www.spam.abuse.net, http://money.howstuffworks.com/identity-theft.

htm,
www.webopedia.com, www.about.com, www.digitaljournal.com,
Computer crime includes traditional criminal acts committed with a computer, as well
as new offenses that lack any parallels with non-computer crimes. The diversity of
offenses renders any narrow definition unworkable.


Cyber-crimes are frequently grouped into three categories. The first are those in which
the computer comprises the "object" of a crime and in which the perpetrator targets the
computer itself. This includes theft of computer processor time and computerized
services. The second category involves those in which the computer forms the "subject"
of a crime, either as the physical site of the offense or as the source of some form of loss
or damage. This category includes viruses and related attacks. Finally, the third category
includes those in which the computer serves as the "instrument" used to commit
traditional crimes in cyberspace. This encompasses offenses like cyber-fraud, online
harassment, and child pornography.
Though teenage hackers and underage, e-fraud perpetrators have captured headlines,
no "typical" cyber-criminal exists. Perpetrators also commit cyber-crimes for a variety of
reasons. Motives range from a desire to showcase technical expertise, to exposing
vulnerabilities in computer security systems, retaliating against former employers, or
sabotaging government computer systems.
http://ecommerce.hostip.info/

Since the Internet is not limited by geography, crimes committed in cyberspace can
easily achieve global dimensions. Systems can be accessed from anywhere in the world,
and locating perpetrators is difficult. Many computer fraud and embezzlement schemes
target international financial networks. Organized crime groups can utilize information
technology to evade identification and carry out drug trafficking and money laundering
on a global scale. Questions of jurisdiction and apprehension become much more
complicated in international cyberspace.
Estimates place annual business losses to cyber crime at roughly $1.5 billion. Many
hackers are based in countries far from those they affect. For example, the author of the
Love Bug virus that affected the United States was located in the Philippines. Many
authorities suspect that organized "cyber-crime gangs" frequently originate in
developing countries, such as the former Soviet republics where computer-crime laws
are lax and enforcement is haphazard.
Individual countries vary widely in the legal approaches they have taken to regulating
the Internet. Some strictly observant Islamic nations have tried to contain the
dissemination of information online, which they view as containing messages potentially
harmful to their populaces. Germany has tried to restrict Web sites containing Neo-Nazi
content. China installed firewalls to prevent its citizens from accessing unauthorized
sites, and Burma bans Internet access completely.


Finally, the global interconnection of computer systems fostered a push for international
cooperation to combat computer-related crimes. In 1998 Britain, Canada, France,
Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United States agreed to coordinate efforts to
investigate and prosecute cyber-crimes. Among the solutions under debate was an
international treaty to standardize domestic cyber-crime laws. Thorny topics include the
extent to which governments should allow the free movement of data encryption, which
protects the electronic information from compromise but also can be used by criminals
to shield their activities. Increased government surveillance of online communications is
criticized by privacy advocates and members of various ethnic and racial groups, who
feel that it constitutes a form of illegal profiling. The regulation of content, which might
suppress hate speech or child pornography, faces obstacles from proponents of free
expression.
COMPUTER CRIME
A computer crime is any unlawful activity that is done using a computer. This definition can extend to
traditional crimes that use a computer, such as counterfeiting money. It also includes more tech-savvy
crimes, such as phishing or logic bombs. Using a computer in this way, a criminal may be able to conduct
unlawful activity with more anonymity and may be able to get away with more before he is caught.

Stalking, soliciting sex, and counterfeiting can all be considered a type of computer crime if a computer
is used to commit them. These crimes are unique because they can be done with or without a computer.
They are not, however, considered computer crimes unless a computer is used in the process of
committing them. For example, it would be considered a computer crime if a criminal uses a graphic
design program to counterfeit money. Likewise, a person who cyberstalks another by using a computer
to harass them also is committing a computer crime.
Many times, when a person thinks of a computer crime, he thinks of the damage that can be caused by
unauthorized access to a computer by a remote user, known as a hacker. These types of computer crimes
can be costly and damaging. Hackers who have access to computers can change, delete, copy, or damage
data. For instance, should a hacker get access to a personal computer, he may have access to bank
accounts and credit card numbers. If the target computer belongs to a major company or a bank, company
secrets as well as worker or customer personal information could be at risk.
Another devastating type of computer crime is a distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack. In this type
of attack, a hacker may first take control of several people's computers using a type of malware. Then the
hacker sends a message to so-called zombie computers to send almost continuous requests to a view a
target Web site. The Web site's server can only handle so many inquiries at once, so it either crashes or
denies service to legitimate people trying to access the page. Thus, this attack can cause trouble for both
the owner of the site and the person trying to view it.
A DDOS attack crippled Web sites such as Yahoo, Amazon, e-bay, and CNN in February 2000. Though
the servers were not attacked directly, the attacker was able to take control of several other computers that
may not have had proper protection. Attacks such as this highlight how important it is to keep all
computers shielded from computer crime. As many hackers use malware to commit this type of crime, a
good anti-malware software can be invaluable in protecting a computer. In addition, a proper firewall can
also help keep hackers from accessing computers without authorization.
COMPUTER FORENSICS
Computers are a very large part of most people¶s daily lives. In fact, the number of homes that have a
personal computer has grown exponentially in the past five to ten years. Consequently, computer crime,
specifically identity theft and other computer-generated financial crimes, has grown in number and has
become an increasingly serious issue.
Many municipal police departments have a computer forensics team. However, in years to come they will
become even more widespread. Computer forensics uses special techniques and skills to recover,
authenticate, and analyze electronic information and data. It is specifically helpful for police officers and
investigators who are attempting to solve a crime where a computer has been used.
A specialist in the field of computer forensics usually has broad working knowledge and specific software
that works on the devices that store data. This can include hard drives and other computer media. The
computer forensics specialist can determine sources of digital evidence, such as e-mails and other
documentation. She also knows how to preserve the digital evidence, analyze it, and present the findings
to investigators and, if necessary, before a court of law.
Cybercriminals have become increasingly complex and intelligent in the crimes they commit. Many of
the most complicated crimes committed by cybercriminals are successful because the criminals had
installed defensive measures on their computers. These countermeasures work to prevent a computer
forensics investigation. They can be in the form of computer viruses, electromagnetic damage, or other
computerized traps. In fact, if a computer forensics specialist is not careful, the countermeasures may
destroy evidence in its entirety and make it irretrievable.
A computer forensics investigation usually starts when a search warrant to seize a suspect¶s computer and
other digital media is granted. The data on the suspect¶s computer is copied and then that data is analyzed
using the investigator¶s technical equipment and software. The suspect¶s computer becomes evidence.
Consequently, it must remain in a tight chain of evidence to keep it pristine.
Some investigators specialize in decoding passwords. They are also well aware of the importance of not
turning off a computer that is running. If they must turn the machine off, they copy all the data off of the
hard drive. Sometimes the data is not even visible to the eye. There may not be a visible file. These
hidden files are gems to a computer forensics team.
Electronic mail or e-mail is one of the main methods of communication for most people. Some
investigators specialize in preserving, retrieving, and analyzing e-mail files. They can be stored on the
hard drive, an external network, or on a removable hard drive, to name just a few. Sophisticated software
lets investigators search through thousands of emails ± including those which the suspect had deleted
from his system.
y Computer forensics is the field of study and research that utilizes information or data that can be
gained from computer systems, both hardware and software, to help in criminal or civil investigations.
A computer forensics expert witness will typically work with an attorney to provide testimony in a
court hearing about some aspect of computer forensics.
y This can include computer hardware, such as hard drives or discs, and data files, such as e-mails and
documents on a computer. Using specialized software and a variety of techniques, a computer
forensics examiner can re-create deleted files on a system, determine where an e-mail may have
been sent from, and read encrypted files.

