Advances in Biotechnology

I.

INTRODUCTION

The recent advances in science and technology have driven the biological sciences into a new era. All of this can probably be traced back to when Anton van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch dry-goods dealer, ground the first microscope lens. Through his newly invented glass, he discovered a previously unseen cellular world. The second half of the 21st century was a truly exciting time for molecular biologists. Many inventions, including new methods for analyzing proteins, DNA and RNA, fuelled an explosion of information and enabled scientists to understand cells and multicellular organisms. The main objective of modern science, however, is to know the nature of genetic material and to find the answers to questions like: which genes determine specific characters? How do they get switched on and off spatially and temporally? How do we correct genetic defects? How can we best manipulate genomes? A. What is Biotechnology? The field of biotechnology, which emerged as a new discipline was a result of the fusion of biology and technology. Biology is the science of all living organisms or their components, whereas technology deals with the physical-chemical properties and techniques applied to the production of biological products/services. The emergence of biotechnology has been possible mainly due to the revolutionary discoveries made in these two areas. Biotechnology has been defined in many ways by many organizations. Biotechnology may be broadly defined as ´the controlled use of selected/manipulated biological systems or processes for the production of abundant/novel products or serviceµ. Therefore, the area covered under biotechnology is very vast and the techniques involved are widely divergent. Biotechnology can be applied in areas as diverse as agriculture, animal husbandry, medicine, environment, industry, and biological conservation. Biotechnology is multidisciplinary by its very nature and encompasses several disciplines of basic sciences (genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, chemistry, microbiology, immunology, cell and tissue culture, and physiology), and engineering (processing technology, biochemical engineering, electronics and physical sciences) and also other disciplines like sociology, economics, politics, law and ethics.

B.

When did Biotechnology Begin?

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Advances in Biotechnology Although the term biotechnology is a recent development, its origin can be traced back to prehistoric times. Humans have been altering the genetic composition of plants for millennia ² retaining seeds from the best crops and planting them in the following years, breeding and crossbreeding varieties to make them taste sweeter, grow bigger, last longer, etc. in this way, early agriculturists transformed the wild tomato (Lycopersicon), from a fruit the size of a peanut to today·s giant, juicy and fleshy tomato. From a weedy plant called teosinte with an ´earµ barely an inch long has emerged our foot-long ears of sweet, nutrient-rich, yellow corn. Man has also selected hundreds and thousands of new crop varieties by selection and hybridization. In ancient scripts, it has been documented that humans employed microorganisms as early as 5000 BC for making wine, vinegar, yogurt, leavened bread, etc. The discovery that fermentation converted fruit juice into wine, milk into cheese and yogurt, and solutions of malt and hops into beer seems to have set in motion the study of biotechnology. The early animal breeders soon realized that different physical traits could be either magnified or lost by mating the appropriate pairs of animals, thereby engaging in the traditional manipulations of biotechnology. However, the use of microorganisms for the production of chemicals on a commercial scale begun during the First World War, and has recently been more fully exploited due to the advancement of modern biotechnology. C. Modern Biotechnology

Modern biotechnology is innovative and quite different from the conventional practices. Traditional breeders made crosses only between related organisms whose genetic composition was compatible (genetically closer). Doing it this way involved the transfer of tens of thousands of genes (many genes were not required) after years of long selection procedure. By contrast, today·s genetic engineers can transfer just a few desirable genes at a time, between species that are distantly related or not related at all. In other words, scientists can extract a desirable gene from virtually any living organism and insert it into virtually any other organism. They can put human gene into a plant or microorganism or in any other combination. For example, they can put a rat gene into lettuce to make a plant that produces vitamin C or insert a microbial toxin gene into cotton plants to make it insect-resistant. All this genetic manipulation became possible by the discovery of techniques of gene splicing and recombinant DNA technology. The engineered organisms which scientists produce by transforming genes between species are called ´transgenicµ organisms. Transgenic animals and several dozen transgenic food crops are currently in the market. Most of these crops are engineered to help farmers deal with age-old agriculture problems: good seeds, insects, diseases, nutrient composition, stress tolerance, etc. The beginning of modern biotechnology can be traced back to 1865, when Gregor Mendel published the results from his experiments conducted on the garden pea on the inheritance of seven different physical traits. This and many other studies eventually led to the concept of the gene as the basic unit of heredity. Over the next century, many other researchers with sophisticated techniques and instruments contributed to the growth of modern biotechnology.

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Advances in Biotechnology Before 6000 BC About 4000 BC 1866 1869 1885 1910 Yeasts used to make wine and beer Yeasts were used for making leavened bread Mendel published his research findings, experiments conducted on the garden pea, which led to the concept of the gene as the basic unit of heredity. Friedrich Miescher isolated nuclein, later shown to be DNA, from the nuclei of white blood cells. E.Coli bacterial cells are identified and grown under controlled conditions.

Thomas Hunt Morgan showed the first evidence of the presence of genes in chromosomes. He used microorganisms to treat sewage. 1912-14 Large scale production of acetone, butanol and glycerol using bacteria. 1917 Karl Ereky coined the term ´biotechnologyµ 1944 Avery, Macleod and McCarty demonstrated that DNA, not protein; carries hereditary information. Penicillin was produced on large scale for the first time. 1957 The Central Dogma, which states that hereditary information flows from DNA to RNA to protein, was put forth by Francis Crick and George Gamov 1981 The use of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis was approved in the USA. 1990 Approval was granted in the USA for a trial of human somatic cell gene therapy. To date The field of biotechnological research enormously expanded and is still expanding exponentially. Table 1.1 Chronology of some major developments in biotechnology D. Gene Technology is a Basic Tool for Biotechnology

Scientists continue to find new ways to insert desirable genes for specific traits into the DNA of different biological systems (plants, animals and microorganisms). A field of promise and a subject of debate, genetic engineering is changing the food we eat and the world we live in. Many scientist envision a cornucopia(similar to the ´kalparukshaµ or ´Kamadenuµ): the mass production of rare plants; highly variegated and long shelf-life flowers; tomatoes and broccoli produced with pharmaceutical compounds and industrial chemicals; vaccine-producing bananas; vitamin-enriched rice, sweet potatoes, and cassava to help the malnourished poor and vegetable oils so loaded with therapeutic ingredients that doctors ´prescribeµ them for patients at risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, etc; cheaper and safer fuel; clean environment, etc. The possibilities are endless. Overall, gene manipulation has provided novel solutions to experimental problems in biology; these solutions, in turn, have led to novel products. Most biotechnology companies and research institutes make use of gene technology or genetic engineering, which mainly involves recombinant DNA and gene cloning. This technology allows the splicing of a DNA molecule at desired places to isolate specific DNA segment and then inserting it into another DNA molecule at a desired position. The resultant product is called ´recombinant DNAµ and the technique often called ´genetic engineeringµ. Using molecular techniques, we can isolate and clone a single copy of a gene or a

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Advances in Biotechnology DNA segment into an indefinite number of copies with similar properties. This became possible due to the identification and modification of different kinds of vectors(a self-replicating DNA molecule is called ´vectorµ e.g., plasmid, phage or virus) with suitable properties, and which can be mobilized to a suitable host, where they reproduce along with the host. The vector carrying the inserted DNA will also replicate faithfully through the vector DNA. This technique is called ´gene cloningµ. A gene is a part of a chromosome and is responsible for a specific character or trait of an organism/cell. Genes produce their phenotypic effects by specifying the amino acid sequences of specific proteins. There are also various biological tools that are used to carry out manipulation of genetic material and cells. The gene cloning technique has had a tremendous impact on all areas of molecular biology and, consequently, on biotechnology. Recombinant DNA technology broadly involves: (1) the isolation of a specific DNA, (2) the selection of vectors, (3) the preparation of a chimeric DNA, (5) cloning of the chimeric DNA, and (6) the screening of recombinants. II. WHAT MAKES BIOTECHNOLOGY A POWERFUL TECHNOLOGY?

Biotechnology is a unique and powerful technology, since it helps humans in many ways, for example, (i) mass production, (ii) generation of novelty, and (iii) better service. A. Overproduction of Cellular Components

For commercial use or in academic studies, the determination of the structure, function or utility of a protein demands that adequate amounts of purified material are available. This is not always an easy task, particularly when the protein is normally present in very low levels in the cell mass. Genetic engineering provides a means of generating sufficient material. For example, 5 mg of somatostatin was first isolated from half a million sheep brains and a small amount of epidermal growth factor from 40,000 gallons of human urine. After the advent of gene cloning, the same amount of material was obtained from a few litters of bacterial culture. This principle has been applied to a wide range of cellular proteins and was the basis for many of the biotechnology start-up companies in the world. Over-production need not be restricted to proteins. It is possible to raise the levels of most intracellular components, provided that they are not toxic to the producing organism. This can be done by cloning all the genes for a particular biosynthetic pathway and overexpressing them. Alternatively, it is possible to shut down particular metabolic pathways and thus redirect particular inter mediates towards the desired end product. B. Generation of Novelty

By and large, gene manipulation has provided novel solutions to experimental problems in biology. These solutions have led to creation of novel products. Gene manipulation has been used to permanently modify the germ cells of animals (´transgenesisµ), e.g., the production of ¶supermice· which are extra-large as a result of the over-production of the human growth hormone. Transgenic animals that over-express foreign proteins and secrete them in milk have been developed. Novel

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Advances in Biotechnology therapies for various human diseases have been also created. Transgenic plants carrying genes resistant to various stresses have also been produced. However, the development of these products has also raised some novel problems. Some of these benefits have been discussed in the following sections. Better Service Biotechnology can also be of better service to human beings, other organisms and to the ecosystem by providing solutions to many natural and man-made problems. For example, biotechnology can provide solutions to environmental pollution; it can help to monitor and conserve biodiversity, and reduce the rapid loss of natural resources by providing alternative solutions. It can also aid in the overall improvement of biological safety and in maintaining the ecological balance. III. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY C.

Biotechnology has rapidly emerged as an area of activity that will have a potential impact on virtually all domains of human welfare; food processing, human health, agriculture animal improvement, and environmental protection. As a result, it plays a very important role in employment, production, trade, economics and economy, human health, conservation of biodiversity and even in the socio-economical and political status of a nation. This is clearly reflected in the emergence of numerous biotechnology companies throughout the world. The importance of biotechnology to human welfare is becoming increasingly more important. The products of DNA research, ranging from proteins to engineering organisms, have a wide range of applications. The following are some of the contributions of biotechnology to overall development of human welfare. A. Medical Biotechnology 1. Diagnosis of biological disorders The production of biological reagents for the diagnosis of biological disorders and infectious diseases is a major industry. On a global scale, the revenue from sales is estimated at many billions of dollars. There are three types of diagnostic reagents: biochemical reagents for assaying specific enzymes, antibodies for detecting specific proteins, and a recent development, nucleic probes. Molecular analysis of genetic disorders: There are several hundred genetic diseases in man, which are the result of mutations. For many of these genetic diseases there is no definitive treatment, although in some cases human gene therapy may become possible. DNA research helps in understanding many diseases or genetic disorders at the molecular level, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemias, familial hypercholesterolemia, etc.

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Hybridoma technology This produces large quantities of monoclonal antibodies. cancer. blood-clotting factors.. viral diseases. hepatitis B. the parents can be identified by using DNA or auto-antibody finger-printing.Advances in Biotechnology Laboratory diagnostic applications: By using recombinant DNA techniques. E. By using the right probe. erythropoietin. These include insulin. They can also be a source of valuable drugs like human insulin. growth hormone. diagnosis is the detection of a specific microorganism. human and bovine growth hormones. there is a danger of vaccine-related disease).) GEMs can be used to produce DNA probes that can be used for diagnosing diseases such as ka-azar. In the case of most diseases. criminals can be identified very accurately by blood or semen stains. 5. Animal Biotechnology Biochemical Engineering Page 6 . vaccines and superoxide dismutase.g. virulent strains or live. several proteins have been produced in abundance for therapeutic purposes. Using the same technique.g. 2. a patient with a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract could be infected with more than 15 types of microorganisms.g. Genetically-engineered microbes Vaccines: conventional viral vaccines consist of inactivated. e. which are cleaner and safer (e. hepatitis B. etc. attenuated strains. etc.... Advanced therapeutic techniques Production of proteins in abundance: Using recombinant DNA techniques. a particular infectious microbe can be accurately detected from stool samples without any cultivation and cytological work. AIDS. B. 4. but they are not without their problems (e. collected from a crime scene and compared with the suspect·s DNA. malaria. interferons. Prenatal diagnosis of diseases: The DNA collected from the amniotic fluid can be used to predict the risk of developing genetic diseases (e. rabbits. many diseases can be diagnosed. For example. coli vaccines for pigs. Many problems can be overcome by recombinant vaccines. hair roots. sleeping sickness. prepared by sperm separation techniques). venereal diseases. Artificial insemination and sexing: genetic procedures can be used to trea infertility as well as produce babies of a specified sex (by artificial insemination with X or Y carrying sperms.. which are used for the diagnosis of various diseases. 3.g.g. etc. e.. human interferon. etc. sickle cell anemia and many other genetic defects) and this can be done by using DNA probes. human hepatitis B virus. etc. Application to forensic medicine Finger-printing and forensics: in paternity disputes. etc.

