0 Introduction With over 90% of world trade channeled through ports, efficient and effective port operations management is a critical requirement to maintain strong customer relations and port reputation. Seaports are vital for European trade and transport; competitiveness increasingly depends on an efficient and cost effective transport and port system. Ports are important centres of regional economic and social development and act as essential interface between seaborne and inland transport modes. Seaport need to operate efficiently and be properly structured in order to support an increase in trade and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by linking countries. However, seaports around the world face many modern operational challenges and to ensure the highest level of service, ports require intensive port operational planning and set procedures. In addition, ports require intricate risk management functions to ensure that accidents are avoided, and if they do happen, the proper response is available.
2.0 PORT TECHNOLOGY Day by day, the challenges seaport facing is increasing because of globalization, it faced with the challenges to meet the growing demand and cope with technological changes on port investments and social relations, port competitive become more aggressive. Every day there are a lot of transshipment, loading or unloading, import and export; hence, to locate selected container in a short time is essential and difficult. Therefore, it become an issue to seaport to detect containers inside the port stacked with plenty containers. Besides, shipping lines are mainly concerned with the waiting time and berthing time of the ships at the port. There are machine constraints, position constraints and also ship constraints in the port. In order to manage or allow seaport operates in a systematic and smooth condition, we need few systems to support us to manage and also minimize constraints in a seaport. There are three issues that always happened in seaport but can be fixed by using some technology tools. a). Inventory control b). Downtime reduction c). Security
ISSUES 1: INVENTORY CONTROL Seaport need to manage their inventory to prevent bad things happen. Inventory is different for each seaport because it depends on the business partner or customers that the seaport. There can be steel, forestry products, metals, rubber, machinery appliances and etc. Therefore, all of these inventory need to be control and well-managed. Not only to locate in a very short time but also able to manage or full utilize the space and man power resources. By using limited space and manage to stacked properly to prevent waste of time to lift containers up and down. It is almost impossible to find selected containers in a very short time in a port that full of stacked containers without a proper system. These systems need to be reacting to real-time inventory, flexible and easy to handle. With a systematic planning, space can be fully utilize and prevent waste. Below are some management systems that support seaport to operate in a better environment and improve services. 2.1 CONTAINER TERMINAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CTMS) What is CTMS? It is application software for operating a modern container terminal serving international shipping lines. CTMS running strategic operations with real time inventory management, flexible workflow tools; it gives complete visibility and control of all cargo. In the seaport, visibility of container is essential, seaport operator must able to search selected container when it is needed for clients. (http://www.portek.com/index.html). In a really packed and containers stacked seaport, CTMS would help much. Clients of the terminal can easily access into by Internet Technology and exchange data files through EDI messaging, so it is not only convenience for operator to do their job but also function as an information system for clients of the port.
2.1.1 Modules in CTMS CTMS have two major modules, one is container module and another is In-yard operations module. Container module need to handle export containers, import container, empty container, reefer container handling; while In-yard operation module need to handle packing or un-packing, in-yard movement and yard planning. It is a wide area of management, so there are some systems to support CTMS; it¶s including Yard Planning and Control System, Vessel Planning System, Yard Operation System, Container Truck Distribution System, Rail Planning Module, EDI module, and DGPS Container positioning. (http://www.mes.co.jp/ctms/index.html). One of the modules is container yard planning, it can improve the efficiency of terminal handling system. Yard stock is a special place which is used to store container in container terminal. Container yard planner should full utilize the space in seaport; therefore they should decide which block and which slot have to be selected for an import or export container to be stored. It needs to pay more attention in scheduling and optimization of container yards¶ equipment resources. (Yu.L.L et al, 2010). Vessel Planning System (VPS) support vessel planning in container terminals using Graphic User Interface (GUI). It can create ready-to-execute container discharge or loading lists based on the vessel profile and also manifest plus transfer containers from inventory to loading and vice versa. (http://www.mes.co.jp/ctms/index.html). It provide graphical of the ship layout from the top, port side and bow. There are several function, it comprise gravity calculation & heal angle simulation, develops operation schedule, develop discharge & load plans and etc.
Rail Planning Module manages all rail receipt and delivery of containers operations, which mean from maintaining rail wagon information to loading containers onto a train. It can reach some place that RTG cannot. RPM can ensure all containers reach to the right destination on the right time. (http://www.central-systems.co.uk/rail-planningmodule.html). 2.1.2 Function In berth planning, CTMS auto positioning of quay cranes for vessel arrival and departures, and it automatic allocate berths to vessels based on vessel priorities, berth characteristics and berth constraints. If there is any notification, it wills changes via SMS and email alerts. This is fast and efficient because operator can get the latest information and do their job. In ship planning, CTMS support Edifact EDI for Bayplie and Movins. It do provide auto slotting, this will be easier amendments. As we mention up there, CTMS improve yard planning can facilitate planning at macro and micro level for all types of containers. To reduce yard congestion, it can check for vessel separations and allow planning current and future in-coming vessels. It provides real-time container load, discharge events and yard inventory. It is very important for operator to solve problem once it appear in the port. They need to respond immediately before bigger damage. Because of the mobile devices is installed in RTGs, primemovers and quay cranes, any instructions of ship and yard operations will be dispatch to mobile devices. CTMS is highly accurate and reliable in container number recognition. (http://www.jp.com.sg/JurongPort/). These will make operators work become much easier and efficient.
The ability of PDS to accurately capture the placement and movement of containers in the seaport is very important. it will update location in the Container Terminal Management System (CTMS). PDS originally based on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. After that. Tier or height of container stack will be derived from digital encoder. it improve Jurong port operations efficiency and productivity. Its Container Terminal started operations in mid-2001. Gantry and hoist encoders will backup positional data in case DGPS fails to upload.html). and won the ³Best Emerging Container Terminal OperatorAsia´ Award at the renowned Asian Freight and Supply Chain Awards (AFSCA). It can provide accurate location and time information for people. 2.
(http://www. PDS controller will send the actual location data to CTMS for database update via onboard Radio Data Terminal. On the other hand.
. GPS is a U. navigation.2 POSITIONING DETECTION SYSTEM (PDS) What is Positioning Detection System (PDS)? PDS allows automatic and accurate acquisition container locations during loading and unloading. and timing services.Jurong port is now using Container Terminal Management System (CTMS). PDS captures location of container automatically during loading and unloading by Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes.S space-based radio navigation system that provides reliable positioning.com/portit. it becomes leaps and bounds since their first introduction in the late 1980s. PDS controller interfaces to crane signals and encoder position and calculates the final position of container. Operators need Digital Yard Map to confirm the actual location data. The data will be sending to rover GPS by fixed base station. Then. so that better accuracy on the rover is achieved.portek.
and the largest privately held container terminal operator and cargo handling company in the world. densely packed container environment and also improve overall homeland security. it will increase the downtime and affect the operation performance. cell-level accurate. the equipment they use in port is outdated drive and control system which can also cause the downtime reduction issue. downtime reduction issue is occurred because of the port technology they use are older aging equipment. normally the crane is driven by an operator who will sits in a cabin to control the crane. ContainerTrac. SSA Marine is subsidiary of Carrix.S owned. If the older crane is break down. For example. For example.
Besides. is a seaport and rail industries provider by providing a fully automated. This type of crane will waste the time if compare to the crane that operate in real time basis by using the wireless Lan.com). In spring 2008.
In addition. inyard container Position Detection System (PDS). PDS overcome the technical challenges of heavy metal.It is extremely hard to detect the container while they are in densely stacked. there is an inconvenience with crane management system (CMS) which it is a
. SSA Terminal agrees to install Position Detection System (PDS) at SSA Terminals¶ Port of Oakland International Container Terminal (OICT) from ContainerTrac. waste of repair time also can be one of the factors in the downtime reduction issue.ssamarine.
Issue 2: Downtime reduction
In the seaport. If the port is using the older equipment like older crane which the operating speed is slow. (www. the largest U. it will waste a lot of time in handling the movement of container.