Malware
Let¶s begin with the obvious, shall we? If you use a computer, you¶re vulnerable to malware. And if
you¶re vulnerable to malware, you¶re enabling crime on a mass scale.
Malware, as I¶m sure you¶re aware, refers to viruses, trojans worms and other software that gets onto
your computer without you being aware it¶s there. Back in the early part of the century, most such
software¶s primary aim was thrill. The people writing the software found it amusing to write a program
that exploited security flaws just to see how far it could spread.
Today the incentive for making such software is generally more sinister and the reason it makes the
list of the top five computer crimes. In some cases a piece of malware will pretend to be a legitimate
piece of software, and will ask you for money to remove it:

Never, ever give money to programs you don¶t remember buying. Not all malware tries to extract
money from you directly, however. Many simply imbed themselves into your computer in order to
make use of it. Black-hat hackers may intend to launch an attack against a government or institution,
and will use a network of compromised machines to do so. This sort of network is referred to as a
botnet, and is a key tool of the trade for a number of Internet crimes.
Of course, whatever the motivation, such software is a drain on your computer¶s resources so it¶s best
to be protected against it. If you¶re using a Windows computer it¶s best to ensure you have proper
anti-malware protection. My recent article about the 10 best free antivirus programs is a great place
to start.
Just as important as any software, however, is common sense. Don¶t download software from sites
you¶re not sure you can trust, regardless of what operating system you run. Avoid pirated software: it
may seem like a good way to save money, but frequently you¶re also getting some malware thrown in.
In general just use common sense before opening any sort of file, because you don¶t want to
compromise your system.
Identity Theft

Identity theft easily makes the list of the top five computer crimes. In America alone there are almost
9 million victims of identity theft every year. The concept is simple: someone gains access to your
personal information and uses it for their own benefit. This could range from a black-hat hacker
stealing your online banking account login and password to getting access to your social security
number and using it to pretend to be you. Such people can make themselves a lot of money with your
personal information, and screw you over in the process.
Never connect to your bank account on a public computer, or using a WiFi access point you¶re not
absolutely sure you can trust. The same goes for using your credit card or Paypal account to pay for
something.
The most important thing is to never share any personal information ± such as your bank account
number, your social security number or any information a fraudster could use to steal your identity ±
in an email, instant message or any other form of unencrypted communication. None of these
communication channels were designed to be secure, and as such are not the proper way to share
such information.
When logging into your bank, ensure the communication is secure by verifying the address begins
with ³https´ instead of ³http´ ± this means your connection to the site is secure.
Never use your credit card at a site you¶re not sure you can trust.
If you get an email from your bank, your credit card company, eBay or any other service with access
to financial information asking you to ³update your personal information´ ignore it. This is a common
ploy used by fakers. Make sure you¶re very familiar with the interface of all such sites, because fakers
can severely take advantage of you if you¶re not careful.
Nigerian princes do not ask strangers online to accept a money transfer.
Ever.
Seriously.
The Federal Trade Commission of the United States has a lot of good information about identity theft
applicable to all countries; check it out.
Cyberstalking
People leave a lot of information about themselves online. Such information can leave you vulnerable
to cyberstalking, a term that essentially refers to using the Internet to stalk someone in the traditional
sense.
Cyber stalking is essentially using the Internet to repeatedly harrass another person. This harassment
could be sexual in nature, or it could have other motivations including anger or outright hostility.
The town of Mesa, Arizona¶s website shares some solid advice for avoiding cyberstalkers:
When you are online, only type things you would actually say to someone face to face. Think about
how what you say might be interpreted without the context of body language and voice.
Mesa¶s website includes more tips on the subject, so be sure to check it out.
Child Pornography
It¶s tragic, but the Internet is often used to exploit children. What¶s perhaps even sicker is that people
make money doing this.
Your child being exploited in this way is extremely unlikely, but that doesn¶t mean it¶s not worth trying
to protect them. Anti-child-porn site asacp.org recommends the following core strategy:
1. Install and use parental control software on all computers.
2. Know what sites your children frequent and monitor their online activity.
3. Foster communication with your children so they understand the potential dangers they may be
exposed to online.
Good advice, all of it. The site also recommends a number of tools for achieving these goals, so check
it out. Also check out Tim¶s article, which points out 5 sites that promote internet safety for kids.
Spam

