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jif{ !$, c+s #!, @)&* ;fn h]7 @# ut] cfOtaf/ (June 6, 2021) d"No ?= !).–

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dxf;‹sf ;+of]hs ljgf]b yfkfn] Ps knfog Go"gLs/0fdf hf]8, /f]huf/ cd]l/sfsf /fi6«klt hf] afO8]gn] dgf]a1} lgs bafa lbO/x]sf 5g\ . o;sf] rLgdfly nufOPsf] kmQ'/ ;xL klg
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5 . clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ c3f{vfFrLn]
b]zsf] /fhgLlt lbgk|ltlbg hl6n aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . ;+;b\jfbL cleofgÚ lnP/ b] z JofkL ?kdf ;Ë7gn] …sf]le8 !( lj?4 ljBfyL{ uDeL/ / pQ/bfoL gag]sf] eGb} gofF jif{ @)&* ;fnsf]] leQ]kfqf] ljdf]rg
vl6Psf] 5 . o;}qmddf clvn - cleofgÚ cGtu{t /fgLuGhsf sl/a qmflGtsf/Ln] lhNnfsf a' 6 jn u/]sf] xf] . ljdf]rg sfo{qmddf ;Daf]wg
bnx?sf] ;Qf / ;/sf/sf] l5gfemD6Ln] b]z / hgtfsf] Ph]08f qmflGtsf/L_ slknj:t'n] slknj:t' &) 3/df uP/ df:s / ;]lg6fOh/ pkdxfgu/kflnsf, ltnf] Q df ub}{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf lhNnf
cf]em]ndf k/]sf 5g\ . ljZj g} sf]/f]gf dxfdf/Laf6 cft+lst afnu[xdf sf]/f]gf dxfdf/Lsf] hl6n ljt/0f u/]sf] ;Ë7gsL lhNnf cWoIf gu/kflnsfnufot :yfgLo txdf & ;lrj tyf sfo{qmdsf k|dv ' cltly
;dodf cTofjZos vfBfGg / :jf:Yo OGb' cf]nLn] atfOg\ . pQm cleofgdf a' F b ] dfukq a' e mfPsf] xf] . v]d 3tL{n] ;Ë7gn] leQ]kfqf] k|sfzg
eO/x]sf] ;dodf g]kfn klg To;af6 c5't /xg ;Sg] cj:yf ;fdu|L x:tfGt/0f u/]sf] 5 . lhNnfdf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ a'6jn Onfsf qmflGtsf/Lsf lhNnf cWoIf OGb' u/]sf]df wGojfb lbP . pgn] ;/sf/n]
lyPg g} . g]kfndf sf]/f]gf dxfdf/Laf6 hlt Iflt k'us ] f] 5, olb kl/jf/ljxLg ljleGg lhNnfsf cgfy
afnaflnsfnfO{ pkef] U o
;/sf/ a]nd} f rgfvf] ePsf] eP Tolt Iflt gx'g] ;a}n] cfFsng /f;gcGtu{t rfdn #) s]hL, bfn
u/]sf] ljifo xf] . b]z / hgtfsf sf]/f]gf dxfdf/LnfO{ cft+lst #) s]hL, t]n, t/sf/L !^ s]hL,
df:s %)) yfg, ;]lg6fOh/ % ln6/,
eO/xFbf ;+;b\jfbL bnx? ;/sf/ xTofpg sDd/ s;]/ nfu]sf g'g !) s]hL, ;fa'g !@ j6fnufot
5g\ eg] ;/sf/ cfk"m aRg ePe/sf] zlQm nufO/x]sf] 5 . cTofjZos vfB / :jf:Yo ;fdu|L
afnu[x Joj:yfksnfO{ x:tfGt/0f
;+;b\jfbL bnx?sf] o:tf] xs{tn] pgLx?af6 b]z / hgtfsf] ul/Psf] hfgsf/L clvn -qmflGtsf/L_
kIfdf 5}gg\ eGg] k'li6 x'G5 . ;+;b\jfbL bnx?sf] oxL xs{tn] slknj:t'sf cWoIf lj1fg If]qLn]
lbP . pgn] o:tf] hl6n cj:yfdf
;+;bLo Joj:yf g} e8\vfnf]df k/]sf] 5 . /fHosf] k|x/L afnu[xdf vfB ;Í6 x'Fbf klg gfd
k|zf;gnufot x/]s cËdf ;+;b\jfbL bn / g]tfx?n] x:tIf]k dfqsf] :yfgLo ;/sf/ a]va/ ePsf]
klg atfP . pgn] afnaflnsfsf]
u/]sf 5g\, h;sf sf/0f pgLx?n] :jtGq?kn] sfo{ ug{ kfPsf eljiok|lt /fHo u}/lhDd]jf/ ePsfn]
5}gg\ . kl5Nnf] ;do ;+;b\jfbL bn / g]tfx? ;jf]{Rr ;a} ;r] t gful/sn] cfcfˆgf]
7fpFaf6 ;Sbf] ;xof]u u/L gful/ssf]
cbfntnfO{ ;d]t ljjfbdf tfGg] k|oTg ul//x]sf 5g\ . h'g Hofg arfpg / sf]/f]gflj?4 n8\g ;b:o ;l/tf a/fx, clvn - jnLsf] g]tT[ jdf dfukq a'emfOPsf] hgtfnfO{ e]8fafv|fnfO{ h:t} vf]/df
Hofb} lgGbgLo / 3[l0ft sfo{ xf] . ;+;b\jfbL bn, g]tf / ;/sf/sf] tof/ x'gk' g]{ wf/0ff JoQm u/] . o:tf] qmflGtsf/L_ s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf xf] . dfukqdf clS;hgsf] cfk"lt{, y'g/] b]z g} a]Rg cfF6s] f] atfP . ljleGg
cleofgdf lhNnfsf pBf] u L, ¿kGb] x L lhNnf OGrfh{ ¿kf cfOl;o', e]lG6n]6/sf] Joj:yf, ;Dk"0f{ axfgf ub}{ gbLgfnf, lu§L, afn'jf,
o:t} xs{tn] pgLx?k|lt hgljZjf; 6'6s ] f] 5 . h;sf] kmn:j?k Joj;foL, a' l 4hLlj, kqsf/, a'9fdu/, ;Ë7gsL lhNnf cWoIf OGb' :jf:Yo ;fdu|Lx¿ ;xh / ;'neb/df sf7nufot k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwg
cfd;r]t gful/s ;/sf/ abNg]eGbf klg Joj:yf abNg'g]{ k|zf;lgs lgsfo ;a} ldn]/ cl3 cf]nL, ;Ë7gsf lhNnf pkfWoIf kf/; pknAw u/fpg, sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0fsf] ef/tnfO{ laqmL ug]{ lg0f{o u/]/ /fi6«3ftL
a9\gk' g]{ pgsf] egfO lyof] . ;Ë7gn] /fxfbL du/, lhNnf ;x;lrj kjg cj;/ 5f]k]/ lghL c:ktfnx¿n] sfd u/]sf] klg pgn] atfP . Pd;L;L
lgisif{df k'us
] f 5g\ . o:tf] cj:yfdf b]z / hgtfnfO{ jt{dfg ;~rfng u/] s f] sf] / f] g flj?4sf] 1jfnL, lhNnf ;b:o kz{g' 1jfnLnufot cdfgjLo / cg}lts 9Ën] /sd kf; ug{sf lglDt clxn] ;/sf/n] 6LeL,
;+s6af6 d'Qm kfg{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] eg]h:tf] ;+;bLo c;'ln/x]sfn] tTsfn cg'udg u/L klqsf / /]l8of]df k|rf/–k|;f/ ul//x]sf]
sf/afxL ug{, ;+qmldtsf] a9\bf] ;+Vof / o;f] ub}{ hfg] xf] eg] of] bnfn k'h
F LjfbL
lgjf{rg geP/ hgdt ;+ux| ug'{ clgjfo{ aGb} uPsf] 5 . ;+;bLo / c:ktfndf a] 8 cefj eO{ ;/sf/n] g]kfnnfO{ l;lSsdLs/0f ug]{
Joj:yfn] b]z / hgtfsf] ;Daf]wg ug{ g;s]sf] jt{dfg pkrf/af6 jl~rt eO/x] s f] wf/0ff pgn] JoQm u/] . csf]{ k|;Ëdf
cj:yfdf lghL c:ktfnx¿df klg pgn] ;+;b\jfbL bnx?n] sf]/f]gfsf]
cj:yfdf ca b]zdf s:tf] zf;g Joj:yf / zf;g k|0ffnL ;+qmldtsf] pkrf/ ug]{ Joj:yf dxfdf/Ldf klg s;nfO{ k|wfgdGqL
nfu" ug]{ eGg] lg0f{o hgtfnfO{ ug{ lbg' Gofof]lrt x'G5 . h;af6 tTsfn ldnfpg, dxfdf/Lsf] df}sf agfpg] eGg] n'5fr'8F L u/]/ cdfgjLo
5f]kL :jf:Yo ;fdu|L, b}lgs pkef]Uo xs{t hf/L /fv]sf] atfP . r'gfj g} ug]{
dfq b]zsf] jt{dfg ;+s6sf] bL3{sfnLg ;dfwfg x'G5 . cGoyf ;fdu|Lsf] s[lqd cefj pTkGg ug],{ eP ;+;bLo Joj:yf 7Ls ls j}1flgs
oL ;+;b\jfbL bn / g]tfx? t c;kmn x'G5g\ g} pgLx?n] b]znfO{ sfnf] a hf/L, 7uL ug] { tyf ;dfhjfb 7Ls eg]/ r'gfj u/fpg pgn]
;jf/L;fwgx¿n] ;d]t dgkl/ ef8f ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj klg lbP .
