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0 Introduction With over 90% of world trade channeled through ports, efficient and effective port operations management is a critical requirement to maintain strong customer relations and port reputation. Seaports are vital for European trade and transport; competitiveness increasingly depends on an efficient and cost effective transport and port system. Ports are important centres of regional economic and social development and act as essential interface between seaborne and inland transport modes. Seaport need to operate efficiently and be properly structured in order to support an increase in trade and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by linking countries. However, seaports around the world face many modern operational challenges and to ensure the highest level of service, ports require intensive port operational planning and set procedures. In addition, ports require intricate risk management functions to ensure that accidents are avoided, and if they do happen, the proper response is available.
2.0 PORT TECHNOLOGY Day by day, the challenges seaport facing is increasing because of globalization, it faced with the challenges to meet the growing demand and cope with technological changes on port investments and social relations, port competitive become more aggressive. Every day there are a lot of transshipment, loading or unloading, import and export; hence, to locate selected container in a short time is essential and difficult. Therefore, it become an issue to seaport to detect containers inside the port stacked with plenty containers. Besides, shipping lines are mainly concerned with the waiting time and berthing time of the ships at the port. There are machine constraints, position constraints and also ship constraints in the port. In order to manage or allow seaport operates in a systematic and smooth condition, we need few systems to support us to manage and also minimize constraints in a seaport. There are three issues that always happened in seaport but can be fixed by using some technology tools. a). Inventory control b). Downtime reduction c). Security
ISSUES 1: INVENTORY CONTROL Seaport need to manage their inventory to prevent bad things happen. Inventory is different for each seaport because it depends on the business partner or customers that the seaport. There can be steel, forestry products, metals, rubber, machinery appliances and etc. Therefore, all of these inventory need to be control and well-managed. Not only to locate in a very short time but also able to manage or full utilize the space and man power resources. By using limited space and manage to stacked properly to prevent waste of time to lift containers up and down. It is almost impossible to find selected containers in a very short time in a port that full of stacked containers without a proper system. These systems need to be reacting to real-time inventory, flexible and easy to handle. With a systematic planning, space can be fully utilize and prevent waste. Below are some management systems that support seaport to operate in a better environment and improve services. 2.1 CONTAINER TERMINAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CTMS) What is CTMS? It is application software for operating a modern container terminal serving international shipping lines. CTMS running strategic operations with real time inventory management, flexible workflow tools; it gives complete visibility and control of all cargo. In the seaport, visibility of container is essential, seaport operator must able to search selected container when it is needed for clients. (http://www.portek.com/index.html). In a really packed and containers stacked seaport, CTMS would help much. Clients of the terminal can easily access into by Internet Technology and exchange data files through EDI messaging, so it is not only convenience for operator to do their job but also function as an information system for clients of the port.
2.1.1 Modules in CTMS CTMS have two major modules, one is container module and another is In-yard operations module. Container module need to handle export containers, import container, empty container, reefer container handling; while In-yard operation module need to handle packing or un-packing, in-yard movement and yard planning. It is a wide area of management, so there are some systems to support CTMS; it¶s including Yard Planning and Control System, Vessel Planning System, Yard Operation System, Container Truck Distribution System, Rail Planning Module, EDI module, and DGPS Container positioning. (http://www.mes.co.jp/ctms/index.html). One of the modules is container yard planning, it can improve the efficiency of terminal handling system. Yard stock is a special place which is used to store container in container terminal. Container yard planner should full utilize the space in seaport; therefore they should decide which block and which slot have to be selected for an import or export container to be stored. It needs to pay more attention in scheduling and optimization of container yards¶ equipment resources. (Yu.L.L et al, 2010). Vessel Planning System (VPS) support vessel planning in container terminals using Graphic User Interface (GUI). It can create ready-to-execute container discharge or loading lists based on the vessel profile and also manifest plus transfer containers from inventory to loading and vice versa. (http://www.mes.co.jp/ctms/index.html). It provide graphical of the ship layout from the top, port side and bow. There are several function, it comprise gravity calculation & heal angle simulation, develops operation schedule, develop discharge & load plans and etc.
Rail Planning Module manages all rail receipt and delivery of containers operations, which mean from maintaining rail wagon information to loading containers onto a train. It can reach some place that RTG cannot. RPM can ensure all containers reach to the right destination on the right time. (http://www.central-systems.co.uk/rail-planningmodule.html). 2.1.2 Function In berth planning, CTMS auto positioning of quay cranes for vessel arrival and departures, and it automatic allocate berths to vessels based on vessel priorities, berth characteristics and berth constraints. If there is any notification, it wills changes via SMS and email alerts. This is fast and efficient because operator can get the latest information and do their job. In ship planning, CTMS support Edifact EDI for Bayplie and Movins. It do provide auto slotting, this will be easier amendments. As we mention up there, CTMS improve yard planning can facilitate planning at macro and micro level for all types of containers. To reduce yard congestion, it can check for vessel separations and allow planning current and future in-coming vessels. It provides real-time container load, discharge events and yard inventory. It is very important for operator to solve problem once it appear in the port. They need to respond immediately before bigger damage. Because of the mobile devices is installed in RTGs, primemovers and quay cranes, any instructions of ship and yard operations will be dispatch to mobile devices. CTMS is highly accurate and reliable in container number recognition. (http://www.jp.com.sg/JurongPort/). These will make operators work become much easier and efficient.
PDS controller interfaces to crane signals and encoder position and calculates the final position of container.portek. (http://www. On the other hand.S space-based radio navigation system that provides reliable positioning. PDS originally based on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. and timing services.html). Then. Gantry and hoist encoders will backup positional data in case DGPS fails to upload.Jurong port is now using Container Terminal Management System (CTMS). PDS controller will send the actual location data to CTMS for database update via onboard Radio Data Terminal. GPS is a U.2 POSITIONING DETECTION SYSTEM (PDS) What is Positioning Detection System (PDS)? PDS allows automatic and accurate acquisition container locations during loading and unloading. The ability of PDS to accurately capture the placement and movement of containers in the seaport is very important. After that. It can provide accurate location and time information for people. The data will be sending to rover GPS by fixed base station. 2. 6 . Tier or height of container stack will be derived from digital encoder.com/portit. Its Container Terminal started operations in mid-2001. it becomes leaps and bounds since their first introduction in the late 1980s. so that better accuracy on the rover is achieved. and won the ³Best Emerging Container Terminal OperatorAsia´ Award at the renowned Asian Freight and Supply Chain Awards (AFSCA). it will update location in the Container Terminal Management System (CTMS). Operators need Digital Yard Map to confirm the actual location data. it improve Jurong port operations efficiency and productivity. navigation. PDS captures location of container automatically during loading and unloading by Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes.
In spring 2008. For example. (www. normally the crane is driven by an operator who will sits in a cabin to control the crane. SSA Terminal agrees to install Position Detection System (PDS) at SSA Terminals¶ Port of Oakland International Container Terminal (OICT) from ContainerTrac. there is an inconvenience with crane management system (CMS) which it is a 7 . downtime reduction issue is occurred because of the port technology they use are older aging equipment.S owned. it will increase the downtime and affect the operation performance. is a seaport and rail industries provider by providing a fully automated. This type of crane will waste the time if compare to the crane that operate in real time basis by using the wireless Lan.ssamarine. waste of repair time also can be one of the factors in the downtime reduction issue. Issue 2: Downtime reduction In the seaport. In addition. For example. ContainerTrac. densely packed container environment and also improve overall homeland security. PDS overcome the technical challenges of heavy metal. If the older crane is break down.com). it will waste a lot of time in handling the movement of container. inyard container Position Detection System (PDS).It is extremely hard to detect the container while they are in densely stacked. If the port is using the older equipment like older crane which the operating speed is slow. the largest U. SSA Marine is subsidiary of Carrix. Besides. the equipment they use in port is outdated drive and control system which can also cause the downtime reduction issue. and the largest privately held container terminal operator and cargo handling company in the world. cell-level accurate.
