e–Glossary

A
Acid An acid is a substance that contains hydrogen ions, H+, as the only positive ions in an aqueous solution. Acid-base titration A quantitative experimental technique used to carry out complete neutralisation reaction between an acid and an alkali Activation energy Minimum energy the reactant particles must have before effective collision between them can result in a chemical reaction Alcohol A homologous series containing the hydroxyl group, –OH, with the general formula CnH2n+1OH, where n = 1, 2, 3, … Alkali A base that is soluble in water Alkane Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n = 1, 2, 3, … Alkene Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n, where n = 2, 3, 4, … Alloy A mixture of two or more metals (sometimes nonmetals) in a specific proportion. The added metals are usually in small amounts Analgesic A modern medicine that relieves pain Anion The negative ion that is formed when an atom gains electrons Anode An electrode which is connected to the positive terminal of a battery Antibiotic A modern medicine that kills bacteria Antioxidant A food additive that prevents oxidation of food Atom The smallest particle of an element that can participate in a chemical reaction Avogadro constant The number of particles in one mole of any substance, which refers to the value of 6.02 × 1023 mol-1

B
Base A substance that reacts with an acid to give only a salt and water

C
Carbon compound A compound that contains carbon combined with other elements Carboxylic acid A homologous series containing the carboxyl group, –COOH, with the general formula CnH2n+1COOH, where n = 0, 1, 2, … Catalyst A substance which increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without itself being chemically changed at the end of the reaction Cathode An electrode which is connected to the negative terminal of a battery Cation The positive ion that is formed when an atom loses electrons Coagulation of latex Separation of rubber molecules from the water in the latex

Collision theory A theory used to explain the rate of chemical reactions in terms of effective collisions between particles Composite material An advanced material that is formed by combining two or more different materials. The properties of this new material are more superior compared to those of its original materials Compound A substance that contains two or more elements that are chemically bonded Concentration The concentration of a solution is the amount of a solute that dissolved in a unit volume of a solution. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in terms of gram of solute per litre (dm3) of a solution, g dm-3, or number of moles of solute per litre (dm-3) of solution, mol dm-3 Condensation Process of changing gas to liquid Conductor A substance which conducts electricity but does not change chemically during the conduction Contact process An industrial process to manufacture sulphuric acid from sulphur Covalent bond A bond that is formed between atoms of non-metals by overlapping their outermost shells. In covalent bonding, each atom in a molecule contributes an equal number of electrons for sharing. Crystallisation A technique used to prepare crystals of a substance from its saturated solution

Detergent The sodium salt formed when an alkyl hydrogen sulphate is neutralised by an alkali (sodium hydroxide) Diffusion The movement of particles of a substance from higher concentration to a medium of lower concentration Dilution Addition of a solvent to a more concentrated solution to produce a more diluted solution Distillation Process of extracting a substance by vapourising it and then condensing the vapour at a fixed temperature Dye A food additive that colours food or replaces lost colours

E
Electrochemical series A list of metals arranged in descending order of their atomsí tendency to lose electrons to form positive ions. The more electropositive metals are placed higher up in the series. Electrode An electric conductor which carries electric current in and out of an electrolyte Electrolysis The conductivity of electricity in an electrolyte, leading to its decomposition to its constituent elements Electrolyte Electrolytes are compounds that conduct electricity in a molten state or in an aqueous solution and are decomposed to their constituent elements in the process. Electron A negatively-charged subatomic particle that surrounds the nucleus of an atom Electron arrangement The way electrons are arranged in an atom Empirical formula The chemical formula which shows the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of each element present in a compound

D
Decomposition A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler substances Dehydration A reaction where water molecules are removed from the reactants

Endothermic reaction A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy from the surroundings Energy level diagram A graph that shows the energy content of reactants and products with the energy change of a chemical reaction Energy profile diagram A graph that shows the energy change as reactants change to become products in a chemical reaction Ester A homologous series containing the carboxylate group, –COO–, with the general formula CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1, where n = 0, 1, 2, … and m = 1, 2, 3, … Esterification The reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol to form an ester and water. The reaction is catalysed by concentrated sulphuric acid. Evaporation The change of a liquid into a gas at the surface of a liquid Exothermic reaction A chemical reaction that releases heat energy to the surroundings Extraction of metal The process of obtaining a metal from its ore

Food additive Any substance that is added to food to preserve it or improve its flavour and appearance Fractional distillation The separation of two liquids with different boiling points by distillation using a fractionating column Functional group An atom or a group of atoms that is responsible for the characteristic chemical properties of an organic compound

G
Glycerol An alcohol that has three hydroxyl groups Group The vertical columns of elements in the Periodic Table. The group number is determined by the number of valence electrons in the atoms of the elements

H
Haber process An industrial process to manufacture ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen Half-equation An ionic equation showing either oxidation or reduction that explicitly shows the electrons involved Heat of combustion The amount of heat given off when one mole of a substance is completely burnt in excess oxygen Heat of displacement The amount of heat energy given off when one mole of metal is displaced from its aqueous solution (by the more electropositive metal) under standard conditions Heat of neutralisation The amount of heat given off when one mole of water is produced from the neutralisation reaction between an acid and an alkali under standard conditions Heat of precipitation The amount of heat given off when one mole of precipitate is formed when mixing the aqueous solutions of the ions of insoluble salt under standard conditions