;d]t c;kmn /fi6« agfpg] lglZrt 5 . t;y{, cfd;r]t gful/s, c;'ln/x]sfn] tTsfn cg'udg u/L ;Ë7gsf lhNnf OGrfh{ gjLg
qmflGtsf/L k|ultzLn nf]stGqjfbL, /fi6«jfbL bn / g]tfx?n] sf/afxL ug{ dfu ul/Psf] 5 . v8\sfn] cfˆgf] ;Ë7gn] cu|kl+ Stdf
To;}u/L, b}lgs Hofnfbf/L dhb'/, /x] / d' n ' s df ljBdfg y' k | }
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] cufl8 ;f/]sf] hgdt ;+u|xsf] ef8fdf al;/x]sf ljBfyL{, ljkGg lj;Ëltlj?4 cfGbf]ng ub}{ cfPsf] /
Ph]08fnfO{ ;fy / ;xof]u ub}{ To;nfO{ ;fy{s agfpg nflukg's { f] cleofgdf :jf:Yo ;fdu|L / /fxt kf6{ / ljBfyL{ g]tf–sfo{stf{sf] pkl:ylt gful/ssf] kl/jf/nfO{ tTsfn /fxt z}lIfs dflkmofx¿n] ns8fpgsf]
;xof]u ug]{ ;xof]uL, Joj;foL, lyof] . ;Ë7gn] sf]/f]gf efO/;lj?4sf] pknAw u/fpg, ns8fpgsf] cjlwdf ;dodf klg z'Ns p7fPsf] kfOPsfn]
ljsNk 5}g . cfhsf] cfjZostf / hgrfxgf klg oxL 5, ;dfh;]jLx¿nfO{ pgn] wGojfb klg ljBfyL{ cleofgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] z}lIfs ;+:yfx¿n] c;'Ng] z'Ns tyf To;sf] k|lt/f]w ug]{ r]tfjgL klg lbP .
r]tgf eof . lbP . pgn] lhNnfsf] h'g;'s} 7fpFsf atfPsf] 5 . ef8fdf a:g] ljBfyL{sf] sf]7fef8f leQ]kfqf] ljdf]rg sfo{qmdsf] cWoIftf
gful/snfO{ ;d:of k/]df clvn - o;}aLr, clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ ldgfxf u/fpg, sf]/f]gf dxfdf/Lsf clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ sf lhNnf cWoIf
qmflGtsf/L_ nfO{ ;Dks{ ug{ clkn ¿kGb]xLn] lhNnfsf :yfgLo txx¿df sf/0f pTkGg z}lIfs cGof]n tTsfn afa'/fd P;s]n] u/]sf lyP .
g]skfåf/f glbhGo kbfy{sf] cj}w
bf]xg tTsfn aGb ug{–u/fpg clkn hg:jf:YosdL{ dxf;+3åf/f :jf:Yo lzlj/ ;~rfng o'jf ;+u7g lrtjgåf/f /Qmbfg
sf7df8f}+F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ dxf;‹n] lbPsf] 5 .
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ 3f]8fxfvf]nf nufotsf vf]nfx¿df sf7df8f}F+ . o'jf ;Ë7g g]kfn ;]qm]6/L dLgk|;fb ;fksf]6f, /;'jf
¿kGb]xLn] s]xL e|i6 hgk|ltlglw, s]xL e|i6 hgk|ltlglw, sd{rf/L / lgs6 clvn g]kfn hg:jf:YosdL{ lzlj/df hg:jf:YosdL{ dxf;‹ lrtjgn] /Qmbfg sfo{qmd ;DkGg u/]sf] ;]qm]6/L w|j' , o'jf ;Ë7g g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo
sd{rf/L / s]xL Joj;fosf] ldn]dtf]df s]xL Joj;fosf] ldn]dtf]df slyt dxf;‹ ;'vt{] sf] cfof]hgfdf a/fxtfn ;'vt{] sf lkmlhof] y]/flk:6 e"ldk|;fb 5 . sf]/f]gf dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f nfdf] ;do ;b:o /fd ;]9fO{n + ufot g]tf–sfo{stf{
cj}w glbhGo kbfy{ 9'Ëf, lu§L / 7]Ssf / /fli6«o uf}/jsf] cfof]hgfsf] ufpFkflnsf j8f g+= * a/8fF8f pkfWofo / cgdL cK;/f af]u6Ln] ns8fpg ePkl5 /utsf] cefj eO{ ;xefuL lyP .
afn'jf bf]xg ug]{ / /fli6«o uf}/jsf] gfddf cfkm}n F ] agfPsf] P]g–lgdfjnL s'dLsf]6a:tLdf :jf:Yo lzlj/ ;~rfng ;xhLs/0f u/]sf lyP . ljt/Lt cf}iflw la/fdLnfO{ ;d:of k/]sf] x'bF f /Qmbfg /Qmbfg sfo{qmddf k|dv ' cltly
of]hgfsf] gfddf cj}w 9Ëaf6 s]xL ljk/Lt glbhGo kbfy{ 9'Ëf, lu§L /
qm;/ pBf]udf cf];f/k;f/ ug]{ h:tf afn'jf bf]xg ug]{ / s]xL qm;/
sfo{ tTsfn aGb ug{ – u/fpg pBf]udf cj}w cf];f/k;f/ ug]{ u/]sf]
;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ clkn u/]sf] sfo{ k | l t xfd| f ] kf6L{ s f] ulDe/
5 . g]skf ¿kGb]xL lhNnf ;]qm]6/L Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] 5 .Ú lj1lKtdf
ljb'/n]5 dËnaf/ k|]; lj1lKt hf/L elgPsf] 5, …cj}w glbhGo kbfy{
u/L lhNnfsf ljleGg 7fpF s f 9'Ëf, lu§L / afn'jf bf]xg ug]{ /
vf]nfx¿df k|fs[lts ;|f]t / ;fwg /fli6«o uf}/jsf] of]hgfsf] gfddf cj}w
bf] x gsf] nflu k| o f] u ul/Psf 9Ëaf6 s] x L qm;/ pBf] u df
:sfOe]6/–;DalGwt wlgnfO{ t'?Gt} cf];f/k;f/ ug]{ h:tf sfo{ tTsfn
vf]nfaf6 x6fpgsf] nflu ;d]t ljz]if aGb ug{–u/fpg ;DalGwt lgsfo;Fu
cg'/f]w u/]sf 5g\ . ;]qm]6/L ljb'/åf/f hf]8bf/ dfu ub{5f}F . ;fy} k|fs[lts sfo{qmd cfof]hgf u/]sf] ;f] ;+u7gn] ;Gb]zn] sf]/f]gf efO/;sf] ;+qmd0faf6
hf/L lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …nfdf] ;|f]t / ;fwg bf]xgsf] nflu k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . lzlj/df sf]/f]gf efO/;, / :jf:Yo ;fdu|Lx¿ lhNnf hg:jf:Yo hgfPsf] 5 . o'jf ;Ë7g g]kfnsf ljZj g} cfqmfGt alg/x]sf] a]nf g]kfn
;dosf] ns8fpgsf] sf/0f b}lgs ul/Psf :sfOe]6/–h]l;aL ;DalGwt df};dL ˆn', ?3fvf]sL, Hj/f], cfpF, k]6sf] ;'vt{] , jL/]Gb|gu/ gu/kflnsf sfof{no, s]Gb|Lo ;b:o /fd ;]9fO{s
+ f cg';f/ /fKtL sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] sf]/f]gf efO/;sf lj?4
Hofnfbf/Ldf hLjg lgjf{x ug]{ dhb'/ wlgnfO{ t'?Gt} vf]nfaf6 x6fpgsf] ;d:ofnufot /f]uaf6 kLl8t %) cf}ifwL Joj;foL ;‹ ;'vt{ ] , s0ff{nL k|bz
] gu/kflnsf j8f g+= ^ l:yt e08f/f ljleGg hg;]jfd"ns sfo{qmd s]Gb|Lo
tyf >dhLlj ju{sf] cj:yf yk nflu ;d]t ljz]if cg'/f]w ub{5f}F . hgfsf] :jf:Yo k/LIf0f u/L nIf0fsf :jf:Yo ;] j f lgb] { z gfnoaf6 dfWolds ljBfno kl/;/df cfof]lht :t/af6} ul//x]sf] atfP . pgn] g]skfn]
bogLo aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . o:tf] ljifd xfd|f] cg'/f]wnfO{ j]jf:tf ul/Pdf cfwf/df /f]u klxrfg u/L cfjZos ;xof]u:j¿k k|fKt ePsf] dxf;‹n] /Qmbfg sfo{qmddf %) lkG6 /ut hgr]tgf hufpg], :jf:Yo ;fdu|L
kl/l:yltdf df}sfsf] kmfObf p7fpFb} ;‹if{af6 x'g] kl/l:yltsf] lhDd]jf/ k/fdz{ / l;6fdf]n, KofG6fk/fhf]n, lhÍ hgfPsf] 5 . ;Íng ul/Psf] 5 . ;f] ;Ë7gsf pknAw u/fpg], cfO;f]n; ] g a]8x¿
¿kGb]xLsf a'6jn pkdxfgu/kflnsf, ;DalGwt lgsfo x'g] s'/f hfgsf/L 6\ofAn]6, d]6f« l] g8fhf]n, le6fldg aL, ;L, lrtjg ;+of]hs /fh' >]i7sf] cWoIftfdf lgdf{0f ug],{ c:ktfnx¿df :jod\;j] s
b]jbx, ;}gfd}gf, ltnf]Qdf gu/kflnsf, u/fpb5f} F .Ú lj1lKtsf] cGTodf 8L, SoflN;od, l8sf]N8, lgD;, 5f] / f;/x ;DkGg /Qmbfg sfo{qmddf k|dv ' cltly kl/rfng ug],{ /Qmbfg ug]{ sfd ub}{
l;of/L, dfofb]jL, ;'åf]wg ufpFkflnsf elgPsf] 5, …ljZj dxfdf/Lsf] ?kdf l;k|fˆ] nfS;fl;g, cN6«fl;8, PlG6Pnlh{s, g]skfsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf lrtjg cfPsf] / lrtjgdf klg /utsf] sdL
nufot clwsf+z :yfgLo lgsfox¿n] km}lnPsf] sf]le8–!( af6 ;r]t eO{ PlG6kmËn, PlG6AofS6]l/on, ;fOg]S;, 5f]/LnfO{ :s'n lhNnf OGrfh{ ;Gb]z kf}8n ] , ljlzi6 x'g glbg /Qmbfg sfo{qmd ;~rfng
ltgfp glb, bfgj glb, s;f{3f6, :j:Yo /xg / ;a} k|sf/sf cGofosf hLjghnnufot cf}ifwL, #)) yfg cltly s]Gb|Lo ;b:o cfwf/, cltlyx¿ u/]sf] atfP . g]skf g]tf ;Gb]zn] o:tf]
sGrgvf]nf, r/Ë] 7f8f] vf]nf, r/Ë] lj?4 Psh' 6 x' g ¿kGb] x Laf;L df:s / 6ln6/ ;]lg6fOh/ lgMz'Ns k9\g k7fcf}+ . clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ sf s]Gb|Lo pkfWoIf uDeL/ cj:yfdf klg /Qmbfg ug]{
aLrvf]nf, /f]lx0fL glb, en'xLvf]nf, hg;d'bfodf xflb{s clkn ub{5f}F .Ú ljt/0f ul/Psf] hfgsf/L hg:jf:YosdL{ ?b| e§/fO{, kf6L{sf lrtjg lhNnf ;a}nfO{ wGojfb lbPsf lyP .