Biochemical Engineering Page 7 . Biotechnology is a useful tool in identifying viruses. Plant cell culture Clonal propagation: A very high proportion of plant material can be multiplied by clonal propagation through meristem culture.Advances in Biotechnology 1. rapid growth rate. Plant Biotechnology Diagnostics The accurate identification of viruses is critical in the prediction of plant diseases in annual crops. 2. pigs. sheep and fish. 2. so that the animals produce beneficial pharmaceuticals in their milk. Transgenic animals Transgenic animals can be created for increased milk. some couples suffering from infertility can bear children. In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer have been successfully applied both in humans and in animals. many fruit and forest trees are very slowgrowing and their growth can be increased manifold by means of biotechnological protocols. For example. for the prevention of infection in planting stock.and pathogen-free stocks of clonal crops. It is very useful in clonal crops and germplasm exchange. in monitoring disease-control methods and in diagnosing diseases in plants held in quarantine. but engineered salmon carrying modified growth-hormone genes from other fish. Transgenic fish: Atlantic salmon grow more slowly during the winter. rabbits. in vitro fertilization and/or embryo splitting followed by embryo transfer into a foster mother. Virus-free plants: Meristem culture is generally combined with thermotherapy/cryotherapy. chicken. Many transgenic animals carrying novel characteristics have been developed in mice. This procedure is usually followed to recover virus. This is one of the most important techniques in plant breeding programs. cattle. resistance to diseases and the production of valuable proteins in the milk/serum/urine. 1. C. The rapid multiplication of superior genotypes in animals can be achieved by hormoneinduced superovulation. Pharmaceutical-producing animals: Scientists are using biotechnology to insert genes into cows and sheep. In the case of human beings with the help of biotechnology. Embryo culture: Embryo culture is used to rescue ubviable hybrids and haploid plants from inter-specific hybrids. reach market size in about half the normal time.

Potatoes have been transformed with the genes of bees and moths to protect the crops from the potato blight fungus. which is a gene borrowed from a common soil bacterium. therefore. etc. oil and amino acid composition in storage proteins of seeds are a few of the many transgenic food crops developed. e. 3. considerable attempts have been made to develop varieties exhibiting new colors or pigmentation patterns. However.Advances in Biotechnology Anther culture: The rapid isolation of homozygous lines can be achieved by chromosome doubling of haploids produced through anther culture. (Bt for short). and grapevines have been altered with silkworm genes to make the vines resistant to Pierce·s disease. Herbicide resistance: Farmers routinely spray herbicides to kill weeds. Generation of novel food content of plants: It is widely recognized that gene manipulation techniques have revitalized the biotechnology industry. secondary metabolites. For example. 4. and they die within a few days. Transgenic plants Transgenic plants have been established in many crop varieties by using transfer techniques for various characteristics.g. Bacillus thuringiensis. the toxin attacks their digestive tracts. Molecular mapping Biochemical Engineering Page 8 . Somaclonal variation: This refers to the isolation of stable somaclonal variants with improved yield and other desirable traits such as resistance to diseases. Pigmentation in transgenic plants: Plants are widely used for ornamental purposes.. squash and papaya have been genetically engineered to resist viral diseases. Several flavonoids genes have been cloned and many-hued color patterns have been created. cold. in rice and wheat. Disease resistance: Many crops have been genetically engineered to resist diseases. herbicide resistance. metal toxicity. herbicides. which include insect resistance. protection against viruses. The pigmentation in flowers is mainly due to three classes of compounds: the flavonoids. storage protein improvement. Insect resistance: Some biotech varieties make their own insecticides. salt and other abiotic stresses. which is spread by insects. For example. Altered starch content. the carotenoids and the betalains. This technique has been successfully used in the development of variety. Bt transgenics. When these insects feed on Bt plants. Bt genes code for toxins that are considered harmless to humans but lethal to certain insects. biotech crops can carry special ´toleranceµ genes that help them withstand the spraying of chemicals that kill nearly every other kind of plant.

which are used in the industrial processes. which was that microbes required substrate to produce primary and secondary metabolites. An industrial biotechnology process that uses microorganisms for producing a commercial product typically has three operational stages. 1. The knowledge related to industrial microbiology has been revolutionised by the ability of genetically engineered cells to make many new products. milk. Fermentation and Transformation is the growth of the desirable microorganism in a fermenter (usually a bioreactor >100 liters). and fine chemical industries.Advances in Biotechnology Molecular markers have been extensively used both for linkage mapping and for the mapping of quantitative trait loci. fuels. In the mid-nineteenth century. The investment and economic output of all of these types of applied biotechnologies is termed as bioeconomy. bacteria are able to produce most amino acids that can be used in food and medicine. Consequently. beverages. These techniques are very powerful tools for the indirect selection of quantitative traits and for several other important applications. There are hundreds of microbial and fungal products purely available in the biotechnology market. which produces the desired product by fermentation/biotransformation process. In the new millennium. biotechnology is a new approach to making commercial products by using living organisms. and end products. alcohols. Upstream Processing is the preparation of the raw materials so that it can be used as a food source for the target microorganism. He identified many microbial processes and discovered the first principal role of fermentation. 2. Nowadays most biological and pharmaceutical products are produced in well-defined industrial bioprocesses. The Babylonians and Sumerians used yeast to prepare alcohol. Application of biological sciences in industrial processes is known as bioprocessing. For instance. One of the useful applications of biotechnology is the use of microorganisms to produce alcohols and acetone. yoghurt and other dairy products. Biochemical Engineering Page 9 . knowledge of bioprocesses has been developed to deliver finequality products. D. Furthermore. which explains the applications of microbial processes that resulted in the production of food and beverages. Microorganisms have been identified and exploited for more than a century. There is a great history beyond fermentation processes. Industrial Biotechnology Industrial Biotechnology is also known as white biotechnology. Genetic engineering and gene mounting have been developed in the enhancement of industrial fermentation. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods. extensive application of bioprocesses has created an environment for many engineers to expand the field of biotechnology. cheese. wine. It is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. Louis Pasteur understood the role of microorganisms in fermented food.

because it contains lactose. It is desirable to use whey to make some more useful product. molasses and whey can be used to produce lactic acid. This organism grows rapidly. nitrogenous substances. Large quantities of whey constitute a waste product in the manufacture of dairy products such as cheese. vitamins and salts. Downstream Processing involves the purification of the desired product either from the cell medium or the cell-mass. is homofermentative and thus capable of converting lactose to the single end-product of lactic acid.Advances in Biotechnology 3. We shall describe the bioprocess for the production of lactic acid from whey. the most suitable of them are Lactobacillus species such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus. then fermentation is performed in the second stage. Biochemical Engineering Page 10 . which is the most suitable species for whey. Organisms can utilise lactose and grow on cheese wastes. From the standpoint of environmental pollution it is considered a major problem. Whey can be converted from being a waste product to something more desirable that can be used for the growth of certain bacteria. The choice of carbohydrate material depends upon its availability. Production of Organic Compounds Lactic Acid Several carbohydrates such as corn and potato starch. and pretreatment is required before fermentation. Starch must first be hydrolysed to glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis. and disposal of untreated wastes may create environmental disasters.

The production of vinegar involves two steps of biochemical changes: (1) Alcoholic fermentation in fermentation of a carbohydrate. (2) Oxidation of the alcohol to acetic acid. skimmed milk at an incubation temperature of 43 °C. The solid filter cake is a useful. The accumulation of lactic acid would retard the fermentation process because of the formation of calcium lactate. and the culture is stored in pasteurised. The word ¶wine· is derived from the French term ¶vinaigre· meaning ¶sour wine·. which may be used as an animal feed supplement. It is prepared by allowing a wine to get sour under controlled conditions. The filtrate containing calcium lactate is then concentrated by removing water under vacuum. During fermentation. enriched protein product. and then filtered. pH is controlled by the addition of slurry of lime to neutralize the product to prevent any product inhibition. Acetobacter and Gluconobacter oxidise ethanol in wine to acetic acid (vinegar).Advances in Biotechnology Stock cultures of the organism are maintained in skimmed milk medium. lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid in malolactic fermentation in fruits with high acidity. followed by purification of the final product. the material is boiled to coagulate the protein. Biochemical Engineering Page 11 . In winemaking. Acetic Acid The sugars in fruits such as grapes are fermented by yeasts to produce wines. After 2 days of complete incubation. The 3²5% of inoculum is prepared and transferred to the main bioreactor.

e. are capable of producing large amounts of glutamic acid. The alcohol is adjusted to 10²13%. Monosodium glutamate is known as a flavourenhancing amino acid in food industries. Many species of microorganisms. Some microorganisms are capable of producing certain amino acids such as lysine. molasses. it must be hydrolysed to glucose to achieve higher yield. ‡ Step 2: Decarboxylation of DAP by Enterobacter aerogenes. inorganic salts and biotin. o Stepwise Amino Acid Production One of the commercial methods for production of lysine consists of a two-stage process using two species of bacteria. Arthrobacter. Based on US Department of Agriculture (USDA) definitions. The _-ketoglutaric acid is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle and is the precursor of glutamic acid. and Brevibacterium by the Krebs cycle. apple vinegar. then it is exposed to acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter species).Advances in Biotechnology There are several kinds of vinegar. The medium generally used consists of carbohydrate. cider vinegar. E. If starch is used. This amino acid is a biological product which is also used as a food additive and cereal protein. cornsteep liquor and di-ammonium phosphate under aerobic conditions. Yeast fermentation is used for the production of alcohol. The conversion of _-ketoglutaric acid to glutamic acid is accomplished in Biochemical Engineering Page 12 . with temperature and pH controlled. especially bacteria and fungi. The differences between them are primarily associated with the kind of material used in the alcoholic fermentation. coli can easily grow on corn steep liquor with phosphate buffer for an incubation period of 3 days. The reaction is: Amino acids (lysine and glutamic acid) and insulin Many microorganisms can synthesise amino acids from inorganic nitrogen compounds. The rate and amount of some amino acids may exceed the cells· need for protein synthesis. whereby oxygen is required for the oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid. fruit juices. Escherichia coli is grown in a medium consisting of glycerol. The concentration of biotin has a significant influence on the yield of glutamic acid. Lysine is an essential amino acid for the nutrition of humans. The carbon sources for production of amino acids are corn. where the excess amino acids are excreted into the media. sugar and hydrolysed starchy materials. The desired temperature for Acetobacter is 15²34 °C. and whey. glutamic acid and tryptophan. there are a few types of vinegar: vinegar. The products are made by the alcoholic and subsequent acetous fermentations of the apple juice. which is used as a supplementary food with bread and other foodstuffs.g. coli. The acetic acid content is about 5%. Glutamic acid is produced by microbial metabolites of Micrococcus. peptone. ‡ Step 1: Formation of diaminopimelic acid (DAP) by E. potato starch.

tetracyclines and erythromycin.8 The worldwide bulk sales of the four most important groups of antibiotics. (5) Removal of mould mycelium after fermentation. The annual production of bulk penicillin is about 33 thousand metric tonnes with annual sales market of more than US$400 million. who noted that this species killed his culture of Staphylococcus aureus. The mold isolated by Alexander Fleming in early 1940s was Penicillium notatum. Microbial insulin has been available since 1982. are US$4. The human insulin gene is introduced into a bacterium like E. The production of penicillin is now done by a better penicillin-producing mould species. Two of the major advantages of insulin production by microorganisms are that the resultant insulin is chemically identical to human insulin. penicillins. ‡ Streptomycin produced by Actinomycetes ‡ Molasses. commercial insulin was isolated from animal pancreatic tissue. Biotransformation Biochemical Engineering Page 13 . cephalosporins.2 billion per annum. Development of submerged culture techniques enhanced the cultivation of the mould in large-scale operation by using a sterile air supply. (6) Extraction and purification of the penicillin. (3) Inoculation of the medium in the fermenter. The living cells assimilate nitrogen by incorporating it into ketoglutaric acid.Advances in Biotechnology the presence of glutamic acid dehydrogenase. coli. Before this development. ammonia and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH2). then to glutamic acid and glutamine. Penicillium chrysogenum. and it can be produced in unlimited quantities. and wet milling corn are used for the production of penicillin ‡ Penicillium chrysogenum can produce 1000 times more penicillin than Fleming·s original culture ‡ The major steps in the commercial production of penicillin are: (1) Preparation of inoculum. Therefore glutamic acid is formed by the reaction between ammonia and _-ketoglutaric acid in one of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or Krebs cycle intermediates. Insulin is one of the important pharmaceutical products produced commercially by genetically engineered bactera. corn steep liquor. (4) Forced aeration with sterile air during incubation. (2) Preparation and sterilisation of the medium. waste product from sugar industry. Penicillin The commercial production of penicillin and other antibiotics are the most dramatic in industrial microbiology.

Inactive Drug to Active Metabolite. This is also known as a conjugation reaction. a polar group is either introduced or unmasked. or glycine to form water-soluble compounds. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2. Phase I reaction y y y y Includes oxidative. Reactions are non-synthetic in nature & generally produce a more water soluble & less active metabolites. to increase the rate of its excretion through the urine. toxins. sulfate. so the drug molecule becomes more water-soluble and can be excreted. Drug metabolism The metabolism of a drug or toxin in a body is an example of a biotransformation. There are a number of different process that can occur. NH4+ or H2O. Active Drug to Toxic Metabolite (biotoxification). Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. In these type of reactions. Phase II reaction y These reactions involve covalent attachment of small polar endogenous molecule such as glucuronic acid. The majority of metabolites are generated by a common hydroxylating enzyme system known as Cytochrome P450. By means of biotransformation. or drugs in the body. It is also needed to render nonpolar compounds polar so that they are not reabsorbed in renal tubules and are excreted. less useful and cheaper compounds can be converted into more useful and valuable ones using microorganisms or immobilized enzyme in a fermenter. Active Drug to Active Metabolite. Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as (but not limited to) nutrients. reductive and hydrolytic reactions. amino acids.Advances in Biotechnology This is the transformation of toxic compounds to less toxic or non-toxic compounds. The final compounds have a larger molecular weight. Typically the body deals with a foreign compound by making it more soluble. y y Biochemical Engineering Page 14 . the pathways of drug metabolism can be divided into: y y phase phase II Drugs can undergo one of four potential biotransformations: Active Drug to Inactive Metabolite. the biotransformation is called mineralisation.