For example. troubleshooting and picking the correct spares from the workshop if required. the operator need to prefer the latest technology which can help them get the well operation performance and increase the productivity in the seaport operation. In order to prevent this issue occur in seaport.3 Remote Crane Management System (RCMS) Crane Overview Rcms Main Screen for RTG 8 . It will waste a lot of time on getting up the crane. they can decide to use these advanced technology such as Remote crane management system (RCMS) and Radio data system (RDS). 2. By this way. It can also because of the spare parts there use in the older crane may be out of stock because of the manufacturer would not produce this aging crane of spare parts anymore. If there is occur a fault detect on the crane.stand-alone application that runs on a particular crane. it will occur a downtime reduction issue in the seaport. the operator have to contact the maintenance engineer who will then make his way to the crane and logs on to the CMS in order to check on the fault.
there is a need to improve crane availability and lower the maintenance cost by installing the Remote crane management system (RCMS) in the seaport. in trying to control and monitor several cranes at one go. Lastly. or by radio frequency (RF) wireless connectivity for cranes without a cable reel or those fed by an underground collector bar or diesel engine powered cranes.In order to prevent the downtime reduction issue occur in seaport. remote crane management system (RCMS) will help us to save considerable time. For the crane operator. By this way. labour costs and may be will solve the downtime reduction problem in the seaport. the maintenance engineer can through his workstation PC view status of all the cranes via on a real-time basis. Remote Crane Management Systems (RCMS) consist of a single viewer with a global data base capability that installed at a remote location capable of monitoring multiple cranes. Network connectivity to the RCMS can be achieved via optical fiber for cable reel fed cranes. there has a central location whereby all the CMSs from all the cranes are linked back to the maintenance office via wireless LAN. 9 . they will sit in the air-conditioner room to control all the cranes instead of sitting in the crane¶s cabin room. Once a fault is detected. he is informed immediately and will then log on into the CMS via Wireless LAN and does the troubleshooting and prepares the parts for repair. So.
reach stackers and prime movers. station identification and program information (www.4 Radio Data System (RDS) Radio Data System is a communications protocol standard for embedding small amounts of digital information in conventional FM radio broadcasts. Each mobile terminal is able to communicate wirelessly with the CTMS back in the main office and task allocation and transactions are executed on a real-time basis. rubber-tyred gantry cranes. Typically. There are several types of information transmitted from the RDS system standardizes which including the time. One of the features of Radio Data System (RDS) is the data can instantly update upon collection. The wireless LAN network consists of a group of outdoor Access Points strategically located within the port area to provide radio coverage for the mobile terminals.2.com). For 10 . it is an extension of the Container Terminal Management System (CTMS) in providing the mobile workers and container handling equipment like quay cranes. There are several benefits after implement the Radio Data System (RDS) in the port. rubber-tyred gantry cranes. The mobile terminals are either handheld or vehicle-mounted for quay cranes. It means that it will communicate and interact with CTMS in a real-time manner in order the container information can be updated instantly at the point of loading or unloading. a Radio Data system (RDS) comprises a wireless network infrastructure and mobile computers.wikipedia. prime movers. For the Wireless Radio Data System.
example. The OCR part concerns document scanning. document capture and data capture.5 Optical Character Recognition (OCR) The OCR part concerns document scanning. seaports are using some technologies to make sure every container had a proper check when loading and unloading at the seaport due to the safety issue. So. it can improve vessel turn-around time and container movement handling by using the RDS. the overall improvement after use the RDS are in the customer service. the remote crane management system (RCMS) and radio data system (RDS) can be chosen by the port authority in order there can enhance the operation performance and reduce the downtime problem in the seaport. Issue 3: Security Seaport security play an important role in secures the property of consumers and protect the human lives. operator productivity and competitiveness. Besides that. it also can increase efficiency at yard and gate operation and reduce paperwork. Besides that. After the terrorist attack. 2. document capture and data capture. Lastly. OCR can function well and increase the system efficiency and handling capacity in seaport. Seaports which competing to each other is try to increase their efficiency by balance between security and ability of flow commerce. 11 . security also vital in building the reputation and confidence among public by using water carrier as their transportation mode.
OCR tracking will be necessary to ensure that containers do not bypass pre-defined checkpoints in the terminal process. and others can provide accurate real-time accounting of incoming and outgoing containers and carrier inventories in container ports (Elovic. container & chassis numbers. Seaport officers can scan all inbound export containers as part of the terminal¶s normal operations without impeding traffic. and often on container handling equipment (Orphan. out-gate exits.OCR captures a photo image as the truck moves through the gate lane (no stops) and then validates against the terminal database. The integration of OCR with other system can enhance the ability to detect nuclear or radiological material in a cargo container (Elovic. and that the information it provides will help Customs authorities identify high-risk containers for further inspection (Orphan. 2003). such as Gamma/X-Ray and RF tags. container terminals and ports worldwide have assumed new responsibility and accountability for the tracking and handling of containers. Video cameras scan the cargo container from several directions to image the container identification number which is automatically ³read´ using OCR software. 12 . Following the events of September 11. 2001. OCR cameras capture truck license plate. 2003). OCR systems at terminals around the world currently identify millions of containers and vehicles annually. Cameras are typically placed at security gate entrances. This is due to the fact that OCR provides real-time direct identification of the container and can thus acknowledge release of a container through a given point or alert the system if a container attempts to slip through the process prior to completion of any supplementary security check (Elovic. et al). et al). System applications implementing OCR together with other screening and security technologies. 2003). in-gate entrances.
multiple purposes 13 .2. natural disaster. environmental and accidental hazards.6 Security and Surveillance System Security monitoring and collaboration are large challenges to the seaports today. video surveillance provides many advantages over traditional CCTV systems including: y y y Ease of retrieval. An important priority for seaports is therefore to ensure the security of containers. The existing manual security system with guards patrolling the port had a number of limitations. land transport vehicles. Surveillance including the use of digital video to monitor stations. terrorist. Besides that. storage. and archiving Improved system scalability One camera. Shippers may detect the containers by using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) only or combined with global positioning systems (GPS) on ships. weather. Port authorities were looking for a way to enhance their monitoring and surveillance capabilities. Local. and gantry cranes to ensure container integrity while tracking and documenting container movement and storage. access points. state and federal law enforcement are challenged at every turn with issues related to criminal. and public spaces are among seaports¶ most pressing priorities. While upgrading security was an important objective. the authorities were also keen on improving operational alertness.
multinational corporations and outsourcing. New Zealand and Indonesia. For instance. International trade has caused the evolvement of industrialization. International trade has been practiced for hundreds of years. New Zealand sells livestock to Indonesia. trading involved only goods that were not available in one¶ own country. while Indonesia supplies New Zealand with herbs and spices. Trading involves buying and selling goods and services. social. The economic. International trade can be conducted by individuals. 14 . do not have herbs and spices. firms. who live in New Zealand.2 World Politics and Effect to International Trade The wealth of a country is gained though trading transactions between countries. non-profit organizations. Therefore. International trade provides more choices in terms of goods and services for people. and political significance of international trade has increased in recent years. which are abundant in Indonesia. 3.1 International Trade International trade can be defined as the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries. regardless of where they are located. globalization. Previously. and undertaking international trade means that buying and selling activities are done between country and across national borders. the Maori.3. International trade currently represents a significant share of a country¶s GDP. engage in International trade.0 World Politic & the Effect to International Trade 3. advanced transportation. and various organizations. governments.
more rubber estates and more people are needed to increase the production of latex to be turned into raw rubber. By the end of the 1980¶s. the U. International trade has encouraged the opening of new markets. position as the world¶s leading exporter was threatened. Kumpulan Guthrie Bhd bought over many small rubber estates in order to integrate them into huge rubber plantations to fulfill the demand for Malaysian rubber.S. more new rubber estates are set up to cater to this demand.3 Decline in the share of world output and world export. The market access opportunities that international trade can provide. brought new investment and growth. improves living standards and helps countries achieve their social and developmental objectives. Therefore. International trade and investment is a means for a country to stimulate its economic growth and development. For example. If the world politic is encourage trade liberalization between nations. exposed domestic firms to international practices. In order to fulfill this demand. For example. It becomes the catalyst for the international trades to take place all over the world. and has improved standards of living in certain countries. U. dominance in export markets has waned as Japan. can ensure that international trade helps to create jobs.S. 3. For example. international trade creates job opportunities. Germany. particularly for developing countries. when accompanied by matching domestic policies. there is a high demand for Malaysian rubber. leads to enhanced levels of growth. and a number of newly industrialized countries such as South Korea and China have taken a 15 .As with international business. the participation of China in global trade has boosted its economic growth and turned the country into the most rapidly emerging market. Over the past 30 year.