This one needs no introduction. These annoying email messages aren¶t just an irritant; they¶re big
business.
Named for the amazing Monty Python sketch about a processed meat product, spam is illegal in many
countries. So how does it spread? For the most part, using the botnets explained in the ³malware´
section of this article. As such, one thing you can do to help stop the spread of spam is to ensure your
computer is protected from such malware.
If you don¶t want spam in your inbox, the simplest thing to do is to switch to Gmail. This email service
seems to have a spam problem licked, and it is the only service I personally use.
Know another spam-free service? Share it in the comments below.
There are a few other things you can do to slow spam from getting to your inbox, however. Tina
suggests five ways to protect & hide your email to stop receiving spam. You could consider using a
temporary email addresses as a means to avoid spam, as an article by Will points out. Finally, be sure
to report particularly evil spam to the authorities, as Dean explained recently

The WANK Worm (October 1989)
Posslbly the flrst "hucktlvlst" (hucklng uctlvlst) uttuck, the WANK worm hlt NASA offlces ln Greenbelt,
Murylund. WANK (Worms Agulnst Nucleur Klllers) run u bunner (plctured) ucross system computers us purt of
u protest to stop the luunch of the plutonlum-fueled, Juplter-bound Gullleo probe. Cleunlng up ufter the cruck
hus been suld to huve cost NASA up to u hulf of u mllllon dollurs ln tlme und resources. To thls duy, no one ls
qulte sure where the uttuck orlglnuted, though muny flngers huve polnted to Melbourne, Austrullu-bused
huckers.
Mlnlstry of Defense Sutelllte Hucked (Februury 1999)
A smull group of huckers truced to southern Englund gulned control of u MoD Skynet mllltury sutelllte und
slgnuled u securlty lntruslon churucterlzed by offlcluls us "lnformutlon wurfure," ln whlch un enemy uttucks by
dlsruptlng mllltury communlcutlons. In the end, the huckers munuged to reprogrum the control system before
belng dlscovered. Though Scotlund Yurd's Computer Crlmes Unlt und the U.S. Alr Force worked together to
lnvestlgute the cuse, no urrests huve been mude.
CD Unlverse Credlt Curd Breuch (Junuury 2000)
A bluckmull scheme gone wrong, the postlng of over 300,000 credlt curd numbers by hucker Muxlm on u Web
slte entltled "The Muxus Credlt Curd Plpellne" hus remulned unsolved slnce eurly 2000. Muxlm stole the credlt
curd lnformutlon by breuchlng CDUnlverse.com; he or she then demunded S100,000 from the Web slte ln
exchunge for destroylng the dutu. Whlle Muxlm ls belleved to be from Eustern Europe, the cuse remulns us of
yet unsolved.
Mllltury Source Code Stolen (December 2000)
If there's one thlng you don't wunt ln the wrong hunds, lt's the source code thut cun control mlsslle-guldunce
systems. In wlnter of 2000, u hucker broke lnto government-contructed Exlgent Softwure Technology und
nubbed two-thlrds of the code for Exlgent's OS/COMET softwure, whlch ls responslble for both mlsslle und
sutelllte guldunce, from the Nuvul Reseurch Lub ln Wushlngton, D.C. Offlcluls were uble to follow the trull of
the lntruder "Leuf" to the Unlverslty of Kulsersluutern ln Germuny, but thut's where the trull uppeurs to end.
Antl-DRM Huck (October 2001)
In our eyes, not ull huckers ure bud guys (us evldenced by our llst of the Ten Greutest Hucks of All Tlme);
often they're |ust trylng to rlght u wrong or muke llfe generully eusler for the tech-consumlng publlc. Such ls the
cuse of the hucker known us Beule Screumer, whose FreeMe progrum ullowed Wlndows Medlu users to strlp
dlgltul-rlghts-munugement securlty from muslc und vldeo flles. Whlle Mlcrosoft trled to hunt down Beule, other
untl-DRM uctlvlsts herulded hlm us u crusuder.