3 Remote Crane Management System (RCMS)
Rcms Main Screen for RTG
.stand-alone application that runs on a particular crane. For example. If there is occur a fault detect on the crane. they can decide to use these advanced technology such as Remote crane management system (RCMS) and Radio data system (RDS). It can also because of the spare parts there use in the older crane may be out of stock because of the manufacturer would not produce this aging crane of spare parts anymore. the operator need to prefer the latest technology which can help them get the well operation performance and increase the productivity in the seaport operation. By this way.
2. the operator have to contact the maintenance engineer who will then make his way to the crane and logs on to the CMS in order to check on the fault. It will waste a lot of time on getting up the crane. troubleshooting and picking the correct spares from the workshop if required. it will occur a downtime reduction issue in the seaport.
In order to prevent this issue occur in seaport.
Remote Crane Management Systems (RCMS) consist of a single viewer with a global data base capability that installed at a remote location capable of monitoring multiple cranes. the maintenance engineer can through his workstation PC view status of all the cranes via on a real-time basis. they will sit in the air-conditioner room to control all the cranes instead of sitting in the crane¶s cabin room. Network connectivity to the RCMS can be achieved via optical fiber for cable reel fed cranes.In order to prevent the downtime reduction issue occur in seaport. Lastly. labour costs and may be will solve the downtime reduction problem in the seaport. So. in trying to control and monitor several cranes at one go. he is informed immediately and will then log on into the CMS via Wireless LAN and does the troubleshooting and prepares the parts for repair. or by radio frequency (RF) wireless connectivity for cranes without a cable reel or those fed by an underground collector bar or diesel engine powered cranes. remote crane management system (RCMS) will help us to save considerable time. By this way. For the crane operator. Once a fault is detected. there is a need to improve crane availability and lower the maintenance cost by installing the Remote crane management system (RCMS) in the seaport.
. there has a central location whereby all the CMSs from all the cranes are linked back to the maintenance office via wireless LAN.
. rubber-tyred gantry cranes. It means that it will communicate and interact with CTMS in a real-time manner in order the container information can be updated instantly at the point of loading or unloading. Typically. Each mobile terminal is able to communicate wirelessly with the CTMS back in the main office and task allocation and transactions are executed on a real-time basis. station identification and program information (www. There are several benefits after implement the Radio Data System (RDS) in the port.4 Radio Data System (RDS)
Radio Data System is a communications protocol standard for embedding small amounts of digital information in conventional FM radio broadcasts. reach stackers and prime movers. For the Wireless Radio Data System.com).wikipedia. it is an extension of the Container Terminal Management System (CTMS) in providing the mobile workers and container handling equipment like quay cranes. There are several types of information transmitted from the RDS system standardizes which including the time. The wireless LAN network consists of a group of outdoor Access Points strategically located within the port area to provide radio coverage for the mobile terminals. The mobile terminals are either handheld or vehicle-mounted for quay cranes. One of the features of Radio Data System (RDS) is the data can instantly update upon collection. rubber-tyred gantry cranes. prime movers.2. a Radio Data system (RDS) comprises a wireless network infrastructure and mobile computers.
the remote crane management system (RCMS) and radio data system (RDS) can be chosen by the port authority in order there can enhance the operation performance and reduce the downtime problem in the seaport. it can improve vessel turn-around time and container movement handling by using the RDS. seaports are using some technologies to make sure every container had a proper check when loading and unloading at the seaport due to the safety issue. OCR can function well and increase the system efficiency and handling capacity in seaport. The OCR part concerns document scanning. Lastly. So. document capture and data capture.
. Seaports which competing to each other is try to increase their efficiency by balance between security and ability of flow commerce.
2. document capture and data capture.5 Optical Character Recognition (OCR) The OCR part concerns document scanning. security also vital in building the reputation and confidence among public by using water carrier as their transportation mode. Besides that. Besides that. the overall improvement after use the RDS are in the customer service. After the terrorist attack.
Issue 3: Security Seaport security play an important role in secures the property of consumers and protect the human lives. it also can increase efficiency at yard and gate operation and reduce paperwork. operator productivity and competitiveness.example.
et al). and that the information it provides will help Customs authorities identify high-risk containers for further inspection (Orphan. OCR cameras capture truck license plate.OCR captures a photo image as the truck moves through the gate lane (no stops) and then validates against the terminal database. The integration of OCR with other system can enhance the ability to detect nuclear or radiological material in a cargo container (Elovic. Seaport officers can scan all inbound export containers as part of the terminal¶s normal operations without impeding traffic. This is due to the fact that OCR provides real-time direct identification of the container and can thus acknowledge release of a container through a given point or alert the system if a container attempts to slip through the process prior to completion of any supplementary security check (Elovic. 2003). Following the events of September 11. et al). System applications implementing OCR together with other screening and security technologies. in-gate entrances. such as Gamma/X-Ray and RF tags. and others can provide accurate real-time accounting of incoming and outgoing containers and carrier inventories in container ports (Elovic. 2003). out-gate exits. container terminals and ports worldwide have assumed new responsibility and accountability for the tracking and handling of containers. 2003). OCR tracking will be necessary to ensure that containers do not bypass pre-defined checkpoints in the terminal process. 2001. container & chassis numbers. Cameras are typically placed at security gate entrances. OCR systems at terminals around the world currently identify millions of containers and vehicles annually. Video cameras scan the cargo container from several directions to image the container identification number which is automatically ³read´ using OCR software. and often on container handling equipment (Orphan.
natural disaster. access points. the authorities were also keen on improving operational alertness. and gantry cranes to ensure container integrity while tracking and documenting container movement and storage. While upgrading security was an important objective. multiple purposes
. state and federal law enforcement are challenged at every turn with issues related to criminal. The existing manual security system with guards patrolling the port had a number of limitations. storage. and public spaces are among seaports¶ most pressing priorities. An important priority for seaports is therefore to ensure the security of containers. land transport vehicles. Shippers may detect the containers by using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) only or combined with global positioning systems (GPS) on ships. video surveillance provides many advantages over traditional CCTV systems including:
y y y
Ease of retrieval.
Surveillance including the use of digital video to monitor stations. weather. Besides that. Local. Port authorities were looking for a way to enhance their monitoring and surveillance capabilities. terrorist. environmental and accidental hazards.6 Security and Surveillance System Security monitoring and collaboration are large challenges to the seaports today. and archiving Improved system scalability One camera.2.
International trade currently represents a significant share of a country¶s GDP.
International trade can be conducted by individuals.
3. while Indonesia supplies New Zealand with herbs and spices. and undertaking international trade means that buying and selling activities are done between country and across national borders. which are abundant in Indonesia. regardless of where they are located. globalization.2 World Politics and Effect to International Trade The wealth of a country is gained though trading transactions between countries. For instance. social. multinational corporations and outsourcing. who live in New Zealand. firms. the Maori. International trade has been practiced for hundreds of years. Trading involves buying and selling goods and services. International trade provides more choices in terms of goods and services for people. do not have herbs and spices. The economic. International trade has caused the evolvement of industrialization. engage in International trade.3. non-profit organizations.1 International Trade International trade can be defined as the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries.0 World Politic & the Effect to International Trade 3. New Zealand and Indonesia. governments. and various organizations. and political significance of international trade has increased in recent years. Previously. advanced transportation.
. New Zealand sells livestock to Indonesia. trading involved only goods that were not available in one¶ own country. Therefore.
more rubber estates and more people are needed to increase the production of latex to be turned into raw rubber. international trade creates job opportunities. improves living standards and helps countries achieve their social and developmental objectives. brought new investment and growth. particularly for developing countries. leads to enhanced levels of growth. International trade has encouraged the opening of new markets.3 Decline in the share of world output and world export. For example. Germany. Therefore. Over the past 30 year.S. The market access opportunities that international trade can provide. the participation of China in global trade has boosted its economic growth and turned the country into the most rapidly emerging market. International trade and investment is a means for a country to stimulate its economic growth and development. and a number of newly industrialized countries such as South Korea and China have taken a
. there is a high demand for Malaysian rubber. when accompanied by matching domestic policies.S. more new rubber estates are set up to cater to this demand. Kumpulan Guthrie Bhd bought over many small rubber estates in order to integrate them into huge rubber plantations to fulfill the demand for Malaysian rubber. It becomes the catalyst for the international trades to take place all over the world. In order to fulfill this demand. dominance in export markets has waned as Japan. exposed domestic firms to international practices. the U. For example. and has improved standards of living in certain countries. can ensure that international trade helps to create jobs. U. For example. position as the world¶s leading exporter was threatened. If the world politic is encourage trade liberalization between nations.