@)&* ;fn h]7 @# ut] cfOtaf/ 3

k|ljlwsf] ljsf; / cltl/Qm d"No


cf+lss, hLjj}1flgs, ef}lts
ljZjx? /, To:t}u/L cfl6{lkml;on
dfS;{n] eg]sf] cltl/Qm—>d /
cltl/Qm—d"Nosf] s'/f g} cfpFbg} eGg]
Joj:yfdf g} cfTdf;dk{0fsf] ljsNk
/x]sf] 5}g . csf{ s]xLn] k|ljlw g}
/ ;/n agfOlbPsf] 5 . Tof]eGbf klg
a:t'x? OG6/g]6 a:t'df kl/0ft
;'/lIft agfPsf klg 5g\ eGg] lglZrt
x' g ' k b{ 5 $ . o:tf ;~hfnx?n]
dtnj ;fdu|L, dl;gsf] l3;fj6,
>dsf] d"No lt/]sf]sf] % u'gfeGbf
OG6] l nh] G ;, Snfp8 sDKo' l 6Ë, u/]sf 5g\ . cfk"mnfO{ PSsfO;f}+ pTkfbs zlQm eof] To;}n] of] o'u ePsf 5g\ . zf/Ll/s >dnfO{ JolQmut ;"rgf a]Rb5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] al9 gfkmf ubf]{ /x]5 . ljZjsf] bf];f| ]
/f]af]l6;\, tLg cfoflds lk|lG6Ë, ztflAbsf] dfS;{sf] bhf{ lbg] yf]d; ;dfhjfbsf] o' u xf] . To;} n ] tLa|?kdf af}l4s >ddf kl/0ft 7"nf] k|df0f xf] . ;fy} Ps hgfn] 7"nf] ;fdflhs ;~hfn km];a'ssf
OG6/g]6 a:t'x?, ljsl;t tf//lxt lks]66\ Ln] sfdpg t sdfp t/ s]xL k' F h LjfbLx?;F u k| l t:kwf{ u/] / ul/lbPsf] 5 . h;n] ubf{ cyf]{8S; km];a's csfpG6 vf]n] afkt cd]l/sL lgdf{tf dfs{ h'u/ju{n] @))% df
k|ljlwx? rf}yf] cf}Bf]lus qmflGtsf gx'g]nfO{ klg afF8\g] u/ eGg] u/]sf ;fdhjfb nfu" ug{ ;lsG5 . dfS;{jfbL ;fDofjfbLx?nfO{ k/Dk/fut >lds ;/sf/n] km];a'snfO{ ! ;o &) 8f]dg] agfP/ ahf/df NofpFbf hDdf
/ qmflGtsf] d'Vo zlQmsf] klxrfg 8n/df lbG5 . gq lsg cd]l/sfn] @ nfv 8n/ vr{ ePsf] lyof] .
u'0f/fh nf]xgL ug{ g;s]/ qmflGtaf6 g} Ro't x'g] k|ltJolQm oltsf] k};f lsg nufgL km] ; ass} j] e ;fO6df lbOPsf]
cj:yf cfPsf] 5 . ub{5 / < tYof+scg';f/ !^ jif{sf] bf}/fgdf
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ts{ s] 5 eg], o;df HofdLsf] eg] ca ank"js { ul/g] qmflGt ;Dej agfOlbPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} vf]h, ;'ljwf lbg ;lsPsf] 5}g, xfdLn] cltl/Qm—>d dfq xf] . cltl/Qm— apple-iphone-cost-to-
zf/Ll/s >d nfu]sf] x'Fb}g . o;df /xg ;Sb}g . To;}n] zflGtk"0f{ ;+;bLo cg'Gwfg, cflj:sf/ ug{sf nflu ;xh 8]Knf]k/x?nfO{ ltgLx?n] ;"rgfsf] d"No cfOkmf]g sDkgLn] l:y/ k'h F L make.
4 @)&* ;fn h]7 @# ut] cfOtaf/

sf]le8–!( sf bL3{sfnLg c;/x¿


sf]/f]gf efO/; /f]u sf]le8–!(
sf sf/0f ;d:t ljZj cqmfGt 5 .
$= ysfg M nIf0f;lxtsf]
sf] l e8–!( nfO{ hLt] / 3/
cfOl;o' a:g' k/]sf jf cfktsflng
;]jf lng' k/]sfx¿df sf]le8 hLt]
lg/Gt/ lgu/fgL /flvG5 ;fy}
cfjZos k/] s f] cj:yfdf
em]ns ] f JolQmdf tL 36gfsf] sf/0fn]
ljsl;t ePsf] dfgl;s tgfjnfO{
@)= xft v'§fdf ;f]nf xfGg]
/ kf] N g] M sf] l e8sf sf/0fn]
ljZjsf ;a} b]zx¿df km}lnPsf] of] kmls{Psfx¿dWo] clwsf+znfO{ zf/Ll/s kZrft klg sf]le8sf] tgfj lrGtf cN6«f;fp08, yf]/fl;; O{n]S6«Ls kf] i 6 6« d fl6s :6« ] ; l8;c8{ / l;ls:t eP/ kmls{Psfx¿df of] nIf0f
j}lZjs Joflwaf6 nfvf}n] Hofg u'dfO{ / eon] ;tfO/x]sf] x'G5 kmntM afof]Ol{ Dk8]G;, vfgf v'jfpgsf nflu elgG5 . kf] i 6 6« d fl6s :6« ] ; df Hofbf b]lvPsf] 5 . o;sf] sf/0f klg
;s]sf 5g\ eg] s/f]8f}n] of] /f]unfO{ lj:tf/}–lj:tf/} p lg/fz x'Fb} hfg] PghL 6\oj" , Zjf;–k|Zjf;nfO{ ;xh k/]sfx¿ clwst/ To;} 36gfsf] sf] l e8–!( ;+ q md0fsf qmddf
hLt]/ 3/ kmls{;s]sf 5g\ t/ sf]/f]gf pbf;Lgtfsf] lzsf/ aGg k'Ub5 . ug{sf nflu O{08f]6l]« son O{g6\oj" ; ] g ljifodf ;f]rL /xg], 36gfx¿;Fu ljsl;t ePsf] Go"/f]kyL xf] .
