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e–Glossary

A Antibiotic
A modern medicine that kills bacteria
Acid
An acid is a substance that contains hydrogen Antioxidant
ions, H+, as the only positive ions in an aqueous A food additive that prevents oxidation of food
solution. Atom
The smallest particle of an element that can
Acid-base titration participate in a chemical reaction
A quantitative experimental technique used to
carry out complete neutralisation reaction between Avogadro constant
an acid and an alkali The number of particles in one mole of any
substance, which refers to the value of 6.02 × 1023
Activation energy mol-1
Minimum energy the reactant particles must have
before effective collision between them can result
in a chemical reaction B
Alcohol Base
A homologous series containing the hydroxyl A substance that reacts with an acid to give only a
group, –OH, with the general formula CnH2n+1OH, salt and water
where n = 1, 2, 3, …

Alkali
A base that is soluble in water C
Carbon compound
Alkane A compound that contains carbon combined with
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with the other elements
general formula CnH2n+2, where n = 1, 2, 3, …
Carboxylic acid
Alkene A homologous series containing the carboxyl group,
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with the –COOH, with the general formula CnH2n+1COOH,
general formula CnH2n, where n = 2, 3, 4, … where n = 0, 1, 2, …

Alloy Catalyst
A mixture of two or more metals (sometimes non- A substance which increases the rate of a chemical
metals) in a specific proportion. The added metals reaction, without itself being chemically changed
are usually in small amounts at the end of the reaction

Analgesic Cathode
A modern medicine that relieves pain An electrode which is connected to the negative
terminal of a battery
Anion
Cation
The negative ion that is formed when an atom
The positive ion that is formed when an atom loses
gains electrons
electrons
Anode Coagulation of latex
An electrode which is connected to the positive Separation of rubber molecules from the water in
terminal of a battery the latex
Collision theory Detergent
A theory used to explain the rate of chemical The sodium salt formed when an alkyl hydrogen
reactions in terms of effective collisions between sulphate is neutralised by an alkali (sodium
particles hydroxide)
Diffusion
Composite material
The movement of particles of a substance from
An advanced material that is formed by combining
higher concentration to a medium of lower
two or more different materials. The properties of
concentration
this new material are more superior compared to
those of its original materials Dilution
Addition of a solvent to a more concentrated
Compound solution to produce a more diluted solution
A substance that contains two or more elements
that are chemically bonded
Distillation
Concentration Process of extracting a substance by vapourising
The concentration of a solution is the amount of a it and then condensing the vapour at a fixed
solute that dissolved in a unit volume of a solution. temperature
The concentration of a solution can be expressed Dye
in terms of gram of solute per litre (dm3) of a A food additive that colours food or replaces lost
solution, g dm-3, or number of moles of solute per colours
litre (dm-3) of solution, mol dm-3