3. By the end of the 1980¶s.As with international business.
share of world export of goods and services had slipped to 9. One of the objectives of NEI is increased access to export financing. In case. and the fast-rising economic power. Japan.000 jobs. and that export in the first four months of 2010 grew almost 17 percent from the same period last year. Mexico. If China¶s rapid rise continues. World Economic Outlook. the United State routinely accounted for 20 percent of world export of manufactured goods. If current trends continue. which shows that the President¶s goal of doubling exports and supporting several million new jobs over five years is on track. Thailand. and Brazil. a further relative decline in the share of world output and world exports accounted for by the United States and other long-establish developed nations seem likely. and Brazil continue to grow. South Korea. and a commensurate decline in the share enjoyed by rich industrialized countries such as Great Britain. China. But as the sources from IMF. while the economy of India will approach that of Germany. helping to support nearly 110.S. Second. and the United States. the Chinese economy could ultimately be largest than that of the United States on a purchasing power parity basis. President Barack Obama provided a progress report on the National Export Initiative (NEI). ahead of Germany. India. the Export-Import Bank has more than doubled its loans to support American exporters from the same period last year. Most forecasts now predict a rapid rise in the share of world output accounted for by developing nations such as China. April 2009. During the 1960¶s. France.3 percent by 2008. India. Japan.
In United States. Despite the fall.larger share of world exports. Indonesia. the U. Germany. the United States still remained the world¶s largest exporter. As emerging economies such as China. it could soon overtake the United States as the world¶s largest economy and largest exporter. NEI¶s objective is improved advocacy effort on efforts on
In June 2010. In short. pork and pork products. ports are the gateways for the import and export of 7. exporters.
.S. improve the condition of the country¶s highways.behalf of U. which includes a group of business and labor leaders who will offer advice on how to promote U. U.S. President Barack Obama also announce that he has appointed members of the President¶s Export Council. companies and American-made products go global. that was have a achievement of the five-year objective depends upon policies and funding to support strengthened intermodal connections and improved freight mobility. sustainable and balanced economic growth. a trade activity helps the port create and sustain high-paying jobs through public-private partnership and generate billions of dollars in business income and spending annually. Otherwise. These steps are worth more than $1 billion. Contrarily.S. the United States reached an agreement with China to reopen the China market to U. and growth. Another. In U. export is relying on policies achieved by government. railroads.
Another. and in reforming policies that currently under prioritize funding and tax incentives for enhancing freight infrastructure is a way to achieve the President Obama¶s national goal. According to Port of Portland (Ore. jobs. poultry exports.S export. To meet the challenge of President Obama¶s national goal for doubling export.S. NEI¶s objective is enforcement of trade rules and international promotion of policies leading to strong. NEI reinforced efforts to remove barriers to trade.S ports play an important role in helping U.) Executive Director Bill Wyatt. In March 2010. vessel navigation and marine terminal infrastructure. U. For instance. The Department of Commerce has coordinated 18 trade mission with over 160 companies participating in 24 countries.8 billion tons of cargo annually. the United States agreed with Russia to reopen the Russian market to U.S.S. bridges.
and capital. Many of the barriers to international trade took the form of high tariffs on imports of manufactured good. voted 4-2 on June 29 to recommend that President Obama impose tariffs on Chinese tires for three years. service.
. The government gains. an independent government agency. The important thing to understand about an import tariff is who suffers and who gains. Domestic producers gains. because the tariffs increase government revenues. consumer lose cause by they must pay more for certain imports. The International Trade Commission had already determined that Chinese tire imports were disrupting the $1. During the 1920s and 30s many of the world¶s nation-states erected formidable barriers to international trade and foreign direct investment. However. Foreign direct investment occurs when a firm invests resources in business activities outside its home country. because the tariff afford them some protection against foreign competitors by increasing the cost of imported foreign goods. International trade occurs when a firm exports good and service to consumers in another country.7 billion market and recommended that the president impose the new tariffs. The typical aim of such tariffs was to protect domestic industries from foreign competition by raising the price of imported goods. Under that safeguard provision. Members of the commission.4 Barrier of free flow of goods. American companies or workers harmed by imports from China can ask the government for protection simply by demonstrating that American producers have suffered a ³market disruption´ or a ³surge´ in imports from China.
In United States. President Obama announced impose a 35 percent tariff on automobile and light-truck tires imported from China.3.
and China¶s share of the American market grew to 16. the world¶s biggest importer.
Three-year tariff approved in September by President Obama. Four American tire factories closed in 2006 and 2007. and several more are set to close this year. It is the latest in a string of trade battles over subjects ranging from steel and song downloads to patents and poultry between the United States. which already imposes a 4 percent tariff on Chinese tires. dumping is variously defined as selling goods in a foreign market at below their cost of production. the top exporter. Dumping is viewed as a method by which firms unload excess production in foreign markets. While American-made. Chinese imports sometimes sell for half that. The tariffs would make them more expensive. according to the United States Trade Representative.
3. and China. arguing that they will not preserve American jobs but will instead cause manufacturers to relocate plants to other countries where they can produce tires cheaply. United States. The tariff will be reduced to 30 percent in the second year and 25 percent in the third year. The tariff is to take effect on Sept. The Tire Industry Association has opposed the tariffs. would impose an additional tariff of 35 percent for one year.5 Use of antidumping law In the context of international trade. which aims to slow China¶s rapid export growth and protect American jobs in the tire sector. including a 35 percent additional charge in the first year.7 percent. name-brand tires can easily run to more than $100 apiece. It comes on top of a regular 4 percent tariff. President Obama ordered the higher tire tariffs for three years. Some dumping may be the result of
.American imports of Chinese tires tripled between 2004 and 2008.7 percent. Tires imported from China are usually low-end models. from 4. 26.
Therefore. While permitted by WTO. Under the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement. and decrease in market share and so on. Dumping also recognized that price discrimination in form of dumping is a common international commercial practice.
. antidumping is intended to discourage importation and sale of foreign-made goods at prices substantially below domestic prices for the same items. In short. decline in profitability. dumping will threatens to domestic industries. However. many governments take actions against dumping in order to defend their domestic industries. dumping is condemned if t cause or threatens to cause material injury to a domestic industry in the importing country. The ultimate objective is to protect domestic producers from unfair foreign competition. the threat of antidumping action limits the ability to use aggressive pricing to gain market share in a country. leads to job losses. Therefore. Antidumping policies are designed to punish foreign firms that engage in dumping. there is nothing inherently illegal or immoral about the practice of dumping. from the point of view of anti-dumping practices. However.predatory behavior. with producers using substantial profits from their home market to subsidize prices in a foreign market with a view to driving indigenous competitors out of that market. It is also not uncommon that the export prices are lower than the domestic prices. Thus. WTO allow countries to act in a way that would normally break the GATT principles of binding a tariff and not discriminating between trading partners²typically anti-dumping action means charging extra import duty on the particular product from the particular exporting country in order to bring its price closer to the ³normal value´ or to remove the injury to domestic industry in the importing country. allows countries the option of taking action against dumping.
private airplanes.g: drug. firearms & cigarette). in or under clothes. and human "mules. border with backpacks full of illegal narcotics.
2. trucks. etc. smugglers move illegal narcotics from Mexico into remote areas of the Southwest United States using airplanes.1 Smuggle Act of importing and exporting secretly and illegally to avoid paying duties or to evade enforcement of laws (e.S. such as by small ships.4.1 Methods of smuggling
1. through overland smuggling routes.0 Smuggling and etc 4. The smuggling vessel of choice is the go-fast boat. in baggage or cargo. or on the person. Submitting to border checks with the goods or people hidden in a vehicle or between (other) merchandise. smuggling tunnels and even small submersibles. It can avoid border checks. or the goods hidden in luggage.