3 percent by 2008. Germany. a further relative decline in the share of world output and world exports accounted for by the United States and other long-establish developed nations seem likely. India. the Chinese economy could ultimately be largest than that of the United States on a purchasing power parity basis. Most forecasts now predict a rapid rise in the share of world output accounted for by developing nations such as China. which shows that the President¶s goal of doubling exports and supporting several million new jobs over five years is on track. In case. while the economy of India will approach that of Germany. the U. World Economic Outlook. Indonesia. and that export in the first four months of 2010 grew almost 17 percent from the same period last year.S. and Brazil. ahead of Germany. China. and the fast-rising economic power. But as the sources from IMF. Japan. Despite the fall. however. Mexico. South Korea. Second. One of the objectives of NEI is increased access to export financing. If China¶s rapid rise continues. it could soon overtake the United States as the world¶s largest economy and largest exporter. As emerging economies such as China.000 jobs. During the 1960¶s. the United States still remained the world¶s largest exporter. helping to support nearly 110. India.larger share of world exports. and a commensurate decline in the share enjoyed by rich industrialized countries such as Great Britain. and Brazil continue to grow. In United States. France. NEI¶s objective is improved advocacy effort on efforts on 16 . Japan. April 2009. Thailand. the United State routinely accounted for 20 percent of world export of manufactured goods. and the United States. share of world export of goods and services had slipped to 9. If current trends continue. the Export-Import Bank has more than doubled its loans to support American exporters from the same period last year. President Barack Obama provided a progress report on the National Export Initiative (NEI).
Contrarily. These steps are worth more than $1 billion. According to Port of Portland (Ore. 17 .8 billion tons of cargo annually.S. In June 2010. bridges. and growth.) Executive Director Bill Wyatt.S ports play an important role in helping U.S. The Department of Commerce has coordinated 18 trade mission with over 160 companies participating in 24 countries. In March 2010. NEI reinforced efforts to remove barriers to trade.S export. poultry exports. vessel navigation and marine terminal infrastructure. sustainable and balanced economic growth. In U. Another. Otherwise. Another. U.S. the United States reached an agreement with China to reopen the China market to U. export is relying on policies achieved by government. President Barack Obama also announce that he has appointed members of the President¶s Export Council. that was have a achievement of the five-year objective depends upon policies and funding to support strengthened intermodal connections and improved freight mobility. railroads. improve the condition of the country¶s highways. NEI¶s objective is enforcement of trade rules and international promotion of policies leading to strong.S. exporters. For instance. which includes a group of business and labor leaders who will offer advice on how to promote U. jobs. the United States agreed with Russia to reopen the Russian market to U. companies and American-made products go global. and in reforming policies that currently under prioritize funding and tax incentives for enhancing freight infrastructure is a way to achieve the President Obama¶s national goal.S. U. pork and pork products. In short.behalf of U. a trade activity helps the port create and sustain high-paying jobs through public-private partnership and generate billions of dollars in business income and spending annually.S. To meet the challenge of President Obama¶s national goal for doubling export. ports are the gateways for the import and export of 7.
service. consumer lose cause by they must pay more for certain imports. and capital. President Obama announced impose a 35 percent tariff on automobile and light-truck tires imported from China. Foreign direct investment occurs when a firm invests resources in business activities outside its home country. The typical aim of such tariffs was to protect domestic industries from foreign competition by raising the price of imported goods. 18 . However. Many of the barriers to international trade took the form of high tariffs on imports of manufactured good. The International Trade Commission had already determined that Chinese tire imports were disrupting the $1. During the 1920s and 30s many of the world¶s nation-states erected formidable barriers to international trade and foreign direct investment. In United States. Domestic producers gains.3. American companies or workers harmed by imports from China can ask the government for protection simply by demonstrating that American producers have suffered a ³market disruption´ or a ³surge´ in imports from China. Under that safeguard provision. voted 4-2 on June 29 to recommend that President Obama impose tariffs on Chinese tires for three years. Members of the commission.4 Barrier of free flow of goods. because the tariffs increase government revenues. because the tariff afford them some protection against foreign competitors by increasing the cost of imported foreign goods. an independent government agency.7 billion market and recommended that the president impose the new tariffs. The important thing to understand about an import tariff is who suffers and who gains. International trade occurs when a firm exports good and service to consumers in another country. The government gains.
the top exporter. arguing that they will not preserve American jobs but will instead cause manufacturers to relocate plants to other countries where they can produce tires cheaply. which already imposes a 4 percent tariff on Chinese tires. Tires imported from China are usually low-end models. Four American tire factories closed in 2006 and 2007. name-brand tires can easily run to more than $100 apiece. It is the latest in a string of trade battles over subjects ranging from steel and song downloads to patents and poultry between the United States. 26. Dumping is viewed as a method by which firms unload excess production in foreign markets. 3. It comes on top of a regular 4 percent tariff. Some dumping may be the result of 19 . from 4. which aims to slow China¶s rapid export growth and protect American jobs in the tire sector. While American-made. The Tire Industry Association has opposed the tariffs. according to the United States Trade Representative. and China¶s share of the American market grew to 16.5 Use of antidumping law In the context of international trade. and several more are set to close this year.American imports of Chinese tires tripled between 2004 and 2008. the world¶s biggest importer. President Obama ordered the higher tire tariffs for three years. Chinese imports sometimes sell for half that.7 percent. The tariffs would make them more expensive. dumping is variously defined as selling goods in a foreign market at below their cost of production. The tariff will be reduced to 30 percent in the second year and 25 percent in the third year. United States. Three-year tariff approved in September by President Obama. including a 35 percent additional charge in the first year. and China. The tariff is to take effect on Sept. would impose an additional tariff of 35 percent for one year.7 percent.
antidumping is intended to discourage importation and sale of foreign-made goods at prices substantially below domestic prices for the same items. with producers using substantial profits from their home market to subsidize prices in a foreign market with a view to driving indigenous competitors out of that market. dumping is condemned if t cause or threatens to cause material injury to a domestic industry in the importing country. many governments take actions against dumping in order to defend their domestic industries. leads to job losses. there is nothing inherently illegal or immoral about the practice of dumping. Therefore. WTO allow countries to act in a way that would normally break the GATT principles of binding a tariff and not discriminating between trading partners²typically anti-dumping action means charging extra import duty on the particular product from the particular exporting country in order to bring its price closer to the ³normal value´ or to remove the injury to domestic industry in the importing country. Under the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement. allows countries the option of taking action against dumping. However. However. dumping will threatens to domestic industries. Antidumping policies are designed to punish foreign firms that engage in dumping. It is also not uncommon that the export prices are lower than the domestic prices.predatory behavior. In short. from the point of view of anti-dumping practices. Thus. and decrease in market share and so on. Dumping also recognized that price discrimination in form of dumping is a common international commercial practice. decline in profitability. the threat of antidumping action limits the ability to use aggressive pricing to gain market share in a country. 20 . The ultimate objective is to protect domestic producers from unfair foreign competition. While permitted by WTO. Therefore.