hLTg] !) b]lv !% k|ltzt dfG5]df sf]le8kZrft x'g] oL ;d:ofsf] d'Vo cyjf e] l 06n] 6 / nufot cGo ;DalGwt ;kgfx¿ b]Vg], s;}n] @!= 5fnfdf 8fj/ cfpg] M
of] /f]un] lgDTofPsf] uDeL/ :jf:Yo sf/0f sf]le8nfO{ xfpu'hLs/0f ugf{n] cfjZos lrlsT;sLo k|lqmofx¿sf]
;d:of b]vf kl//x]sf 5g\ . ljz]ifu/L g} xf] . o;sf cnfjf sf] l e8 k|aGw ul/Psf] x'G5 . o;/L :jf:Yo
sf] l e8–!(sf sf/0fn] PSo' 6 ;+qmd0fsf sf/0f k'u]sf] Ifltn] lgu/fgLsf] clt ;+jb] gzLn Joj:yf
/]l:k/]6/L l8:6«; ] l;G8«fd] ePsfx¿df lgDTofPsf] kf] i 6–6« d fl6s–:6] « ; – ubf{ lj/fdLnfO{ d[To'sf] d'vaf6 klg
of] /f] u sf] sf/0fn] bL3{ s fnLg l8;c8{/sf sf/0fn] ubf{ klg of] kmsf{P/ Nofpg ;lsG5 t/ cfOl;o'
c;/x¿ b]vf kg{ yfn]sf 5g\ . ;d:of b]vf kb{5 . a;]s} sf/0fn] jf cfOl;o'df ul/Psf
sf] l e8sf] ;+ q md0f kZrft
b] v fkg] { ljleGg ;d:ofx¿dWo] 8f= x]d/fh sf]O/fnf !!= clgGb| f M sf] l e8
;+qmd0fkZrft klg sf]le8sf sf/0fn]
lrlsT;sLo k|lqmofx¿sf sf/0fn]
lj/fdLdf s]xL :jf:Yo ;d:ofx¿
kmf]S;f]sf] sfo{Ifdtf sdx'g], bd sdhf]/L / bL3{sflng ysfO{n] ;tfPsf] pTkGg tgfj, lrGtf, eo, pbf;Lgtf, ylkg ;Sb5 h;nfO{ lrlsT;sLo
a9\ g ] , vfsL u9\ g ] / cGo w] / } kfOPsf] 5 . To;df klg cfOl;o' / g} / fZotf, kf] i 6–6« d fl6s–:6] « ; – efiffdf kf]i6 O{G6]lG;e s]o/ l;G8«fd ]
bL3{sflng c;/x¿ b]vf kg{ uO/x]sf e]l06n]6/df a;]/ kmls{Psfx¿ t ;– l8;c8{/ / ljleGg cËx¿nfO{ k'us ] f] elgG5 . oL :jf:Yo ;d:ofx¿nfO{
5g\ . sf]le8 eP/kZrft\ kmf]S;f]sf] ;fgf zf/Ll/s >d / Jofofd ubf{ Ifltsf sf/0fn] sf]le8 hLt] kZrft d'VotM tLg ;d"xdf zf/Ll/s ;d:of,
sfo{Ifdtf sd ePsfx¿nfO{ d'6,' klg yflsxfN5g\ . o;f] x'gs ' f] d'Vo klg clgGb|fsf] ;d:of /xg ;Sb5 . dfgl;s ;d:of / ;+1fgfTds Pj+
dlit:s, d[uf}nf / sn]hf]df klg ;d:of sf/0f sf]le8;Fusf] n8fOsf b}/fg !@= ;+ 1 fgfTds ;d:of M efjgfTds ;d:of u/]/ tLg ;d"xdf
b]vf kb{5 . o;}u/L of] /f]usf] sf/0fn] pTkGg x'g uPsf] phf{ c;Gt'ng sf] l e8–!( nfO{ hLt] / 3/ afFl8Psf] 5 .
cfO{l;o" a;]/ 3/ kmls{Psf x¿df kf]i6 dfgl;s tgfjnfO{ dflgPsf] 5 . o:tf] kmls{ P sfdWo] $) k| l tzt c= zf/Ll/s ;d:of
6«dfl6s :6«]; l8;c8{/, lrGtf / ysfg O{lK6gaf/ efO/; / ;f;{ ;+qmldtx¿n] Go"/f]nf]hLsn nIf0fx¿ s= cfOl;o' d f cfhL{ t
pbf;Lgtf h:tf ;d:of klg plQs} hLTg]x¿df klg b]lvPsf] lyof] . klg cleJoQm ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ / #) sdhf/L M cfOl;o' a;]/ kmls{P
b]vf kl//x]sf 5g\ . o;y{ sf]le8–!( %= 6fpsf] b' v fO{ M sf] / f] g f k|ltzteGbf Hofbfn] ;+1fgfTds kl5 JoflQmdf Ps lsl;dsf] sdhf]/L
hLt]/ 3/ kmls{Psfx¿nfO{ ;d]t of] efO/; /f]un] k|tfl8t u/]sfx¿dWo] nIf0fx¿ h:t} cled'vtf, :d[lt, b]vfkg{ ;Sb5 h;nfO{ cfOl;o'
/f]un] bL3{sflng ¿kdf c;/ ug]{ kf] w]/n
} fO{ 6fpsf] b'Vg] ;d:ofn] ;tfPsf] a'l4dQf, ;r]tgf, Wofg, nufj, cflh{t sdhf]/L elgG5 e]lG6n]6/df
xf] ls eg]/ czfGt agfO/x]sf] 5 . x'G5 . 6fpsf] sf]le8kZrft pTkGg Psfu|tf, no, d"NofÍg ug]{ / lg0f{o /fvLPsfdWo] ## k|ltztnfO{ of] 36gfsf] ljifodf s'/fu/] ljrlnt x'g] sf]le8–!( ;+qmd0fsf b}/fg klg
sf] l e8–!( sf bL3{ s flng ePsf] tgfj, lrGtf eo pbf;Lgtf, lng] Ifdtf cflbdf u8a8L b]lvg sdhf]/L b]vf kb{5 / Ps aif{;Dd lrlGtt, ylst lg/fz / pbf; x'g] 5fnfdf 8fj/ cfpg], lrnfpg],
:jf:Yo ;d:ofx¿ clgGb|f sdhf]/L cflbsf] sf/0fn] klg yfn]sf] 5 . o;f] x'g'sf] d'Vo sf/0f /xg ;S5 . o;n] b}lgs hLjgnfO{ / l:ylt a9\b} uPdf cfTdxTof;Dd kfgL;/f cfpg] h:tf nIf0fx¿
sf]/f]gf efO/; /f]u -sf]el8–!(_ pTkGg ePsf] x'g ;Sb5 . o;}u/L sf]le8sf sf/0fn] yf]kl/Psf] tgfj, si6s/ agfpF5 . o;sf]] sf/0f ug]{ ub{5g\ . of] kf]i6 6«dfl6s :6«; ] b]vfkg{ ;S5g\ / oL nIf0fx¿ sf]le8
sf] ;+qmd0f kZrft s]xL JolQmx¿df sf]le8–!( n] dlit:s jf 6fpsfsf] lrGtf, eo / pbf;Lgtf t x'Fb} xf] cfO{od" f nfdf] ;do;Dd grnL a:bf sf]/f]gf ;+qmldt eP/ cfktsfnLg g]ufl6e cfP klg k'gM b]vfkg{
sf]le8s} sf/0fn] PSo"6 /]l:k/]6/L gzfx¿nfO{ klg c;/ u/]sf] /x]5 ;fy} efO/;n] :gfo' k|0ffnLnfO{ klg / cr]t jf cw{r]t x'Fbf jf s8f ;]jf lnPsf, cfOl;o' / e]l06n]6/df ;S5g\ .
l8i6«]; l;G8«f]d (ARDS) b]vfkg{ eg] klg Go"/f]nf]hLsf] sf/0fn] 6fpsf] c;/ ug]{ x'Fbf dlit:snfO{ Iflt ;+qmd0f / k|bfxTds lqmofkZrft a;]/ cfPsf jf sf]le8n] l;ls:t @@= d'6'sf] rfndf u8a8L M
;Sb5 . o;/L Pcf/8LP; b'Vg ;Sb5 . k'¥ofpg ;Sb5 . s;}–s;}nfO{ t ljsl;t ePsf] kf]nLGo"/f]kyL xf] . kf/]sfx¿df klg b]Vg ;lsG5 . oL sf]le8sf] sf/0fn] tgfj, lrGtf, eo,
ePsfx¿nfO{ ;3g pkrf/ sIfdf ^= kmf]S;f]nfO{ Iflt M sf]/f]gf OG;]kmfnfO{l6; / d]lgGhfO{l6; klg v= hf]gL{ hfdx'g] / df+zk]zLx¿ nIf0fx¿ klxnf] Ps dlxgfb]lv Ps pbf;Lgtf, kf]i6–6«dfl6s–:6«];–
xfn]/ pkrf/ ug{'kg]{ x'G5, h;sf efO/;n] d'Vo c;/ ug]{ cË kmf]S;f] x' G 5 . o;} u /L /utdf ;+ r l/t ;' S g] ;d:of M nfdf] ;do;Dd jif{;Dd /xg ;S5 . l8;c8{/ cflb ljsl;t ePsf] eo
sf/0f :jf:Yodf w]/} bL3{sflng g} xf] / ;+qmd0f cnL tLa| k|sf/sf] efO/;n] dlit:ssf gfzfx¿nfO{ klg cfOl;o'df s'lhP/ a:bf xft–uf]8fsf !*= bL3{sflng vf]sL M sf]/f]gf cfˆgf] d'6' rn]sf] la/fdLn] yfx kfpg
;d:ofx¿ b]vfkg{ ;Sb5g\ . eP kmf]S;f] / d'6n ' fO{ Iflt k'¥ofpg ;'GofO{ lbg ;S5 / oL ;a} s/0fn] hf]gL{ hfd x'g / df+zk]zLx¿ ;'Sg ;+qmd0fnfO{ hLt]/ lgl:sPsfx¿dWo] ;S5 h;nfO{ lrlsT;f lj1fgsf]
hf]lvddf sf] a9L < ;Sb5 . sf]le8 ;+qmd0f x'bF f kmf]S;f]df ;+1fgfTds ;d:ofx¿ b]vf kb{5 . ;Sb5 . #) k|ltztnfO{ bL3{sflng vf]sLsf] efiffdf kflNk6];g elgG5 . o;sf
sf]le8 ;+qmldt ePsfx¿ ;a}nfO{ O{Gˆnfd];g x'g] ub{5 . O{Gˆnfd];g !#= dfgl;s c:ki6tf -a| ] g u= s'kf]if0f M cfOl;o'df PghL ;d:ofn] kl5;Dd klg lk/f]Ng] u/]sf] cltl/Qm olb sf]le8sf sf/0fn]
sf] l e8–!( kZrft b] v fkg] { x'bf ;+qmldt If]qdf /ftf]–tftf] eO{ kmu_ M sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0fsf bf}/fg 6\ o " j af6 vfgf v' j fO{ b f jf kfOPsf] 5 . vf]sL nfUg'sf] sf/0f sfl8{of] dfof]kyL ljsl;t ePsf] /x]5
bL3{sflng ;d:ofx¿ b]vf kb}{g t/ b'Vg', ;'lGgg' / pQm cËn] sfd gub]{ pTkGg tgfj, lrGtf eo, pbf;Lgtf, ;nfO{gdfkm{t\ vfgf v'jfpFbf kof{Kt sf] l e8–!( sf] ;+ q md0fkZrft eg] d'6' sdhf]/ ePsfn] d'6s ' f] rfn
rsf]{ ¿kdf sf]le8n] ufn]sfx¿, hfg] ub{5 . pQm :yfg ;'lGgbf ;f] cfO;f]n];g jf cfOl;o'sf] k6\of/ kf]ifstTjx¿sf] cefjdf s'kf]if0f kmf]S;f]nfO{ k'Ug uPsf] Ifltsf] sf/0fn] u8a8 ePsf] x'g;S5 .
