facto ruler of Florence and patron
of Marsilio Ficino, is exiled by the Albizzi/Strozzi faction. (Cosimo returns a
year later, to the day, in 1434).

Date unknown

• The Ming Dynasty in China disbands their naval fleet after the last great
maritime expedition led by Admiral Zheng He, altering the balance of power
in the Indian Ocean and making it easier for Portugal and other Western naval
powers to gain dominance over the seas.
• In Ming Dynasty China, cotton is listed as a permanent item of trade on the tax
registers of Songjiang prefecture.

1434

January–December

• April 14 – The foundation stone of Cathedral St. Peter and St. Paul in Nantes,
France is laid.
• May 30 – Hussite Wars – Battle of Lipany: The Catholics and Ultraquists
defeat the Taborites, ending the Hussite Wars.
• July 10–August 9 – Suero de Quiñones and his companions stage the Passo
Honroso in León.
• October 19 – The University of Catania is founded in Italy.

Date unknown

• Jan van Eyck paints The Wedding of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna
Cenami.
• Explorer Gil Eanes reaches Cape Bojador in Western Sahara, thus destroying
the legends of the "Dark Sea".
• Portuguese traders deliver their first cargo of African slaves to Lisbon.
• Zara Yaqob becomes Emperor of Ethiopia.
• In Ming Dynasty China, a long episode of drought, flood, locust infestation,
and famine cripple agriculture and commerce in areas throughout China, a bad
spell that will last until 1448.
• Cosimo de' Medici returns to Florence one year, to the day, following his exile
the previous September by the Alberti and Strozzi faction.

1435

January–December

• January 11 – Sweden's first Riksdag of the Estates is summoned under


Engelbrekt.
• September 1 – Battle of Pabaiskas ends a civil war between Grand Dukes
Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
• September 21 – The Treaty of Arras between Charles VII of France and Philip
III of Burgundy ends the English-Burgundian alliance.

Date unknown

• Francis of Paola founds the Order of the Minims in Italy.


• The Kingdom of Naples passes to Aragon.
• Treaty of Arras brings an end to the Armagnac-Burgundian Civil War,
allowing Charles VII of France to concentrate his forces against English
influence in France
• China returns to a policy of isolation.

1436

January–December

• April – Paris is recaptured by the French.


• June 25 – The Incorporated Guild of Smiths is founded in Newcastle upon
Tyne.
• July 5 – The Hussite Wars effectively end in Bohemia. Sigismund is accepted
as King.

Date unknown

• Alexandru I Aldea is replaced as ruler of Wallachia by Vlad II Dracul.


• The Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral in Florence is consecrated.
• The Bosnian language is first mentioned in a document.
• Date of the Visokom papers (on Visoki), the last direct sources of the old town
of Visoki.
• In the Ming Empire of China, the inauguration of the Zhengtong Emperor
takes place.
• In Ming Dynasty China, a significant portion of the southern grain tax is
commuted to payments in silver, known as the Gold Floral Silver (jinhuayin).
This comes about due to officials' and military generals' increasing demands to
be paid in silver instead of grain, as commercial transactions draw more silver
into nationwide circulation. Some counties have trouble transporting all the
required grain to meet their tax quotas, so it makes sense to pay the
government in silver, a medium of exchange that is already abundant amongst
landowners through their own private commercial affairs.
• The Florentine polymath Leon Battista Alberti begins writing the treatise On
Painting, in which he argues for the importance of mathematical perspective
in the creation of three-dimensional vision on a two-dimensional plane. This
follows the ideas of Massacio and his concepts of linear perspective and
vanishing point in artwork.

1437

January–December

• February 20 – James I of Scotland is stabbed.


• March 25 – In a ceremony in Holyrood Abbey, James II of Scotland is
crowned at the age of six by Pope Eugene IV.
• April 23 – Malmö in Denmark (now Sweden) receives its current coat of arms.

Date unknown

• All Souls College, University of Oxford is founded.


• Ulugh Beg's Zij-i-Sultani star catalogue is published.
• The Kazan Khanate is established.
• Edinburgh is made the capital of Scotland.

1438

January–December

• January 1 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary.


• March 18 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany.
• July 7 – Charles VII of France issues the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges,
giving the French church control over the appointment of bishops and
depriving the Pope of French ecclesiastical revenues.

Date unknown

• Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway, loses direct


control of Sweden. Karl Knutsson Bonde is elected Regent of Sweden.
• Pachacuti (who will later create Tahuantinsuyu, or the Inca Empire) becomes
the ruler of Cuzco.
• In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino is
raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì.
• Just two years after the Ming Dynasty court of China allowed landowners
paying the grain tax to pay their tax in silver instead, the Ming court now
decides to close all silver mines and to ban all private silver mining in
Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. This is a concerted effort to halt the increase of
silver circulating into the market. Illegally mining silver is now an offense
punishable by death; although illegal mining became a dangerous affair, the
high demand for illegal mining also made it very lucrative, and so many chose
to defy the government and continued to mine silver.

1439

January–December

• May 4 – Battle of Grotnik: The Hussite movement is defeated in Poland.