Submitting to border checks with the goods or people hidden in a vehicle or between (other) merchandise. such as by small ships.1. border with backpacks full of illegal narcotics. and human "mules. 2.It is an illegal transport across state or national boundaries of goods or persons liable to customs or to prohibition.4. firearms & cigarette). in baggage or cargo. in or under clothes. or the goods hidden in luggage. The concealment of goods in unlikely places on ships or cars. trucks. Undetected running of cargoes across frontiers E. through overland smuggling routes. etc. g. The smuggling vessel of choice is the go-fast boat. smuggling tunnels and even small submersibles.S. This method is only for smuggled goods." These "mules" walk across an isolated region of the Mexico-U. It can avoid border checks. private airplanes.g: drug. 21 .1 Smuggle Act of importing and exporting secretly and illegally to avoid paying duties or to evade enforcement of laws (e. 4.0 Smuggling and etc 4. smugglers move illegal narcotics from Mexico into remote areas of the Southwest United States using airplanes. inside the body.1 Methods of smuggling 1. or on the person. Smuggling has been carried on in nearly all nations and has occasionally been adopted as an instrument of national policy.
or the passport of a lookalike). Goods and people are also smuggled across seas hidden in containers and overland hidden in cars. smuggler may hide illegal narcotics in unlikely places on ships or cars. For illegally passing a border oneself. E.g. or on a person. and trains.2 Effect of smuggling 1. trucks. in baggage or cargo. 3. Loss of revenues Smuggling is an act of tax evasion which deprives government of revenue for public expenditure. 2. Distortion of market price Goods which are smuggled into the country are often sold a lot cheaper than goods brought onto market through the right procedures. 22 . or illegally changed. 4.1. Smuggling therefore deprives traders of free competition. Some drug couriers swallow containers of narcotics to avoid detection of the drugs if searched.Many smugglers fly on regularly scheduled airlines. another method is with a false passport (completely fake.
5. Many professionals. Goods Enterprising merchants attempt to supply demand for a good or service that is illegal or heavily taxed. illegal drug trafficking such as the smuggling of weapons 23 . the labor market (employment base) is eroded. For such cases like smuggle drug or alcohol in huge number. 4. Collapse of local industries A country achieves better economic growth by developing its own industrial base. This leads to collapse of local industries. a huge amount financial fine like 2 million or more (for drug) or either both together. skilled and unskilled personnel remain jobless. 4. Unemployment When there is unfair competition in the market.1. As a result.3 Type of Smuggling 1. Jail or amercement The smuggler who smuggle the illegal goods will getting high risk to go in jail or be fine to pay a big amount of money as penalty. compounded by the collapsing of industries. the arrested smuggler will face no less than 5 years imprisonment.3. Smuggling under-cuts prices of the locally manufactured goods thus destroying the market for local products.
where they can be sold at a far higher margin than would otherwise be possible.(illegal arms trade). smugglers are able to impose a significant price premium on smuggled goods. As the smuggler faces significant risk of civil and criminal penalties if caught with contraband. and the involuntary trafficking of people. the smuggling of people across national borders has become a lucrative extra-legal activity. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception. the trafficking victim is coerced in some way. the travelling conditions are inhumane: the migrants are overcrowded in trucks or boats and fatal accidents occur frequently. or forced into it. alcohol and tobacco are widespread. fraud. physical threats and use of force. Sometime. Profits also derive from avoiding taxes or levies on imported goods. With regard to people smuggling. Victims do not agree to be trafficked but they are tricked. The profits involved in smuggling goods appear to be extensive. After their arrival in the destination country. a distinction can be made between people smuggling as a service to those wanting to illegally migrate. 2. isolation. People smuggling Many first-world countries have struggled to contain a rising influx of immigrants. as well as the historical staples of smuggling. intimidation. as well as the extremely dark side. people-trafficking. debt bondage or even force-feeding drugs to control their victims. Smuggled children were in danger of being sexually abused or even killed. lured by false promises. their illegal 24 . For example. Poverty is one of the reasons behind child trafficking and some children are smuggled with their parents' consent. especially of women who may be enslaved typically as sex trafficking and children. Generally. a smuggler might purchase a large quantity of cigarettes in a place with low taxes and smuggle them into a place with higher taxes.
status puts them at the mercy of their smugglers. which often force the migrants to work for years in the illegal labour market to pay off the debts incurred as a result of their transportation. The daily quoted unnamed industry sources saying that the increase in the cigarette smuggling was caused by the increase in the excise duty. Bulgarian masscirculation daily 24 Chassa has claimed. which rose from 53 euro for 1000 cigarettes to 76 euro for 1000 cigarettes in January. 4.1. The smuggling was cost Bulgaria about 600 million leva in lost revenue from unpaid excise duties every year. Feb 19 2010 Smuggled cigarettes accounted for half of the total amount sold in Bulgaria. Smuggled cigarettes inundate Bulgarian market Fri. The species been smuggle is normally pangolin. ivory and etc. The change has not taken effect for most brands yet because the quantities with the old excise 25 . citing unnamed sources in the tobacco industry. Wildlife Wildlife smuggling results from the demand for exotic species and the lucrative nature of the trade.4 CURRENT ISSUE a). The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) regulates the movement of endangered wildlife across political borders. 3. turtle eggs.
from where the cigarettes were brought back into Bulgaria in containers by sea using false papers and with bribes to the ship's crew. Victory.60 leva to 4. when excise duties declined by 12 per cent. In US.60 leva. while those sold in shops here can cost about $10. According to the daily. is expected to rise from 3. though not because Bulgarians quit smoking. The higher price of cigarette in market place in a country will cause contraband cigarette smugglers drawn by the ongoing demand for cheaper contraband cigarettes here. Although Bulgarian cigarette-makers have often complained about the Government's inaction in stopping smuggling. The most popular domestic brand. the contraband cigarettes go for about $5. one of the main smuggling routes passed through the port of Mersin in southern Turkey. some Bulgarian producers dabbled in it themselves. 26 . which were legally exported and were then to be smuggled back into the country through the port of Varna. but because of further increase in smuggling.stamp have not been exhausted. Bulgaria's Customs Agency. Over land. Bulgarian authorities seized a container with about 10 million Bulgarian cigarettes on February 16. The newspaper forecast that the trend recorded in December 2009 and January 2010. customs and police officers. the borders with Serbia and Turkey saw the highest amount of smuggling. but according to Finance Minister Simeon Dyankov. but the higher prices were expected to hit the market in March. started a check of all warehouses to investigate possible discrepancies and should any be found. heavy fines would be imposed. which collects the excise duties. would continue.
b). an investigation by the Malaysian newspaper the Star blew the lid off the sand smuggling trade. took ships through Singaporean waters. Understandably. the documents are not worth the paper they're printed on. smuggle making smugglers a cool profit of $77. The paper's reporters followed a Malaysian dredging company working on the Johor River. To date. the barges sailed downriver to the MalaysiaSingapore border and passed through customs. Sand Smuggle In June. The barges never made it to the claimed destination.8 million. The shortest route to the destination. If corruption is as rife as it appears to be within Malaysia. For its part. So. They simply stopped at the Singaporean jetty of Pulau Punggol Timur. having been deprived of $11. this maybe the major point that made the smuggling of sand happen because there have a high demand from Singapore and it brought a high profit to the smuggler. however. Once the sand was extracted. a vast and sprawling archipelago of 27 . to the Malaysian ports of Tanjung Pelepas or Danga Bay. The company had won a transport license by claiming it was shipping extracted sand internally.. Singapore's addiction requires far more sand than one country can provide. Although the black market Malaysian trade appears to be thriving. and unloaded their cargo. about 50 miles inland from the Singapore Strait.. The documentation provided by the sand suppliers is authentic and accurate.. the sand vendors have all been able to provide valid documented evidences of clearance from the source countries but this oversight depends on reliable paperwork. presented freshly forged paperwork. the Singaporean government flatly denies that it condones the import of illegal sand. the Malaysian government is not pleased. And Indonesia.5 million in tax revenues. From the newspaper 2007. and reliable officials throughout the supply chain.
they've managed to escape the repercussions for a willing complicity in this trade by feigning surprise at bogus paperwork. without the consent of the ship owner or the master or any other responsible person and who is detected on board the ship after it has departed from a port. For the time being.more than 17.2 Stowaway Stowaway is person who is secreted on a ship. there's simply no getting around the fact that Singapore's land mass has grown by leaps and bounds. 4. or in the cargo while unloading it in the port of arrival. And yet Singaporean officials still profess ignorance.000 islands (the nearest of which to Singapore lies about six miles to the southeast). All any would-be thief has to do is pick a remote spot where large and loud dredging equipment won't be easily spotted and work quickly under the cover of darkness. Beyond the enormous variance in official import-export figures. So the landfill is certainly coming from somewhere. Thus far. Many of Indonesia's islands that lie within easy reach of Singapore have few or no inhabitants and Singapore has taken advantage of this geography. has jumped headlong into the breach. using forged documents. They can return to Singapore safely within a matter of hours and. and is reported as a stowaway by the master to the appropriate authorities. going so far as to wipe some places entirely off the map. the trade is making all players happy and rich. unload the cargo. 28 . or in cargo which is subsequently loaded on the ship.