New methodological breakthroughs in sequencing. bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into biotransformation and biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Major methodological breakthroughs in recent years have enabled detailed genomic. Some microorganisms possess an astonishing catabolic versatility to degrade or transform such compounds. genomics. calling for system-wide approaches to understanding strain physiology and metabolism and rational approaches to the engineering of whole cells as they are increasingly put forward in the area of systems biotechnology and synthetic biology. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). proteomic. transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e. Metabolic Engineering and Biocatalytic Applications The study of the fate of persistent organic chemicals in the environment has revealed a large reservoir of enzymatic reactions with a large potential in preparative organic synthesis. microbial catabolic diversity to degrade. Our increasing capabilities in adapting the catalysts to specific reactions and process requirements by rational and random mutagenesis broadens the scope for application in the fine chemical industry. radionuclides and metals. Biomass Production Biochemical Engineering Page 15 . polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).[1] These bioremediation and biotransformation methods harness the naturally occurring. metagenomic. In many cases. oil). Functional genomic and metagenomic approaches are increasing our understanding of the relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds and they are accelerating the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes. In the field of Environmental Microbiology.Advances in Biotechnology Microbial biotransformation Biotransformation of various pollutants is a sustainable way to clean up contaminated environments. but also in the field of biodegradation. as well as clues to the evolution of biochemical pathways relevant to biotransformation and to the molecular adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Biological processes play a major role in the removal of contaminants and pollutants from the environment. Also there is other approach of biotransformation called enzymatic biotransformation. bioinformatics and imaging are producing vast amounts of information. these catalysts need to be exploited in whole cell bioconversions or in fermentations. pharmaceutical substances. which has already been exploited for a number of oxygenases on pilot and even on industrial scale.g. genome-based global studies open a new era providing unprecedented in silico views of metabolic and regulatory networks. Novel catalysts can be obtained from metagenomic libraries and DNA sequence based approaches. proteomics.

The most conventional way in which biomass is used however. they are not considered biomass by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time. manufacturing waste. including miscanthus. wood chips and garbage are often used for this. yard clippings. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. but it does affect the processing of the raw material. biomass also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemicals. or ethanol. The required energy is produced from light via photosynthesis based on chlorophyll. The sugar building blocks are the starting point for the major fractions found in all terrestrial plants. wood. In this sense. corn. or recently living organisms. between 0. Waste energy is the second-largest source of biomass energy. hydrogen and oxygen based. a renewable energy source. (hydrogen) gas. as plants can also generate electricity while still alive. The particular plant used is usually not important to the end products. lignin. such as wood. is Biochemical Engineering Page 16 . Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. which have been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum. sorghum. Biomass alcohol fuel. It excludes such organic materials as fossil fuels. Metals are often found in functional molecules such as the porphyrins which include chlorophyll which contains magnesium. including alkali. On average. and alcohol fuels. landfill gases. Wood energy is derived both from direct use of harvested wood as a fuel and from wood waste streams. Chemical composition Biomass is carbon. and landfill gas. Their combustion therefore disturbs the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere. paper and paperboard industry. alkaline earth and heavy metals can be found as well. Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient biomass. Nitrogen and small quantities of other atoms. The main contributors of waste energy are municipal solid waste (MSW).µ a waste product from processes of the pulp. Forest residues for example (such as dead trees. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or ´black liquor. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants. living biomass can also be included. Plants in particular combine water and carbon dioxide to sugar building blocks.Advances in Biotechnology Biomass. willow. poplar. hemp. waste. switchgrass. sugarcane. and alcohol fuels. and a variety of tree species. ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). is biological material from living. hemicellulose and cellulose. still relies on direct incineration.1 and 1 % of the available light is stored as chemical energy in plants. waste. However. branches and tree stumps).[4] Biomass sources Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy sources: garbage.

Biochemical Engineering Page 17 . including aqueous slurries. ethanol. in the form of heat or electricity. such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used.Advances in Biotechnology derived primarily from sugarcane and corn. Rotting garbage. and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Biodiesel.also called "landfill gas" or "biogas. Thermal conversion These are processes in which heat is the dominant mechanism to convert the biomass into another chemical form. for others there may be only one appropriate technology." Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel. and gasification are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature). Also. or to exploit some property of the process itself. There are a number of other less common. transported or stored. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. pyrolysis. In a typical biomass power plant. torrefaction. and agricultural and human waste. efficiencies range from 20-27%. Biomass conversion process to useful energy There are a number of technological options available to make use of a wide variety of biomass types as a renewable energy source. Some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass. such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. Biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. While for some classes of biomass resource there may be a number of usage options. or may convert it to another form. release methane gas . more experimental or proprietary thermal processes that may offer benefits such as hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydroprocessing. can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Conversion technologies may release the energy directly.[9] Chemical conversion A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms. It can be used directly as a fuel or as an additive to gasoline. The basic alternatives of combustion. another transportation fuel. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing.

Scientists are still researching the effects of converting biomass. and less commonly propanol and butanol. which means handling is easily mechanized. and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed. Liquid fuels for transportation Most transportation fuels are liquids. or cellulose (which is more difficult). this process has not been perfected yet. Biofuels Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which are in some way derived from biomass. and thus less laborious. The term covers solid biomass. Thus liquids (and gases that can be stored in liquid form) meet the requirements of being both portable and clean burning. starch. Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass.[1] Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention. to keep the engine clean and minimize air pollution. the need for increased energy security. High power density can be provided most inexpensively by an internal combustion engine. are produced by the action of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches (easiest). First generation biofuels 'First-generation biofuels' are biofuels made from sugar. most commonly ethanol. liquid fuels and various biogases. Bioalcohols Biologically produced alcohols. because vehicles usually require high energy density. and vegetable oil.Advances in Biotechnology Biochemical conversion As biomass is a natural material. Other chemical processes such as converting straight and waste vegetable oils into biodiesel is transesterification. Another way of breaking down biomass is by breaking down the carbohydrates and simple sugars to make alcohol. liquids and gases can be pumped. Also. Biobutanol (also called biogasoline) Biochemical Engineering Page 18 . as occurs in liquids and solids. The fuels that are easiest to burn cleanly are typically liquids and gases. However. driven by factors such as oil price spikes. many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed. In most cases micro-organisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion. and concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. these engines require clean burning fuels. fermentation and composting.

is that the heat output is slightly less than electric and gas fires. but cellulosic biomass such as bagasse. can also be used more sustainably). considering the total energy consumed by farm equipment. the net energy content value added and delivered to consumers is very small. it can be mixed with gasoline to any percentage. drying. and fuel injection accordingly. Although ethanol-from-corn and other food stocks has implications both in terms of world food prices and limited. Most existing car petrol engines can run on blends of up to 15% bioethanol with petroleum/gasoline. They dynamically sense exhaust oxygen content. The downside to these fireplaces. harvesting. planting.36. the technology has led to the development of cellulosic ethanol. Department of Energy. some states mandate a mix of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to reduce atmospheric pollution emissions. transport to fuel terminals and retail pumps.81. corn. and gasoline are 10. which means it takes more fuel (volume and mass) to produce the same amount of work. An advantage of ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is that it has a higher octane rating than ethanol-free gasoline available at roadside gas stations which allows an increase of an engine's compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency. fermentation of the sugars. And. distillation and drying. The distillation process requires significant energy input for heat (often unsustainable natural gas fossil fuel. pesticides. and adjust the engine's computer systems. corn ethanol. because it can be used directly in a gasoline engine (in a similar way to biodiesel in diesel engines). the fossil energy ratios (FER) for cellulosic ethanol. particularly in Brazil. Ethanol has a smaller energy density than gasoline. cultivation. fertilizers. respectively. yet positive energy yield (in terms of energy delivered to customer/fossil fuels used). fermentation. Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat. and fungicides made from petroleum. bio ethanol fires are extremely useful for new build homes and apartments without a flue. This adds initial cost and ongoing increased vehicle maintenance. the waste left after sugar cane is pressed to extract its juice. irrigation systems. The ethanol production methods used are enzyme digestion (to release sugars from stored starches). Ethanol fuel is the most common biofuel worldwide. As they do not require a chimney and are "flueless". In high altitude (thin air) locations. Ethanol can be used in petrol engines as a replacement for gasoline. Many car manufacturers are now producing flexible-fuel vehicles (FFV's). sugar beets. which can safely run on any combination of bioethanol and petrol. According to a joint research agenda conducted through the U. In the current alcohol-from-corn production model in the United States.Advances in Biotechnology is often claimed to provide a direct replacement for gasoline. herbicides. and lower ethanol fuel energy content. sugar cane.3. transport of feedstock to processing plants. and 0. the net benefit (all things considered) does little to reduce un-sustainable imported oil and fossil fuels required to produce the ethanol.). 1. distillation. Ethanol is also used to fuel bioethanol fireplaces.S. up to 100% bioethanol. molasses and any sugar or starch that alcoholic beverages can be made from (like potato and fruit waste. etc. spark. Biochemical Engineering Page 19 . As with all vehicles.

coli have also been successfully engineered to produce Butanol by hijacking their amino acid metabolism. ´Green Dieselµ as commonly known in Ireland should not be confused with dyed green diesel sold at a lower tax rate for agriculture purposes. Butanol will produce more energy and allegedly can be burned "straight" in existing gasoline engines (without modification to the engine or car). using the dye allows custom officers to determine if a person is using the cheaper diesel in higher taxed applications such as commercial haulage or cars. and could be distributed via existing infrastructures.Advances in Biotechnology efficiency falls and pollution emissions increase when FFV system maintenance is needed (regardless of the fuel mix being used). One can obtain methanol. and is less corrosive and less water soluble than ethanol. algae. The product can be made with limited water use and most places in the world. But this process is not the state-of-the-art clean solar thermal energy process where hydrogen production is directly produced from water. With large current unsustainable. as are multiple-propulsion-system FFV hybrid vehicles. butanol or mixed alcohol fuels through pyrolysis of biomass including agricultural waste or algal biomass. Fermentation is not the only route to forming biofuels or bioalcohols. non-scalable subsidies. The methanol economy is an interesting alternative to get to the hydrogen economy. Butanol is formed by ABE fermentation (acetone. Biochemical Engineering Page 20 . Methanol is currently produced from natural gas. Green diesel Green diesel. The most exciting of these pyrolysis alcoholic fuels is the pyrolysis biobutanol. which impacts cost. ethanol fuel still costs much more per distance traveled than current high gasoline prices in the United States. also known as renewable diesel. ethanol. is a form of diesel fuel which is derived from renewable feedstock rather than the fossil feedstock used in most diesel fuels. and useful lifetime longevity. Green diesel uses traditional fractional distillation to process the oils. but is not performed. so larger / heavier fuel tanks are required to travel the same distance. Green diesel feedstock can be sourced from a variety of oils including canola. Even dry ethanol has roughly one-third lower energy content per unit of volume compared to gasoline. E. maintenance. a non-renewable fossil fuel. ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process show potentially high net energy gains with butanol as the only liquid product. or more fuel stops are required. reliability. butanol. jatropha and salicornia in addition to tallow. It can also be produced from biomass as biomethanol. FFV internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly complex. DuPont and BP are working together to help develop Butanol. compared to today's hydrogen production from natural gas. not to be confused with biodiesel which is chemically quite different and processed using transesterification.

soy. These engines have finely metered and atomized multi-stage injection systems that are very sensitive to the viscosity of the fuel. Chemically. B100 may become more viscous at lower temperatures. Biochemical Engineering Page 21 . Many current generation diesel engines are made so that they can run on B100 without altering the engine itself. and has a high flash point of about 300 F (148 C) compared to petroleum diesel fuel. asks drivers to check by telephone with the VW environmental services department before switching to B100. which use 'Viton' (by DuPont) synthetic rubber in their mechanical fuel injection systems. Although liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen have cleaner combustion. meaning that it contains a reduced amount of carbon and higher hydrogen and oxygen content than fossil diesel. Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats. field pennycress. Since biodiesel is an effective solvent and cleans residues deposited by mineral diesel. although this depends on the fuel rail design. Biodiesel is also an oxygenated fuel. It is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is a liquid similar in composition to fossil/mineral diesel. or (more rarely) cleaned of water and particulates and used as a fuel. Electronically controlled 'common rail' and 'unit injector' type systems from the late 1990s onwards may only use biodiesel blended with conventional diesel fuel.Advances in Biotechnology Biodiesel Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe. This improves the combustion of fossil diesel and reduces the particulate emissions from un-burnt carbon. It also effectively cleans the engine combustion chamber of carbon deposits. for example. it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). 10 times less toxic than table salt. but lower quality oil can be used for this purpose. In most cases. Pure biodiesel (B100) is the lowest emission diesel fuel. flax. biodiesel is compatible with diesel engines from 1994 onwards. palm oil. they are used to fuel much less efficient petrol engines and are not as widely available. a 5% biodiesel blend is widely used and is available at thousands of gas stations. although Volkswagen of Germany. Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel. depending on the feedstock used. In many European countries. jatropha. sunflower. helping to maintain efficiency. Vegetable oil Straight unmodified edible vegetable oil is generally not used as fuel. pongamia pinnata and algae. mahua. rapeseed. which has a flash point of 125 F (52 C). Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine when mixed with mineral diesel. In some countries manufacturers cover their diesel engines under warranty for B100 use. engine filters may need to be replaced more often. as the biofuel dissolves old deposits in the fuel tank and pipes. vegetable oils. hemp. mustard. Biodiesel is also safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar.