Dennls Kuclnlch on CBSNews.com (October 2003)
As Representutlve Kuclnlch's presldentlul cumpulgn struggled ln the full of 2003, u hucker dld whut he could to
glve lt u boost. Eurly one Frlduy mornlng the CBSNews.com homepuge wus repluced by the cumpulgn's logo.
The puge then uutomutlcully redlrected to u 30-mlnute vldeo culled "Thls ls the Moment," ln whlch the
cundldute luld out hls polltlcul phllosophy. The Kuclnlch cumpulgn denled uny lnvolvement wlth the huck, und
whoever wus responslble wus not ldentlfled.
Hucklng Your MBA App (Murch 2006)
Wultlng on u college or gruduute school declslon ls u null-bltlng experlence, so when one hucker found out
how to breuk lnto the uutomuted ApplyYourself uppllcutlon system ln 2006, lt wus only nuturul thut he wunted
to shure the weulth. Dozens of top buslness schools, lncludlng Hurvurd und Stunford, suw uppllcunts exploltlng
the huck ln order to truck thelr uppllcutlon stutuses. The stlll-unknown hucker posted the ApplyYourself logln
process on Buslness Week's onllne forums; the lnformutlon wus promptly removed und those who used lt were
wurned by schools thut they should expect re|ectlon letters ln the mull.
The 26,000 Slte Huck Attuck (Wlnter 2008)
MSNBC.com wus umong the lurgest of the thousunds of sltes used by u group of unknown huckers eurller thls
yeur to redlrect trufflc to thelr own JuvuScrlpt code hosted by servers known for mulwure. The mullclous code
wus embedded ln ureus of the sltes where users could not see lt, but where huckers could uctlvute lt.
Supermurket Securlty Breuch (Februury 2008)
Overshudowed only by u T.J Muxx breuch ln 2005, the theft of ut leust 1,800 credlt und deblt curd numbers
(und the exposure of ubout 4.2 mllllon others) ut supermurket chulns Hunnuford und Sweetbuy (both owned by
the Belglum-bused Delhulze Group) ln the Northeust Unlted Stutes und Florldu remulns unsolved more thun
slx months luter. Chuln reps und securlty experts ure stlll uncleur us to how the crlmlnuls gulned uccess to the
system; the 2005 T.J.Muxx breuch took udvuntuge of vulnerublllty ln the chuln's wlreless credlt trunsfer
system, but Hunnuford und Sweetbuy do not use wlreless trunsfers of uny sort. Wlthout more lnformutlon, the
dlfflculty ln trucklng down those responslble grows exponentlully.
&omcust.net Gets u Redlrect (Muy 2008)
A devlous huck doesn't ulwuys meun flndlng u buck door or purtlculurly crufty wuy lnto u secure network or
server; sometlmes lt |ust meuns thut uccount lnformutlon wus compromlsed. Such wus the cuse eurller thls
yeur when u member of the hucker group Kryogenlks gulned unuuthorlzed uccess to &omcust.net's reglstrur,
Network Solutlons. The domuln nume system (DNS) huck ultered &omcust.net's homepuge to redlrect those
uttemptlng to uccess webmull to the huckers' own puge (plctured). Spokespeople for &omcust und Network
Solutlons ure stlll uncleur us to how the huckers got the usernume und pussword.
&omcust.net hus entertulnment, sports, news, deuls, onllne tv und other such thlngs. It ls hlghly user lnteructlve
webslte offerlng onllne puyment optlon.
Malware, short for malicious software, (sometimes referred to as pestware
[1]
) is a software
designed to secretly access a computer system without the owner's informed consent. The
expression is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of
hostile, intrusive, or annoying software or program code.
[2]

Software is considered to be malware based on the perceived intent of the creator rather than any
particular features. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware,
dishonest adware, scareware, crimeware, most rootkits, and other malicious and unwanted
software or program. In law, malware is sometimes known as a computer contaminant, for
instance in the legal codes of several U.S. states, including California and West Virginia.
[3][4]

Preliminary results from Symantec published in 2008 suggested that "the release rate of
malicious code and other unwanted programs may be exceeding that of legitimate software
applications."
[5]
According to F-Secure, "As much malware [was] produced in 2007 as in the
previous 20 years altogether. Malware's most common pathway from criminals to users is
through the Internet: primarily by e-mail and the World Wide Web.
The prevalence of malware as a vehicle for organized Internet crime, along with the general
inability of traditional anti-malware protection platforms (products) to protect against the
continuous stream of unique and newly produced malware, has seen the adoption of a new
mindset for businesses operating on the Internet: the acknowledgment that some sizable
percentage of Internet customers will always be infected for some reason or another, and that
they need to continue doing business with infected customers. The result is a greater emphasis on
back-office systems designed to spot fraudulent activities associated with advanced malware
operating on customers' computers.
[8]

On March 29, 2010, Symantec Corporation named Shaoxing, China, as the world's malware
capital.
Malware is not the same as defective software, that is, software that has a legitimate purpose but
contains harmful bugs. Sometimes, malware is disguised as genuine software, and may come
from an official site. Therefore, some security programs, such as McAfee may call malware
"potentially unwanted programs" or "PUP". Though a computer virus is malware that can
reproduce itself, the term is often used erroneously to refer to the entire category.

Types of Identity Theft
Identity theft can enter into many areas of our lives. It involves any instance where a person uses
someone else's identification documents or other identifiers in order to impersonate that person for
whatever reason. According to a September 2003 survey conducted by the Federal Trade Commission,
an estimated 10 million people in the United States found out they were victims of identity theft in the
previous year. More appropriately titled identity fraud, your identity might be stolen in order for
someone to commit:
y Financial fraud - This type of identity theft includes bank fraud, credit card fraud, computer and
telecommunications fraud, social program fraud, tax refund fraud, mail fraud, and several more.
In fact, a total of 25 types of financial identity fraud are investigated by the United States Secret
Service. While financial identity theft is the most prevalent (of the approximate 10,000 financial
crime arrests that Secret Service agents made in 1997, 94 percent involved identity theft), it
certainly isn't the only type. Other types of identity theft, however, usually involve a financial
element as well -- typically to fund some sort of criminal enterprise.
y Criminal activities - This type of identity fraud involves taking on someone else's identity in
order to commit a crime, enter a country, get special permits, hide one's own identity, or
commit acts of terrorism. These criminal activities can include:
Computer and cyber crimes
Organized crime
Drug trafficking
Alien smuggling
Money laundering
y A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS
attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users.
Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it
generally consists of the concerted efforts of a person or people to prevent an Internet site
or service from functioning efficiently or at all, temporarily or indefinitely. Perpetrators
of DoS attacks typically target sites or services hosted on high-profile web servers such
as banks, credit card payment gateways, and even root nameservers. The term is
generally used with regards to computer networks, but is not limited to this field; for
example, it is also used in reference to CPU resource management.
[1]

