This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Stability is one of the most important safety features of ships, and in particular of small ships which tend to suffer from insufficient stability which could lead to capsizing the vessel and loss of the crew. It is, therefore, essential to design a ship with adequate stability and to maintain it in all conditions of loading during its operation.
Development of the concept of metacentric height apparently originated with Bouguer in 1746. Derivation and calculation procedures for the righting lever curves was published by Atwood in 1796. Development of quasi dynamic stability and the concept of the energy balance method was advanced by Moseley in 1850. Several proposals for th use of a GM based stability criteria were offered in the late 1800s, and proposals for criteria based on righting energy have existed since the early 1900s. The major historical work on the stability of ships was by rahola in 1939. Rahola’s work involved a detailed analysis of Baltic ship capsizings and included a proposal for a GZ based criteria. Wind heel GM requirements have been applied in the US since the 1940s and became a US requirement for cargo ships in 1952. Based on recommendations from the 1960 International Conference on the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS 60), the IMCO sub-committee on Subdivision and Stability was formed in 1962. The first international stability criterion, Resolution A.167, largely based on Rahola’s GZ criteria, was adopted by the IMO in 1968 for ships under 100m. The IMO assembly adopted Resolution A.562 in 1985. This resolution is an energy balance criterion, but also includes a wind heel recommendation, and is to be used as a supplement to A.167.
9.2. Types of Intact Stability Criteria
The types of stability criteria can be divided into the following groups • • • • • • GM or initial stability Wind heel GZ or quasi dynamic stability Energy balance Wave adjusted stability Dynamic motion stability
9.2.1. Criteria based on GM or Initial Stability GM is based on the geometrical relationship the centre of gravity, G, and the centre of buoyancy, B, of a floating body. The initial metacentric height or metacentre, M, is calculated based on the centre of buoyancy, KB, and the moment of inertia of the ship’s waterplane, BM. Then GM is the vertical distance between the centre of gravity and the metacentre and is linearly
GZ Cargo vessel Tug Heel angle Figure 9. GM can also be expressed as the initial slope of the righting arm curve. GM tells surprisingly little about the character of the vessel at other than very small angles of heel. However. GM is only a valid measure within small angles of the initial unheeled position.1. The much greater initial GM of the tug is misleading. The use of GM based criterion on two different types of ships. or its low value of maximum righting arm and low value of the angle at which that maximum occurs. GM is the most basic stability criterion and one of the earliest methods used to quantify a ship’s stability. Since the sine of a small angle is approximately equal to the angle and since the metacentre is relatively stationary for small angles of heel. shown in Figure 9. serves well to illustrate the problem in choosing criteria to represent a type of rather than a form of vessel. The high value of initial GM does not reflect the tug’s greatly shortened range of positive stability compared with a conventioanl cargo vessel. Many national and international regulations have a minimum GM as one component of their requirements since a value of GM is easy to calculate. The principal strength of GM based criteria lies in their simplicity and their accuarcy in predicting equilibrium heel angles when very specific heeling moment descriptions can be provided. In most cases.related to the righting arm by the sine of the heel angle. As such. its meaning is relatively simple to understand. ϕ is the equilibrium heel angle. Specification of a minimum value of initial GM and freeboard sufficed as the sole numerical stability criterion in use until 1940s. since the position of the metacentre varies as the ship heels. where MH is the heeling moment. it provides a realistic approximation of the resistance of a vessel to small angles of heel in the manner of a linear spring constant. and ∆is the displacement. For this reason. M H = ∆GM ϕ.1. GM has been widely used in the past in criteria that establish a 2 . and the effect of its magnitude on the heel response is readily predictable.
GM is still used as a useful stability criteria for special cases. and a fundamental analysis has generated some simple relationships. and the position of the towing bitt. relative sizes of the tug and tow. passenger group movements. As a consequence. and those relating to the tendency for the tow to veer off and create an unexpectedly large transverse component of force on the tug with a large upsetting moment resulting. long tons ϕ : angle of heel to deck edge or 14 degrees. the tow-induced mechanism is extremely difficult to quantify since it involves a large number of unknown parameters such as towing speed. relative headings of the tug and tow. Typically. Secondly. towline pull. The basic form of classical tug-induced tripping relationships is exemplified by the Argyriadis formula: GM R = SHP × h f 100 ∆ B (ft ) where SHP ∆ f B h : shaft horsepower per shaft : displacement. long tons : minimum freeboard along the length : molded beam : vertical distance from propeller shaft centreline at rudder to towing bitt In this relationship it is assumed that the towline is directly athwartships and that the rudder is put hard over with full power applied. The height h is used to represent the distance between the 3 . whicever is less Towing Forces : Towing related stability hazards have commonly been divided into two categories. the current trend toward increased power in towing vessels reduce the response time in the operator’s margin for error and increases the available heeling force of propeller thrust dramatically. based on two reasons. lifting heavy weights over the side. those relating to the tendency of a towing vessel to overturn itself under the influence of the heeling couple created by the opposing towline pull and propeller forces. towline length. Despite these shortcomings. has been considered to be the controlling one. the self-tripping case has been more thoroughly examined. steady high-speed turning. the tug induced tripping situation. and others. Typical examples of specific GM based stability criteria are give below Passenger vessels : For passenger vessels. First.maximum heel angle under the influence of such forces as those due to lateral wind loading. without significantly altering the typical vessel’s ability to resist the resulting upsetting moment. or self-tripping. the US Coast Guard require the satisfaction of the following minimum GM value GM R = Nb 24 ∆ tan ϕ where GMR : required minimum metacentric height at any particular draught (ft) N : number of passenger ships b : distance from vessel’s centreline to geometrical centre of passenger deck area on one side of centreline (ft) ∆ : displacement.