sf]le8sf] sf/0fn] O{dh]G{ ;L, cfOl;o' :yfgdf kfgL klg hDg hfG5 / nfUbf] a;fO{, ysfO{, dlit:ssf] ljsl;t x'g;S5 . xf] . sf]le8 g]ufl6e cfPkZrft klg @#= skfn emg]{ M sf]le8 hLt]/
/ e] l G6n] 6 /df a;] s fx¿, ^% Gof] d f] g Lof klg b] v fkb{ 5 . of] O{Gˆnfd];g, lvGgtf, cflbsf sf/0fn] 3= kmf] S ;f] s f] sfo{ I fdtfdf ;+qmd0fsf] sf/0fn] bd, a|fÍ] fO{l6; / aflr/x] s fx¿dWo] s] x L k| l tzt
;fneGbf w]/} pd]/ ePsf, bL3{/f]usf 36gfqmd kmf]S;f]af6 d'6,' d[uf}nf, sf] l e8–!( nfO{ hLt] s fx¿df x| f ; M cfOl;o' d f h;–h;nfO{ PnhL{h:tf ;d:of hlGdg] x'bF f vf]sL dfG5]x¿df skfn eg]{ ;d:of klg
sf/0fn] ynfk/]sf, d'6', d[uf}{nf, sn]hf] / dlit:sdf klg ;g{ ;S5 / dfgl;s c:ki6tf b]lvG5 . e]lG6n]6/df /fv]/ Zjf;–k|Zjf; /lx/xg] ub{5 . b]vfk/]sf] 5 . To;df klg ljz]if u/]/
sn]hf], kmf]S;f]sf] bL3{sflng /f]un] efO/; Toxf k'u/] tL cËx¿nfO{ klg !$= :jfb / uGw u| x 0fdf u/fOPsf] x' G 5 pxfF x ¿nfO{ !(= xNsf Hj/f] M sf]le8 hLt]/ sf] l e8sf] sf/0fn] l;ls:t
u|l;t ePsfx¿, sdhf]/ k|lt/Iff 8\ofd]h ug{;Sb5 . ;d:of M sf]le8 ;+qmd0f x'Fbf o;n] e]lG6n]6/af6 lgsfn]kZrft klg kmls{Psfx¿dWo] s]xLnfO{ xNsf Hj/f] ePsfx¿df of] ;d:of Hofbf b]lvPsf]
k| 0 ffnL ePsfx¿, tf} n Hofbf &= Zjf;–k| Z jf;df ;d:of, k|fylds :t/df gfs d'v / 3fF6LnfO{ Zjf;–k|Zjf;sf] ;d:of /lx/xG5 . cfpg], 6fpsf] b'Vg], emf8f kvfnf 5 . o;f] x'g'df sf]le8 ;+qmd0fsf
ePsfx¿, cfTd3ftL k| l t/Iff ¿3f, vf] s L, 3f6L v;v;fpg] c;/ ug]{ ub{5 . o;f] x'Fbf gfssf] cf= dfgl;s ;d:of M nfUg], plN6x'g] h:tf nIf0fx¿ b]vfkg{ b} / fg ;+ q mldtnfO{ kg{ uPsf]
k| 0 ffnLsf /f] u Lx¿ / dw' d ] x sf M ¿3f, vf]sL, 3fF6L b'Vg] v;v;fpg], u|Gw u|x0f ug]{ u|GyL / hLa|fsf] :jfb cfOl;o'df lqml6sn s]o/ u/fP/ ;Sb5g\ . o;f] x'g'sf] sf/0f Pp6f zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s tgfjnfO{
/f]uLx¿sf nflu sf]le8 kZrft Zjf; km]g{ ufx|f] x'g] h:tf nIf0f u|x0f ug]{ u|GyLnfO{ klg c;/ kfb{5 Hofg hf] u fpg] x ¿df aflx/ sf/0f efO/; nf]8 k'/} gx6\g' xf] eg] pQ/bfoL 7x¥ofOPsf] 5 . cem
b]vfkg]{ l;G8«f]d b]lvg ;Sb5 . sf]le8sf cfwf/e"t nIf0fx¿ x'g\, / :jfb x/fpFb5 . ;+qmd0f tLj| cfPkfZrft klg lrGtf, pbf;Lgtf, bf]>f] sf/0f ;+qmd0fn] vuf/]sf] z/L/n] ;+qmldt cfOl;o' jf e]l06n]6/ a;]/
s]–s] x'g ;S5 < h'g kL;Lcf/ g]ufl6e cfPkl5 klg k|sl[ tsf] eP oL u|GyLx¿nfO{ dgUu] g}/f:otf, :d[ltgfz, kf]i6 6«dfl6s cGo df};dL ;+qmd0fnfO{ ;xg g;Sgfn] uPsf] eP of] nIf0f cem tLj| ¿kdf
!= bd, vf]sL / Zjf; k|Zjf;df al;/xg ;Sb5 . To;df klg cfOl;o' Iflt k' ¥ ofO{ kL;Lcf/ g] u fl6e :6«; ] , e|dfef;, clgGb|fh:tf dfgl;s klg xf] . cem la/fdL cfOl;o' jf b]vfkg]{ ub{5 .
;d:of M sf]le8–!( nfO{ lht]/ a;]sf / e]l06n]6/df /flvPsfx¿nfO{ cfPkZrft klg :jfb / uGb u|x0fdf ;d:ofx¿ b]vfkb{5g\ . o;f] x'g'sf] e]lG6n]6/df a;]/ cfPsf] xf] eg] -n]vs M e/tk'/–! jfuLZj/L
xl:k6naf6 3/ kmls{Psfx¿nfO{ bd t oL nIf0fx¿n] cln a9\b} rfKb5 . ;d:of g;'lN6g ;S5 . d'Vo sf/0fx¿df rf]6k6ssf] kL8f, p;sf] :jf:Yo l:ylt Tolt l:y/ lrtjg l:yt of]uL g/xl/gfy of]u
a9\g,] vf]sL nfUg] / Zjf; km'Ng] h:tf sf]le8–!( kl5 bd a9\g], Zjf; !%= dfof] sf8f{O{l6; M sf]/f]gf ;]lK;;, PSo"6 /]l:k/]6/L l8:6«]; gePsf] x'gfn] cGo ;+qmd0fx¿n] tyf k|fs { l[ ts lrlsT;fnosf d]l8sn
;d:ofx¿ b]vf kb{5g\ . o;f] x'gd' f km'Ng], vf]sL nfUg] h:tf oL Zjf; efO/;sf] ;+qmd0fn] klxnf] r/0fdf l;G8« f ] d , /] l :k/] 6 /L km] l nof] / , a]nf–a]nfdf ;tfO/xG5 . 8fO{/]S6/ x'g\ ._
sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0fsf qmddf ljslzt ePsf]
Go"df]lgof, a|fÍ] fO{l6; / Zjf; dfu{sf]
k|Zjf;df b]vfkg]{ oL ;d:ofx¿sf]
sf/0f sf]le8n] hL0f{ agfPsf] kmf]S;f]
kmf]S;f]nfO{ c;/ ub{5 / ;+qmd0f
a9\b} uPkl5 /ut x'Fb} efO/; d'6'df
/QmUn"sf]hsf] sd dfqf, clS;hgsf]
sdL, nfdf] ;do;Dd s'lhP/ a:g' /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}s+ sf] C0fkq laqmL x'b“ }
OGˆnfd];g xf] . d'6' x'g;S5 . k'Ub5 / d'6n ' fO{ km}lnG5 kmntM d'6' / a]xf];L cflb x'g . sf7df8f}F . /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}s
+ lnld6]8n] olx h]7 @% ut] d+unaf/ b]lv
@= sdhf]/L M sf]le8 nfu]/ *= hf]gL{ b'Vg] M sf]le8 kZrft ;'lGgg k'Ub5 h;nfO{ dfof] sf8f{Ol6; O= ;+ 1 fgfTds Pj+ *=% k|ltzt cf/aLaLPn l8a]Gr/, @)*# gfdsf] C0fkq laqmL v'nf ug]{
3/ kmls{Psfx¿dWo] w]/n } ] sdhf/Lsf] x'g] hf]gL{ b'vfO{ klg xfd|f] hLjgsf] elgG5 . efO/;nfO{ hLt] / efjfgfTds ljs[ l t M ljifo ePsf] 5 . a}s + n] ^ jif{ cjlw ePsf] jflif{s *=%) k|ltzt Aofhb/ ePsf] s'n
l;sfot u/]sf 5g\ . To;df klg u'0fjQf sd ul/lbG5 . o;f] x'g'sf] kmls{Psfx¿df dfof] sf8f{O{l6;sf] j:t'kl| t cled'vtf, :d[lt, lal4dQf, @ ca{ %) s/f]8 ?k}o+ f -@% nfv lsQf_ d"No a/fa/sf] C0fkq laqmL ug{
cfO{l;o"df a;]sf jf e]l06n]6/df d'Vo sf/0f sf]le8 x'Fbf cfO{;f]n];g ;d:of /lx/xg ;Sb5 . ;r]tgf, Wofg, nufj, Psfu|tf, no, nfu]sf] xf] . o; C0fkqsf] Aofh cw{jflif{s ?kdf e'QmfgL ul/g]5 .