y One common method of attack involves saturating the target machine with external
communications requests, such that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic, or responds so
slowly as to be rendered effectively unavailable. In general terms, DoS attacks are
implemented by either forcing the targeted computer(s) to reset, or consuming its
resources so that it can no longer provide its intended service or obstructing the
communication media between the intended users and the victim so that they can no
longer communicate adequately.
y
E-mail spam, also known as junk e-mail or unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE), is a subset of spam
that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. Definitions of
spam usually include the aspects that e-mail is unsolicited and sent in bulk.
Spam is flooding the Internet with many copies of the same message, in an attempt to force the
message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it. Most spam is commercial
advertising, often for dubious products, get-rich-quick schemes, or quasi-legal services. Spam
costs the sender very little to send -- most of the costs are paid for by the recipient or the carriers
rather than by the sender.
There are two main types of spam, and they have different effects on Internet users. Cancellable
Usenet spam is a single message sent to 20 or more Usenet newsgroups. (Through long
experience, Usenet users have found that any message posted to so many newsgroups is often not
relevant to most or all of them.) Usenet spam is aimed at "lurkers", people who read newsgroups
but rarely or never post and give their address away. Usenet spam robs users of the utility of the
newsgroups by overwhelming them with a barrage of advertising or other irrelevant posts.
Furthermore, Usenet spam subverts the ability of system administrators and owners to manage
the topics they accept on their systems.
Email spam targets individual users with direct mail messages. Email spam lists are often created
by scanning Usenet postings, stealing Internet mailing lists, or searching the Web for addresses.
Email spams typically cost users money out-of-pocket to receive. Many people - anyone with
measured phone service - read or receive their mail while the meter is running, so to speak. Spam
costs them additional money. On top of that, it costs money for ISPs and online services to
transmit spam, and these costs are transmitted directly to subscribers.
One particularly nasty variant of email spam is sending spam to mailing lists (public or private
email discussion forums.) Because many mailing lists limit activity to their subscribers,
spammers will use automated tools to subscribe to as many mailing lists as possible, so that they
can grab the lists of addresses, or use the mailing list as a direct target for their attacks.

Cyberstalking is a technologically-based ³attack´ on one person who has been targeted specifically for
that attack for reasons of anger, revenge or control.
Cyberstalking can take many forms, including:
y harassment, embarrassment and humiliation of the victim
y emptying bank accounts or other economic control such as ruining the victim's credit score
y harassing family, friends and employers to isolate the victim
y scare tactics to instill fear and more.
The term can also apply to a ³traditional´ stalker who uses technology to trace and locate their victim
and their movements more easily (e.g. using Facebook notifications to know what party they are
attending).
A true cyberstalker¶s intent is to harm their intended victim using the anonymity and untraceable
distance of technology. In many situations, the victims never discover the identity of the cyberstalkers
who hurt them, despite their lives being completely upended by the perpetrator.
Cyberstalking is not identity theft. An identity thief, whether stealing from a stranger or a family
member, has a very specific goal in mind ² financial gain. Identity thieves are unconcerned by the
consequences of their behavior on the victim¶s life, whereas the actions of a cyberstalker are
deliberate and focused on the consequences to the victim.
The Hannaford Bros. grocery chain announced today that due to a security breach at an East
Coast supermarket chain 4.2 million credit and debit card numbers were exposed, leading to
1,800 cases of fraud.
Hannaford Bros said that the information was stolen during the card authorization process
at the checkout counter and estimate over four million unique account numbers were stolen.
The security attack affected all of the stores' almost 300 locations and at this time has been
the cause of almost 2,000 cases of fraud. Hannaford says that personal info such as names,
address and phone numbers were not stolen; the thieves only took the account numbers.
The security breach was noticed on Feb 27 and an investigation revealed that account
numbers had been being swiped since Dec. 7 2007. According to Carol Eleazer, Hannaford's
vice president of marketing in Scarborough it took until March 10th 2008 to contain the
breach


Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/251804#ixzz1ECAumitr
MSNBC Sports Web site became the latest victim in a string of hacker attacks that has
compromised more than 26,000 other sites, according to a new alert by a Web security firm.
San Diego, Calif.-based Websense Inc. alerted MSNBC and the public about the security breach
Tuesday.
The incident shows a growing trend of hackers injecting code into legitimate Web sites, as well
as targeting major sporting events, says the Web security company.
Websense has been tracking the exploit since February and discovered the MSNBC intrusion in
one of their standard Web scans, says Stephan Chenette, manager of Websense Security Labs.
Other major sites affected include TV.com, News.com and History.com.
It is one group of unknown hackers behind the attacks, using the Web pages to redirect traffic to
their malicious JavaScript code hosted by service providers known for hosting malware ±
Intercage and the Russian Business Network, Chenette says.
³I'm labeling this attack as a search engine input optimization attack.´
He says use of search engine optimization techniques by these Web sites makes them vulnerable
to and eventually victims of an input validation attack.
Hackers are able to query Web sites with a search string containing the malicious code. When
the site receives that query, the code is embedded in a hidden area not seen by users, but hackers
can make active.
MSNBC responded to the security breach late on Tuesday, according to a statement issued by the
company.
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faces obstacles from proponents of free expression. Increased government surveillance of online communications is criticized by privacy advocates and members of various ethnic and racial groups. the global interconnection of computer systems fostered a push for international cooperation to combat computer-related crimes. Finally. should a hacker get access to a personal computer. This definition can extend to traditional crimes that use a computer. Then the hacker sends a message to so-called zombie computers to send almost continuous requests to a view a target Web site. These crimes are unique because they can be done with or without a computer. Another devastating type of computer crime is a distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack. The Web site's server can only handle so many inquiries at once. It also includes more tech-savvy crimes. he may have access to bank accounts and credit card numbers. These types of computer crimes can be costly and damaging. copy. They are not. which might suppress hate speech or child pornography. he thinks of the damage that can be caused by unauthorized access to a computer by a remote user. If the target computer belongs to a major company or a bank. For instance. COMPUTER CRIME A computer crime is any unlawful activity that is done using a computer. Italy. who feel that it constitutes a form of illegal profiling. Germany. or damage data. For example. Stalking. a person who cyberstalks another by using a computer to harass them also is committing a computer crime. and the United States agreed to coordinate efforts to investigate and prosecute cyber-crimes. Russia. In 1998 Britain. which protects the electronic information from compromise but also can be used by criminals to shield their activities. Japan. In this type of attack. however. known as a hacker. such as phishing or logic bombs. when a person thinks of a computer crime. The regulation of content.content. Hackers who have access to computers can change. Thorny topics include the extent to which governments should allow the free movement of data encryption. Many times. and Burma bans Internet access completely. it would be considered a computer crime if a criminal uses a graphic design program to counterfeit money. company secrets as well as worker or customer personal information could be at risk. and counterfeiting can all be considered a type of computer crime if a computer is used to commit them. Using a computer in this way. Likewise. a criminal may be able to conduct unlawful activity with more anonymity and may be able to get away with more before he is caught. Canada. considered computer crimes unless a computer is used in the process of committing them. France. China installed firewalls to prevent its citizens from accessing unauthorized sites. a hacker may first take control of several people's computers using a type of malware. such as counterfeiting money. soliciting sex. delete. so it either crashes or . Among the solutions under debate was an international treaty to standardize domestic cyber-crime laws.