• June 29 – supposed date of Venerable Macarius' Miracle of the Moose,
according to Russian hagiographers.
• September 8 – Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi captures Foligno, ending Trinci's
signoria.
• September 29 or October 1 – Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark
and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. Karl Knutsson Bonde continues
to serve as Regent of Sweden.
• November 12 – In England, Plymouth becomes the first town incorporated by
the English Parliament.

Date unknown

• Logabirum is mentioned for the first time.


• The Great Ordinance is adopted by the French Estates-General. This measure
grants the king the exclusive right to raise troops, and establishes the taxation
measure known as the taille in support of a standing army.

1440

January–December

• February 21 – The Prussian Confederation is formed.


• September 13 – Gilles de Rais is taken into custody upon an accusation
brought against him by the Bishop of Nantes.
• October 22 – Gilles de Rais confesses and is sentenced to death.

Date unknown

• Itzcóatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, dies and is succeeded by Moctezuma I


(Moctezuma Ilhuicamina).
• The term of Regent of Sweden Karl Knutsson Bonde ends.
• Murad II lays siege to Belgrade. The city is heavily damaged, but the
defenders' use of artillery prevents the Turks from capturing the city.
• Eton College is founded by Henry VI.
• Sir Richard Molyneux is appointed constable of Liverpool Castle.
• The Ming Dynasty government of China begins a decade-long series of
issuing harsh edicts towards those who illegally mine silver, the latter known
as 'miner bandits' (kuangzei), a trend begun in 1438. The government wants to
cap the amount of silver circulating into the market as more grain taxes are
converted into silver taxes. The government establishes community night
watches known as 'watches and tithings' (baojia) who ensure that illegal
mining activities are brought to a halt. However, these are desperate measures,
as illegal silver mining continues to thrive as a dangerous but lucrative
venture.

1441

Date unknown

• King's College, University of Cambridge, is founded by King Henry VI.


• Ouagadougou becomes the capital of the Mossi Kingdoms.
• Two Ethiopians attend an ecclesiastical council at Florence, as part of the
negotiations concerning a possible union of Coptic and Roman Catholic
Christianity. This is the earliest recorded contact of the Ethiopian Church with
Europe.
• A revolt occurs in the Yucatán capital Mayapan; the Maya civilization splits
into warring city-states.
• Christopher of Bavaria succeeds Karl Knutsson Borde as king of Sweden.
• Alfonso V of Aragon captures Naples after a five month siege.
• With the help of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, governor Haci Giray declares
his province independent of the Golden Horde and establishes the Crimean
Khanate.
• The Republic of Venice annexes the seigniory of Ravenna, ending the Da
Polenta dynasty.

1442

January–December

• June 12 – Alfonso of Aragon is crowned at Naples.

Date unknown

• The community of Rauma, Finland is granted its town rights.


• The municipality of Juva, Finland was founded.
• Vlad II Dracul is temporarily replaced as ruler of Wallachia by his son Mircea.
• A fourth tower is added to Liverpool Castle.
• Battle of Sibiu: John Hunyadi defeats an Ottoman army of 80,000 strong, led
by Mezid the Bey of Vidin, near Sibiu.

1443

January–December

• July 22 – Battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl: Zürich is barely defeated.


• November 28 – Battle of Nis: John Hunyadi, and the Albanians, under
Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks.
Date unknown

• Nuno Tristão penetrates the Arguim Gulf.


• King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul as the native alphabet of the Korean
language.
• Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding
Basarab II.
• The Zhihua Si Buddhist Temple (智化寺) is built in Beijing, China at the
order of Wang Zhen, the chief eunuch at the court of the Zhengtong Emperor
of the Ming Dynasty.

1444

January–December

• March 2 – The Albanian League is established in Lezha; Gjergj Kastrioti


Skanderbeg is proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance.
• April 16 – The Truce of Tours is signed between England and France (it lasts
5 years).
• June 15 – Cosimo de' Medici founds the Laurentian Library.
• June 29 – Skanderbeg defeats an Ottoman army at the battle of Torvioll.
• August 15 – Treaty of Szeged between Ottoman (Turkish) Empire and
Kingdom of Hungary.
• August – Battle of Jalowaz: Murad II is defeated, and forced to abdicate in
favor of his son Mehmed II .
• August 26 – Old Zürich War – Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs: Charles VII of
France, seeking to send away troublesome troops made idle by the truce with
England, sends his son the Dauphin with a large army into Switzerland to
support the claims of Emperor Frederick III. The massively outnumbered
Swiss force is destroyed in this battle, but inflict such casualties on the French
that they withdraw.
• November 10 – Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Ladislas of
Poland and Hungary are crushed by the Turks under Sultan Murad II. Ladislas
is killed.

Date unknown

• Forces of the Sultan of Egypt fail to take Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes.
• The Iguvine Tables are discovered at Gubbio, Italy.
• Portuguese explorers reach the mouth of the rivers Senegal and Gambia.
• The first European slave market for the sale of African slaves, the Mercado de
Escravos, opens in Lagos, Portugal.
• Portuguese caravel lands 235 slaves at Algarve, Portugal.
• A serious fire occurs at St Paul's Cathedral in London.
• Constantine XI, as despotate of the Morea, invades the Latin Duchy of Athens
and forces them to pay tribute, and return Thebes to Byzantium.