4.1. Undetected running of cargoes across frontiers
E. g. Smuggling has been carried on in nearly all nations and has occasionally been adopted as an instrument of national policy.
. inside the body.
This method is only for smuggled goods.It is an illegal transport across state or national boundaries of goods or persons liable to customs or to prohibition." These "mules" walk across an isolated region of the Mexico-U. The concealment of goods in unlikely places on ships or cars.
g. another method is with a false passport (completely fake.Many smugglers fly on regularly scheduled airlines. Some drug couriers swallow containers of narcotics to avoid detection of the drugs if searched.
3.1. Goods and people are also smuggled across seas hidden in containers and overland hidden in cars.
2. For illegally passing a border oneself.
4. Loss of revenues Smuggling is an act of tax evasion which deprives government of revenue for public expenditure. in baggage or cargo. or illegally changed.2 Effect of smuggling
1. smuggler may hide illegal narcotics in unlikely places on ships or cars. and trains. Distortion of market price Goods which are smuggled into the country are often sold a lot cheaper than goods brought onto market through the right procedures. Smuggling therefore deprives traders of free competition. trucks.
E. or on a person. or the passport of a lookalike).
the labor market (employment base) is eroded. skilled and unskilled personnel remain jobless.3 Type of Smuggling
1. the arrested smuggler will face no less than 5 years imprisonment. compounded by the collapsing of industries. Unemployment When there is unfair competition in the market. Goods
Enterprising merchants attempt to supply demand for a good or service that is illegal or heavily taxed.3. a huge amount financial fine like 2 million or more (for drug) or either both together. Smuggling under-cuts prices of the locally manufactured goods thus destroying the market for local products. This leads to collapse of local industries. Many professionals.
4. Jail or amercement
The smuggler who smuggle the illegal goods will getting high risk to go in jail or be fine to pay a big amount of money as penalty. illegal drug trafficking such as the smuggling of weapons
4. Collapse of local industries A country achieves better economic growth by developing its own industrial base. For such cases like smuggle drug or alcohol in huge number. As a result.1.
Profits also derive from avoiding taxes or levies on imported goods. their illegal
. For example. Victims do not agree to be trafficked but they are tricked. as well as the extremely dark side. Sometime. the smuggling of people across national borders has become a lucrative extra-legal activity. physical threats and use of force. Generally. where they can be sold at a far higher margin than would otherwise be possible. isolation.
2. lured by false promises. Poverty is one of the reasons behind child trafficking and some children are smuggled with their parents' consent. People smuggling Many first-world countries have struggled to contain a rising influx of immigrants. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception. as well as the historical staples of smuggling. or forced into it.(illegal arms trade). With regard to people smuggling. fraud. alcohol and tobacco are widespread. Smuggled children were in danger of being sexually abused or even killed. people-trafficking. After their arrival in the destination country. intimidation. debt bondage or even force-feeding drugs to control their victims. especially of women who may be enslaved typically as sex trafficking and children. a distinction can be made between people smuggling as a service to those wanting to illegally migrate. the travelling conditions are inhumane: the migrants are overcrowded in trucks or boats and fatal accidents occur frequently. the trafficking victim is coerced in some way. As the smuggler faces significant risk of civil and criminal penalties if caught with contraband. The profits involved in smuggling goods appear to be extensive. and the involuntary trafficking of people. a smuggler might purchase a large quantity of cigarettes in a place with low taxes and smuggle them into a place with higher taxes. smugglers are able to impose a significant price premium on smuggled goods.
4. 3. citing unnamed sources in the tobacco industry. which rose from 53 euro for 1000 cigarettes to 76 euro for 1000 cigarettes in January. The species been smuggle is normally pangolin. Smuggled cigarettes inundate Bulgarian market
Fri.4 CURRENT ISSUE
a). ivory and etc. The smuggling was cost Bulgaria about 600 million leva in lost revenue from unpaid excise duties every year. The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) regulates the movement of endangered wildlife across political borders. Wildlife
Wildlife smuggling results from the demand for exotic species and the lucrative nature of the trade. Feb 19 2010
Smuggled cigarettes accounted for half of the total amount sold in Bulgaria. Bulgarian masscirculation daily 24 Chassa has claimed. which often force the migrants to work for years in the illegal labour market to pay off the debts incurred as a result of their transportation.1. turtle eggs. The daily quoted unnamed industry sources saying that the increase in the cigarette smuggling was caused by the increase in the excise duty.status puts them at the mercy of their smugglers.
The change has not taken effect for most brands yet because the quantities with the old excise
but because of further increase in smuggling. Bulgarian authorities seized a container with about 10 million Bulgarian cigarettes on February 16. from where the cigarettes were brought back into Bulgaria in containers by sea using false papers and with bribes to the ship's crew. In US. but according to Finance Minister Simeon Dyankov. heavy fines would be imposed. Victory. Over land.60 leva to 4.
According to the daily. customs and police officers. The higher price of cigarette in market place in a country will cause contraband cigarette smugglers drawn by the ongoing demand for cheaper contraband cigarettes here.stamp have not been exhausted.60 leva. Although Bulgarian cigarette-makers have often complained about the Government's inaction in stopping smuggling. started a check of all warehouses to investigate possible discrepancies and should any be found. the borders with Serbia and Turkey saw the highest amount of smuggling. Bulgaria's Customs Agency. would continue. The most popular domestic brand. the contraband cigarettes go for about $5. some Bulgarian producers dabbled in it themselves. which were legally exported and were then to be smuggled back into the country through the port of Varna. is expected to rise from 3. while those sold in shops here can cost about $10. when excise duties declined by 12 per cent. but the higher prices were expected to hit the market in March.
The newspaper forecast that the trend recorded in December 2009 and January 2010. one of the main smuggling routes passed through the port of Mersin in southern Turkey. which collects the excise duties. though not because Bulgarians quit smoking.
Singapore's addiction requires far more sand than one country can provide. Although the black market Malaysian trade appears to be thriving. this maybe the major point that made the smuggling of sand happen because there have a high demand from Singapore and it brought a high profit to the smuggler. The barges never made it to the claimed destination. and reliable officials throughout the supply chain.. The paper's reporters followed a Malaysian dredging company working on the Johor River. an investigation by the Malaysian newspaper the Star blew the lid off the sand smuggling trade. a vast and sprawling archipelago of
. So. took ships through Singaporean waters. If corruption is as rife as it appears to be within Malaysia. the sand vendors have all been able to provide valid documented evidences of clearance from the source countries but this oversight depends on reliable paperwork. The documentation provided by the sand suppliers is authentic and accurate. about 50 miles inland from the Singapore Strait. the Malaysian government is not pleased. Understandably. For its part. The shortest route to the destination. the barges sailed downriver to the MalaysiaSingapore border and passed through customs.8 million. From the newspaper 2007. Once the sand was extracted. The company had won a transport license by claiming it was shipping extracted sand internally. and unloaded their cargo. to the Malaysian ports of Tanjung Pelepas or Danga Bay. To date.b). presented freshly forged paperwork. however.5 million in tax revenues. They simply stopped at the Singaporean jetty of Pulau Punggol Timur. the Singaporean government flatly denies that it condones the import of illegal sand. Sand Smuggle
In June. having been deprived of $11. smuggle making smugglers a cool profit of $77. And Indonesia. the documents are not worth the paper they're printed on...
without the consent of the ship owner or the master or any other responsible person and who is detected on board the ship after it has departed from a port. They can return to Singapore safely within a matter of hours and.000 islands (the nearest of which to Singapore lies about six miles to the southeast). unload the cargo.more than 17. Beyond the enormous variance in official import-export figures. All any would-be thief has to do is pick a remote spot where large and loud dredging equipment won't be easily spotted and work quickly under the cover of darkness. Many of Indonesia's islands that lie within easy reach of Singapore have few or no inhabitants and Singapore has taken advantage of this geography. going so far as to wipe some places entirely off the map. or in cargo which is subsequently loaded on the ship. the trade is making all players happy and rich. or in the cargo while unloading it in the port of arrival. For the time being. there's simply no getting around the fact that Singapore's land mass has grown by leaps and bounds. and is reported as a stowaway by the master to the appropriate authorities.