Many municipal police departments have a computer forensics team. Sometimes the data is not even visible to the eye. They are also well aware of the importance of not turning off a computer that is running. Cybercriminals have become increasingly complex and intelligent in the crimes they commit. She also knows how to preserve the digital evidence. They can be stored on the hard drive. they copy all the data off of the hard drive. and analyzing e-mail files. a proper firewall can also help keep hackers from accessing computers without authorization. has grown in number and has become an increasingly serious issue. or on a removable hard drive. it must remain in a tight chain of evidence to keep it pristine. A DDOS attack crippled Web sites such as Yahoo. Thus. computer crime. Though the servers were not attacked directly. A specialist in the field of computer forensics usually has broad working knowledge and specific software that works on the devices that store data. e-bay. Consequently. COMPUTER FORENSICS Computers are a very large part of most people¶s daily lives. They can be in the form of computer viruses. . an external network. If they must turn the machine off. Sophisticated software lets investigators search through thousands of emails ± including those which the suspect had deleted from his system. the attacker was able to take control of several other computers that may not have had proper protection. This can include hard drives and other computer media. Attacks such as this highlight how important it is to keep all computers shielded from computer crime. These hidden files are gems to a computer forensics team. Amazon. A computer forensics investigation usually starts when a search warrant to seize a suspect¶s computer and other digital media is granted. if a computer forensics specialist is not careful. Computer forensics uses special techniques and skills to recover. and analyze electronic information and data. and CNN in February 2000. a good anti-malware software can be invaluable in protecting a computer. In fact. the number of homes that have a personal computer has grown exponentially in the past five to ten years. Some investigators specialize in decoding passwords. It is specifically helpful for police officers and investigators who are attempting to solve a crime where a computer has been used. As many hackers use malware to commit this type of crime. Consequently. The data on the suspect¶s computer is copied and then that data is analyzed using the investigator¶s technical equipment and software. electromagnetic damage. in years to come they will become even more widespread. specifically identity theft and other computer-generated financial crimes. The suspect¶s computer becomes evidence. or other computerized traps. authenticate.denies service to legitimate people trying to access the page. In fact. These countermeasures work to prevent a computer forensics investigation. before a court of law. and present the findings to investigators and. retrieving. Many of the most complicated crimes committed by cybercriminals are successful because the criminals had installed defensive measures on their computers. analyze it. In addition. Some investigators specialize in preserving. if necessary. There may not be a visible file. to name just a few. such as e-mails and other documentation. The computer forensics specialist can determine sources of digital evidence. this attack can cause trouble for both the owner of the site and the person trying to view it. However. the countermeasures may destroy evidence in its entirety and make it irretrievable. Electronic mail or e-mail is one of the main methods of communication for most people.

most such software¶s primary aim was thrill. shall we? If you use a computer. and read encrypted files. Avoid pirated software: it may seem like a good way to save money. Not all malware tries to extract money from you directly. you¶re vulnerable to malware. A computer forensics expert witness will typically work with an attorney to provide testimony in a court hearing about some aspect of computer forensics. This sort of network is referred to as a botnet. to help in criminal or civil investigations. and will use a network of compromised machines to do so. My recent article about the 10 best free antivirus programs is a great place to start. whatever the motivation. regardless of what operating system you run. however. Malware. and is a key tool of the trade for a number of Internet crimes. determine where an e-mail may have been sent from. but frequently you¶re also getting some malware thrown in. Of course. trojans worms and other software that gets onto your computer without you being aware it¶s there. Malware Let¶s begin with the obvious. In some cases a piece of malware will pretend to be a legitimate piece of software. Many simply imbed themselves into your computer in order to make use of it. is common sense. Black-hat hackers may intend to launch an attack against a government or institution. Just as important as any software. both hardware and software. you¶re enabling crime on a mass scale. refers to viruses. Back in the early part of the century. Using specialized software and a variety of techniques. a computer forensics examiner can re-create deleted files on a system. as I¶m sure you¶re aware.y y Computer forensics is the field of study and research that utilizes information or data that can be gained from computer systems. The people writing the software found it amusing to write a program that exploited security flaws just to see how far it could spread. If you¶re using a Windows computer it¶s best to ensure you have proper anti-malware protection. such software is a drain on your computer¶s resources so it¶s best to be protected against it. . And if you¶re vulnerable to malware. and will ask you for money to remove it: Never. however. such as hard drives or discs. Today the incentive for making such software is generally more sinister and the reason it makes the list of the top five computer crimes. and data files. ever give money to programs you don¶t remember buying. This can include computer hardware. such as e-mails and documents on a computer. Don¶t download software from sites you¶re not sure you can trust.

Never use your credit card at a site you¶re not sure you can trust. eBay or any other service with access to financial information asking you to ³update your personal information´ ignore it. None of these communication channels were designed to be secure. instant message or any other form of unencrypted communication. In America alone there are almost 9 million victims of identity theft every year. Ever. Never connect to your bank account on a public computer. and screw you over in the process. your social security number or any information a fraudster could use to steal your identity ± in an email. The concept is simple: someone gains access to your personal information and uses it for their own benefit. Nigerian princes do not ask strangers online to accept a money transfer. Such people can make themselves a lot of money with your personal information. your credit card company. because fakers can severely take advantage of you if you¶re not careful. This is a common ploy used by fakers. If you get an email from your bank. Seriously. This could range from a black-hat hacker stealing your online banking account login and password to getting access to your social security number and using it to pretend to be you. The most important thing is to never share any personal information ± such as your bank account number. or using a WiFi access point you¶re not absolutely sure you can trust. because you don¶t want to compromise your system. ensure the communication is secure by verifying the address begins with ³https´ instead of ³http´ ± this means your connection to the site is secure. . Make sure you¶re very familiar with the interface of all such sites. When logging into your bank. and as such are not the proper way to share such information. Identity Theft Identity theft easily makes the list of the top five computer crimes. The same goes for using your credit card or Paypal account to pay for something.In general just use common sense before opening any sort of file.