The only tow-induced tripping criterion based on GM that was included in a survey of towing criteria by Miller is a standard proposed for use in Norway which was experimentally derived by towing a model with a block coefficient of 0. In order to account for multiple screws. This criterion is described in the following sections. But when these expressions attempt to predict the response of a vessel near the heel angle which will cause capsizing.37 + 0. The US Coast Guard used the Murphy criterion until 1971. and the maximum amount of heel is related to the function of freeboard divided by beam. As long as these relationships are used to limit the angle of heel to less than that at which downflooding might occur through hull openings. their use is both arbitrary and inaccurate. the effect of propeller diameter. Murphy modified the basic form as follows: GM R N( SHP × D ) = f 76 ∆ B 2/3 Sh (ft ) where N D S : number of screws : propeller diameter : fraction of propeller circle cylinder intercepted by rudder turned to 45 deg The Murphy criterion assumes that with constant power an increase in the propeller diameter will result in an increase in thrust and therefore an increase in the heeling moment.7388 + 2B0. and the effect of rudder area. provided the effect of the rudder area is assumed to remain constant.5 sideways at a speed of 4 knots.82 − 0. Fishing Vessels : The IMO simplified criterion for fishing vessels under 30 m in length is expressed as follows 2 f B f GM R = 1. resulting in a twofold increase in the required GM.075 − 0. The standard requires h1 + 5f d 2 (m) GM R = where h1 d f : height of towing bitt above waterline : draught : minimum freeboard along length In general.014 − 0. the major criticism of all the foregoing towing vessel criteria is that they are valid only at angles of heel less than about 7 degrees. they may be satisfactory.centre of underwater resistance and the towing bit. f/B. A more sound approach for larger angles of heel is based on balancing the heeling moment induced by either the tug or tow with the available righting moment below a critical angle. such as either the angle of downflooding or the threshold of capsize. when the factor of 76 in the denominator was changed to 38.032 B D L B (ft ) where 4 .
The limitation of maximum heel as one-half the freeboard is intended to allow for wind gusts. however. assumed to be acting at the half-draught point. and rudder forces.24 rad) in this relationship may lead to questionable results. Under this method.B f D L : beam at waterline : minimum freeborad along length : minimum depth : length of superstructure : waterline length 9. and for the Great lakes in winter x=0. 9. Criteria based on GZ or Quasi Dynamic Stability The International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea. An example of a wind heel criterion is the USCG wind heel criterion. since the nonlinearity of righting arms with heel angle is well established by this point. bays. cargo ships and fishing vessels. long tons h : Vertical distance from centroid of A to half-draught point (ft) ϕ : Angle to ½ freeboard or 14 deg (0.0025 for protected waters such as rivers and harbours LBP : Length between perpendiculars (ft) A : Projected lateral area of vessel above waterline (ft2) ∆ : Displacement. 5 . sounds and for the Great lakes in summer x=0.3.2. the minimum required GMR is given by GM R = PAh (feet ) ∆ tan ϕ where P : is in the form x + L BP (tons/ft2) and represents pressure on the projected lateral surface 14200 2 of the vessel due to a steady beam winf. The use of angles near the upper limit of 14 deg (0.24 rad). This heeling moment is evaluated against the righting moment (either based on GM or the righting lever) to limit heel to a specified angle. 1960. The value of x varies depending on the area of vessel opeartion and has units of tons/ft2. wave action.005 for oceans. x = 0. coastwise service. whichever is less The heeling moment being resisted is the couple created by the force due to beam wind pressure distributed over the exposed lateral area of the vessel and the resisting drag force of the submerged hull. Criteria based on Wind Heel Wind heel criteria are based on the principle of a heeling moment created by a pressure on the lateral profile of a ship coupled with a drag force on the underwater hull. recognizing the importance of the stability of ships.2.2. with a view to formulating such international standards as may appear necessary.0033 for partially protected waters such as lakes. recommended that IMCO should undertake studies on intact stability of passenger ships.