. they've managed to escape the repercussions for a willing complicity in this trade by feigning surprise at bogus paperwork. has jumped headlong into the breach. Thus far.2 Stowaway Stowaway is person who is secreted on a ship. using forged documents. And yet Singaporean officials still profess ignorance. So the landfill is certainly coming from somewhere.
immigrants and asylum seekers.2. the fines and costs imposed on masters and/or shipowners by some authorities when entering port with a stowaway onboard. and who is detected on board the ship before it has departed from the port.1 Stowaway Issues:
inter-personal problems. the crew and the stowaways.
Stowaway is strongly related with logistic industry. the inter-personal problems must be resolved by the master.
. without the consent of the ship owner or the master or any other responsible person.Attempted stowaway is a person who is secreted on a ship. especially for the master. This is because it cannot happen without the support of transportation. or in cargo which is subsequently loaded on the ship.
legal problems -have to be dealt with by the authorities and ship owners through international cooperation.
4. The stowaway is mostly occur via air and sea transport. the crew and the stowaways on board -The increasing problems faced by masters and shipowners when attempting to disembark stowaways are:
the growing problem of refugees. the tightening of regulations by governments to reduce the number of illegal immigrants. the lack of identity documents of stowaways the lack of internationally agreed regulations.
hoping to enter a country undetected.
financial problems for ship owners and States¶ authorities in ports of call (i. Refugees
Refugees will be attempting to escape war. most illegal immigrants usually do not intend to make their presence known to the authorities.
4.e. costs of maintenance and repatriation of a stowaway and/or fines)
the number and/or behaviour of stowaways may endanger the safety of the crew and /or the ship.2 Type of stowaway
1. civil unrest. Criminals
They maybe violent and uncooperative and may involved in drug transportation andother illegal activities. or political or religious persecution. Economic migrants
Other migrants may simply be moving in an attempt to obtain a better standard of living. Illegal immigrants
. These stowaways tend to be impulsive and often have no papers.
3 Risk of stowaway:
1. for example.
2. boats or trains as stowaways. and some of these injuries are quite severe.
Many stowaways also expose themselves to physical risks on trains. Dangerous
It can also carry serious legal repercussions if the stowaway is caught.
3. Being caught and thrown off or forced to pay a full fare. international instruments stipulating international human rights which might be applicable to certain categories of stowaways. Risk of imprisonment
as it is illegal in most jurisdictions to embark on aircraft.
The stowaway has the human right below: right to life the right to a fair and public hearing
Although being a stowaway is dangerous. people are injured every year by trying to hop on or off moving trains.2.4. however. especially on aircraft. risking death
The stowaway hide in a place that dangerous in the transport and may lack oxygen that will lead to a death.
conscience and religion the right to freedom of expression Etc.
4. After that. there is no reason whatsoever to treat a stowaway like a criminal. Romanian Survives flight to Heathrow from Austria stowed away inside landing gear of jumbo jet« then is let go by police 10th June 2010
From this article.
When the privately owned Boeing landed at Heathrow.2. he was released after accepting a police caution for being a stowaway and because he proved is an EU national identity and was apparently of previous good character.-
the right to freedom of thought. the reason that made the Romanian stowaway from UK is because he is jobless.
The master and the crew of the ship they should be reminded of basic human rights of all persons and should bear in mind that "everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law". He crouched in the rear-wheel compartment during an extraordinary 800-mile trip from Vienna to London on Boeing 747 owned by the Dubai royal family and he was survives with temperatures of -41c.4 Current issue:
a). so he planned come to Britain to find work. In short. the 20 years old stowaway fell or jumped soon after the aircraft touched down and tumbled on to the runway and was arrested by security staff. he
Khwela was addressing a conference in Johannesburg and said the threat of stowaways was nothing else but a consequence of poor access control.
He said he wants a redefinition of a stowaway on the basis that a stowaway is also a trespasser into the port and port facility prior to boarding the vessel. which has been estimated at USD 20 million a year. Later he becomes an illegal immigrant in the port of destination. remains one of the major security problems facing African ports. According to police.´ says Khwela.was allowed to stay in Britain but might face £2500 fine. he would not be killed because the plane was flying lower due to thunder-storms.
. Stowaways ± an African pain The cost of finding and repatriating stowaways. he said. One major factor was that South Africa was seen as the place where the stowaways¶ dreams of employment and riches could come true. but investigations indicated that less than one per cent of them were bona fide nationals with the majority being illegal immigrants.
³The number of stowaways has increased dramatically at South African ports.
b). says Transnet National Ports Authority intelligence and security manager Castro Khwela. Incidences of stowaways reflected serious security lapses around the port facilities and ships. and the situation calls for urgent and strategic security measures by port authorities and stakeholders to address the problem. Many stowaways claimed to be South Africans.
nationalistic groups. to show power and to attempt to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. Terrorists also attack national symbols.
³It is designed to be a user-friendly information management system that ensures the collation. revolutionaries. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political parties. which is then forwarded to security management for dissemination in the form of monthly reports and presentations. This may negatively affect a government. processing. while increasing the prestige of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act. Each act of terrorism is a ³performance´ devised to have an impact on many large audiences. and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians). political or ideological goal. Terrorism has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations for furthering their objectives. consolidation and dissemination of information.
. religious groups.3 Terrorism
Violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror).´ he said. Source ± Business Daily
Terrorist attacks are usually carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. are perpetrated for a religious. and ruling governments.According to Khwela South African ports are pro-actively facing security challenges in the ports and have introduced a pilot project at the Port of Durban known as the Security Information Management System (SIMS).
San Francisco.1 Terrorism Risks y Unlike some other perils. Terrorism is a political tactic. investors struggle to quantify the risk posed by terrorism due to its unpredictable nature.Monitoring world events and the location and number of foiled attacks can help investors and logistic chain understand the risk. The human element means the nature of the threat is forever changing as groups relocate and adapt their tactics in response to counter-terrorism measures.3.2 Ways to improve their risk awareness: . Terrorists aim for widespread destruction and media coverage when planning their attacks. . and London are likely totop their target list
4. so it is fair to assume large cities such as New York. which is used by activists when they believe that no other means will effect the kind of change they desire.Determine the different threat level in different region. . as the attempted bombing of a restaurant in the small English city of Exeter in 2008 demonstrated.C. Terrorists attack targets of opportunity.Terrorist acts frequently have a political purpose.
. like letterwriting or protesting. the vast majority of attacks have been in large urban areas.
global risks for companies and investors in aspect of financial investment
4.Recognizing how counter-terrorism effectiveness varies from country to country is also relevant. Although it is certainly possible that an attack could occur anywhere.3. Washington D.
the poverty argument. hence essentially providing a sphere where terrorism has no place. but this is consistently not translated into desired policies because there are not sufficient votes to pass desired legislation.g. E.3 Terrorism issues: 1. ethnic conflict
Probably resorting to violence for nationalist or separatist reasons depending on one's point of view.3. A democratic government is supposed to represent the people and provide political means to voice grievances. this can be considered as resistance against an (external) oppressor.4. Etnicity. globalisation
Inequalities in the distribution of scarce resources. Poverty and economic disadvantage.
The factor of democracy as an instigator or facilitator for terrorism deserves further exploration.
. The minority is represented and allowed to voice their grievances.
as a cause for terrorism put forward.
5.4. When rigid social stratification shatter hopes for social transformation. abstract hatreds made possible by the cold war or terrorism. In this context. 1987:xvii). Disaffected Intelligentsia
Because of a hiatus in democratic governance. Intellectuals. This is "a primary internal cause of terrorism. Rubenstein's thesis that the main cause of terrorism are disgruntled. do not have a rebellious lower class to lead due to shifts from primary and manual work to the services sector. intelligentsia who are in a social and moral crisis unable to mobilize the masses.