F
Fat A natural ester of fatty acid and glycerol Fatty acid A carboxylic acid that has a long chain of about 10 to 20 carbon atoms. It has only one carboxyl group. Fermentation The reaction in which yeast converts glucose into ethanol Filtration The separation of a solid and a liquid by pouring the mixture into a porous material such as filter paper. The liquid passing through the filter paper is called filtrate. The solid trapped on the filter paper is called the residue. Flavouring agent A food additive that gives flavour to food or enhances its natural flavour

Homologous series A family of organic compounds with each member of the family differing from the previous member by having one more group of atoms –CH2– Hydration A reaction where water molecules are added to a compound Hydrocarbon Organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms only Hydrogenation The addition of a hydrogen molecule to the carbon atom of the double bond Hydrolysis A reaction of a compound with water to produce smaller products

Molarity The number of moles of solute present in 1 dm3 of solution Mole A basic S.I. unit used to measure the amount of substances. One mole of substance contains as many particles as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12. Molecule A group of two or more atoms which are chemically bonded together Molecular formula The chemical formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule Monomer The smaller molecules that make up the repeating units in polymers

I
Ion A positively-charged or negatively-charged particle formed as a result of losing electrons or gaining electrons in an atom Ionic bond A bond that is formed when electrons are transferred from metal atoms to non-metal atoms to form positive and negative ions. The ionic bond is the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between positive and negative ions. Isomer Isomers are different compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formula Isotope Atoms of the same element but are different in the number of neutrons

N
Neutralisation The reaction between an acid and a base (or alkali) to produce only water and a salt Neutron An electrically neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom Noble gas A gas that is inert and monoatomic because it has stable electronic structures (octet or duplet) Non-electrolyte A substance that does not conduct electricity even in a molten state or in an aqueous solution Non-hydrocarbon Organic compounds containing other elements such as nitrogen and oxygen besides hydrogen and carbon Nucleon number The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Nucleus The central part of an atom consisting of neutrons and protons

M
Matter Anything that occupies space and has a mass Melting The change of a solid into a liquid Molar mass The mass of one mole of any substance Molar volume The volume occupied by one mole of any gas, which is 22.4 dm3 at s.t.p. or 24 dm3 at room conditions

O
Organic compound A carbon compound that is derived or obtained from living or once living things

Oxidation Oxidation occurs when there is a gain in oxygen, a loss of hydrogen, a loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation number of a substance Oxidation number The imaginary change of an atom if it exists as an ion Oxidising agent A substance that oxidises another substance and is reduced in the redox reaction

Redox reaction A reaction in which oxidation and reduction occur spontaneously Reducing agent A substance that reduces another substance and is oxidised in the redox reaction Reduction Reduction occurs when there is a loss of oxygen, a gain in hydrogen, a gain in electrons or a decrease in the oxidation number of a substance Relative atomic mass The relative atomic mass of an element is defined as the average mass of one atom of that element 1 compared with 12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom Relative formula mass The relative formula mass of a substance is defined as the average mass of one formula unit of an 1 ionic substance compared with 12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom Relative molecular mass The relative molecular mass of a substance is defined as the average mass of a molecule of 1 that substance compared with 12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom

P
Period The horizontal rows of elements in the Periodic Table. The period number is determined by the number of electron-filled shells in atoms of the elements. pH scale A measure of how acidic or alkaline an aqueous solution is Polymer Molecules that consist of a large number of small identical units joined together repeatedly Polymerisation The process of joining together a large number of small molecules to form polymers Precipitate An insoluble solid produced from a solution during a chemical reaction Preservative A food additive that prevents or slows down spoilage of food Proton A positively-charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom Proton number The number of protons in an atom

S
Salt A compound formed when the hydrogen ion of an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion Saponification Saponification is hydrolysis of an ester by a hot aqueous alkali solution to form an alcohol and sodium (or potassium) salts of carboxylic acids Scientific method A systematic approach used by scientists to investigate a phenomenon Semi-metal An element that possesses the intermediate properties between metals and non-metals Shell The orbit surrounding the nucleus of an atom in which electrons move Soap The sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid

R
Rate of reaction The rate of a chemical reaction is determined by measuring how quickly a reactant is used up or how quickly a product is produced over a period of time Reactivity series of metals A list where metals are placed in the order of their reactivity with oxygen

Stabiliser Food additives that improve the texture and consistency of food Stoichiometry The relationship between the amount (usually in mole) of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction Structural formula A formula that shows how atoms are bonded to each other in a molecule Sublimation The change from a solid into a gas without going through liquid state Substitution reaction A reaction in which one atom replaces another atom of a molecule

Transition element An element in Group 3 to Group 12 of the Periodic Table

V
Valence electrons The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom Viscocity A measure of the resistance of fluids to flow Voltaic cell A cell that produces electrical energy by means of chemical reaction. It converts chemical energy to electrical energy. It is also known as an electrochemical cell or a galvanic cell. Vulcanisation The process of treating natural rubber with sulphur to form vulcanised rubber

T
Titration A laboratory technique in which a standard solution is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution using an indicator to detect the end point during neutralisation

W
Whitening agent A detergent additive that makes clothes look white and cleaner

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