Condensation
Process of changing gas to liquid
E
Electrochemical series
Conductor A list of metals arranged in descending order of
A substance which conducts electricity but does their atomsí tendency to lose electrons to form
not change chemically during the conduction positive ions. The more electropositive metals are
placed higher up in the series.
Contact process Electrode
An industrial process to manufacture sulphuric An electric conductor which carries electric
acid from sulphur current in and out of an electrolyte
Covalent bond Electrolysis
A bond that is formed between atoms of non-metals The conductivity of electricity in an electrolyte,
by overlapping their outermost shells. In covalent leading to its decomposition to its constituent
bonding, each atom in a molecule contributes an elements
equal number of electrons for sharing. Electrolyte
Electrolytes are compounds that conduct electricity
Crystallisation in a molten state or in an
A technique used to prepare crystals of a substance
from its saturated solution aqueous solution and are decomposed to their
constituent elements in the process.
Electron
D A negatively-charged subatomic particle that
surrounds the nucleus of an atom
Decomposition
A chemical reaction in which a compound is Electron arrangement
broken down into simpler substances The way electrons are arranged in an atom
Empirical formula
Dehydration The chemical formula which shows the simplest
A reaction where water molecules are removed whole number ratio of the atoms of each element
from the reactants present in a compound
Endothermic reaction Food additive
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy from Any substance that is added to food to preserve it
the surroundings or improve its flavour and appearance
Energy level diagram Fractional distillation
A graph that shows the energy content of reactants The separation of two liquids with different boiling
and products with the energy change of a chemical points by distillation using a fractionating column
reaction
Functional group
Energy profile diagram An atom or a group of atoms that is responsible
A graph that shows the energy change as reactants for the characteristic chemical properties of an
change to become products in a chemical reaction organic compound
Ester
A homologous series containing the carboxylate
group, –COO–, with the general formula G
CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1, where n = 0, 1, 2, … and
m = 1, 2, 3, … Glycerol
An alcohol that has three hydroxyl groups
Esterification
The reaction between a carboxylic acid and an Group
alcohol to form an ester and water. The reaction is The vertical columns of elements in the Periodic
catalysed by concentrated sulphuric acid. Table. The group number is determined by the
number of valence electrons in the atoms of the
Evaporation elements
The change of a liquid into a gas at the surface of
a liquid
Exothermic reaction H
A chemical reaction that releases heat energy to
the surroundings Haber process
An industrial process to manufacture ammonia
Extraction of metal from nitrogen and hydrogen
The process of obtaining a metal from its ore
Half-equation
An ionic equation showing either oxidation or
F reduction that explicitly shows the electrons
involved
Fat
A natural ester of fatty acid and glycerol Heat of combustion
The amount of heat given off when one mole of a
Fatty acid substance is completely burnt in excess oxygen
A carboxylic acid that has a long chain of about
10 to 20 carbon atoms. It has only one carboxyl Heat of displacement
group. The amount of heat energy given off when one mole
of metal is displaced from its aqueous solution (by
Fermentation the more electropositive metal) under standard
The reaction in which yeast converts glucose into conditions
ethanol
Heat of neutralisation
Filtration The amount of heat given off when one mole of
The separation of a solid and a liquid by pouring water is produced from the neutralisation reaction
the mixture into a porous material such as filter between an acid and an alkali under standard
paper. The liquid passing through the filter paper is conditions
called filtrate. The solid trapped on the filter paper
is called the residue. Heat of precipitation
The amount of heat given off when one mole of
Flavouring agent precipitate is formed when mixing the aqueous
A food additive that gives flavour to food or solutions of the ions of insoluble salt under
enhances its natural flavour standard conditions
Homologous series Molarity
A family of organic compounds with each member The number of moles of solute present in 1 dm3 of
of the family differing from the previous member solution
by having one more group of atoms –CH2–
Mole
Hydration A basic S.I. unit used to measure the amount of
A reaction where water molecules are added to a substances. One mole of substance contains as
compound many particles as the number of atoms in 12 g of
carbon-12.
Hydrocarbon
Organic compounds that contain hydrogen and Molecule
carbon atoms only A group of two or more atoms which are chemically
bonded together
Hydrogenation
The addition of a hydrogen molecule to the carbon Molecular formula
atom of the double bond The chemical formula which shows the actual
number of atoms of each element in a molecule
Hydrolysis
A reaction of a compound with water to produce Monomer
smaller products The smaller molecules that make up the repeating
units in polymers