6. tactics and consequences" (Rubenstein. of the type of ambitious idealist. recognised and treated as equal human beings. there are two points I would like to bring under attention. First. Dehumanisation
trying to dehumanise terrorists. dictating to a degree its philosophy. then the ingredients are present for a start or rise in terrorist activities in an attempt to reconnect with the masses who they claim to represent and aspire to lead. 'Muslim fanatics in the Middle East' in particular.
. disaffected. nor do they receive guidance from a creative upper class that they can follow. thereby confirming terrorist's core reasons they are fighting for: being heard.
which is based on Christian theology.5 Current Issue
Thousand pray for peace in Bangkok in wake of protest violence.as a religion . and Darwinism and materialism in particular (Yahya. being "too stressful and uncreative" (Ridgley. The chants of 1. 1999). as the main cause of terrorism. issuing an arrest warrant on charges that carry a possible death sentence for his alleged role in the deadly street protests. (1)).e.
4. Islamists hate capitalism and believe in a new Caliphate (who will lead the community of Muslims worldwide) and oppose individualism. also known under the definition of social Darwinism.
. a problem within oneself. 2010
BANGKOK ± BANGKOK (AP) ² Thousands of residents gathered at dawn Wednesday to pray for peace at sites across Bangkok where people were killed and high-rise buildings torched in two months of the worst political violence in the country's modern history. One spark of further political strife may have been set off Tuesday when Thai authorities accused ousted Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra of terrorism. including the charred hulk of one of Asia's largest shopping malls.considers the perceived cause of terrorism the "modern society". there are scholars who consider Western society. killings
Published May 25.000 Buddhist monks mingled with the prayers of Muslim imams. including Malthus' theory of ruthlessness. Christian priests and the Hindu faithful at 10 areas.democracy is declared un-Islamic by all ideologues of Islamic terrorism. From an Islamic perspective.3. New Age . Last. i.
Previous attempts to extradite Thaksin have failed. Thaksin spoke regularly by video link in the initial stages of the Red Shirt rallies. Thaksin. They accuse Abhisit of being elitist and coming to power through back-room deals and military meddling. who fled abroad ahead of a corruption conviction he says was politically motivated. which culminated in a military crackdown that left several protesters dead and prompted rioting and arson attacks. Criminal Court judge Krerkrit Ittarat said it was up to the DSI to proceed with the prosecution and coordinate Thaksin's extradition with the Foreign Ministry.Thaksin. threatened to commit or supported terrorist acts in relation to the violence. who lives in self-imposed exile but still has wide support among the so-called Red Shirts whose protests were violently ended by the military last week." The charges are likely to intensify the political rift between those who support Thaksin ² mostly the urban underclass and rural poor ² and the conservative establishment and many in the middle class who agreed with the 2006 military coup that saw him ousted from power.
. responded that the government should be ashamed of itself for its handling of the crisis that left 88 dead and said he merely wants to keep Thailand from becoming a "banana republic. is accused of being a key force behind the protesters who occupied areas of Bangkok for two months in their bid to bring down Oxford-educated Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva. The Department of Special Investigations alleges that Thaksin committed. but has denied government allegations he bankrolled the movement. Thaksin denies involvement in the recent violence. Though he has supported the Red Shirt's cause. which began peacefully. He has publicly expressed his support for the protesters.
. The former telecommunications tycoon was convicted in absentia in 2008 of corruption and sentenced to two years in prison. he offered to hold elections on Nov. Earlier this month. who benefited from his populist policies during his 2001-2006 tenure as prime minister. Thaksin is regarded as a hero by many Red Shirts. Abhisit now says elections will not be held until the threat of violence is completely quelled ² although he remains under pressure to call an early vote. His term expires in late 2011. Authorities in the United Arab Emirates have said he could remain there as long as he refrained from political activities. The Red Shirts have demanded Abhisit resign and call early elections. 14 but that offer was revoked when Red Shirt leaders made more demands. most of their leaders are now in custody or on the run. Although many analysts expect the Red Shirts to continue agitation or outright violence in the future.Thaksin is believed to hold passports from several countries and is based primarily in Dubai.
marine debris. and is a form of pollution. and ocean dumping. as well as spills of refined petroleum products and their by-products.4. toxic materials. and heavier fuels used by large ships
. it is also caused through runoff from land and industrial wastes which find their way to the ocean through drains.4 Marine Pollution Issues It seems that almost every day there is another story about pollution of one form or another. There are several causes of ocean pollution including oil pollution.
4. in the food we eat.1 Oil Pollution An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity.4. where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters. the water we drink and the air we breathe. drilling rigs and wells. The term often refers to marine oil spills. Oil pollution is not only caused by large devasting tanker spills. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers. Very often our own actions lead to that pollution and in many cases we can do something about it. offshore platforms. sewage and mining and radioactive waste.
Rough seas can break up slicks. It hurt and kills our marine life. so whilst they reduce damage to beaches and save seabird colonies from destruction by oil. but reducing the danger to wildlife. making a foul smell.4. and is harmful to human. the light hydrocarbons are often burned off the surface of the sea. Cleaning up after an oil spill is a complicated business. fishing gear abandoned or lost by recreational
. 17 August 2010. is a hazard for ship. which can then be pumped off the surface of the sea. To prevent this.such as bunker fuel. 4. however. they also add more poisons to the sea. Petroleum industry mistakes make a contribution. and the international oil companies acknowledge that they paid insufficient attention to the environment during the early days of their operation. Spills may take months or even years to clean up. In cold seas. or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. and this means the risk to wildlife lasts longer. however. but they can also spread oil right through the marine environment. Marine debris consists of plastic litter washed or blown from land into the sea. an oil spill accident was happened at Niger Delta. Dispersants are quite toxic. these usually evaporate quite quickly. In the recently. and depends on weather conditions and water temperature. In warm conditions.2 Marine Debris Marine debris is a terrible problem around the world. In calm waters. Chemical dispersants are often sprayed on oil to break up slicks into droplets which can be broken down by marine bacteria. long floating booms can be used to help to contain oil. the process of evaporation can be very slow.
from the tiniest plankton to whales and polar bears. For centuries. long-lasting chemicals may enter the food web and contaminate the fish and shellfish we eat. Plastics. Chemicals also enter the sea from land-based activities. and air during their manufacture. piping. is contaminated with man-made chemicals. 4. Disposal of plastics at sea is totally prohibited by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 (MARPOL). Eventually. synthetic fishing nets.4. and solid non-biodegradable floating materials such as plastics. as well as from accidental leaks or fires in products containing these chemicals. strapping bands. soil. paints and adhesives. sheeting. floats.and commercial fishers. disposed of or lost by ships at sea. Seven billion tonnes of various types of litter enter the world's oceans every year. use. synthetic ropes. bottles. insulation. Some of these chemicals enter the sea through deliberate dumping. are the worst offenders and can last for 10-20 years on the ocean floor before decomposing. or disposal.
. Almost every marine organism. Chemicals can escape into water. Plastic materials are defined as bags. the oceans have been a convenient dumping ground for waste generated on land. fibreglass.3 Toxic Material Toxic materials settle into sea-floor sediments where they accumulate as hazards to organisms that live in and feed on bottom muds. such as pesticides and chemicals used in common consumer products. which generally make up about 60 percent of rubbish.
Ocean dumping has been used as a method for municipal waste disposal in the United States for about 80 years. industrial wastes. pharmaceutical wastes.4. when compared with other land-based waste management options. cryolite. radioactive waste. 4. munitions. Other materials include fish wastes. or other man-made structures at sea. Virtually all material oceans dumped in the United States today is dredged material. aircraft. dredged material. Ocean dumping has historically been more economically attractive. or other man-made structures at sea.
. drilling fluids. and vessels. and even longer for dredged material. sewage sludge. aircraft. rubbish.5 Sewage Many sewage pipelines were built years ago when little was known about the effects of pollution and it was thought that the sea would dilute the sewage.4. human remains. including cancer. Ocean Dumping Ban Act was passed to prohibit ocean dumping of all sewage sludge and industrial waste by 1992. 4. platforms. Since then the amount of sewage has increased considerably and very often organic matter is washed ashore by the incoming tide. Fish and fish processing wastes. ocean incineration wastes. and wastes from ocean mining have all been dumped at sea. and any deliberate disposal at sea of vessels.4 Ocean Dumping and Mining Ocean dumping is internationally defined as any deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter from vessels. behavioral problems. damage to the immune system. coal wastes. and reduced fertility.Evidence is mounting that a number of man-made chemicals can cause serious health problems. platforms.