[18] Bioethers Bio ethers (also referred to as fuel ethers or oxygenated fuels) are cost-effective compounds that act as octane rating enhancers. digestate. high in cetane. Vegetable oil can also be used in many older diesel engines that do not use common rail or unit injection electronic diesel injection systems. If it escapes into the atmosphere it is a potential greenhouse gas. whilst significantly reducing engine wear and toxic exhaust emissions. without the need for after-market modifications. and Deutz AG as well as a number of smaller companies such as Elsbett offer engines that are compatible with straight vegetable oil. can be used as a biofuel or a fertilizer. these are the best engines for use with vegetable oil. Due to the design of the combustion chambers in indirect injection engines. y Farmers can produce biogas from manure from their cows by getting a anaerobic digester (AD). they contribute to the quality of the air we breathe. Hydrogenated oils can be blended with diesel in all proportions Hydrogenated oils have several advantages over biodiesel. The solid byproduct.Advances in Biotechnology Also here. low in aromatics and sulfur and does not contain oxygen. It can be produced either from biodegradable waste materials or by the use of energy crops fed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gas yields. Biochemical Engineering Page 22 . Note: Landfill gas is a less clean form of biogas which is produced in landfills through naturally occurring anaerobic digestion. Biogas Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes. The resulting product is a straight chain hydrocarbon. This is easier in warm or temperate climates. either by electric coils or heat exchangers. as with 100% biodiesel (B100). a handful of drivers have experienced limited success with earlier pre-"Pumpe Duse" VW TDI engines and other similar engines with direct injection. especially Mercedes are driven experimentally by enthusiasts without any conversion. Big corporations like MAN B&W Diesel. Several companies like Elsbett or Wolf have developed professional conversion kits and successfully installed hundreds of them over the last decades. to ensure that the fuel injectors atomize the vegetable oil in the correct pattern for efficient combustion. Some older engines. no storage stability problems and no susceptibility to microbial attack. They also enhance engine performance. Greatly reducing the amount of ground-level ozone. y Biogas can be recovered from mechanical biological treatment waste processing systems. including good performance at low temperatures. vegetable oil fuel must be heated to reduce its viscosity to that of diesel. Wärtsilä. Oils and fats can be hydrogenated to give a diesel substitute. This system allows the relatively larger oil molecules more time to burn.

Advances in Biotechnology Syngas Syngas. Solid biofuels When raw biomass is already in a suitable form (such as firewood). mainly carbon dioxide (CO2). Even modern pellet boilers generate much more pollutants than oil or natural gas boilers.S. The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems such as boilers. syngas. Before partial combustion the biomass is dried. is more efficient than direct combustion of the original biofuel. or a mixture of alcohols that can be blended into gasoline. The other types of densification are larger in size compared to a pellet and are compatible with a broad range of input feedstocks. urban waste wood. wood chips. A problem with the combustion of raw biomass is that it emits considerable amounts of pollutants such as particulates and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). or puck. Gasification normally relies on temperatures >700°C. which is then concentrated into a fuel product. producing much larger emissions of dioxins and chlorophenols. Sequestering CO2 from the power plant flue gas can significantly reduce the GHGs from the power plant itself. the typical process is to densify the biomass. Power generation emits significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). When raw biomass is in an inconvenient form (such as sawdust. CO2 Biochemical Engineering Page 23 . combustion with an amount of oxygen that is not sufficient to convert the biomass completely to carbon dioxide and water. more of the energy contained in the fuel is extracted. Syngas can be used to produce methanol. is produced by partial combustion of biomass. y y y Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines or turbines. and sometimes pyrolysed. it can burn directly in a stove or furnace to provide heat or raise steam. that is. agricultural residues). grass. Pellets made from agricultural residues are usually worse than wood pellets. The pellet process is most common in Europe and is typically a pure wood product. cube. a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Operated by Midwest Research Institute Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO2 Sequestration ² Comparing the Energy Balance. The wood gas generator is a wood-fueled gasification reactor mounted on an internal combustion engine. DME and hydrogen. The current types of processes are wood pellet. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics Study. This process includes grinding the raw biomass to an appropriate particulate size (known as hogfuel). Lower temperature gasification is desirable when co-producing biochar but results in a Syngas polluted with tar. or converted via the Fischer-Tropsch process to produce a diesel substitute. Of note is the U. Department of Energy Laboratory. numerous studies have shown that biomass fuels have significantly less impact on the environment than fossil based fuels. but this is not the total picture. The resulting gas mixture. Notwithstanding the above noted study. which depending on the densification type can be from 1 to 3 cm (1 in).

methane (CH4).g. In 2009 scientists reported developing. To compensate for this. A derivative of solid biofuel is biochar. These include waste biomass. In nature. adding to the 10 previously known. which is a combination of CO2. using "synthetic biology". "15 new highly stable fungal enzyme catalysts that efficiently break down cellulose into sugars at high temperatures". thus lowering the plant's fuel-to-electricity efficiency. and rapidity of. Bio-char made from agricultural waste can substitute for wood charcoal. wood. Many second generation biofuels are under development such as biohydrogen. biohydrogen diesel. Producing ethanol from cellulose is a difficult technical problem to solve. In cellulosic ethanol laboratories.g. As wood stock becomes scarce this alternative is gaining ground. Second generation biofuels Supporters of biofuels claim that a more viable solution is to increase political and industrial support for. firing biomass instead of coal led to a 148% reduction in GWP. DMF. has been identified as an important factor in improving the overall economic feasibility of the biofuel industry and the identification of enzymes that are stable and can operate efficiently at extreme temperatures is an area of active research. various experimental processes are being developed to do the same thing. for example. and then the sugars released can be fermented to make ethanol fuel. In addition. biomass briquettes are being marketed as an alternative to charcoal in order to protect Virunga National Park from deforestation associated with charcoal production. second-generation biofuel implementation from non-food crops. research conducted at TU Delft by Jack Pronk has shown that elephant yeast. In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Miscanthus). more fossil fuel must be procured and consumed to make up for lost capacity. This feedstock is abundant and diverse. This takes into account the upstream processes which remain constant after CO2 sequestration as well as the steps required for additional power generation. BioDME. straw). mixed alcohols and wood diesel. including cellulosic biofuels. Fischer-Tropsch diesel. biomethanol. and in some cases (like citrus peels or sawdust) it is in itself a significant disposal problem. the global warming potential (GWP). Some second generation (2G) biofuels use biomass to liquid technology. corn.Advances in Biotechnology capture and sequestration consumes additional energy. and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Taking this into consideration. Cellulosic ethanol production uses non-food crops or inedible waste products and does not divert food away from the animal or human food chain. the stalks of wheat. ruminant livestock (like cattle) eat grass and then use slow enzymatic digestive processes to break it into glucose (sugar). which is produced by biomass pyrolysis. and special-energy-or-biomass crops (e. Lignocellulose is the "woody" structural material of plants. and energy balance of the system need to be examined using a life cycle assessment. The use of high temperatures. when slightly modified can also create ethanol from non-edible ground sources (e. Biochemical Engineering Page 24 .

which. The United States Department of Energy estimates that if algae fuel replaced all the petroleum fuel in the United States. or less than one seventh the amount of land devoted to corn in 2000. could affect biomass growth. if done by agitation. Scientists working in New Zealand have developed a technology to use industrial waste gases from steel mills as a feedstock for a microbial fermentation process to produce ethanol. and fourth generation biofuels are also called advanced biofuels. it is claimed that algae can produce up to 30 times more energy per acre than land crops such as soybeans. The company Algenol is trying to commercialize this process.000 square miles (38. There are several approaches. This organism was recently discovered in the rainforests of northern Patagonia and has the unique capability of converting cellulose into medium length hydrocarbons typically found in diesel fuel. such as Botryococcus braunii and Chlorella vulgaris are relatively easy to grow." and "green aviation Biochemical Engineering Page 25 ." "green diesel. Algae are low-input. Scientists also work on experimental recombinant DNA genetic engineering organisms that could increase biofuel potential. Third generation biofuels Algae fuel. Algae. but these yields have yet to be produced commercially. One advantage of many biofuels over most other fuel types is that they are biodegradable. but the algal oil is hard to extract. high-yield feedstocks to produce biofuels. also called oilgae or third generation biofuel. Second. Ethanol from living algae Most biofuel production comes from harvesting organic matter and then converting it to fuel but an alternative approach relies on the fact that some algae naturally produce ethanol and this can be collected without killing the algae. for instance to produce algae fuels it must be mixed uniformly. which is roughly the size of Maryland. is a biofuel from algae. Macroalgae (seaweed) also have a great potential for bioethanol and biogas production. Based on laboratory experiments. it would require only 15. Algae fuel still has its difficulties though. Fourth generation biofuels A number of companies are pursuing advanced "bio-chemical" and "thermo-chemical" processes that produce "drop in" fuels like "green gasoline. and so relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. there is much interest in algaculture (farming algae). The ethanol evaporates and then can be condensed and collected. With the higher prices of fossil fuels (petroleum). some of which work better than others. third.Advances in Biotechnology The recent discovery of the fungus Gliocladium roseum points toward the production of socalled myco-diesel from cellulose.849 square kilometers).

gold. This step is entirely independent of microbes.) Bioleaching can involve numerous ferrous iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria.Advances in Biotechnology fuel. biocrude. upgrading. Fe2+) using oxygen. Green fuels However. biogas and a dry fuel comparable to coal. Fe3+ ions are used as an oxidize the ore. uranium. etc. Some fourth generation technology pathways include: pyrolysis. Latex producing members of the Euphorbiaceae such as Euphorbia lathyris and E. diesel. which in turn is reduced to give ferrous iron (Fe2+): (1) The ferrous iron is then oxidized by bacteria using oxygen: (2) (iron oxidizers) spontaneous Biochemical Engineering Page 26 . Hence. including Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus (formerly known as Thiobacillus). we may call them third generation or green fuels. As a general principle. and genetic manipulation of organisms to secrete hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon plants or petroleum plants are plants which produce terpenoids as secondary metabolites that can be converted to gasoline-like fuels. then as a result we receive the following distillates: jet fuel. With thermal depolymerization of biological waste one can extract methane and other oils similar to petroleum. y y GreenFuel Technologies Corporation developed a patented bioreactor system that uses nontoxic photosynthetic algae to take in smokestacks flue gases and produce biofuels such as biodiesel. bacteria catalyse the breakdown of the mineral pyrite (FeS2) by oxidising the sulfur and metal (in this case ferrous iron. but more importantly also the regeneration of the chemical oxidant Fe3+ from Fe<sup2+/>. For example.. Pyrite leaching (FeS2): In the first step. tirucalli and members of Apocynaceae have been studied for their potential energy uses. gasoline." some have referred to it as the biofuels created from processes other than first generation ethanol and biodiesel. solar-to-fuel. etc.e. and third generation algae biofuel. Bioleaching Biomining or bioleaching is the microbial (mainly bacterial) process of mineral extraction through leaching from low-grade ores (copper. This yields soluble products which can be further purified and refined to yield the desired metal." While there is no one established definition of "fourth-generation biofuels. disulfide is spontaneously oxidized to thiosulfate by ferric iron (Fe3+). gasification. if biocatalytic cracking and traditional fractional distillation are used to process properly prepared algal biomass i. The role of the bacteria is the further oxidation of the ore. second generation cellulosic ethanol.

whereas disulfides are oxidized to give thiosulfate. The main role of the bacterial step is the regeneration of this reactant. closing the cycle and given the net reaction: (4) The net products of the reaction are soluble ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Further processing The dissolved copper (Cu2+) ions are removed from the solution by ligand exchange solvent extraction which leaves other ions in the solution. CuS. The critical reaction is the oxidation of sulfide by ferric iron.Advances in Biotechnology Thiosulfate is also oxidized by bacteria to give sulfate: (3) (sulfur oxidizers) The ferric iron produced in reaction (2) oxidized more sulfide as in reaction (1). sulfides are first oxidized to elemental sulfur. each possessing a lone electron spontaneous (iron oxidizers) (sulfur oxidizers) Biochemical Engineering Page 27 . UO2 + 2 Fe3+ ==> UO22+ + 2 Fe2+). The main copper mineral chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is not leached very efficiently. Bioleaching of non-sulfidic ores such as pitchblende also uses ferric iron as an oxidant (e. The copper is removed by bonding to a ligand. which is why the dominant copper producing technology remains flotation followed by smelting and refining. In this case the sole purpose of the bacterial step is the regeneration of Fe3+.g. Sulfidic iron ores can be added to speed up the process and provide a source of iron. Chalcopyrite leaching: (1) (2) (3) net reaction: (4) In general. but the efficiency and kinetics depend on the copper mineralogy. with Cu2+ ions being left in solution. and the processes above can be applied to other sulfidic ores. The process for copper is very similar. The leaching of CuFeS2 follows the two stages of being dissolved and then further oxidised. The most efficient minerals are supergene minerals such as chalcocite. which is a large molecule consisting of a number of smaller groups. Cu2S and Covellite. The microbial oxidation process occurs at the cell membrane of the bacteria. The electrons pass into the cells and are used in biochemical processes to produce energy for the bacteria while reducing oxygen to water.