09 metre-radians up to ϕ = 40° or the angle of flooding ϕ f if this angle is less than 40°.3 Meyil açısı The following additional criteria are recommended for passenger ships: • • The angle of heel on account of crowding of passengers to one side should not exceed 10°. among others.003 metre-radians. on results of analyses of intact stability casualty records and on stability calculations of ships which have operated successfully. at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30° The maximum righting arm should occur at an angle of heel preferably exceeding 30° but not less than 25° GZ GM A1 A2 GZmax 0 15 30 40 57. with the task of studying the intact stability of passenger ships and cargo ships. the area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) between the angles of heel of 30° and 40° or between 30° and ϕ f . The area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) should not be less than 0. a Recommendation on Intact Stability for Passenger and Cargo Ships under 100 metres in length was drawn up. The following criteria are recommended for passenger and cargo ships under 100 m in length: • • • • The initial metacentric height GM0 should not be less than 0. The righting lever GZ should be at least 0. the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization established in 1960 the Sub-Committee on Sub-division and Stability which was charged. 15m. should not be less than 0.In pursuance of the above recommendation.20m. if this angle is less than 40°. Additionally. This Recommendation was approved by the Maritime Safety Committee in March 1968 and adopted by the Assembly of the Organization at its fourth extraordinary session in November 1968. The angle of heel on account of turning should not exceed 10° when calculated using the following formula: 6 .055 metreradians up to ϕ = 30° angle of heel and not less than 0. As a result of the Sub-Committee’s comprehensive studies on existing national requirements.
An example of an energy balance criterion is the IMO resolution A. the angle of heel shall not exceed 16 degrees or 80 percent of the level of deck edge immersion. : height of centre of gravity above keel in m.. its complement. whichever is less: 7 .M R = 0. where appropriate. For ships loaded with timber deck cargoes and provided that the cargo extends longitudinally between superstructures transversely for the full beam of ship after due allowance for a rounded gunwale not exceeding 4 per cent of the breadth of the ship and/or securing the supporting uprights and which remains securely fixed at large angle of heel. In applying this criterion.. since these might lead to acceleration forces which could be prejudicial to the ship. : displacement in metric tons. The vessel is assumed to heel to a static heel angle. It is advisable to avoid excessive values. at all times during a voyage the metacentric height GM0 should be positive after correction for the free surface effects of liquid in tanks. A gust wind heeling lever Lw2 is then applied. The criteria fix minimum values.4. in the departure condition the metacentric height should be not less than 0.562.25 m.08 metre-radians up to ϕ = 40°or the angle of flooding if this angle is less than 40. : length of ship at waterline in m. Integration of the righting arm curve is interpreted to represent righting or heeling energy.10 m.2. the absorption of water by the deck cargo and/or ice accretion on the exposed surfaces. Lw1. ϕ . . The criterion also recommends that under the action of the steady wind heeling lever Lw1. the vessel meets the criterion./sec. Criteria based on Energy Balance The concept of the energy balance method is that the restoring energy or area must be equal to or greater than the capsizing energy. superstructures or deckhouses which cannot be closed weathertight immerse. Additionally. but no maximum values are recommended. 9.0 V2 d ∆ KG − L 2 where: MR V L ∆ d KG : heeling moment in metre-tons : service speed in m. Resonant rolling of the vessel is assumed with an amplitude ϕ 1 about the equilibrium position ϕ . small openings through which progressive flooding cannot take place need not be considered as open. under the action of a steady wind 0 heeling lever. its equipment and to the safe carriage of the cargo. If the righting energy b 0 exceeds the capsizing energy a. ‘ϕ ’ is an angle of heel at which openings in the hull. and. The maximum value of the righting lever (GZ) should be at least 0. This criterion is recommended for all ships over 75 m and was approved by IMO in 1985. an Administration may apply the following criteria in substitution for criteria given above: • • • the area under the righting lever (GZ curve) should not be less than 0. : mean draught in m.
200 m 8 .5L w1 (m ) ( m) where P A Z ∆ ϕ1 ϕ2 = 0. GZ b a Lw1 Meyil açısı ϕ o Lw2 ϕ 2 ϕ o ϕ 1 Exercise . whichever is less.225 m : 59.L w1 = Lw2 PAZ ∆ = 1. Check whether the IMO stability criteria are satisfied or not for a ship with following particulars: LOA LBP : 65.0514 (t/m2) : projected lateral area of portion of ship and cargo above waterline (m2) : vertical arm from centre of A to centre of underwater lateral area (m) : displacement (t) : roll angle : angle of downflooding or 50 deg or ϕ c. ϕ c is the angle of second intercept between wind heeling lever Lw2 and the GZ curve.
Heel (deg) KZ (m) 9.190 40 2.753 40 2.532 30 2.766 10 0.482 20 1.B D ∆ KG KB BM : 10.110 30 2.140 30 2.180 30 2.000 m : 4. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 8.170 30 2.160 30 2.462 20 1. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 2. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 10 0.786 10 0.691 m : 1.733 40 2.826 20 1. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 1.512 20 1.723 40 2. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 3.816 10 0.806 10 0.693 40 2.492 20 1.763 9 .756 10 0.522 20 1.452 20 1.950 m : 1529 t : 3.472 20 1.683 40 2.150 30 2. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 7.502 20 1.130 30 2.100 30 2.400 m 0.736 10 0.776 10 0. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 6.442 20 1.673 40 2. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 4.743 40 2.746 10 0.663 40 2.905 m : 2.120 30 2.796 10 0. Heel (deg) KZ (m) 5.713 40 2.