the crew and the stowaways on board -The increasing problems faced by masters and shipowners when attempting to disembark stowaways are: the growing problem of refugees. 4. and who is detected on board the ship before it has departed from the port. Stowaway is strongly related with logistic industry. The stowaway is mostly occur via air and sea transport. especially for the master.2. This is because it cannot happen without the support of transportation. the tightening of regulations by governments to reduce the number of illegal immigrants. without the consent of the ship owner or the master or any other responsible person. y legal problems -have to be dealt with by the authorities and ship owners through international cooperation. 29 . the inter-personal problems must be resolved by the master.1 Stowaway Issues: y inter-personal problems.Attempted stowaway is a person who is secreted on a ship. immigrants and asylum seekers. the fines and costs imposed on masters and/or shipowners by some authorities when entering port with a stowaway onboard. the lack of identity documents of stowaways the lack of internationally agreed regulations. the crew and the stowaways. or in cargo which is subsequently loaded on the ship.
3. costs of maintenance and repatriation of a stowaway and/or fines) y the number and/or behaviour of stowaways may endanger the safety of the crew and /or the ship.2 Type of stowaway 1.y financial problems for ship owners and States¶ authorities in ports of call (i.2. These stowaways tend to be impulsive and often have no papers.e. 4. civil unrest. 4. most illegal immigrants usually do not intend to make their presence known to the authorities. Refugees Refugees will be attempting to escape war. 2. Criminals They maybe violent and uncooperative and may involved in drug transportation andother illegal activities. hoping to enter a country undetected. Illegal immigrants In contrast. Economic migrants Other migrants may simply be moving in an attempt to obtain a better standard of living. 30 . or political or religious persecution.
- Many stowaways also expose themselves to physical risks on trains. however.4. for example.3 Risk of stowaway: 1. 3. risking death - The stowaway hide in a place that dangerous in the transport and may lack oxygen that will lead to a death. Being caught and thrown off or forced to pay a full fare. Risk of imprisonment - as it is illegal in most jurisdictions to embark on aircraft. Dangerous - It can also carry serious legal repercussions if the stowaway is caught. and some of these injuries are quite severe. boats or trains as stowaways. Although being a stowaway is dangerous.2. especially on aircraft. 2. The stowaway has the human right below: right to life the right to a fair and public hearing 31 . 4. international instruments stipulating international human rights which might be applicable to certain categories of stowaways. people are injured every year by trying to hop on or off moving trains.
he was released after accepting a police caution for being a stowaway and because he proved is an EU national identity and was apparently of previous good character. there is no reason whatsoever to treat a stowaway like a criminal. conscience and religion the right to freedom of expression Etc. Romanian Survives flight to Heathrow from Austria stowed away inside landing gear of jumbo jet« then is let go by police 10th June 2010 From this article.- the right to freedom of thought. the reason that made the Romanian stowaway from UK is because he is jobless.2. 4. After that. he 32 . He crouched in the rear-wheel compartment during an extraordinary 800-mile trip from Vienna to London on Boeing 747 owned by the Dubai royal family and he was survives with temperatures of -41c. so he planned come to Britain to find work. When the privately owned Boeing landed at Heathrow. the 20 years old stowaway fell or jumped soon after the aircraft touched down and tumbled on to the runway and was arrested by security staff. The master and the crew of the ship they should be reminded of basic human rights of all persons and should bear in mind that "everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law".4 Current issue: a). In short.
b). says Transnet National Ports Authority intelligence and security manager Castro Khwela. Many stowaways claimed to be South Africans. he would not be killed because the plane was flying lower due to thunder-storms. 33 . he said. remains one of the major security problems facing African ports. which has been estimated at USD 20 million a year.was allowed to stay in Britain but might face £2500 fine. ³The number of stowaways has increased dramatically at South African ports.´ says Khwela. but investigations indicated that less than one per cent of them were bona fide nationals with the majority being illegal immigrants. He said he wants a redefinition of a stowaway on the basis that a stowaway is also a trespasser into the port and port facility prior to boarding the vessel. Khwela was addressing a conference in Johannesburg and said the threat of stowaways was nothing else but a consequence of poor access control. One major factor was that South Africa was seen as the place where the stowaways¶ dreams of employment and riches could come true. Later he becomes an illegal immigrant in the port of destination. and the situation calls for urgent and strategic security measures by port authorities and stakeholders to address the problem. Incidences of stowaways reflected serious security lapses around the port facilities and ships. Stowaways ± an African pain The cost of finding and repatriating stowaways. According to police.
nationalistic groups. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political parties.3 Terrorism Violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror). which is then forwarded to security management for dissemination in the form of monthly reports and presentations.According to Khwela South African ports are pro-actively facing security challenges in the ports and have introduced a pilot project at the Port of Durban known as the Security Information Management System (SIMS). political or ideological goal. and ruling governments. 34 . religious groups. This may negatively affect a government. Source ± Business Daily 4. ³It is designed to be a user-friendly information management system that ensures the collation. Terrorist attacks are usually carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Terrorism has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations for furthering their objectives. revolutionaries.´ he said. and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians). Terrorists also attack national symbols. Each act of terrorism is a ³performance´ devised to have an impact on many large audiences. are perpetrated for a religious. consolidation and dissemination of information. to show power and to attempt to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. processing. while increasing the prestige of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act.
The human element means the nature of the threat is forever changing as groups relocate and adapt their tactics in response to counter-terrorism measures. Terrorism is a political tactic. . so it is fair to assume large cities such as New York. Although it is certainly possible that an attack could occur anywhere. the vast majority of attacks have been in large urban areas.Determine the different threat level in different region. which is used by activists when they believe that no other means will effect the kind of change they desire. and London are likely totop their target list 4. Terrorists attack targets of opportunity.C.3. like letterwriting or protesting. as the attempted bombing of a restaurant in the small English city of Exeter in 2008 demonstrated.1 Terrorism Risks y Unlike some other perils. San Francisco. Washington D. y global risks for companies and investors in aspect of financial investment 4.Terrorist acts frequently have a political purpose.3.Monitoring world events and the location and number of foiled attacks can help investors and logistic chain understand the risk. Terrorists aim for widespread destruction and media coverage when planning their attacks. 35 . investors struggle to quantify the risk posed by terrorism due to its unpredictable nature.Recognizing how counter-terrorism effectiveness varies from country to country is also relevant. .2 Ways to improve their risk awareness: .
E. The minority is represented and allowed to voice their grievances. 3. globalisation Inequalities in the distribution of scarce resources. A democratic government is supposed to represent the people and provide political means to voice grievances. (non)democracy The factor of democracy as an instigator or facilitator for terrorism deserves further exploration. the poverty argument. but this is consistently not translated into desired policies because there are not sufficient votes to pass desired legislation. nationalism/separatism Probably resorting to violence for nationalist or separatist reasons depending on one's point of view. this can be considered as resistance against an (external) oppressor.3. ethnic conflict 2.4. Poverty and economic disadvantage.3 Terrorism issues: 1. hence essentially providing a sphere where terrorism has no place. Etnicity. 36 .g.
In this context. This is "a primary internal cause of terrorism. Disaffected Intelligentsia Because of a hiatus in democratic governance. 5. disaffected. tactics and consequences" (Rubenstein. 6. intelligentsia who are in a social and moral crisis unable to mobilize the masses. Rubenstein's thesis that the main cause of terrorism are disgruntled. First. Intellectuals. thereby confirming terrorist's core reasons they are fighting for: being heard. Dehumanisation trying to dehumanise terrorists. of the type of ambitious idealist.4. When rigid social stratification shatter hopes for social transformation. then the ingredients are present for a start or rise in terrorist activities in an attempt to reconnect with the masses who they claim to represent and aspire to lead. 'Muslim fanatics in the Middle East' in particular. abstract hatreds made possible by the cold war or terrorism. there are two points I would like to bring under attention. do not have a rebellious lower class to lead due to shifts from primary and manual work to the services sector. 1987:xvii). recognised and treated as equal human beings. Religion as a cause for terrorism put forward. dictating to a degree its philosophy. nor do they receive guidance from a creative upper class that they can follow. 37 .