Treating the mixture with sodium cyanide in the presence of free oxygen dissolves the gold. which is then easily separated from the solution. Ni. Fungi can be grown on many different substrates.a central metal atom (copper) bonded to the ligand. attaining extraction yields of over 90% in some cases. catalytic converters.Aspergillus niger can produce some organic acids such as citric acid This form of leaching does not rely on microbial oxidation of metal. and Zn by more than 95%. Then the copper is passed through an electro-winning process to increase its purity: an electric current is passed through the resulting solution of copper ions. Penicillium simplicissimum) were able to mobilize Cu and Sn by 65%. Bioleaching with fungi Several species of fungi can be used for bioleaching. Experiments have shown that two fungal strains (Aspergillus niger. Because this complex has no charge. The gold is removed from the solution by adsorbing (taking it up on the surface) to charcoal. These microorganisms actually Biochemical Engineering Page 28 . but rather uses microbial metabolism as source of acids which directly dissolve the metal. The copper can also be concentrated and separated by displacing the copper with Fe from scrap iron: Cu2+(aq) + Fe(s) Cu(s) + Fe2+(aq) The electrons lost by the iron are taken up by the copper. and fly ash from municipal waste incineration. and Al. The ligand-copper complex is extrcted from the solution using an organic solvent such as kerosene: Cu2+(aq) + 2LH(organic) CuL2(organic) + 2H+(aq) The ligand donates electrons to the copper. Pb. and iron is the reducing agent (it loses electrons). it is no longer attracted to polar water molecules and dissolves in the kerosene. Copper is the oxidising agent (it accepts electrons). they are attracted to the negative cathodes and collect there. producing a complex . Low concentrations are not a problem for bacteria because they simply ignore the waste which surrounds the metals. which require sufficient concentrations of elements in ores and are environmentally unfriendly. Adding concentrated acid reverses the equation. it is determined by pH. and the copper ions go back into an aqueous solution. Because copper ions have a 2+ charge. Because the initial reaction is reversible. Traces of precious metals such as gold may be left in the original solution. such as electronic scrap. Compared with other extraction techniques Extractions involve many expensive steps such as roasting and smelting.Advances in Biotechnology pair.

Enzymes are proteins. forming "Yellow Boy" pollution. For the company this can translate into profit. the concentration of gold in its ore is generally very low. Heavy ions such as iron. Some advantages associated with bioleaching are: y y economical: bioleaching is generally simpler and therefore cheaper to operate and maintain than traditional processes. since the concentration of copper in its ore is generally quite high. When the pH of this solution rises. By engineering proteins. and pectinase are useful in the processing or refining of a variety of materials.Advances in Biotechnology gain energy by breaking down minerals into their constituent elements. Enzyme Engineering This means changing the primary structure of the existing-proteins/enzymes by genetic engineering. For these reasons. Penicillium. It is industrially applicable and economically feasible to produce. Mucor and Rhizopus. these ions precipitate. As the bacteria breed in the conditions of the mine. Production of enzymes Many moulds synthesise and excrete large quantities of enzymes into the surrounding medium. since the bacteria involved grow naturally. Coenzymes are also proteins combined with low molecular mass organics like vitamin B. protease. zinc. immunotoxins can be produced which can destroy specific cell types. This brings in less profit as well as introducing a significant delay in cash flow for new plants. Currently it is more economical to smelt copper ore rather than to use bioleaching. The profit obtained from the speed and yield of smelting justifies its cost. since fewer specialists are needed to operate complex chemical plants. Some disadvantages associated with bioleaching are: y y economical: the bacterial leaching process is very slow compared to smelting. However. Mould enzymes such as amylase. they are easily cultivated and recycled. they are denatured by heat and extracted or precipitated by chemical solvents like ethanol and by inorganic salts like ammonium sulphate. The company simply collects the ions out of the solution after the bacteria have finished. concentrate. causing environmental damage. environmental: Toxic chemicals are sometimes produced in the process. invertase. Amylases Biochemical Engineering Page 29 . extract and purify enzymes from cultures of moulds such as Aspergillus. since the process can lead to a biosafety failure. as a result of dilution by fresh water. and the mine and surrounding area can be left relatively untouched. Less landscape damage occurs. The lower cost of bacterial leaching in this case outweighs the time it takes to extract the metal. Sulfuric acid and H+ ions which have been formed can leak into the ground and surface water turning it acidic. since the necessary limiting of sulfur dioxide emissions during smelting is expensive. The protein/enzyme can be modified into a more efficient prototype. and arsenic leak during acid mine drainage. environmental: The process is more environmentally friendly than traditional extraction methods. a setup of bioleaching must be carefully planned.

desizing textile. which is partly hydrolysed by this enzyme.Advances in Biotechnology hydrolyse starch to dextrin and sugars. environmental pollution due to industrialization and mining) hundreds and thousand of species have been lost and thousands more are on the verge of extinction. which is inactive. The conservation of biodiversity is vital for our future survival and quality of life. Thus biodiversity conservation is becoming one of the priority areas of human activities. It is widely used in candy making and the production of non-crystallizable syrup from sucrose. It is used in laundry detergents and as an adjunct with soaps. The reaction between low molecular mass coenzymes and apoenzyme gives active holoenzyme: E. Pectinase is used in the clarification of fruit juice and to hydrolyse pectins in the retting of flax for the manufacture of linen. Biochemical Engineering Page 30 . Protease is also used in the manufacture of liquid glue. Due to human interference (increased use of agricultural land. degumming of silks and clarification of beer protein. Apoenzyme is the protein portion of the enzyme. manufacturing pharmaceuticals and other purposes. They are used in preparing sizes and adhesives. the species level or at the ecosystems level. clarifying fruit juices. There is an urgent need for biodiversity conservation throughout the world. Invertase hydrolyses sucrose to form glucose and fructose (invert sugar). Biodiversity Conservation Biodiversity can be measured at the gene level. The proteolytic enzymes such as protease are used for bating in leather processing to obtain fine texture.

it is created through the introduction of relevant DNA into an existing organismal DNA. In plants. our natural resources are rapidly disappearing and the genetic diversity of many species is either decreasing or lost. such as antibiotic resistance. at the Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT).000 varieties have been conserved. about 1. as well as a refuge for seeds in the case of large scale regional or global crises. Gene banks help preserve genetic material. For example. F. be it plant or animal. Mexico. many regional and international genetic resource centers (GRCs) have been set up in different countries. of seeds held in genebanks worldwide. in animals. During the last two decades. With corals. to save the valuable and threatened species. Evolution Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together through the process of gene splicing.Advances in Biotechnology Gene Bank and Plant Conservation To feed the ever-growing human population. gene banks are used to store and conserve the plant genetic resources of major crop plants and their crop wild relatives. most of the cropping areas are occupied by a few high yielding crops (monoculture). more than 12. a living female is required for artificial insemination. The seed vault will provide insurance against the loss of seeds in genebanks. there are many examples of it being done successfully. Svalbard Global Seed Vault The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is a secure seedbank located on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen near the town of Longyearbyen in the remote Arctic Svalbard archipelago. fragments are taken which are stored in water tanks under controlled conditions.300 kilometres (810 mi) from the North Pole. In an effort to conserve agricultural biodiversity. this is the freezing of sperm and eggs in zoological freezers until further need. however. the International rice Research Institute (IRRI). There are many gene banks all over the world. Manila has collected about 25. The gene bank has undertaken the challenge of conserving the gene pool of many species. to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose. In terms of genetic modification. The seeds are duplicate samples. this could be by freezing cuts from the plant. with the Svalbard Global Seed Vault being probably the most famous one. While it is often difficult to utilize frozen animal sperm and eggs. it is possible to unfreeze the material and propagate it. It differs from genetic recombination in that it does Biochemical Engineering Page 31 . agriculture has been extended to large areas and as a result. or "spare" copies. or stocking the seeds. In animals.000 varieties of rice germplasm. Therefore. germplasm conservation is essential. Similarly. such as the plasmids of bacteria. The facility preserves a wide variety of plant seeds in an underground cavern. Consequently. In plants.

Biological Control: An alternative to chemical control of plant diseases and pests The biocontrol of diseases and insect pests. Many other efficient strains are in the developmental stages. by using viruses. which cause environmental pollution and pose health hazards. particularly in industrial areas. Alcanivorax borkumensis. In addition to pollution through human activities. but is engineered. Despite its toxicity. millions of tons of petroleum enter the marine environment every year from natural seepages. This has been done by amplifying the DNA (by Polymerase Chain Reaction or PCR) from the archaeological samples of extinct animals. the socalled hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB). Recombinant DNA technology is of great service in bridging several missing links in the evolution. in particular by a remarkable recently discovered group of specialists. A strain of Pseudomonas putida has been used to treat environmental pollution. was the first to be subjected to a functional genomic analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a scientific technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude. biosurfactant production and biofilm formation. ISSUES PERTAINING TO BIOTECH PRODUCTS Biochemical Engineering Page 32 . G. a paradigm of HCB and probably the most important global oil degrader. and other microorganisms is environmentally friendly and circumvents the use of pesticides. generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. (ii) scavenging of nutrients and cofactors in the oligotrophic marine environment. Environmental Biotechnology Biodegradation of Oil Spills Oil spills and automobile exhaust are major sources of environmental pollution in recent times. A recombinant protein is a protein that is derived from recombinant DNA. a considerable fraction of petroleum oil entering marine systems is eliminated by the hydrocarbon-degrading activities of microbial communities. as well as (iii) coping with various habitatspecific stresses. bacteria. HCB also have potential biotechnological applications in the areas of bioplastics and biocatalysis. IV. fungi. Petroleum oil is toxic for most life forms and episodic and chronic pollution of the environment by oil causes major ecological perturbations. This analysis has yielded important new insights into its capacity for (i) n-alkane degradation including metabolism.Advances in Biotechnology not occur through natural processes within the cell. Marine environments are especially vulnerable since oil spills of coastal regions and the open sea are poorly containable and mitigation is difficult. amoebae. The understanding thereby gained constitutes a significant advance in efforts towards the design of new knowledge-based strategies for the mitigation of ecological damage caused by oil pollution of marine habitats.

Plant variety rights function similarly to patents with respect to the ability to exclude others. no analogous protection exists for biotechnology trade secrets in the United States. under this scenario. Unlike other types of intellectual property protection. for example. To begin with trade secret protection does not allow exclusion of those who independently invent the identical ¶¶trade secret·· therefore. One way this can happen is if the information is independently developed and patented by another. However. but they are only available for plant ¶¶varieties. Although some countries soften this approach by providing those who used an invention prior to its patenting by another (prior users) with the right of continued use. while some European countries allow a limited right. the trade secret ceases to exist. it provides a competitive advantage to its owner. The right to exclude can provide a competitive advantage or a barrier to entry into a commercial market. formal procedural requirements are usually unnecessary to ¶¶obtain·· a trade secret. from using the patented invention without consent. But they do not protect against independent invention.Advances in Biotechnology A. Several types of intellectual property provide some right to exclude others from an invention in the area of biotechnology³trade secrets.·· Types of Protection Trade Secrets. Rather. Trade secrets enable their holder to prevent others from wrongfully appropriating valuable information for a potentially infinite time period. including independent inventors. the inventor of a trade secret merely needs to keep the information reasonably secret. A patent provides a right to exclude others. This is the easiest type of intellectual property to acquire. and only for a limited time. the patent owner could preclude the former trade secret owner from using the now patented invention because patent owners generally have rights to exclude all others from the patented invention. and plant variety rights. and they terminate once the information becomes public. once the information becomes publicly known. The trade secret lasts as long as the information remains secret. there is no uniformity in such protection. trade secret protection offers minimal protection. Under this scenario. This is because intellectual property rights are inextricably linked to the right to exclude others from use. patents. Moreover. a trade secret would be exterminated because a patent on the same information would reveal the information to the public (since patents are public documents). but it also provides the weakest protection. two or more individuals or corporations could theoretically be using the same trade secret without infringing on each other·s rights if they all Biochemical Engineering Page 33 . A trade secret typically consists of any information that is not generally known to others in the same business. Even without the complications of a superceding patent. Intellectual Property Rights and Farmers· Rights INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY Introduction International intellectual property issues are becoming increasingly important as biotechnology is used and sold worldwide.