I
Ion
N
A positively-charged or negatively-charged particle Neutralisation
formed as a result of losing electrons or gaining The reaction between an acid and a base (or alkali)
electrons in an atom to produce only water and a salt
Ionic bond Neutron
A bond that is formed when electrons are An electrically neutral subatomic particle found in
transferred from metal atoms to non-metal atoms the nucleus of an atom
to form positive and negative ions. The ionic
Noble gas
bond is the strong electrostatic forces of attraction
A gas that is inert and monoatomic because it has
between positive and negative ions.
stable electronic structures (octet or duplet)
Isomer
Non-electrolyte
Isomers are different compounds that have the
A substance that does not conduct electricity even
same molecular formula but different structural
in a molten state or in an aqueous solution
formula
Non-hydrocarbon
Isotope
Organic compounds containing other elements
Atoms of the same element but are different in the
such as nitrogen and oxygen besides hydrogen and
number of neutrons
carbon
Nucleon number
M The total number of protons and neutrons in the
nucleus of an atom
Matter
Anything that occupies space and has a mass Nucleus
The central part of an atom consisting of neutrons
Melting and protons
The change of a solid into a liquid
Molar mass
The mass of one mole of any substance O
Molar volume Organic compound
The volume occupied by one mole of any gas, which A carbon compound that is derived or obtained
is 22.4 dm3 at s.t.p. or 24 dm3 at room conditions from living or once living things
Oxidation Redox reaction
Oxidation occurs when there is a gain in oxygen, a A reaction in which oxidation and reduction occur
loss of hydrogen, a loss of electrons or an increase spontaneously
in the oxidation number of a substance
Reducing agent
Oxidation number A substance that reduces another substance and is
The imaginary change of an atom if it exists as an oxidised in the redox reaction
ion
Reduction
Oxidising agent
Reduction occurs when there is a loss of oxygen, a
A substance that oxidises another substance and is
gain in hydrogen, a gain in electrons or a decrease
reduced in the redox reaction
in the oxidation number of a substance

Relative atomic mass


P The relative atomic mass of an element is defined
Period as the average mass of one atom of that element
1
The horizontal rows of elements in the Periodic compared with 12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom
Table. The period number is determined by the
number of electron-filled shells in atoms of the Relative formula mass
elements. The relative formula mass of a substance is defined
as the average mass of one formula unit of an
pH scale 1
ionic substance compared with 12 of the mass of a
A measure of how acidic or alkaline an aqueous
carbon-12 atom
solution is
Polymer Relative molecular mass
Molecules that consist of a large number of small The relative molecular mass of a substance is
identical units joined together repeatedly defined as the average mass of a molecule of
1
that substance compared with 12 of the mass of a
Polymerisation
carbon-12 atom
The process of joining together a large number of
small molecules to form polymers
Precipitate
An insoluble solid produced from a solution S
during a chemical reaction Salt
A compound formed when the hydrogen ion of an
Preservative
acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium
A food additive that prevents or slows down
ion
spoilage of food
Saponification
Proton
Saponification is hydrolysis of an ester by a hot
A positively-charged subatomic particle found in
aqueous alkali solution to form an alcohol and
the nucleus of an atom
sodium (or potassium) salts of carboxylic acids
Proton number
Scientific method
The number of protons in an atom
A systematic approach used by scientists to
investigate a phenomenon
R Semi-metal
An element that possesses the intermediate
Rate of reaction
properties between metals and non-metals
The rate of a chemical reaction is determined by
measuring how quickly a reactant is used up or Shell
how quickly a product is produced over a period The orbit surrounding the nucleus of an atom in
of time which electrons move
Reactivity series of metals Soap
A list where metals are placed in the order of their The sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid
reactivity with oxygen
Stabiliser Transition element
Food additives that improve the texture and An element in Group 3 to Group 12 of the Periodic
consistency of food Table
Stoichiometry
The relationship between the amount (usually V
in mole) of reactants and products involved in a Valence electrons
chemical reaction The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
Structural formula
A formula that shows how atoms are bonded to Viscocity
each other in a molecule A measure of the resistance of fluids to flow

Sublimation Voltaic cell


The change from a solid into a gas without going A cell that produces electrical energy by means
through liquid state of chemical reaction. It converts chemical
energy to electrical energy. It is also known as an
Substitution reaction
electrochemical cell or a galvanic cell.
A reaction in which one atom replaces another
atom of a molecule
Vulcanisation
The process of treating natural rubber with sulphur
to form vulcanised rubber
T
Titration
A laboratory technique in which a standard
W
solution is used to determine the concentration of Whitening agent
an unknown solution using an indicator to detect A detergent additive that makes clothes look white
the end point during neutralisation and cleaner