000 Buddhist monks mingled with the prayers of Muslim imams.5 Current Issue Thousand pray for peace in Bangkok in wake of protest violence.3. Last. (1)). The chants of 1. From an Islamic perspective. as the main cause of terrorism. there are scholars who consider Western society. 38 . Islamists hate capitalism and believe in a new Caliphate (who will lead the community of Muslims worldwide) and oppose individualism. and Darwinism and materialism in particular (Yahya.considers the perceived cause of terrorism the "modern society". being "too stressful and uncreative" (Ridgley. also known under the definition of social Darwinism. 4. New Age . One spark of further political strife may have been set off Tuesday when Thai authorities accused ousted Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra of terrorism. including Malthus' theory of ruthlessness. including the charred hulk of one of Asia's largest shopping malls. which is based on Christian theology. 2010 BANGKOK ± BANGKOK (AP) ² Thousands of residents gathered at dawn Wednesday to pray for peace at sites across Bangkok where people were killed and high-rise buildings torched in two months of the worst political violence in the country's modern history. a problem within oneself. i.e.as a religion . 1999).democracy is declared un-Islamic by all ideologues of Islamic terrorism. killings Published May 25. Christian priests and the Hindu faithful at 10 areas. issuing an arrest warrant on charges that carry a possible death sentence for his alleged role in the deadly street protests.
is accused of being a key force behind the protesters who occupied areas of Bangkok for two months in their bid to bring down Oxford-educated Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva. responded that the government should be ashamed of itself for its handling of the crisis that left 88 dead and said he merely wants to keep Thailand from becoming a "banana republic. The Department of Special Investigations alleges that Thaksin committed. which culminated in a military crackdown that left several protesters dead and prompted rioting and arson attacks. but has denied government allegations he bankrolled the movement." The charges are likely to intensify the political rift between those who support Thaksin ² mostly the urban underclass and rural poor ² and the conservative establishment and many in the middle class who agreed with the 2006 military coup that saw him ousted from power. Though he has supported the Red Shirt's cause. Thaksin denies involvement in the recent violence. which began peacefully. Thaksin spoke regularly by video link in the initial stages of the Red Shirt rallies. They accuse Abhisit of being elitist and coming to power through back-room deals and military meddling. Previous attempts to extradite Thaksin have failed. who lives in self-imposed exile but still has wide support among the so-called Red Shirts whose protests were violently ended by the military last week. 39 .Thaksin. threatened to commit or supported terrorist acts in relation to the violence. Criminal Court judge Krerkrit Ittarat said it was up to the DSI to proceed with the prosecution and coordinate Thaksin's extradition with the Foreign Ministry. who fled abroad ahead of a corruption conviction he says was politically motivated. Thaksin. He has publicly expressed his support for the protesters.
most of their leaders are now in custody or on the run. The former telecommunications tycoon was convicted in absentia in 2008 of corruption and sentenced to two years in prison. Earlier this month. Authorities in the United Arab Emirates have said he could remain there as long as he refrained from political activities. 40 . who benefited from his populist policies during his 2001-2006 tenure as prime minister. Abhisit now says elections will not be held until the threat of violence is completely quelled ² although he remains under pressure to call an early vote. 14 but that offer was revoked when Red Shirt leaders made more demands. he offered to hold elections on Nov. Thaksin is regarded as a hero by many Red Shirts. The Red Shirts have demanded Abhisit resign and call early elections. His term expires in late 2011.Thaksin is believed to hold passports from several countries and is based primarily in Dubai. Although many analysts expect the Red Shirts to continue agitation or outright violence in the future.
in the food we eat. where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters. and is a form of pollution. sewage and mining and radioactive waste. There are several causes of ocean pollution including oil pollution. as well as spills of refined petroleum products and their by-products. and heavier fuels used by large ships 41 . marine debris. The term often refers to marine oil spills. Very often our own actions lead to that pollution and in many cases we can do something about it. toxic materials. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers. drilling rigs and wells.4. 4. it is also caused through runoff from land and industrial wastes which find their way to the ocean through drains.4 Marine Pollution Issues It seems that almost every day there is another story about pollution of one form or another. offshore platforms. and ocean dumping.1 Oil Pollution An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity. the water we drink and the air we breathe. Oil pollution is not only caused by large devasting tanker spills.4.
Chemical dispersants are often sprayed on oil to break up slicks into droplets which can be broken down by marine bacteria. but reducing the danger to wildlife. these usually evaporate quite quickly. Rough seas can break up slicks. 4. but they can also spread oil right through the marine environment. which can then be pumped off the surface of the sea. In warm conditions. the process of evaporation can be very slow. making a foul smell. is a hazard for ship. 17 August 2010. long floating booms can be used to help to contain oil. and this means the risk to wildlife lasts longer. To prevent this. however.4. they also add more poisons to the sea. and is harmful to human. In cold seas. fishing gear abandoned or lost by recreational 42 .2 Marine Debris Marine debris is a terrible problem around the world. Cleaning up after an oil spill is a complicated business. however. It hurt and kills our marine life. the light hydrocarbons are often burned off the surface of the sea. In calm waters.such as bunker fuel. so whilst they reduce damage to beaches and save seabird colonies from destruction by oil. an oil spill accident was happened at Niger Delta. Dispersants are quite toxic. Marine debris consists of plastic litter washed or blown from land into the sea. or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Petroleum industry mistakes make a contribution. and the international oil companies acknowledge that they paid insufficient attention to the environment during the early days of their operation. Spills may take months or even years to clean up. In the recently. and depends on weather conditions and water temperature.
4. piping. Plastic materials are defined as bags. paints and adhesives. and air during their manufacture. synthetic fishing nets. the oceans have been a convenient dumping ground for waste generated on land. as well as from accidental leaks or fires in products containing these chemicals. use. For centuries. long-lasting chemicals may enter the food web and contaminate the fish and shellfish we eat. bottles. Chemicals also enter the sea from land-based activities. are the worst offenders and can last for 10-20 years on the ocean floor before decomposing. or disposal.4. Seven billion tonnes of various types of litter enter the world's oceans every year. soil. Eventually. fibreglass. Disposal of plastics at sea is totally prohibited by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 (MARPOL). strapping bands. disposed of or lost by ships at sea. synthetic ropes. 43 . Plastics. sheeting.3 Toxic Material Toxic materials settle into sea-floor sediments where they accumulate as hazards to organisms that live in and feed on bottom muds. insulation. is contaminated with man-made chemicals. floats. which generally make up about 60 percent of rubbish.and commercial fishers. from the tiniest plankton to whales and polar bears. and solid non-biodegradable floating materials such as plastics. Almost every marine organism. Chemicals can escape into water. such as pesticides and chemicals used in common consumer products. Some of these chemicals enter the sea through deliberate dumping.
4. platforms. behavioral problems. and vessels. when compared with other land-based waste management options. and even longer for dredged material. or other man-made structures at sea. damage to the immune system. and reduced fertility. and wastes from ocean mining have all been dumped at sea. sewage sludge. Ocean dumping has been used as a method for municipal waste disposal in the United States for about 80 years. pharmaceutical wastes. Fish and fish processing wastes. Ocean Dumping Ban Act was passed to prohibit ocean dumping of all sewage sludge and industrial waste by 1992. aircraft. Ocean dumping has historically been more economically attractive. industrial wastes. or other man-made structures at sea. coal wastes.4. platforms. cryolite. radioactive waste.4 Ocean Dumping and Mining Ocean dumping is internationally defined as any deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter from vessels. Virtually all material oceans dumped in the United States today is dredged material. drilling fluids. Since then the amount of sewage has increased considerably and very often organic matter is washed ashore by the incoming tide. rubbish. dredged material. Other materials include fish wastes.4. human remains. including cancer.5 Sewage Many sewage pipelines were built years ago when little was known about the effects of pollution and it was thought that the sea would dilute the sewage. 4. ocean incineration wastes.Evidence is mounting that a number of man-made chemicals can cause serious health problems. 44 . munitions. aircraft. and any deliberate disposal at sea of vessels.