. a term that essentially refers to using the Internet to stalk someone in the traditional sense. These annoying email messages aren¶t just an irritant. Child Pornography It¶s tragic. but the Internet is often used to exploit children. but that doesn¶t mean it¶s not worth trying to protect them. Mesa¶s website includes more tips on the subject. Foster communication with your children so they understand the potential dangers they may be exposed to online. Think about how what you say might be interpreted without the context of body language and voice. 3. Such information can leave you vulnerable to cyberstalking. so be sure to check it out. so check it out. Install and use parental control software on all computers. which points out 5 sites that promote internet safety for kids. Know what sites your children frequent and monitor their online activity. only type things you would actually say to someone face to face. Your child being exploited in this way is extremely unlikely. Anti-child-porn site asacp. Good advice. Cyberstalking People leave a lot of information about themselves online. check it out. Also check out Tim¶s article. The site also recommends a number of tools for achieving these goals. Spam This one needs no introduction. all of it.org recommends the following core strategy: 1.The Federal Trade Commission of the United States has a lot of good information about identity theft applicable to all countries. Cyber stalking is essentially using the Internet to repeatedly harrass another person. The town of Mesa. they¶re big business. Arizona¶s website shares some solid advice for avoiding cyberstalkers: When you are online. or it could have other motivations including anger or outright hostility. This harassment could be sexual in nature. What¶s perhaps even sicker is that people make money doing this. 2.

and it is the only service I personally use. be sure to report particularly evil spam to the authorities. as Dean explained recently 7KH:$1. Know another spam-free service? Share it in the comments below. There are a few other things you can do to slow spam from getting to your inbox. You could consider using a temporary email addresses as a means to avoid spam. using the botnets explained in the ³malware´ section of this article. one thing you can do to help stop the spread of spam is to ensure your computer is protected from such malware. This email service seems to have a spam problem licked. If you don¶t want spam in your inbox.:RUP 2FWREHU. however. spam is illegal in many countries. Tina suggests five ways to protect & hide your email to stop receiving spam.Named for the amazing Monty Python sketch about a processed meat product. as an article by Will points out. So how does it spread? For the most part. Finally. As such. the simplest thing to do is to switch to Gmail.

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In law. software that has a legitimate purpose but contains harmful bugs."[5] According to F-Secure. and that they need to continue doing business with infected customers. spyware. scareware.[8] On March 29. The result is a greater emphasis on back-office systems designed to spot fraudulent activities associated with advanced malware operating on customers' computers.[3][4] Preliminary results from Symantec published in 2008 suggested that "the release rate of malicious code and other unwanted programs may be exceeding that of legitimate software applications. the term is often used erroneously to refer to the entire category.WLVKLJKO\XVHULQWHUDFWLYH ZHEVLWHRIIHULQJRQOLQHSD\PHQWRSWLRQ Malware. intrusive. most rootkits.S. Malware's most common pathway from criminals to users is through the Internet: primarily by e-mail and the World Wide Web. that is. Though a computer virus is malware that can reproduce itself. and other malicious and unwanted software or program. worms. The prevalence of malware as a vehicle for organized Internet crime. and may come from an official site. including California and West Virginia. for instance in the legal codes of several U. malware is disguised as genuine software. states. Trojan horses. as the world's malware capital. short for malicious software. Sometimes. (sometimes referred to as pestware[1]) is a software designed to secretly access a computer system without the owner's informed consent.6SRNHVSHRSOHIRU&RPFDVWDQG1HWZRUN 6ROXWLRQVDUHVWLOOXQFOHDUDVWRKRZWKHKDFNHUVJRWWKHXVHUQDPHDQGSDVVZRUG &RPFDVWQHWKDVHQWHUWDLQPHQWVSRUWVQHZVGHDOVRQOLQHWYDQGRWKHUVXFKWKLQJV. along with the general inability of traditional anti-malware protection platforms (products) to protect against the continuous stream of unique and newly produced malware. China. malware is sometimes known as a computer contaminant. The expression is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of hostile. "As much malware [was] produced in 2007 as in the previous 20 years altogether. crimeware. some security programs. or annoying software or program code. Symantec Corporation named Shaoxing. dishonest adware.[2] Software is considered to be malware based on the perceived intent of the creator rather than any particular features. Therefore. has seen the adoption of a new mindset for businesses operating on the Internet: the acknowledgment that some sizable percentage of Internet customers will always be infected for some reason or another. such as McAfee may call malware "potentially unwanted programs" or "PUP". Malware is not the same as defective software. . 2010. Malware includes computer viruses.