The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) at its 55th session in October 2006 adopted revised Guidelines on implementation of effluent standards and performance tests for sewage treatment plants.4. while in coastal areas. and stored in steel canisters containing concrete. (Sources: http://www. which will apply to sewage treatment plants installed onboard on or after 1 January 2010.The discharge of raw sewage into the sea can create a health hazard. The MEPC also adopted a standard for the maximum rate of discharge of untreated sewage from holding tanks when at a distance equal or greater than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land. Sewage is a major problem for countries with large tourist industries.org. sewage can also lead to oxygen depletion and an obvious visual pollution. The liquid waste is sealed into glass.imo. The revised guidelines.uk/environmental-facts.asp?topic_id=237 ) 4.6 Radioactive Waste Radioactive waste is stored in water ponds next to nuclear power stations until it is considered safe enough for disposal. The waste is then released directly into the sea about 2km from the coast. The ocean bed is used for the dumping of high level nuclear waste. These containers are dumped in the sediment on the ocean floor.org/environment/mainframe. a process called vitrification.php)
. (Sources: http://www.2 (VI) in 1976. replace the Recommendation on international effluent standards and guidelines for performance tests for sewage treatment plants adopted by resolution MEPC.ypte.
Specifically. The main areas where increases have taken place are Asian and African waters.5 Piracy Issues International Maritime Bureau piracy statistics show that piracy attacks are increasing year on year. Implementation and compliance with international conventions. If this cannot be achieved it is likely the Europeans will walk away from IMO and implement their own regime. excessive regulations.4. Africa & the Gulf of Aden. the threat of oil pollution from oil tankers and perhaps more importantly from non tankers. The number or incidents reported so far indicates an upward trend from last year.7 Prevention of Marine Pollution The challenges cover pollution preventative as well as response measures over several areas. 4. The task for IMO is to find an appropriate international solution. This would have serious consequences for the rest of the world in dealing with the older tankers. Piracy hotspots now include major shipping routes through South East Asia. which will be accepted by all member governments including the European countries as well as the Commission of the European Communities. new pollution response challenges and some significant policy decisions facing IMO member governments regarding entry into force provisions for future international marine environmental legal instruments. the Indian Sub Continent. The increase of piracy incidents in the Malacca Straits shows the current inability of Malaysia's Security Forces to maintain sufficient patrols as well as the inability to react
. It could also undermine the future of IMO as an international body responsible for maritime safety and environment protection.4. the waters around Indonesia have become increasingly plagued by pirates.
4. During this period. The number of attacks decreased compared to 2009 in the most dangerous maritime area of the world.com/maritime/pirate-attacks-decline-first-half 2010?page=2 ) A total of 196 incidents around the world were recorded by the IMB¶s Piracy Reporting Center. This includes 31 vessels hijacked. The Maritime Enforcement Control Centre (MECC) has also not been very effective in combating piracy. including 27 hijackings.joc. ( Source: http://www. The coast of Somalia remains particularly vulnerable with 100 pirate attacks in 2010.swiftly enough upon reports of piracy incidents. 597 crew members were taken hostage and 16 were injured.pdf ) The number of pirate attacks on shipping worldwide declined by 18 percent in the first six months of 2010 despite the increased range and capabilities demonstrated by Somali pirates.5.southchinasea. The IMO and Maritime Security both suggest that each Ship owner set up a plan of action that describes what preventive measures like those mentioned above have to be taken by their vessels and crew. (Source: http://www. Also anti-piracy drills to familiarize the crew with required actions are necessary.1 Way to Prevent Piracy The piracy problem has already increased markedly this year. 48 vessels fired upon and 70 vessels boarded. one crew member was killed.
. The MECC was set up in 1995 to increase radar surveillance of the Straits and to coordinate efforts by the Royal Malaysian Navy and the Malaysian Marine Police. according to a report issued Thursday by the International Chamber of Commerce¶s International Maritime Bureau.org/docs/Maritime%20Piracy. compared to 240 incidents in the first half of 2009.
Despite this reaction. Keating. China vehemently rejects this option.southchinasea. Specific areas for co-operation could include capacity building in law enforcement and legislation. development of both global and regional information bases and co-operation between coast guards. the reason for the dramatic decrease is due to use of increased patrols and better law-enforcement capabilities. Private companies are offering services that include surveillance and tracking of ships using GPS and the Internet.
. Pacific Command.pdf ) According to Admiral Timothy J. So far. just as they report piracy and sea robbery. development of standard reporting procedures.The IMO is working to establish worldwide standards to improve the uniformity of inspection and reporting practices for port control and promote exchange of information. the members of ASEAN realize that it will take a cooperative effort to even deter the rampant escalation of piracy in their region. head of U.S.org/docs/Maritime%20Piracy. The wheels of government turn slowly. Recent initiatives include a joint maritime task force led by the Japanese coast guard. Experience has also shown that the country and region around it concerned may benefit from entering into regional co-operation. (Source: http://www. joint efforts include only seminars. Representatives from both government and non-government organizations are just beginning to communicate after a decade of frustration. The IMO and IMB should go a step further by publishing reports identifying ports that regularly cause undue delay or those where port authorities may be conspiring with criminal groups and by publishing instances of extortion or collusion.
the US Customs and Border Protection released a fact sheet to better explain what the CSI is and how it works.
In January 2002.( Source:http://www.0 Organization Issues
5.1 Container Security Initiative (CSI)
The Container Security Initiative (CSI) is a multinational initiative that protects the main method of global trade. CSI is now operational at ports in North.pdf )
5.org/includes/blastDataOnly. It is designed to safeguard global marine trade while enabling legitimate cargo containers to move faster and more efficiently through the supply chain to seaports worldwide. CBP has stationed multidisciplinary teams of U. containerized shipping. the Middle East. CSI was first implemented in the ports shipping the greatest volume of containers to the United States. from being exploited or disrupted by terrorists to reduce the risk of global containerized cargos. Europe.S.imo. officers from both CBP and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to work together with host foreign government counterparts at CSI ports.asp/data_id%3D29236/Pirac y_19July2010_. Central. Customs administrations all over the world have committed to joining CSI and are at various stages of implementation. In October 2007. Their mission is to target and prescreen
. and South America. the Caribbean.
CSI is a security regime designed to ensure that all containers that pose a potential risk for terrorism are identified and inspected at foreign ports before they are placed on vessels destined for the United Sates. and throughout Asia. Africa.
The port must have or make non-intrusive inspection (NII) equipment (gamma or X-ray) and radiation detection equipment available for use at or near the potential CSI port.1 Minimum Standards for CSI Expansion The requirement must be present in a potential CSI port to be considered for inclusion in the CSI program. Those administrations use non-intrusive inspection (NII) and radiation detection technology to screen high-risk containers before they are shipped to US ports.containers and to develop additional investigative leads related to the terrorist threat to cargo destined to the United States. exiting or being transshipped through a country.1.
5. World Customs Organization (WCO). transiting.
The seaport must have regular. International Organizations that support CSI including.
The CBP Administration must be able to inspect cargo originating. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Business Anti-Smuggling Coalition (BASC). direct and substantial container traffic to ports in the United States. This equipment is necessary to meet the objective of quickly screening containers without disrupting the flow of legitimate trade.
2 Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA)
Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency also known as the Malaysian Coast Guard is the principal government agency tasked with maintaining law and order and coordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone and on the high seas.
The port must commit to share critical data. In case during war. Malaysia Parliament officially established this agency with the enactment of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency Act 2004 (Act 633) in May 2004.