These containers are dumped in the sediment on the ocean floor.asp?topic_id=237 ) 4.6 Radioactive Waste Radioactive waste is stored in water ponds next to nuclear power stations until it is considered safe enough for disposal. a process called vitrification.org/environment/mainframe. and stored in steel canisters containing concrete. replace the Recommendation on international effluent standards and guidelines for performance tests for sewage treatment plants adopted by resolution MEPC.ypte. (Sources: http://www.The discharge of raw sewage into the sea can create a health hazard. while in coastal areas.uk/environmental-facts. The MEPC also adopted a standard for the maximum rate of discharge of untreated sewage from holding tanks when at a distance equal or greater than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.2 (VI) in 1976. sewage can also lead to oxygen depletion and an obvious visual pollution.php) 45 . The waste is then released directly into the sea about 2km from the coast. (Sources: http://www.imo. which will apply to sewage treatment plants installed onboard on or after 1 January 2010.4.org. The ocean bed is used for the dumping of high level nuclear waste. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) at its 55th session in October 2006 adopted revised Guidelines on implementation of effluent standards and performance tests for sewage treatment plants. The liquid waste is sealed into glass. The revised guidelines. Sewage is a major problem for countries with large tourist industries.
The increase of piracy incidents in the Malacca Straits shows the current inability of Malaysia's Security Forces to maintain sufficient patrols as well as the inability to react 46 . The number or incidents reported so far indicates an upward trend from last year. the threat of oil pollution from oil tankers and perhaps more importantly from non tankers. new pollution response challenges and some significant policy decisions facing IMO member governments regarding entry into force provisions for future international marine environmental legal instruments. Specifically. which will be accepted by all member governments including the European countries as well as the Commission of the European Communities.7 Prevention of Marine Pollution The challenges cover pollution preventative as well as response measures over several areas. It could also undermine the future of IMO as an international body responsible for maritime safety and environment protection.4. The task for IMO is to find an appropriate international solution. the Indian Sub Continent. If this cannot be achieved it is likely the Europeans will walk away from IMO and implement their own regime.4. Piracy hotspots now include major shipping routes through South East Asia.5 Piracy Issues International Maritime Bureau piracy statistics show that piracy attacks are increasing year on year. 4. excessive regulations. This would have serious consequences for the rest of the world in dealing with the older tankers. Africa & the Gulf of Aden. the waters around Indonesia have become increasingly plagued by pirates. The main areas where increases have taken place are Asian and African waters. Implementation and compliance with international conventions.
joc. The IMO and Maritime Security both suggest that each Ship owner set up a plan of action that describes what preventive measures like those mentioned above have to be taken by their vessels and crew. 47 .southchinasea. 4. 48 vessels fired upon and 70 vessels boarded. The coast of Somalia remains particularly vulnerable with 100 pirate attacks in 2010. 597 crew members were taken hostage and 16 were injured. one crew member was killed. The number of attacks decreased compared to 2009 in the most dangerous maritime area of the world. During this period. The Maritime Enforcement Control Centre (MECC) has also not been very effective in combating piracy.org/docs/Maritime%20Piracy. (Source: http://www.5. Also anti-piracy drills to familiarize the crew with required actions are necessary.1 Way to Prevent Piracy The piracy problem has already increased markedly this year. ( Source: http://www. This includes 31 vessels hijacked. according to a report issued Thursday by the International Chamber of Commerce¶s International Maritime Bureau. including 27 hijackings. The MECC was set up in 1995 to increase radar surveillance of the Straits and to coordinate efforts by the Royal Malaysian Navy and the Malaysian Marine Police.pdf ) The number of pirate attacks on shipping worldwide declined by 18 percent in the first six months of 2010 despite the increased range and capabilities demonstrated by Somali pirates.swiftly enough upon reports of piracy incidents.com/maritime/pirate-attacks-decline-first-half 2010?page=2 ) A total of 196 incidents around the world were recorded by the IMB¶s Piracy Reporting Center. compared to 240 incidents in the first half of 2009.
development of standard reporting procedures. head of U. Despite this reaction. Pacific Command.The IMO is working to establish worldwide standards to improve the uniformity of inspection and reporting practices for port control and promote exchange of information. Experience has also shown that the country and region around it concerned may benefit from entering into regional co-operation. Private companies are offering services that include surveillance and tracking of ships using GPS and the Internet.southchinasea. Representatives from both government and non-government organizations are just beginning to communicate after a decade of frustration. joint efforts include only seminars. the members of ASEAN realize that it will take a cooperative effort to even deter the rampant escalation of piracy in their region. just as they report piracy and sea robbery. The wheels of government turn slowly. So far.S. Keating.pdf ) According to Admiral Timothy J. The IMO and IMB should go a step further by publishing reports identifying ports that regularly cause undue delay or those where port authorities may be conspiring with criminal groups and by publishing instances of extortion or collusion. the reason for the dramatic decrease is due to use of increased patrols and better law-enforcement capabilities. Specific areas for co-operation could include capacity building in law enforcement and legislation. development of both global and regional information bases and co-operation between coast guards. Recent initiatives include a joint maritime task force led by the Japanese coast guard. China vehemently rejects this option. (Source: http://www.org/docs/Maritime%20Piracy. 48 .
org/includes/blastDataOnly. officers from both CBP and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to work together with host foreign government counterparts at CSI ports. Europe. the Caribbean.1 Container Security Initiative (CSI) The Container Security Initiative (CSI) is a multinational initiative that protects the main method of global trade. In October 2007.S. the Middle East.( Source:http://www. the US Customs and Border Protection released a fact sheet to better explain what the CSI is and how it works. and throughout Asia. CSI is now operational at ports in North. CSI is a security regime designed to ensure that all containers that pose a potential risk for terrorism are identified and inspected at foreign ports before they are placed on vessels destined for the United Sates. It is designed to safeguard global marine trade while enabling legitimate cargo containers to move faster and more efficiently through the supply chain to seaports worldwide. and South America. CBP has stationed multidisciplinary teams of U. In January 2002. CSI was first implemented in the ports shipping the greatest volume of containers to the United States. Africa. Customs administrations all over the world have committed to joining CSI and are at various stages of implementation.asp/data_id%3D29236/Pirac y_19July2010_. Their mission is to target and prescreen 49 . containerized shipping.0 Organization Issues 5. Central. from being exploited or disrupted by terrorists to reduce the risk of global containerized cargos.imo.pdf ) 5.
This equipment is necessary to meet the objective of quickly screening containers without disrupting the flow of legitimate trade.1 Minimum Standards for CSI Expansion The requirement must be present in a potential CSI port to be considered for inclusion in the CSI program. World Customs Organization (WCO).containers and to develop additional investigative leads related to the terrorist threat to cargo destined to the United States. 5. direct and substantial container traffic to ports in the United States. y The seaport must have regular. 50 . y The port must have or make non-intrusive inspection (NII) equipment (gamma or X-ray) and radiation detection equipment available for use at or near the potential CSI port.1. Those administrations use non-intrusive inspection (NII) and radiation detection technology to screen high-risk containers before they are shipped to US ports. exiting or being transshipped through a country. y The CBP Administration must be able to inspect cargo originating. International Organizations that support CSI including. transiting. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Business Anti-Smuggling Coalition (BASC).