In general terms. and even root nameservers. enter a country. social program fraud.This type of identity theft includes bank fraud. More appropriately titled identity fraud. computer and telecommunications fraud. 94 percent involved identity theft). credit card payment gateways. or responds so slowly as to be rendered effectively unavailable. tax refund fraud. Perpetrators of DoS attacks typically target sites or services hosted on high-profile web servers such as banks. and targets of a DoS attack may vary. it certainly isn't the only type.This type of identity fraud involves taking on someone else's identity in order to commit a crime.000 financial crime arrests that Secret Service agents made in 1997. motives for. Criminal activities . your identity might be stolen in order for someone to commit: y y Financial fraud . It involves any instance where a person uses someone else's identification documents or other identifiers in order to impersonate that person for whatever reason. DoS attacks are implemented by either forcing the targeted computer(s) to reset. and several more. While financial identity theft is the most prevalent (of the approximate 10. it generally consists of the concerted efforts of a person or people to prevent an Internet site or service from functioning efficiently or at all. temporarily or indefinitely. but is not limited to this field. or consuming its resources so that it can no longer provide its intended service or obstructing the communication media between the intended users and the victim so that they can no longer communicate adequately.[1] One common method of attack involves saturating the target machine with external communications requests. it is also used in reference to CPU resource management.typically to fund some sort of criminal enterprise. According to a September 2003 survey conducted by the Federal Trade Commission. for example. usually involve a financial element as well -. an estimated 10 million people in the United States found out they were victims of identity theft in the previous year. however. get special permits. such that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic. credit card fraud. Although the means to carry out. a total of 25 types of financial identity fraud are investigated by the United States Secret Service. or commit acts of terrorism. In fact. hide one's own identity. mail fraud. These criminal activities can include:  Computer and cyber crimes  Organized crime  Drug trafficking  Alien smuggling  Money laundering y y A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users.Types of Identity Theft Identity theft can enter into many areas of our lives. y . Other types of identity theft. The term is generally used with regards to computer networks.

it costs money for ISPs and online services to transmit spam. Spam costs them additional money. Usenet users have found that any message posted to so many newsgroups is often not relevant to most or all of them. spammers will use automated tools to subscribe to as many mailing lists as possible. embarrassment and humiliation of the victim emptying bank accounts or other economic control such as ruining the victim's credit score harassing family. Spam is flooding the Internet with many copies of the same message. Email spam lists are often created by scanning Usenet postings.) Usenet spam is aimed at "lurkers". Email spam targets individual users with direct mail messages. Cyberstalking can take many forms. Cyberstalking is a technologically-based ³attack´ on one person who has been targeted specifically for that attack for reasons of anger.read or receive their mail while the meter is running. including: harassment. Usenet spam robs users of the utility of the newsgroups by overwhelming them with a barrage of advertising or other irrelevant posts. (Through long experience. revenge or control. get-rich-quick schemes.E-mail spam. in an attempt to force the message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it. so that they can grab the lists of addresses. or use the mailing list as a direct target for their attacks. or quasi-legal services. often for dubious products. Most spam is commercial advertising. also known as junk e-mail or unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE). so to speak.anyone with measured phone service . Many people . Spam costs the sender very little to send -. and these costs are transmitted directly to subscribers. Usenet spam subverts the ability of system administrators and owners to manage the topics they accept on their systems. . is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. friends and employers to isolate the victim scare tactics to instill fear and more.most of the costs are paid for by the recipient or the carriers rather than by the sender. Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that e-mail is unsolicited and sent in bulk. y y y y The term can also apply to a ³traditional´ stalker who uses technology to trace and locate their victim and their movements more easily (e.) Because many mailing lists limit activity to their subscribers. On top of that. Email spams typically cost users money out-of-pocket to receive. or searching the Web for addresses. One particularly nasty variant of email spam is sending spam to mailing lists (public or private email discussion forums.g. stealing Internet mailing lists. There are two main types of spam. and they have different effects on Internet users. using Facebook notifications to know what party they are attending). Furthermore. Cancellable Usenet spam is a single message sent to 20 or more Usenet newsgroups. people who read newsgroups but rarely or never post and give their address away.

grocery chain announced today that due to a security breach at an East Coast supermarket chain 4. despite their lives being completely upended by the perpetrator. Websense has been tracking the exploit since February and discovered the MSNBC intrusion in one of their standard Web scans. Hannaford's vice president of marketing in Scarborough it took until March 10th 2008 to contain the breach Read more: http://www. manager of Websense Security Labs.com and History. says the Web security company. Other major sites affected include TV. Identity thieves are unconcerned by the consequences of their behavior on the victim¶s life. The Hannaford Bros. In many situations. An identity thief. 7 2007. says Stephan Chenette. Calif. using the Web pages to redirect traffic to their malicious JavaScript code hosted by service providers known for hosting malware ± Intercage and the Russian Business Network. Hannaford Bros said that the information was stolen during the card authorization process at the checkout counter and estimate over four million unique account numbers were stolen. It is one group of unknown hackers behind the attacks. San Diego. the thieves only took the account numbers.2 million credit and debit card numbers were exposed.A true cyberstalker¶s intent is to harm their intended victim using the anonymity and untraceable distance of technology. according to a new alert by a Web security firm. The security attack affected all of the stores' almost 300 locations and at this time has been the cause of almost 2.-based Websense Inc. has a very specific goal in mind ² financial gain.com. Chenette says. the victims never discover the identity of the cyberstalkers who hurt them. address and phone numbers were not stolen. whether stealing from a stranger or a family member.000 other sites. whereas the actions of a cyberstalker are deliberate and focused on the consequences to the victim. Cyberstalking is not identity theft. The security breach was noticed on Feb 27 and an investigation revealed that account numbers had been being swiped since Dec. alerted MSNBC and the public about the security breach Tuesday. leading to 1. Hannaford says that personal info such as names. According to Carol Eleazer.800 cases of fraud.com/article/251804#ixzz1ECAumitr MSNBC Sports Web site became the latest victim in a string of hacker attacks that has compromised more than 26. as well as targeting major sporting events. News.com. The incident shows a growing trend of hackers injecting code into legitimate Web sites.000 cases of fraud.digitaljournal. .

When the site receives that query. but hackers can make active.´ He says use of search engine optimization techniques by these Web sites makes them vulnerable to and eventually victims of an input validation attack. Hackers are able to query Web sites with a search string containing the malicious code. World Politics Business Sports Entertainment Health Tech & science Travel Local Weather  . MSNBC responded to the security breach late on Tuesday. y y y y y y y y y y y y Home U.S. the code is embedded in a hidden area not seen by users. according to a statement issued by the company.³I'm labeling this attack as a search engine input optimization attack.

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