Patents. satisfies technical patentability requirements. Patents provide inventors a reward or incentive for publicly disclosing an invention. the ¶¶protection·· provided is usually inadequate because monetary compensation for the trade secret misappropriation cannot restore information to trade secrecy status if it has been disclosed to the public. A plant variety right. The exclusivity provided by a patent is considered critical to stimulate ideas and lead to further advances. and (2) that the invention. Unlike trade secrets. by providing the inventor with the right to exclude others from the patented invention for a limited term. Even then. A plant variety right also confers some exclusive rights. The requirements established for patentability are aimed at securing the goal of promoting innovation.Advances in Biotechnology did so independently.. The scope of patentable subject matter may include both products and processes in all areas of technology. as disclosed in a patent application. Patents are generally considered the preferable type of intellectual property to protect biotechnology because they provide the most exclusive rights. The requirements for plant variety rights are intended to function similarly to those for patent rights in that both are intended to Biochemical Engineering Page 34 . The potential to exclude all others through patent protection is considered more valuable than attempting to maintain a trade secret indefinitely with no potential to affirmatively exclude others. which is also referred to as a ¶¶breeder·s right·· (because the right is provided to the breeder of a plant variety). including competitors. Thus patents are the principal type of protection that is sought for biotechnology even though disclosure of the invention is required and patent protection is not a certainty. and fully disclosed in a written document such that someone who was similarly technically competent could reproduce the invention. the typical requirements for obtaining a patent are that (1) the invention constitute patentable subject matter. namely constitute the type of subject matter that country wants to encourage innovation in. Although the requirements vary somewhat between various countries. they must be applied for and examined to determine whether they meet the requisite technical requirements. functions analogously to patent rights³a relatively exclusive right is provided to breeders of new plant varieties to further the development of agriculture. These requirements are intended to define inventive activity deserving of a patent. a patent or even a potential patent can justify the often high cost of research and development involved in biotechnology. rather.g. A trade secret does not confer any affirmative rights except as to those who misappropriate the information (e.·· ¶¶useful·· (or have ¶¶industrial application··). Additionally. third parties are allowed to oppose the issuance of a patent or petition to revoke an existing patent for failing to meet the technical requirements. Technical patentability requirements typically require that the invention be at least ¶¶new. A national patent office typically examines patent applications to determine whether the patentability requirements are met. Plant Variety Rights. patents protect against independent invention because the owner of a patent can exclude all others from using the patented invention. ¶¶nonobvious·· (or have an ¶¶inventive step··). in some countries. In addition. an employee who leaves with confidential information). because a patent can entitle its owner to exclude others. plant variety rights are not automatic. As with patents.

commonly known as the European Patent Convention (EPC). 1977. It entered into force on August 9. is an international treaty signed in Budapest. the focus is on patent protection because patents provide coverage for more types of biotechnology and broadest protection.·· ¶¶uniform. The current SecretaryGeneral of UPOV is Francis Gurry. unlike patents.·· These requirements are generally less onerous than those needed to meet patentability requirements. 4. Budapest Convention The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure. International Conventions Impacting Biotechnology 1. and was later amended on September 26. By codifying intellectual property for plant breeders. European Patent Convention The Convention on the Grant of European Patents of 5 October 1973. 1980. The Convention was adopted in Paris in 1961 and revised in 1972. on April 28. Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO Members. disclosure of the invention. European Union The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 25 member states which are located primarily in Europe. International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales) The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants or UPOV is an intergovernmental organization with headquarters in Geneva. Switzerland. In addition.·· and ¶¶stable. 5. 3.·· ¶¶distinct. 2.Advances in Biotechnology provide protection to subject matter that is truly innovative. UPOV was established by the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. The treaty is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Some of the technical requirements for plant breeder rights parallel those for patent rights³a variety must be ¶¶new. The objective of the Convention is the protection of new varieties of plants by an intellectual property right. Hungary. Although plant variety rights will be addressed in this article. 1978 and 1991. or at least the method of making the invention. 1980. PHILIPPINE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY Biochemical Engineering Page 35 . UPOV aims to encourage the development of new varieties of plants for the benefit of society. which could be seen as an advantage. is not always required. or Budapest Treaty. is a multilateral treaty instituting the European Patent Organisation and providing an autonomous legal system according to which European patents are granted.

Methods for treatment of the human or animal body by surgery or therapy and diagnostic methods practiced on the human or animal body. It may be. a product. 165a) Section 22. 22.4. Plant varieties or animal breeds or essentially biological process for the production of plants or animals. and microbiological processes used for biotechnologies can be patented. This provision shall not apply to micro-organisms and non-biological and microbiological processes. 22. No. scientific theories and mathematical methods. (Sec. to wit: y Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization [since 1980] y Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for Purposes of Patent Procedure [since 1981] y Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights [TRIPS Agreement] RA 8293: Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines Important sections of the IP Code of the Philippines pertaining to biotechnology are stated below. R. if any. non-biological processes. 7. Biochemical Engineering Page 36 . involves an inventive step and is industrially applicable shall be Patentable. which allows plants with distinct. non-biological processes.3. and programs for computers. which contains a very broad definition of patents or patentable inventions or innovations and specifies that microorganisms. there are two laws governing IP protection: the IP Code (1997). Non-Patentable Inventions The following shall be excluded from patent protection: 22. Section 21. Discoveries. playing games or doing business. Patentable Inventions Any technical solution of a problem in any field of human activity which is new.A.1. This provision shall not apply to products and composition for use in any of these methods. or an improvement of any of the foregoing. In the Philippines. or may relate to. Schemes.2. or process. The law that provides IP protection for biotechnology products and processes is the IP Code but no mechanism to monitor infringement of IPR has yet been installed.Advances in Biotechnology Introduction Technology transfer to developing countries is now more difficult because biotechnology has now become proprietary in nature and most developing countries do not have intellectual property (IP) laws or the capacity to implement them. rules and methods of performing mental acts. which contains a very broad definition of patents or patentable inventions or innovations (Section 21) and specifies that microorganisms. and microbiological processes used for biotechnologies can be patented (Section 22). Biotechnology ² Related International IPR Treaties to Which the Philippines is a Party The Republic of the Philippines is a signatory to several international treaties and conventions on intellectual property rights. 22. and the PVPA 2002. stable and uniform morphological characteristics to be patented.

it shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of breeders with respect to their new plant variety particularly when beneficial to the people for such periods as provided for in this Act. Statement of Policies. No.5. 2. a) The State recognizes that an effective intellectual property system in general and the development of new plant variety in particular is vital in attaining food security for the country. 2002 AN ACT TO PROVIDE PROTECTION TO NEW PLANT VARIETIES. 8.This Act shall be known and cited as the "Philippine Plant Variety Protection Act of 2002" Sec.Advances in Biotechnology Provisions under this subsection shall not preclude Congress to consider the enactment of a law providing sui generis protection of plant varieties and animal breeds and a system of community intellectual rights protection: 22. Biochemical Engineering Page 37 . and 22. b) The use of intellectual property bears a socioeconomic function. The State also recognizes the need to protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations. Anything which is contrary to public order or morality. encourages the participation of private enterprises and provides incentives to needed investments in the development of new plant varieties. (Sec. To this end. To this end. d) The State recognizes that science and technology are essential for national development and promotes the adaptation of technology and knowledge from all sources for the national benefit. ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION BOARD AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: Section 1. 9168 June 7. 165a) RA 9168: Philippine Plant Variety Protection Act of 2002 Congress of the Philippines Twelfth Congress First Regular Session REPUBLIC ACT NO. the State shall promote the diffusion of technology and information for the promotion of national development and progress for the common good. Aesthetic creations. c) The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector.6.A. Short Title. R.

Advances in Biotechnology e) The State. h) "Persons" includes natural persons and juridical persons. j) "Plant Variety Protection (PVP)" mans the rights of breeders over their new plant variety as defined in this Act. does so in a manner supportive of and not inconsistent with its obligation to maintain a healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. d) "Certificate of Plant Variety Protection" means the document issued by the Board pursuant to this Act for the protection of a new plant variety. a) "Applicant" means the breeder who applies for the grant of a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. Definitions. or 2. f) "Harvested material" means any part of a plant with potential economic value or any product made directly therefrom in proper case. It shall also refer to the National Seed Industry Council during the transition period from the effectivity of this Act up to the time the said Board has been organized and operating. The person who is the employer of the aforementioned person or who has commissioned the work. e) "Commission" means to engage the services of a person to develop new plant varieties in exchange for monetary or any material consideration. while recognizing intellectual property rights in the field of agriculture. g) "Holder" means a person who has been granted a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection or his successors-in-interest. or 4) The holder of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. TITLE II Definitions Sec. or 3) The successors-in-interest of the foregoing persons as the case may be. The person who bred. 3. or discovered and developed a new plant variety. i) "Plant" includes terrestrial and aquatic flora. Biochemical Engineering Page 38 . c) "breeder" means: 1. b) "Board" means the National Plant Variety Protection Board created by this Act.

for more than four (4) years or. in the case of vines or tress. m) "Variety" means a plant grouping within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank. Sec. offered for sale or disposed of to others for a period of five (5) years before the approval of this Act.A variety shall be deemed new if the propagating or harvested material of the variety has not been sold. and considered as a unit with regard to the suitability for being propagated unchanged. b) Distinct. . for purposes of exploitation of the variety. by or with the consent of the breeder. or b) In other countries or territories in which the application has been filed. . can be defined by the expression of the characteristics resulting from a given genotype or combination of genotypes. That application for PVP shall be filed within one (1) year from the approval of this act. Distinctness. and d) Stable. Newness. c) Uniform. offered for sale or otherwise disposed of to others. shall render the said variety a matter of public knowledge from the date of the said application: Provided. However. distinguished from any other plant groupings by the expression of at least one (1) characteristics. more than six (6) years before the date of filing of an application for Plant Variety Protection. A variety may be represented by seed. tissue culture plantlets. That the application leads to the granting of a Certificate of Plant Variety Biochemical Engineering Page 39 . tubers. Provided. 5. plants. TITLE III Conditions for the Grant of the Plant Variety Protection Sec. The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be granted for varieties that are: a) New. the requirement of novelty provided for in this Act shall not apply to varieties sold. 6. and other forms. Sec. The filing of an application for the granting of a plant variety protection or for the entering of a new variety in an official register of variety in the Philippines or in any country. transplants. 4. a) In the Philippines for more than one (1) year before the date of filing of an application for plant variety protection. l) "Regulations" means the rules and regulations promulgated by the Board for the purpose of implementing the provisions of this Act. that without regard to whether the conditions for plant variety protection are fully met.Advances in Biotechnology k) "Propagating material" means any part of the plant that can be used to reproduce the protected variety.A variety shall be deemed distinct if it is clearly distinguishable from any commonly known variety.

Variety Denomination. the subject matter of which is the same as that of an application previously filed abroad.Advances in Biotechnology Protection or the entering of the said other variety in the official register of variety as the case may be. the breeder/applicant who has the earliest filing date or priority date shall have the right to register the same to the exclusion of the other applicant/breeder(s). Sec. if such denomination does not conform to the provisions of this Title. 11. Sec. 8. . The denomination shall be registered together with the grant of the breeder's right. 15. shall use the same denomination as the latter. shall be obliged to use the denomination of Biochemical Engineering Page 40 .The use of a denomination shall not be granted to a breeder if such denomination has already been registered to another breeder or is being used by a third party in relation to the sale or offering for sale of a particular variety prior to the filing date or priority date of an application for a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. Obligation to Use Denomination. Sec. its registration shall be refused and the breeder shall be required to propose another denomination within a prescribed period. Sec. Misleading Denomination. Uniformity. 10. who offers for sale or markets in the Philippines. Right of Priority over Denomination. TITLE IV Variety Denomination Sec.The variety shall be deemed uniform if. . Figures as Denomination. Sec. In case two (2) or more breeders/applicants apply for the registration of the same denomination.An application filed in this country. . 13. .If the denomination does not satisfy these requirements.The variety shall be designated by a denomination which shall be its generic description. 12. It may not consist solely of figures except when it is an established practice for designating such a variety. . . it is sufficiently uniform in its relevant characteristics. subject to the variation that may be expected from the particular features of its propagation. in the case of a particular cycle of propagation. However. the applicant/breeder shall be required to submit a new denomination. Refusal of Denomination. Stability. 14. Sec. Denomination Used in an Application Previously Filed abroad.No denomination shall be accepted if it is liable to mislead or to cause confusion concerning the characteristic value or identity of the variety or identity of the breeder.The denomination must enable the variety to be identified. at the end of each such cycle.Any person. propagating material of a variety protected. . 7. .The variety shall be deemed stable if its relevant characteristics remain unchanged after repeated propagation or. it must be different from any denomination that designates an existing variety of the same plant species or closely related species. . In particular. Sec. 9. Sec.