/x] s fx¿nfO{ cS;/ sdhf] / L a:bf ckgfOPsf] lgliqmo hLjg z}nL !^= kf] i 6 O{ G 6] l G;e s] o / d"NofÍg ug]{ / lg0f{o lng] IfdtfnfO{ *=% k|ltzt cf/aLaLPn l8a]Gr/, @)*# gfdsf] k|ltlsQf ¿= ! xhf/
b]vfkb{5 . ljz]ifu/L e]lG6n]6/df xf] . cem cfOl;o' d f /flvPsf] l;G8«f]d M Hofg} hfg;Sg] vt/fnfO{ ;+1fgtfTds lqmof elgG5 . o;}u/L b/sf s'n @% nfv lsQf C0fkqdWo] ^) k|ltzt cyf{t !% nfv lsQf
/flvPsfdWo] ## k|ltztnfO{ of] lj/fdLnfO{ t hf]gL{ / hLpm b'Vg] 6fg{sf nflu ul/g] ;3g k|s[ltsf] sfd, qmf]w, nf]e, df]x, 3[0ff, xf;f], JolQmut tj/af6 ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?nfO{ laqmL ul/g] / ;f] sf nflu C0fkq
sdhf]/L b]vfkb{5 / Ps aif{;Dd ;d:of cem w]/} x'G5 . o;sf cnfjf pkrf/nfO{ lrlsT;sLo efiffdf ;3g lbSbf/L, v';L, xif{h:tf dfgl;s lgisfzg tyf laqmL k|aGws …PgcfO{laPn P; Soflk6n lnld6]8Ú / lgisfzgstf{
/xg ;S5 . o;/L b]vfkg]{ sdhf]/Lsf] /f]u cln w]/} ;+qmfds eP hf]gL{sf pkrf/ jf O{G6]lG;e s]o/ elgG5 . l:yltnfO{ efjgf elgG5 . nfdf] ;do sDkgL …/fli6«o jfl0fHo a}s + lnld6]8Úsf] cfk;L ;xdltdf laqmL ljt/0f ug{s ' f
sf/0f eg]sf] cfO{od" f nfdf] ;do;Dd tGt'x¿df klg k|jflxt eO{ hf]gL{df ;3g pkrf/sf nflu xl:k6nx¿df cfOl;o' a;]/ cfpFbf #) b]lv *) ;fy} ;j{;fwf/0fsf nflu 5'6o\ fO{Psf] $) k|ltzt cyf{t !) nfv lsQf
grnL a:bf / cr]t jf cw{rt] x'bF f Iflt k'u]sf] klg x'g;S5 . O{G6]lG;e s]o/ o"lg6sf] 5'6} Jofj:yf k|ltzt JolQmdf oL ;+1fgfTds Pj+ ;j{;fwf/0f g]kfnLsf nflu ;fj{hlgs lgisfzgaf6 C0fkq laqmL ul/g]5 .
jf s8f ;+ q md0f / k| b fxTds (= 5ftL b' V g] M sf]le8–!( ul/Psf] x' G 5 . O{ G 6] l G;e s] o / efjgfTds lqmofx¿df klg u8a8L l56f]df h]7 @* ut] / l9nf]df c;f/ * ut];Dd laqmLdf /xg] o; C0fkq
lqmofkZrft ljsl;t ePsf] kZrft x'g] 5ftL b'Vg] ;d:ofsf] d'Vo o" l g6df lj/fdLnfO{ nuftf/ b]Vg ;lsG5 . o;}u/L cfOl;o'af6 vl/bsf nflu Go'gtd @% lsQfb]lv clwstd @ nfv %) xhf/ lsQf;Dd
kf]lnGo'/f]kyL xf] h;n] df+zk]zLnfO{ sf/0f sf]le8sf] sf/0fn] kmf]S;f] jf lrlsT;sLo lgu/fgLdf /flvG5 . oxfF kmls{Psfx¿df lgGb|f sdnfUg], b':jKg cfj]bg lbg ;lsg]5 .
;d]t sdhf]/ agfpFb5 . d'6'nfO{ k'u]sf] Ifltsf sf/0fn] xf] . lj/fdLsf] dxTjk" 0 f{ zf/Ll/s b]Vg] P]7+ g x'gh ] :tf ;d:ofx¿ klg C0fkq vl/bsf nflu /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}s + sf zfvf sfof{nox?, l;–cf:jf
#= hLp b'Vg] M hLp b'Vg'sf] o;}u/L sf]le8 hLt]kZrft klg skm dfgfÍx¿ h:t} /Qmrfk, Zjf; ult, b]vfkg{ ;S5g\ . ;b:o a}s + tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? tyf ltgsf zfvf sfof{nox? dfkm{t\ cfj]bg
sf/0f klg sf]le8 kZrft ljslzt hDg], bd k"mNg], kmf]S;f]sf] ;+qmd0f zf/Ll/s tfk, d'6'sf] ult jf gf8L !&= kf] i 6 6« d fl6s :6« ] ; lbg ;lsg]5 . ;fy} d]/f] z]o/dfkm{t\ klg cfj]bg lbg ;lsg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .
x'g] kf]nLGo"/f]kyL g} xf] . o;sf cnfjf eO{/xg] h:tf :d:of /lx/xg] x'Fbf ult, d'6s ' f] ljB'tLo ultljlw hfFr l8;c8{/ M anTsf/, o'4, ;8s a}s
+ sf] o; C0fkqnfO{ s]o/ /]l6Ë g]kfn lnld6]8n] ;dod} ljQLo bfloTj k"/f
sf]le8 x'bfFsf avt pT;lh{t ePsf] 5ftL b'Vg] ub{5 . ug{ lg/Gt/ O{;LhL, dlit:ssf] b'36{ gf, afn b'Jo{jxf/, e"sDk, ;'gfdL ug]{ ;Gbe{df k|of{Kt dfqfdf ;'/Iff k|bfg ug]{ ;+:yfsf] ?kdf /x]sf] ;+st] ug]{ P
k|f]O{Gˆnfd]6/L ;fO{6f]sfO{G;x¿sf] !)= tgfj, lrGtf, eo / ljB'tLo ultljlw hfFr ug{ O{Oh { L, h:tf 7" n f k| s [ l ts k| s f] k Kn; /]l6Ë k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8a{ f6 l:js[t ePsf] ljj/0fkq
/Qm:t/ sd gx'gfn] klg xf] . pbf;Lgtf M sf]le8–!(sf sf/0fn] /Qm clS;hg ;]r"/];g cflbsf] cfktsfnLg :jf:Yo l:ylt, cflb a}s+ sf] j]a;fO6df ;d]t /flvPsf] 5 .