Malaysia Parliament officially established this agency with the enactment of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency Act 2004 (Act 633) in May 2004. and develop an automated mechanism for these exchanges. In case during war. y The port must commit to share critical data. crisis or emergency. This system should include a mechanism to validate threat assessments and identify best practices. 5.2 Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA) Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency also known as the Malaysian Coast Guard is the principal government agency tasked with maintaining law and order and coordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone and on the high seas. 51 . The Agency and its members are part of the Malaysian Civil Service and report directly to the Prime Minister's Department. It was formed to combat the rise of piracy in the Malaccan straits. especially after frequent attacks from the Orang laut pirate during the 1900s. intelligence and risk management information with the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in order to do collaborative targeting. the Agency may be placed under the command of the Malaysian Armed Forces.y The port must commit to establish a risk management system to identify potential highrisk containers and to the automation of that system.
including police. enter. The national maritime law enforcement agency is responsible for anything within and beyond 12 nautical miles of the coast. structure. It is deliberated to be the sole maritime law enforcement agency to act in response to the security of the waters around the ports and navigation routes and its major functions are to carry our air and coastal surveillance. 5. the MMEA is ³to receive and consider any report of the commission of an offence´ and to ³to stop. board.2. vessel or aircraft and to detain any vessel or aircraft´. International Labor Organization based on the Treaty of Versailles as an agency of the League of Nations following to establish. 52 . In December 12th 1946. In addition. ILO as the United Nations specialized agency. ILO headquartered in Geneva.1 Why MMEA is created? Overlapping Issue & Safety Issue MMEA was formed officially in 2005 as Malaysia¶s statutory response to the threats of maritime terrorism and to effectively function as a coast guard.3 International Labour Organization (ILO) In 1919. The establishment of the new agency is based on the nation's need to have a strong collective thrust in maritime enforcement. inspect and search any place. The MMEA was designed to streamline the operations and enforce maritime law. Due to the overlapping functions among the 11 different agencies. customs and navy. These powers are similar to the powers vested in the MOF to fight maritime crime and it is possible that overlapping of jurisdiction can infringe on law enforcement duties. There is clearly an overlap in terms of duties and jurisdiction with the MOF.5. marine police.
laws and regulations for reference. conventions and recommendations and technical assistance with cooperation. annually to convene the meets. Its main activities are International labour legislation. promote the labor and the capital to cooperation. at any time of its ratification. then. 53 . There are two forms of international labor standards: the International Labour Conventions and the International Labour proposals. independent vote. one employer. an independent decision of Member States may. Convention is an international treaty. proposal is to develop the same way. non-approved State no binding. but without the approval of its role is to provide Member States to develop national policies in related areas. council. expansion social security measure. The International Labour conference is the highest machine. ILO proposal through labour legislation to improve labour condition. meaning that the Member States to produce legally binding. the International Labour Conference at more than two-thirds vote of the way on behalf of the development. At the present time International Labour Organization has 175 member state. and International Labor Office. protect worker live and healthy. its means each of member state delegation consists of two government officials. and its institutional framework include: International labour conference. the tripartite all of attend all manner of meeting.ILO purpose is promote full employment and improve the standard of living. ILO carry out tripartite mechanism principle. one worker.
social policy. linked to the end of the war to which workers had contributed significantly both on the battlefield and in industry According to international labor standards can be divided into the following categories: (1) basic labor rights. even revolution -The third motivation was economic. working conditions.1 ILO issues: -The initial motivation was humanitarian.5. occupational safety and health. Because of its inevitable effect on the cost of production. The condition of workers.3. the abolition of forced labor. mainly refers to the establishment of free trade unions. any industry or country adopting social reform would find itself at a disadvantage vis-à-vis its competitors. including wages. working hours. (2) Employment. whose numbers were ever increasing as a result of industrialization. unemployment insurance. would create social unrest. equality of opportunity and treatment work . that freedom of association and collective bargaining. social security. more and more numerous and exploited with no consideration for their health. labor relations. -The second motivation was political. their family lives and their advancement. was less and less acceptable. labor management. -Another reason for the creation of the International Labour Organization was added by the participants of the Peace Conference. including work-related injuries compensation. (3) for specific populations and occupations. abolition of child labor. collective bargaining. Without an improvement in their condition. including women. pension. the workers. child 54 .
It brings together and updates over 65 other ILO maritime labour instruments. Adopted in February 2006. fishermen. should be national implementation of the labor situation of the Convention and its international trade and market access. seamen. the entire system of international labor standards. older workers. However. and flaunt the standard universality and flexibility of developing countries in the formulation and approval of the implementation of the Convention there is still a lot of difficulties. dock workers. 55 . Thus. and the Work in Fishing Convention. linked the rise to voices of opposition in the ILO. Over the years. Into the 90's.labor and young workers. the ILO attention to international labor standards. and the developed countries there are many contradictions. 2006. the socio-economic development level and needs-based. the ILO's Maritime Labour Convention sets the minimum standards to ensure satisfactory conditions of employment for the world¶s seafarers. Major achievements of the ILO over the past few years include the adoption of the Maritime Labour Convention. the ILO has adopted a series of measures to promote the ratification process. to promote the Member States approved the implementation of international labor conventions. Particularly in recent years. while the International Labour Organization called the minimum international labor standards. migrant workers. trade union organizations and government advocates. while introducing a system of certification and inspection to enforce it. persons with disabilities. mainly in developed countries. due to historical reasons. on the preservation of the workers and other basic rights of workers play a positive role. a few Western countries.
Ships will need to comply with the Convention through holding a Maritime Labour Certificate and Declaration of Maritime Labour Compliance issued by the flag state. cleanly and safely.SOLAS . legal matters. 5. A specialized agency of the United Nations with 169 Member States and three Associate Members. serving more than 90 per cent of global trade by carrying huge quantities of cargo cost effectively. The Convention establishing the International Maritime Organization (IMO) was adopted in Geneva in 1948 and IMO first met in 1959. IMO is based in the United Kingdom with around 300 international staff. therefore.which can be adopted and accepted by all. which must be available on board for any port state inspection. a need for international standards to regulate shipping . The ownership and management chain surrounding any ship can embrace many countries and ships spend their economic life moving between different jurisdictions. There is. technical co-operation.convention. the Titanic disaster of 1912 spawned the first international safety of life at sea . IMO's main task has been to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety. still the most important treaty addressing maritime safety. maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. environmental concerns. 56 . Later. The first maritime treaties date back to the 19th century.4 International Maritime Organization (IMO) Shipping is perhaps the most international of the world's industries. often far from the country of registry.
together with those from interested intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. equipment. measures aimed at the prevention of accidents. there are conventions which establish compensation and liability regimes . Inspection and monitoring of compliance are the responsibility of member States. but the adoption of a Voluntary IMO Member State Audit Scheme is expected to play a key role in enhancing implementation of IMO standards. supported by hundreds of recommendations governing every facet of shipping. firstly. Then there are measures which recognize that accidents do happen.IMO's specialized committees and sub-committees are the focus for the technical work to update existing legislation or develop and adopt new regulations. construction.key treaties include SOLAS.including the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage. operation and manning . Thirdly. the International Convention on Search and Rescue and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness. There are. The result is a comprehensive body of international conventions. with meetings attended by maritime experts from Member Governments. the convention establishing the International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage and the Athens Convention covering liability and compensation for passengers at sea. including standards for ship design. including rules concerning distress and safety communications. 57 . the MARPOL convention for the prevention of pollution by ships and the STCW convention on standards of training for seafarers. Response and Cooperation.
serving as the interface between maritime and inland transportation. Therefore. play a significant role in the economic development of a region. seaports. The IMO is made up of representatives of the flag States. Production capabilities and the performance measurement of seaports have always been a major issue in seaport management.The IMO Conventions are of importance to seafarers because they have a direct impact on living and working conditions. Seaports are not only embedded in global value chains but also in urban and regional spatial structures that both fix and constrain their evolution. Our aim is to ensure that seafarers¶ interests are addressed and protected when any new regulation is being considered. Furthermore. the seaport may upgraded the facilities in order to compete with other international seaports to keep survive in the industrial. The ITF. in addition there are monitors elected from ITF affiliated unions who participate in the various committees. This means that we can have an input into discussions but no vote on any decisions that are to be taken. The ITF has a permanent representative to the IMO. 58 . representing the interests of seafarers and the organizations of the shipping industry have observer status.0 Conclusion In conclusion. port safety is also a main concern for the customers deliver their cargoes to the destination in the shortest transit time. 6. The authority should improve the port service by using the suitable technology to solve the problems occurred and increase the efficiency.
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