Biochemical Engineering Page 41 .If two (2) or more persons develop a new plant variety separately and independently of each other. . 22. If such an indication is so associated. Co-ownership of the Right. 18.Advances in Biotechnology that variety. may apply for a plant variety developed. Sec. it may be associated with a trademark. the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall belong to the person who files the application first.When a protected variety is offered for sale or marketed.Any breeder. 20. may apply for a plant variety protection and obtain a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection upon compliance with the requirements of this Act. Entitlement. the plant variety protection shall belong to the employer. even after the expiration of the breeder's right therefor except when the rule of prior rights apply.If two (2) or more persons contribute to the development of a new plant variety.For purposes of this Act. authenticated copies of documents which constitute the foreign application. Foreign Nationals. 16. 21. with respect to the variety developed. Sec. . 19. the right shall be granted to the person who has the earliest filing date or priority date. shall be considered as filed locally as of the date of filing of the foreign application: Provided. Use of Marks. trade name or other similar indication with a registered denomination. which by treaty. b) It is filed within twelve (12) months from the filing date of the earliest foreign application. TITLE V Applicants to a Plant Variety Protection Sec. a person shall be considered a national of a foreign country if he is a citizen of such country according to its laws. convention or law affords similar privileges to Filipino citizens. 17. . the rights in proportion to their contribution in the development of plant variety. the denomination must nevertheless be easily recognizable.in case an employee develops a plant variety in the course of his employment as a result of the performance of his regular duty. all of them shall be named in the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection and shall be entitled to such rights as agreed upon in writing or in the absence thereof. Priority Date. Employee-Employer relationship. samples or other evidence showing that the variety which is being applied for protection is the same variety which has been applied for protection in a foreign country. a natural person residing therein. . That: a) The local application expressly claims priority. Sec. Sec. Sec. . .Any application for a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection previously filed by a breeder in another country. First to File Rule. . Sec. within six (6) months from the filing of the local application. and c) The applicant submits. or is a legal entity whose office is registered in such foreign country. In case two (2) or more persons file an application for the same plant variety. unless there is a written stipulation to the contrary.

e) The variety denomination. he shall indicate in his application the basis for his right to file the application. Section 25. c) Name of resident agent and address in the Philippines. or consider the results of other tests or trials that have already been done. cause the conduct of tests. National Treatment. . .If the applicant is not the actual breeder. TITLE VI Examination of the Application and Issuance of PVP Certificate Sec.Any application filed locally for a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection previously granted to a breeder in another country. Other Information Required. If the applicant has successfully claimed priority according to this Act. 24. This Act shall also apply to the nationals of foreign countries that are members of intergovernmental organizations or party to any multilateral agreement or convention concerning the granting of intellectual property protection to plant varieties. 23. Biochemical Engineering Page 42 . Rights of the Applicant to File the Application. Sec. For this purpose.The Board may carry out the necessary tests. d) The description of the variety bred. . f) Sample of propagating materials. Sec. and g) Any other particular required by the regulations. Contents of the Application. b) Address of the applicant/breeder in the Philippines. . convention or law affords similar privileges to Filipino citizens. 27. including particulars of its characteristics. he shall be given a period of two (2) years from the priority date to comply with the requirements of this Sec. and shall include: a) Name of the applicant/breeder. Sec. shall be issued a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection upon payment of dues and compliance to all the provisions of this Act. .Advances in Biotechnology Sec.An application for a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be filed in the manner and on the conditions prescribed in the regulations.The applicant shall be required by the Board to furnish information regarding any application filed by him in other countries including all pertinent documents relating thereto. . Manner of Conducting Tests. which by treaty.The Board shall issue rules and regulations stipulating the contents of the description and the order of presentation. Contents of the Description and Order of Presentation. . 26. 28. which are the subject of the application. documents or materials within a period of time prescribed in the regulations. the Board shall require the applicant to furnish all the necessary information.

such opposition shall be considered together with the examination of the application. 30. Sec. Issuance of the Certificate.Advances in Biotechnology Sec. A notice of such issuance shall be published in the manner to be prescribed in the regulations at the expense of the holder. Sec.When the Board has tested and examined the variety. 31. A notice of such cancellation shall be published in the Plant Variety Gazette one (1) year after the term of protection has expired. the Board shall consider. the holder shall pay an annual fee to be prescribed by the Board. . . any person may inspect the application documents in a manner to be prescribed by the Board. Annual fees shall be paid starting from the fourth anniversary of the issuance of the certificate and every year thereafter with the first three (3) months of said years. any holder who fails to pay the annual fees may request for a reinstatement Biochemical Engineering Page 43 . as a minimum requirement.For trees and vines. . b) that the variety is not registrable under this Act. 61 and 62. 29. 73. Sec. Term of Protection. . it shall issue a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. 33. respectively of this Act. . The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall expire and cease to have force and effect upon the holder's failure to pay the annual fees within the prescribed period.Any person who believes that the applicant is not entitled to the grant of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection may file an opposition thereto within the period prescribed by the Board from the date of its publication and before the issuance of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. the period of protection shall be twenty-five (25) years from the date of the grant of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection and twenty (20) years from the said date for all other types of plants. Filing Date. The holder has the option to pay in advance this annual fee for a maximum of twenty (20) years. Before such publication. . 32. Opposition to the application may be made on the following grounds: a) that the person opposing the application is entitled to the breeder's right as against the applicant. Sec.To maintain the validity of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. Annual Fees. Publication of the Application. Opposition to the Grant of Plant Variety Protection. unless declared void ab initio or cancelled otherwise. Prior to such publication. If the opposition is based on the conditions of Plant Variety Protection. After publication of the application. all of the above enumerated items in Sec.After the Board has accorded a filing date. 34. 24 hereof.For purposes of according a filing date. Sec. the application and all related documents shall not be made available to the public without the written consent of the applicant. the application shall be published within sixty (60) days at the expense of the applicant in the Plant Variety Gazette hereunder described in Sec. and/or considered the supporting materials and literature pertinent thereto. as provided under Sec.

d) Selling or other marketing.The decision applicant of the Board is final except for anomalous circumstances involving the Board in which case the may appeal it to the proper court. Rights of Holders of Plant Variety Protection. 35.Within two (2) months from the receipt of the rejection notice. TITLE VII Rights of Holders Sec.In respect of the propagating materials. 36. if the production thereof resulted directly from the unauthorized use of the plant's propagating materials that are covered by this Act. Sec. and when applicable.Whenever an application is rejected. unless the holder has had the reasonable opportunity to exercise his right in relation to the said propagating materials. identify and provide the documents used as the basis for rejection. That he settles his unpaid accounts including surcharges to be determined by the Board. Sec. The holder may make his authorization subject to conditions and limitations. a) Reconsideration . 39. Sec. Acts in Respect of Harvested Materials. e) Exporting. . . may reverse its initial finding or issue a final rejection within the same period. the rights in the two (2) preceding sections shall also extend to the harvested materials which may be the entire plant or its other parts. the Board shall immediately inform the applicant on the grounds therefor. .The rights of holder under Sections 36 and 38 of this Act shall also apply in relation to: Biochemical Engineering Page 44 . the applicant may amend his application or traverse the finding of the Board. Sec. in turn. c) Offering for sale.Advances in Biotechnology of his certificate: Provided. b) Conditioning for the purpose of propagation. holders of a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall have the right to authorize any of the following acts: a) Production or reproduction.Except for Sections 43 and 44 of this Title. Coverage of Protection. 38. Notice of Rejection.. The Board. 37. f) Importing. b) Appeal from the Notice of Rejection . and g) Stocking for any purpose mentioned above.

except when Sections 39 and 40 apply. or from a variety that is itself predominantly derived from the initial variety.It shall also be understood that essentially derived varieties may be obtained through processes which may include. share or sell their farm produce of a variety protected under this Act. except when a sale is for the purpose of reproduction under a commercial marketing agreement. backcrossing or transformation by genetic engineering.For the purpose of paragraph 39(a). c) Acts done for the purpose of breeding other varieties. use. . b) It is clearly distinguishable from the initial variety. or of a somoclonal variant. required the holder's authorization as conferred in this Act: Provided. This provision shall also extend to the exchange and sell of seeds among and between said small Biochemical Engineering Page 45 . 42. Sec. Sec. exchange. b) Varieties which are not clearly distinct from the protected variety. Sec. That the applicant shall initiate the legal action against the alleged infringer within two (2) years from the date of the granting of his Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. the selection of a natural or induced mutant. Essentially Derived Varieties. 40. b)Acts done for experimental purposes. Genetic engineering shall be understood as the introduction of genes by laboratory techniques. has carried out acts which.The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall not extent to: a) Acts done for noncommercial purposes. . Exceptions to Plant Variety Protection. 41. it conforms to the initial variety in the expression of the essential characteristics that result from the genotype or combination of genotypes of the initial variety. but not limited to. taking into consideration the nature of the plant cultivated. and c) Except for the differences which result from the act of derivation.Advances in Biotechnology a) Varieties which are essentially derived from the protected variety. a variety shall be deemed to be essentially derived from the initial variety when: a) it is predominantly derived from the initial variety. and c) Varieties whose production requires the repeated use of the protected variety. grown or sown. where the protected variety is not itself an essentially derived variety. Provisional Protection. and d) The traditional right of small farmers to save. the selection of a variant individual from plants of initial variety. Manner of Developing Essentially Derived Varieties. . .An applicant for a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be entitled to equitable remuneration from any person who. Sec. 43. The Board shall determine the condition under which this exception shall apply. once the certificate is granted. during the period between the publication of the application for the certificate and the grant of that certificate. while retaining the expression of the essential characteristics that result from the genotype or combination of genotypes of the initial variety.

or c) Sexually multiply the novel variety as a step in marketing (for growing purposes) the variety.The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall not extend to acts concerning any material of the protected variety.No Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be issued without naming the breeder(s) unless this right is protested in writing within one (1) year. Succession/Transmission. or d) Use the novel variety in producing (as distinguished from developing) a hybrid or different variety therefrom. exchange it. ship it. or export it from. into a country that does not protect the variety of the plant genus or species to which the variety belongs. deliver it. without notice as to being a protected variety under which it was received. or h) Perform any of the foregoing acts even in instances in which the novel variety is multiplied other than sexually. or g) Fails to use a variety denomination the use of which is obligatory under Sec. or f) Dispense the novel variety to another. Sec. That the small farmers may exchange or sell seeds for reproduction and replanting in their own land. . 47. any person who without being entitled to do so. TITLE VIII Infringement Sec. Exhaustion of Plant Variety Protection. or offer it or expose it for sale. . Sec.Advances in Biotechnology farmers: Provided. in a form which can be propagated.The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be considered as a property right and the transmission thereof shall be governed by the law on Property. 45. except where the exported material is for final consumption purposes. the Philippines. except in pursuance of a valid Philippine plant patent. unless it: a) Involves further propagation of the variety in question. or b) Import the novel variety into. or any material derived from the said material. What Constitutes Infringement. or a variety covered by the provisions of Sections 39 and 40 hereof. Sec. which enables the propagation of the variety. which has been sold or otherwise marketed by the breeder or with his consent in the Philippines. or b) Involves the export of the variety.Except as otherwise provided in this Act. . or solicit an offer to buy it. or any other transfer of title or possession of it. 46. 15. consign it. . 44. or e) Use seed which had been marked "unauthorized propagation prohibited" or "unauthorized seed multiplication prohibited" or progeny thereof to propagate the novel variety. or Biochemical Engineering Page 46 . Rights of Attribution. performs the following acts: a) Sell the novel variety.

or c) Cause the return to the petitioner for further scientific use. the court may order the confiscation of infringing materials. prior to the notice of infringement. Sec. . . Prescription. may be sued by the holder. . 48.Any holder may petition the proper regional trial court for infringement of his plant variety protection as defined in this Act. .The following shall be valid defenses against infringement charges: a) Non-infringement. 50. 49. and: a) Cause their distribution to charitable organization.The court may also enjoin the infringer(s) from further performing any act of infringement on the rights of the holder(s) as defined in this Act. and/or d) Other defenses that are made available under this Act.No recovery of damages for any infringement case shall prosper when the cause of action has reached more than six (6) years from the time the alleged infringement case was committed. moral.Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be presumed valid and the burden of proof of their invalidity shall rest on the party assailing them. Where to Commence Action. Criminal Penalty. 56. Sec. Sec. Court to Order Confiscation of Infringing Materials.Advances in Biotechnology i) Instigate or actively induce performance of any foregoing acts. 53. Sec. . . . . 51.The court may award actual. Sec. Damages. b) Cause the sale and provide the proceeds thereof to research organizations. b) The plant variety does not possess at the time of its application criterion of novelty or distinctness. Injunction. Sec.No damages shall be awarded unless there is actual or constructive notice made upon the alleged infringer.Upon petition by the complainant. 54. Sec. Sec. Sec. 52. exemplary damages and attorney's fees according to a proven amount including a reasonable royalty for the use of the protected variety. Defenses Against Infringement Charges. . 55. Presumption of Validity.Any person who violates any of the rights of the holder provided for in this Act may also suffer the penalty of imprisonment of not less than three (3) years but not more Biochemical Engineering Page 47 . Notice. c) The alleged infringement was performed under a right adverse to it. who may also avail of all such relief as are available in any proceeding involving infringements of other proprietary rights.

60. Grounds for the Grant of Compulsory Licensing. Procedure for Grant.The Board.00). Duration of the License. Scope of Compulsory License. may issue a decision: a) Allowing the petitioner to produce in commercial quantity and distribute the variety protected or any part thereof. 59. or c) The plant variety developed relates to or required in the production of medicine and/or any food preparation.The Board shall provide in the rules and regulations the manner and procedure for granting compulsory licenses. or c) Requiring the petitioner to pay the holder with license fees in the form of reasonable royalties. or b) There is an overseas market for the sale of any part of the variety and the same are not met by the holder. 57. and: a) The reasonable requirements of the public for any part of the variety are not met.A compulsory license shall be effective until the ground(s) for its issuance has been terminated as determined by the Board motu proprio or upon petition by party or parties and resolution by the Board. TITLE IX Compulsory License Sec. TITLE X Cancellation and Nullity of Plant Variety Protection Biochemical Engineering Page 48 . . Sec.000.Any interested person may file a petition for compulsory license with the Board at any time after two (2) years from the grant of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection under this Act when it is for the public interest to grant such compulsory license. Sec. .Advances in Biotechnology than six (6) years and/or a fine of up to three (3) times the profit derived by virtue of the infringement but in no case should be less than One Hundred Thousand pesos (P100. Sec. . . upon petition by any interested party and upon proof of any of the foregoing grounds. and d) Other such additional remedies at the Board may determine to be consistent with appropriate circumstances. or b) Requiring the holder to ensure the availability of the propagating materials of the variety protected. 58.