@)&* ;fn h]7 @# ut] cfOtaf/ 5

rLg ‘xfOk/;f]lgs’ ljdfg agfp“b}


sf7df8f}F . rLgn] xfOk/;f]lgs 6g] n LENS II df #) 6fOD;sf] Ps l/kf] 6 { c g' ; f/ tL u/]sf] lrlgofF :k]; :6];gnfO{ xfn
l6\j6/åf/f PsfpG6 e]l/lkms];g sfo{qmd k'gM aGb
sf7df8f}F . dfOqmf] Anluª ;fO6 l6\j6/n] $ jif{kl5 k'gM ;'? u/]sf]
PsfpG6 e]l/lkms];g sfo{ Ps xKtf gk'Ug} aGb u/]sf] 5 . ;g\ @)!& b]lv
ljdfgsf] k/LIf0fsf nflu Ps ldln;]s0] 8;Dd p8fg x'G5 . o;sf] cGt/LIf ofqL cGt/LIf :6]zgdf # cGt/LIfdf /x]sf] / k"/fgf] e};s]sf] aGb /x]sf] lgnf] lrXg;lxtsf] e]l/lkms];g k|bfg ug]{ sfo{sf nflu l6\j6/n]
xfOk/;f]lgs 6g]n agfO/x]sf] 5 . t'ngfdf h]Pkm–@@ sf] cf};t p8fg dlxgf;Dd a:g]5g\ / To; qmddf ax'/fli6«o :k]; :6];gsf] k|lt:kwL{ ut xKtfaf6 dfq} cg'/f]w lng ;'? u/]sf] lyof] . t/, lgnf] lrXgsf nflu
of] 6g]ndf ljdfgsf] k/LIf0f @# xhf/ l;d'nz ] g !#) ldln;]s0] 8;Dd k'Ug] :6] ; gdf dd{ t ;Def/sf ;fy} dflgPsf] 5 . k[YjLeGbf # ;o $) ck]IffeGbf cTolws w]/} cg'/f]w k|fKt eP;Fu} tTsfnsf nflu PsfpG6
dfOn k|lt306f cyf{t #& xhf/ !@ lrlgofF j}1flgssf] egfO 5 . u'OnO{n] j} 1 flgs k| o f] u sf ljleGg sfd b] l v $ ;o %) lsnf] l d6/sf] e]l/lkms];g sfo{qmd /f]lsPsf] l6\j6/n] zlgaf/ hgfPsf] 5 . l6\j6/sf
lsnf]ld6/ k|lt306fsf] ultdf x'g] eg]sf 5g\, xfd|f] cg';Gwfgsf] ;do ug]{5g\ . tL ofq'x¿ clxn] n]e; 6' prfOaf6 k[YjLsf] sIfsf] kl/qmdf cg';f/ e]l/lkms];g sfo{qmddf ePsf] :yut c:yfoL k|s[ltsf] xf] . ca
5 . rfOlgh Ps] 8 ] d L ckm cGo b]zsf] t'ngfdf nfdf] 5 . To;}n] Sjf/]lG6gdf 5g\ / cGtl/If ld;g;Fu ul//xg] of] gofF :k]; :6]zg cfufdL xfn;Dd k|fKt ePsf lgj]bgx? ;dLIff u/]/ 6'u+ f] nufOg]5 . To;kl5 l5§}
;fOG;]Ghsf zf]wstf{ xfg u'OnO{n] o; ljdfgsf] df]8n pgLx?sf]eGbf ;DalGwt sfdnfO{ clGtd ¿k jif{ ;g\ @)@@ ;Dd lgdf{0f ;DkGg g} e]l/lkms];g cg'/f]w v'Nnf ul/g] l6\j6/n] cfˆgf] l6\j6/ e]l/kmfO8
Ps cgnfOg n]Sr/df eg]sf 5g\, 7"nf] x'g;S5 / cg';Gwfg klg lbO/x]sf 5g\ . of+usf cg';f/ of] x'g] rLgsf] ljZjf; 5 . cGtl/Ifdf gfds Xof08naf6 hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . ut xKtfdfq} ;'rf? u/]sf] An'
…h] Pkm–@@ 6g]ndf ljdfgsf] k/LIf0f pgLx?sf] eGbf pGgt x'g] 5 . o;n] cleofgdf ;a} k'?if ofqLx¿ x'g] xfn k[YjLsf] sIfdf s]jn Pp6f dfq Aofh e]l/lkms];g sfo{qmdcGtu{t l6\j6/n] ;/sf/L clwsf/L tyf lgsfox?,
Wjlgsf] ulteGbf #) u'0ff a9L ljZjdf rLgsf] cu|0fL :yfg lgwf{/0f ePklg cfufdL ld;gx?df dlxnf :k]; :6];g /x]sf] 5 . To;sf] gfd sDkgL, a|f08 tyf ;+:yfx?, kqsf/ tyf ;~rf/dfWod, dgf]/~hg tyf
/ˆtf/df x' g ] 5 . o;af6 rLg ug]{ 5 .Ú rLgsf] /s]6 sfo{qmdsf klg ;lDdlnt x'g] v'nf;f u/]sf 5g\ . OG6/g];gn :k]; :6];g xf], h;df v]ns'b If]q, cleofgsdL{ tyf ;+3;:yfx? tyf cfa4 JolQmx? u/L
klZrdf b]zx?eGbf @) b]lv #) lktf elgg] lsofg h';g] n] ;g\ !($^ cfˆgf] cGtl/If :6];gsf] lgdf{0fsf rLg ;dfj]z 5}g . ljleGg ^ ljwfsf k|of]ustf{sf] cg'/f]w :jLsf/ ug]{ u/]sf] lyof] . ca
jif{ cufl8 x'g] 5 .Ú ;fpy rfOgf df klxnf]k6s …xfOk/;f]lgsÚ zJb nflu rLgn] @)@! b]lv @)@@ sf] cGtl/If lj1fgdf Pp6f 7"nf] zlQm lgs6 eljiodf k'gM ;'? ul/g] e]l/lkms];g sfo{qmddf To;afx]s j}1flgs,
dlg{ª kf]i6sf] l/kf]6{ cg';f/ rLg, pNn] v u/] s f lyP . pgsf] aLrdf !! k6s cGtl/If ofg k|If]k0f aGb} uPsf] rLgn] utjif{ d+un k|fl1s tyf wfld{s If]qsf k|of]ustf{x? klg ;d]l6g] atfOPsf] 5 .
cd] l /sf / ?;n] ld;fOn;lxt cg';Gwfgdf jfo' k|jfxsf] ult Wjlgsf] ug]{ of]hgf agfPsf] 5 . h; cGtu{t cleofg klg ;'? u/]sf] lyof] . rLgsf] o;}aLr, l6\j6/n] cfˆgf] ;z'Ns ;]jf l6\j6/ An' ;'? ug]{ ePsf] 5 .
xfOk/;f]lgs p8fg k|ljlwsf] ljsf;df t'ngfdf kfFr u'0ff t]h kfOPsf] lyof] . b'Oj{ 6f cleofg k"/f eO;s]sf 5g\ . Ps /f]j/n] clxn] d+un u|xsf af/]df cfO{cf]P; Pk :6f]/df /x]sf] Pk k]hdfkm{t\ l6\j6/n] o:tf] hfgsf/L u/fPsf]
7"nf] nufgL ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . of] o;}aLr, rLgn] oxLF h'g dlxgfdf ut zlgjf/ rLgn] ltofGh' 6" sfuf]{ hfgsf/Lx? h'6fO/x]sf] 5 . oBlk xf] . l6\j6/sf] pQm ;z'Ns ;]jfsf] z'Ns cd]l/sfdf k|ltdlxgf @=@( 8n/
gofF k| l jlwaf6 ;' k /kmf:6 h] 6 cfˆgf tLghgf cGtl/If ofqLx?nfO{ ofg k7fPsf] lyof] . lrlgofF cGtl/If cGtl/If lj1fgsf] If]qdf rLgn] lgs} x'g5] atfOPsf] 5 . l6\j6/ An'df cfdk|of]ustf{n] rnfpg] lgMz'Ns l6\j6/
ljdfgdfkm{t\ ljZjsf] s'g} klg b]zdf # dlxg] a;fOFsf nflu lgdf{0ffwLg Ph]G;Lsf cg';f/ !! b]lv ;'? ePsf] l9nf] ;'?jft u/]sf] lyof] . klxnf]k6s Pksf cltl/Qm ljleGg lk|ldod lkmr/x? x'g5 ] g\ . To;df l6\j6 lkmtf{
b'O{ 306f jf Tof]eGbf sd ;dodf lrlgofF cGtl/If :6]zgdf k7fpg] pQm cleofg cGtu{ t # k6s ;g\ @))# df rLgn] cfˆgf] cGtl/If lng] cyf{t\ cg 8' ug{ ;lsg] lkmr/ x'g] atfOPsf] 5 .
p8fg eg{ ;Dej x'G5 . rLgsf] 3f]if0ff ul/;s]sf] 5 . cfˆgf] Ps :6];gsf df]8\o'n, rf/ k6s sfuf]{ ofqLnfO{ k[YjLsf] sIfdf k7fpg ;kmn
xfOk/;f]lgs Ph]G;L OG;l6Ro'6 ckm
d]sflgS;;Fu sfd ug]{ u'OnO{sf
dfnafxs cGtl/Ifofg ;kmntfk"js
k|If]k0f u/L :k]; :6];gdf hf]l8Psf]
{ tyf rf/ k6s cGtl/If ofqL;lxtsf]
ofg k|If]k0f x'g]5g\ . cfufdL ;g\
ePsf] lyof] . ;f]leot ;+3 / cd]l/sf
kl5 cGtl/If ofqL k7fpg] rLg t]>f]
cd]hgn] xlnp8sf] ;jf{lws rlr{t :6'l8of] PdhLPd vl/b ug]{ Û
cg';f/ olt l56f] ultdf ofqf ug]{ Ps lbgkl5 rLgn] o:tf] 3f]if0ff @)@@ ;Dddf !) j6f o:t} cGo d'ns ' ag]sf] lyof] . clxn];Dd rLgn] sf7df8f}F . cd]hgn] xlnp8sf] ;jf{lws rlr{t :6'l8of] PdhLPdnfO{ v/Lb
h] 6 ljdfg !) xhf/ l8u| L u/]sf] lyof] . rfOlgh DofG8 :k]; df]8o\ n
' n~r ug]{ rLgsf] of]hgf 5, b'Oj{ 6f cGtl/If s]Gb|x? ltofªuf]Ë ! ug]{ lglZrt ePsf] 5 . e]/fO6Lsf cg';f/ h]km a]hf];sf] cd]hgn] *=$% lalnog
;]lN;o;;Dd k'Ug;S5 / xfjfsf c0f' Ph]G;Lsf cg';f/ lrlgofF :k]; h;n] k[YjLsf] kl/qmdf ug]{5g\ . / ltofªuf] Ë @ k[ Y jLsf] sIfdf 8n/df PdhLPdnfO{ vl/b ug]{ ;Demf}tf ePsf] xf] . ;g !(@$ clk|n !& df
/ k/df0f'nfO{ klg tf]8g\ ;S5 . pgn] :6];gsf] d'Vo df]8o\ n' sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] ;a}eGbf klxnf] r/0fdf rLgn] ut k7fO;s]sf] 5 . x'g t tL b'a} 6«fon lgdf{0f ePsf] PdhLPd :6"l8of]hnfO{ cd]hgn] *=$% ca{ 8n/df cd]hgn] lsGg]
eg]sf 5g\, …of] xfjf xfjf x'g]5}g ltofGx] df]8o\ n
' df clxn] cGtl/If ofqL clk|n @( df pQm :6];gsf] Ps :6];g lyP / s]xL ;dodfq} k[YjLsf] lglZrt u/]sf] xf] . ;f] v/LbkZrft\ cd]hgsf] k|fOe l:6«ldª ;le{;n] pQm
h;af6 xfdL ;f; lnG5f}+ . xfdL h'g a:g] sf]7fx¿ lgdf{0f eO/x]sf 5g\ . dxTjk"0f{ df]8o\ n
' k|If]k0f u/]sf] lyof] . sIfdf /xg ;s] . gofF :k]; :6];g :6'l8of];uF /x]sf 7"nf] kl/df0fsf ;fdu|Lx?sf] :jfldTj k|fKt ug]5{ .