. The Agency and its members are part of the Malaysian Civil Service and report directly to the Prime Minister's Department. intelligence and risk management information with the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in order to do collaborative targeting. crisis or emergency. and develop an automated mechanism for these exchanges.y
The port must commit to establish a risk management system to identify potential highrisk containers and to the automation of that system. especially after frequent attacks from the Orang laut pirate during the 1900s. This system should include a mechanism to validate threat assessments and identify best practices. the Agency may be placed under the command of the Malaysian Armed Forces. It was formed to combat the rise of piracy in the Malaccan straits.
1 Why MMEA is created? Overlapping Issue & Safety Issue
MMEA was formed officially in 2005 as Malaysia¶s statutory response to the threats of maritime terrorism and to effectively function as a coast guard. board. inspect and search any place. These powers are similar to the powers vested in the MOF to fight maritime crime and it is possible that overlapping of jurisdiction can infringe on law enforcement duties. including police. It is deliberated to be the sole maritime law enforcement agency to act in response to the security of the waters around the ports and navigation routes and its major functions are to carry our air and coastal surveillance. vessel or aircraft and to detain any vessel or aircraft´. Due to the overlapping functions among the 11 different agencies. structure. the MMEA is ³to receive and consider any report of the commission of an offence´ and to ³to stop. In addition.5. customs and navy. International Labor Organization based on the Treaty of Versailles as an agency of the League of Nations following to establish. There is clearly an overlap in terms of duties and jurisdiction with the MOF.2. enter. In December 12th 1946. The MMEA was designed to streamline the operations and enforce maritime law. marine police. ILO as the United Nations specialized agency.
5. ILO headquartered in Geneva.
. The national maritime law enforcement agency is responsible for anything within and beyond 12 nautical miles of the coast. The establishment of the new agency is based on the nation's need to have a strong collective thrust in maritime enforcement.3 International Labour Organization (ILO) In 1919.
its means each of member state delegation consists of two government officials. annually to convene the meets. independent vote. conventions and recommendations and technical assistance with cooperation.
. non-approved State no binding. laws and regulations for reference. Convention is an international treaty. one worker. proposal is to develop the same way.ILO purpose is promote full employment and improve the standard of living. ILO proposal through labour legislation to improve labour condition. There are two forms of international labor standards: the International Labour Conventions and the International Labour proposals. and its institutional framework include: International labour conference. meaning that the Member States to produce legally binding. and International Labor Office. the International Labour Conference at more than two-thirds vote of the way on behalf of the development. then. promote the labor and the capital to cooperation. At the present time International Labour Organization has 175 member state. protect worker live and healthy. expansion social security measure. council. at any time of its ratification. ILO carry out tripartite mechanism principle. the tripartite all of attend all manner of meeting. one employer. but without the approval of its role is to provide Member States to develop national policies in related areas. The International Labour conference is the highest machine. an independent decision of Member States may. Its main activities are International labour legislation.
occupational safety and health. working hours. (2) Employment. social policy. (3) for specific populations and occupations. that freedom of association and collective bargaining. including work-related injuries compensation. unemployment insurance. abolition of child labor. even revolution -The third motivation was economic. pension. their family lives and their advancement. labor management. Because of its inevitable effect on the cost of production. would create social unrest. mainly refers to the establishment of free trade unions. -The second motivation was political. more and more numerous and exploited with no consideration for their health.5. Without an improvement in their condition.3. equality of opportunity and treatment work . linked to the end of the war to which workers had contributed significantly both on the battlefield and in industry
According to international labor standards can be divided into the following categories: (1) basic labor rights. collective bargaining. the abolition of forced labor.1 ILO issues: -The initial motivation was humanitarian. -Another reason for the creation of the International Labour Organization was added by the participants of the Peace Conference. labor relations. working conditions. The condition of workers. child
. social security. any industry or country adopting social reform would find itself at a disadvantage vis-à-vis its competitors. including wages. was less and less acceptable. the workers. including women. whose numbers were ever increasing as a result of industrialization.
labor and young workers. the ILO attention to international labor standards. the entire system of international labor standards. and the developed countries there are many contradictions. 2006. persons with disabilities. due to historical reasons. while the International Labour Organization called the minimum international labor standards.
. Over the years. dock workers. mainly in developed countries. on the preservation of the workers and other basic rights of workers play a positive role. Adopted in February 2006. the ILO's Maritime Labour Convention sets the minimum standards to ensure satisfactory conditions of employment for the world¶s seafarers. Into the 90's. migrant workers. trade union organizations and government advocates. It brings together and updates over 65 other ILO maritime labour instruments. the ILO has adopted a series of measures to promote the ratification process. and the Work in Fishing Convention. fishermen. Thus. seamen. a few Western countries. Major achievements of the ILO over the past few years include the adoption of the Maritime Labour Convention. and flaunt the standard universality and flexibility of developing countries in the formulation and approval of the implementation of the Convention there is still a lot of difficulties. older workers. the socio-economic development level and needs-based. while introducing a system of certification and inspection to enforce it. However. to promote the Member States approved the implementation of international labor conventions. linked the rise to voices of opposition in the ILO. should be national implementation of the labor situation of the Convention and its international trade and market access. Particularly in recent years.
convention.SOLAS . The Convention establishing the International Maritime Organization (IMO) was adopted in Geneva in 1948 and IMO first met in 1959. a need for international standards to regulate shipping . A specialized agency of the United Nations with 169 Member States and three Associate Members.
5.which can be adopted and accepted by all. which must be available on board for any port state inspection. serving more than 90 per cent of global trade by carrying huge quantities of cargo cost effectively.4 International Maritime Organization (IMO) Shipping is perhaps the most international of the world's industries. IMO is based in the United Kingdom with around 300 international staff. the Titanic disaster of 1912 spawned the first international safety of life at sea . therefore. often far from the country of registry. technical co-operation.Ships will need to comply with the Convention through holding a Maritime Labour Certificate and Declaration of Maritime Labour Compliance issued by the flag state. There is. still the most important treaty addressing maritime safety. cleanly and safely. maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. IMO's main task has been to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety. environmental concerns. Later. The first maritime treaties date back to the 19th century.
. legal matters. The ownership and management chain surrounding any ship can embrace many countries and ships spend their economic life moving between different jurisdictions.
equipment. supported by hundreds of recommendations governing every facet of shipping. including standards for ship design.key treaties include SOLAS. There are. there are conventions which establish compensation and liability regimes . the MARPOL convention for the prevention of pollution by ships and the STCW convention on standards of training for seafarers. Inspection and monitoring of compliance are the responsibility of member States. but the adoption of a Voluntary IMO Member State Audit Scheme is expected to play a key role in enhancing implementation of IMO standards. construction. including rules concerning distress and safety communications.
.IMO's specialized committees and sub-committees are the focus for the technical work to update existing legislation or develop and adopt new regulations. with meetings attended by maritime experts from Member Governments. together with those from interested intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. the International Convention on Search and Rescue and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness. The result is a comprehensive body of international conventions.including the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage. measures aimed at the prevention of accidents. Then there are measures which recognize that accidents do happen. firstly. the convention establishing the International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage and the Athens Convention covering liability and compensation for passengers at sea. Thirdly. operation and manning . Response and Cooperation.
play a significant role in the economic development of a region. port safety is also a main concern for the customers deliver their cargoes to the destination in the shortest transit time. representing the interests of seafarers and the organizations of the shipping industry have observer status. Therefore. The ITF. This means that we can have an input into discussions but no vote on any decisions that are to be taken. Our aim is to ensure that seafarers¶ interests are addressed and protected when any new regulation is being considered. the seaport may upgraded the facilities in order to compete with other international seaports to keep survive in the industrial. in addition there are monitors elected from ITF affiliated unions who participate in the various committees. Furthermore.0 Conclusion In conclusion. The authority should improve the port service by using the suitable technology to solve the problems occurred and increase the efficiency. The IMO is made up of representatives of the flag States. seaports. Production capabilities and the performance measurement of seaports have always been a major issue in seaport management.The IMO Conventions are of importance to seafarers because they have a direct impact on living and working conditions. Seaports are not only embedded in global value chains but also in urban and regional spatial structures that both fix and constrain their evolution.
. The ITF has a permanent representative to the IMO.
6. serving as the interface between maritime and inland transportation.