The right to cancel a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be instituted at any time within the term of protection of such right. or b) the breeder fails to pay the required fees to keep his or her rights in force or provides false information in his or her application. 61. unless it is transferred to the person who is so entitled.Advances in Biotechnology Sec. 65.The Plant Variety Protection shall be cancelled on any of the following grounds: a) The breeder does not provide the required information. Grounds for Cancellation. 63. . The effect of the declaration of nullity is that as if the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection was not issued. or d) The conditions of uniformity and stability could not be maintained although these were present at the time of the issuance of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. Prescription. another suitable denomination if the denomination of the variety is cancelled after the grant of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. . Sec. TITLE XI Institution Biochemical Engineering Page 49 . Venue. wherein the conditions of distinctness. Grounds for Nullity. .The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall be declared void ab initio on any of the following grounds: a) The grant of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection was essentially based upon information and documents furnished by the applicant. and newness were not complied with the time of the grant of the certificate. stability. or materials necessary for verifying the maintenance of the variety. . or b) The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection was granted to a person who is not entitled to it.A notice of the filing of a petition to cancel a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection and the final order/decision on the same shall be published in the Plant Variety Gazette at the expense of the petitioner. within the time/period provided under the regulations. uniformity. . Sec. or c) The breeder does not propose. 62. Sec. Publication. 64. Decisions of the Board may be appealable with the Court of Appeals within fifteen (15) days from the date of notice of the Board's final decision.Any petition to cancel a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall originally be under the jurisdiction of the Board. documents. or e) The breeder entitled to the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection or the holder has relinquished his/her rights through a declaration in a public instrument filed with the registrar. Sec.

within one (1) year from the effectivity of this act. The members of the Board or their representatives must be Filipino citizens. National Plant Variety Protection Board. have good moral character and should not have been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude. b) Have original and exclusive appellate jurisdiction over all acts of the Registrar.There is hereby created National Plant Variety Protection Board which shall be composed of the following or their duly designated representatives: a) The Secretary of the Department of Agriculture. collected from foreign and local databases. and h) Perform all other functions as may be required in the implementation of this Act. d) The Director of the Bureau of Plant Industry. b) The Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology. f) Organize the Registrar as it sees fit. as co-chairman. The Board shall perform the following functions: a) Promulgate policy guidelines for the effective implementation of the provisions of this Act. f) The President of the Philippine Seed Industry Association. g) Approve capital expenditure and contracts of experts. d) Institutionalize database of existing plant varieties. g) A representative from a federation of small farmers' organizations to be nominated by the Secretary of Agriculture. c) Have original jurisdiction over petitions for compulsory licensing. Biochemical Engineering Page 50 . e) Call on resource persons to provide inputs that will be relevant in the performance of the tasks of the Board. nullity and cancellation of the Certificate of Plant Variety Protection. and i) The Registrar (ex officio). as vice chairman.Advances in Biotechnology Sec. as chairman. e) The Director of the Institute of Plant Breeding of the University of the Philippines Los Baños. h) A representative from the scientific community to be nominated by the National Academy of Science and Technology. c) The Director-General of the Intellectual Property Office. 66. .

Gene Trust Fund. bona fide research institutions. and in the major dialect understood by the locality. The Registrar and the Associate Registrar shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines upon the recommendation Biochemical Engineering Page 51 . The Registrar. shall be used for the purposes of the gene trust fund. Sec. Sec.Advances in Biotechnology Sec. .The Board shall maintain its own publication which shall be known as the Plant Variety Gazette for all the publication requirements of this Act and for other purposes which the Board may require. Sec. uniformity and stability of varieties. 71. to be administered by the Board. . Sec. Sec. 67. . Copies shall be distributed to all concerned especially to the Members of the Senate and House Committees on Agriculture: Provided. the Board with representatives from the Senate and House Committees on Agriculture.There is hereby created PVP Fund. The trust fund may also accept donations from national and international institutions and other organizations and individuals interested in strengthening genetic conservation. . Rules and Regulations.The Board shall prescribe a schedule of fees to be charge against any applicant/breeder in the course of the application for a Certificate of Plant Variety Protection or in the maintenance therefor. and subject only to existing accounting and auditing rules and regulations for purposes of defraying the cost of operations in the delivery of its services to the public. to be administered by the Board. or reorganize and create units therefore under its control and supervision. . 68. An amount to be determined by the Board but not to exceed twenty percent (20%) of the fees and charges.There shall be an independent and separate trust fund established under this Act. Publication.Farming communities and bona fide farmers' organizations are encouraged to build an inventory of locally-bred varieties as an option to protect these resources from misappropriation and unfair monopolization. Further. 73. That the Board shall distribute for free. . or appropriate nongovernmental research centers as testing centers for the distinctness. hereinafter referred to as the Fund. copies of the Plant Variety Gazette to small farmer groups and indigenous communities. . The PVP Fund. All fees. for the benefit of bona fide organizations or institutions managing and operating an accredited gene bank. Farming Communities and Bona fide Farmers' Organizations. Coordination and Cooperation with Other Institutions.For the purpose of verifying certain facts such as but not limited to the requirements of stability. prescribe rules and regulations necessary for the implementation of its functions. fines and charges collected by the Board under this Act. 69. the Board may enter into agreements with other governmental or nongovernmental institutions both domestic and foreign under a set of conditions germane to its functions. The Board is hereby authorized to use and disburse the Fund. The Board is hereby authorized to use and disburse the Fund without need of approval by any government agency. Sec. the Board shall also designate appropriate state colleges and universities. shall be deposited in the Fund. 70. Fees. distinctness and uniformity.There is hereby established a National Plant Variety Protection Registrar and an Associate Registrar under the control and supervision of the Board. 73. .For the purpose of the preceding section. 72. Sec. shall within six (6) months from the effectivity of this act.

which was created by Republic Act No. and Executive Order No. 430 and Administration Order No. 8371. proven track record in the field of plant science. Series of 2002 of the Department of Agriculture or the rules and regulations for the importation and release to the environment of plant products derived from the use of biotechnology. maintain and continuously update a database of existing plant varieties collected from foreign and local databases. f) Maintain samples of the propagating materials of the protected variety. Republic Act No. 75. b) Issue and maintain a systematic record of all Certificate of Plant Variety Protection and transactions related thereto. and/or extensive executive experience and capability. d) Institutionalize. 8. otherwise known as the "Indigenous People's Rights Act". shall perform the functions of the Board until the latter has been fully organized. Sec. Functions of the Registrar. the Director of the Bureau of Plant Industry shall be the Acting Registrar and the Assistant Director of the same Bureau shall act as the Associate Registrar. otherwise known as the "Philippine Environmental Policy". and in meritorious cases. but not later than three (3) years from the effectivity of this act. Relation with Other Laws. TITLE XII Miscellaneous and Final Provisions Sec. otherwise known as the "Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act". and g) Perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the Board. 76. The Registrar shall be a citizen of the Philippines with good moral character. Transitory Provisions. However. 1151. . c) Implement the rules and regulations issued by the Board.Advances in Biotechnology of the Board and shall have a term of six (6) years. the Registrar who shall be first appointed shall serve for a term of seven (7) years. examine all applications for Certificate of Plant Variety Protection in accordance with this Act. Biochemical Engineering Page 52 . Within the same period. 7308 or the National Seed Industry Development Act. 9147. The Registrar shall have the following functions: a) Has original and exclusive jurisdiction to receive. e) Maintain a library of scientific and other works and periodicals. to aid his examiners in the discharge of their duties. Presidential Decree No. process. issued the said certificates and sign them in the name of the Board. .The National Seed Industry Council.The interpretation of the provisions of this Act shall not negate the effectivity and application of Republic Act No. both foreign and local.

NAZARENO Secretary General House of Representatives Approved: June 7. . for any reason.Advances in Biotechnology Sec. are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. 80.The Secretary of the Department of Agriculture shall immediately include in its program and issue such rules and regulations to implement the provisions of this Act.. 77. Repealing Clause. Biochemical Engineering Page 53 . 78. 79. . Speaker of the House of Representatives (Sgd) FRANKLIN M. DRILON President of the Senate This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. decrees. (Sgd) ROBERTO P. . any provision of this Act is declared invalid or unconstitutional. ZUBIRI. and rules and regulations. or parts thereof that are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. Sec. the other parts not affected thereby shall continue to be in full force and effect.All laws. Separability Clause. . 4518 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on May 30. 2002 (Sgd) GLORIA MACAPAGALARROYO President of the Philippines (Sgd) OSCAR G. YABES Secretary of the Senate GLADYS ANNE T.This Act shall take effect thirty (30) days after its complete publication in a newspaper of general circulation. 2002. Appropriations. 1865 and House Bill No. JR. Effectivity. Sec. Sec. executive orders. Approved: (Sgd) JOSE DE VENECIA.If. the funding of which shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.

.. lagi mo yan malalapitan kapag kailangan mo ng tulong at kahit hindi ka pa humihingi ng tulong siya na yung mag-ooffer ng help..... taas kamay ako diyan. ang lahat nakilala si ate gladys as tahimik and sobrang bait na bata. sobrang dina-down niya yung sarili niya. wala akong masasabi. hilig niya lng din talgang mapasaya yung mga taong mahalaga pra sa kanya kaya ganun.. tsaka siguro gusto niya rin maging kasing galing ni kuya Bernard F.. and the likes. siya yung second sa highest ang kaso yung highest naman hindi nagchem. Galangue sa pagdu-drawing kasi kapag kakaiba na naman yung trip niya.. wala akong reklamo diyan. khit minsan mejo korni pinipilit niya pa rin. astig yan sa lhat ng bagay. haha. yung tipong. sa pagiging mabait. kaming mga usual na kasama niya ay hindi sanay na tahimik siya... and as a friend.. sobrang humble ng batang yan e.. isa lang ang sasabihin sayo. pero yung sasabihing tahimik siya.. Duenas bakit ka tahimik? Hindi ako sanay e . marami din siyang mga bagay na nasasabi kapag bangag siya (halimbawa: ang tawag niya sa taong nawalan ng memories ay may ANESTHESIA. ako na nagsasabi sayo isa yang kasinungalingan!!!! Hahahaha. yun pala isusulat lng yung pangalan mo. tas silang dalawa ni Kuya Arjay S.... at kahit sino pang friend ang tanungin mo. lakas mag-trip hahaha. sobra.. si Gladys Anne Zubiri na yung may pinakamataas na GWA sa amin that time.. una kong nakita yung name niya sa DEAN S LISTERS List. haha.. nakakaperfect siya sa mga exams.. galing kasi niyan sa Eng. ang dami kaya niyang kwento. ayun. Arnao yung huling-huling natanggal sa dean s list. siya rin yung plging highest sa mga exams nmin kay Mam Cornelio. hay. (halimbawa: seryoso kayong naglalakad sa kalye bigla-bigla na lng yan maga-act as traffic enforcer....... kaya IDOL ko siya.... well.Advances in Biotechnology Uhmmmm. at parang there s something wrong kapag ganun..) kaya naman gaya nga ng sbi ni kuya Kim Bryan L. yung mga tipong hindi mo ma-imagine na gagawin niya) tsaka tulad ni ate Kathleen May E. the BEST siyang friend. (haha!!! frustrated joker kasi eh....eng so ibig sabihin........ at mahilig bumanat ng mga jokes. kala mo naman iisketch ka. as in. Ayun. Dayao na double chin.. ang mga kinukonsider niya as major na ngawa niyang kasalanan is sobrang minor lang para sa atin. habang may hawak na ballpen at papel sasabihin niyan sayo wag kng gagalaw..) at kapag malakas ang trip niyan kung anu-ano yung ginagawa niya tulad ng mga bagay na hindi ginagawa ng mga normal na tao. Maiba nmn ako.. Ana e. haha. ang daming alam. hindi lng ako kundi kaming lhat By Jennifer Grace Jamero Biochemical Engineering Page 54 ...

Tapos yung nasa rightmost ay yung ka-live in ng Daddy ko. Kapatid ng Daddy ko. andami sa mga classmates ko ang nagkagusto at nagkakagusto riyan since highschool pa. Minsan lang« Hehehe« ^_^ Ayan. hindi kilala ng karamihan yang mga taong yan except kay Chichi (leftmost). Bale second mom namin. hindi alam ng karamihan na mahilig kami ng pamilya ko gumawa ng funny faces. Ninang ko yan. Si Tita Gigi. Si Ninang Tina. Sa katunayan. Kahit di na environmental engineer pero ayoko maging perwisyo kay mother nature as much as possible. Mukha lang akong seryoso pero minsan kalog din ako. kahit sino kina Ninang Tina at Tita Gi pwedeng pumasa bilang tunay kong ina sa sobrang close ng resemblance namin. sabi nila yan daw ang tunay kong ina. Tapos yung nasa gitna. Wala lang.Advances in Biotechnology SINO SI KAKAI? Sa totoo lang. Hehehe« Hindi. (Eew« Corny«) Biochemical Engineering Page 55 . Hehehe« ^_^ Super over-rated na pero gusto ko yung magiging trabaho ko in the future may kinalaman sa environment conservation. Na-enjoy ko kasi talaga yung dive nun sa Batangas kahit three days lang yun. Sample picture lang dun sa trabaho ko nung summer of 2010. Chichi is my younger sister.

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