p8\g] ljdfgsf] cWoog ul//x]sf 5f},+ rLgsf] cGt/LIf dfgj ld;g;Fu pQm ltofGx] df]8\o'Ndf cGtl/If ltofGx] rflxF sDtLdf !) jif{;Dd emG8} ztfAbL nfdf] lkmNd lgdf{0fsf] Oltxf; af]ss ] f] PdhLPdn] ;'?df
Tof] lxnf]df kf}l8Ph:tf] xf] .Ú pgsf ;DalGwt Ps ljefusf lgb]z { s tyf :6];gdf sfd ug]{ cGtl/If ofqLx¿ k[YjLsf] sIfdf /x]/ sfd ug]{ atfOPsf] 6]lnlehg l;l/hsf] lgdf{0f u/]sf] lyof] . l;g]dfsf] Psnf}6L dgf]/~hgnfO{
cg';f/ oflGqs sDk|];/sf] pkof]u klxnf] cGtl/If ofqL of+u lnj]On] a:g] sf]7f alg/x]sf 5g\ . of+u 5 . k[YjLsf] sIfdf xfn /x]sf] tf]8b\ } ca cf]6L6L Kn]6kmd{ xfjL x'jF } uPsf] a]nf cnu klxrfg agfPsf]
ug{'sf] ;f6f] a]Olhªn] pRr ultsf] rLgsf] cfufdL 7"nf] cleofgsf af/]df lnj]Osf cg';f/ tL sf]7fx?df a:g] cGt/f{li6«o cGtl/If :6];gn] ;g\ PdhLPd laqmL ePsf] xf] . cd]hgn] PdhLPdsf] ;Dkbf / lkmNdsf] Sof6fnunfO{
jfo' k|jfx pTkGg ug{sf nflu hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ . !% cS6f]a/ cGtl/If ofqLx¿n] aflx/ lgl:sP/ @)@$ af6 sfd ug{ 5f8\g5 ] . To;}n] ;'/lIft /flv/fVg] k|lta4tf hgfPsf] 5 . ;fy}, cfˆgf pTkfbgnfO{ pkef]QmfnfO{
/f;folgs ljikmf]6sf] pkof]u ug]5 { . @))# df cGtl/Ifdf hfg] klxnf] ljleGg sfd ug]5 { g\ . pgL eG5g\ To;a]nf lrlgofF :k]; :6];g ltofGx] g} a[xt\ kx'r F lbg] k|lta4tf klg 5 . cd]hgsf] Oltxf;df p;sf nflu of]
h]Pkm–@@ df OGwg Ps lgoldt Uof; lrlgofF ag]sf of+un] # hgf cGtl/If …cfufdL lbgdf oL sf] 7 fx?af6 ;fob PSnf] cGtl/If :6];gsf] ¿kdf clxn];Dds} bf];f| ] 7"nf] vl/b ;Demf}tf xf] . o;cl3 p;n] ;g\ @)!& df xf]n
:6f]esf] t'ngfdf !) s/f]8 u'0ff a9L ofqLx¿ oxLF h'g dlxgfdf z]Gh' !@ cGtl/If ofqLx¿ aflx/ lgl:sg' Ps k[YjLsf] kl/qmdf ul//x]sf] x'g5
] . km'8;\ r]gnfO{ !#=& lalnog 8n/df vl/b u/]sf] lyof] .
t]hn] hNb5 / To;sf] zlQmaf6 cGt/LIf ofgaf6 :k]; :6];gsf] lgoldt sfd x'g5 ] / o;n] cGtl/If
ljdfg rNb5 . ofqfdf lgl:sg] tof/L ul//x]sf 5g\ . ofqLx¿sf] sfdsf] cjlwnfO{ klg
cd]l/sfdf ;a}eGbf pGgt lj08 rLgsf] ;/sf/L klqsf Unf] a n pNn]Vo dfqfdf a9fpg] 5 .Ú aGb}

OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// aGb x'b“ }


sf7df8f}F . dfOqmf];ˆ6n] ;g\ @)@@
sf] h'g !% b]lv OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf]
;dodf dfOqmf];ˆ6sf] cfw'lgs j]a
a|fph/ Phn] nf]slk|otf sdfO/x]sf]
gcfP;Fu} k|of]ustf{x? lbSs eP ;fy}
OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// efO/; cfqmd0fsf]
;kf]6{ aGb ug]{ 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 . jiff}bF { l] v 5, h'g u'unsf] cf]kg ;f];{ qmf]d kof{jfrL g} aGof] . o;df ;]Sof]l/6L
OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf] ;kf]6{ aGb ug]{ sf]8df cfwfl/t 5 . cfufdL lbgdf ;d:of b]vf kg{s ' f ;fy} k|ljlw klg
k|of; ul//x]sf] dfOqmf];ˆ6n] aNn OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf] ;kf]6{ aGb cfp68]68] alg;s]sf] lyof] .
lg0ff{os sbd rfn]sf] xf] . o;aLrdf u/];uF } dfOqmf];ˆ6n] gofF sDKo'6/df o;} a Lrdf ;g\ @))^ df
dfOqmf];ˆ6n] OG6/g/]6 PS;Knf]//nfO{ OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// l8kmN6 ?kdf dfOqmf];ˆ6n] OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// &
lgsDdf agfpFb} nu]sf] lyof] . s]xL OG:6n ug{ aGb u5{ jf ub}g{ eGg] Nofof], t/ Tolta]nf ;Dd l9nf] e};s]sf]
dlxgf cl3af6 OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//df k|i6 ePsf] 5}g . lyof] . ahf/df kmfo/kmS; a|fph/sf]
dfOqmf];ˆ6sf] Rof6 ;ˆ6j]o/ l6D; dfOqmf];ˆ6sf] Ph a|fph/n] nf]slk|otf al9/x]sf] lyof] . clg
grNg] ePsf] lyof] eg] oxLF u[idofdsf] OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf nflu tof/ lj:tf/} u'unsf] qmf]d a|fph/n] ;a}nfO{
dWoaf6 dfOqmf];ˆ6 clkm; nufotsf kfl/Psf j]a Pkx? ;d]t ;kf]6{ ug]{ kl5 kfg{ ;kmn eof] . ;g\ @)!! df
ljleGg #^% j6f Pkx? klg OG6/g]6 ePsf] x'bF f k|of]ustf{x?n] OG6/g]6 cfw'lgs a|fph/sf] ?kdf OG6/g]6
PS;Knf]//df rNg] 5}gg\ . s'g} ;do PS;Knf]//df k|of]u ug]{ Pkx? Phdf PS;Knf]// ( NofP/ dfOqmf];ˆ6n]
;a}eGbf w]/} k|of]u x'g] j]a a|fph/sf] klg ug{ ;Sg]5g\ . To;}n] OG6/g6 OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//nfO{ k'gM Ao'tF fpg]
¿kdf /x]sf] OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// PS;Knf]//sf] pkfb]otf ;lsPsf] 5 . k|of; u¥of] . t/, lj8Dagf cem} klg
kl5Nnf] em08} b'O{ bzsb]lv eg] dfOqmf];ˆ6sf] Ph a|fph/sf k|fu] f| d klg OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//n] PS;6]G;g
lg/Gt/ cf]/fnf] ofqfdf lyof] . ;g\ Dofg]h/ l;g lnG8/;] eG5g\– …xfdLn] ;kf] 6 { ub} { g , ljG8f] h afx] s sf
@)!) df j]a a|fph/sf] ahf/df 3f]if0ff ub}5{ f}F ls ljG8f]h !) df OG6/g]6 l8efO;df pknAw 5}g / cGo
OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf] lx:;f %) PS;Knf]//sf] eljio ca dfOqmf];ˆ6 l8efO;df l8kmN6?kdf
k|ltzt lyof] h'g clxn] % k|ltzt Phdf /x]sf] 5 . OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// l;Gqmf]gfOh];g x'bF g} . dfOqmf];ˆ6n]
dfq} 5 . ha ls clxn] u'un qmf]dsf] eGbf dfOqmf];ˆ6 Ph kmf:6 a|fph/ clxn] cfP/ a'em]sf] 5 ls j]a
lx:;f ^( k|ltzt 5 . x'gs' f ;fy} a9L ;'/lIft / cfw'lgs a|fph/sf nflu OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//
OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf] d[To' 3f]if0ff a|fph/ klg xf] . ;fy}, o;n] k'/fgf pko'Qm 5}g .
ub}{ dfOqmf];ˆ6n] OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// lnu];L j]a;fO6 tyf PlKns];g ;d]t ut cui6df dfOqmf] ; ˆ6n]
;':t /x]sf], Jofjxfl/s gx'gs ' f ;fy} ;kf]6{ ug]{ x'gfn] d'Vo rf;f]sf] ;d]t eg]sf] lyof] M …;g\ @)!# b]lv
cfw'lgs j]a ultljlwsf nflu klg ;Daf]wg ePsf] 5 . ljG8f]h (% sf] k|of]ustf{n] OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//
kof{Kt tyf ;'/lIft ;d]t g/x]sf] lx:;fsf] ?kdf ;g\ !((% df OG6/g]6 rnfO/x]sf 5g\, hlta]nfsf] OG6/g]6
hgfPsf] 5 . oBlk lg/Gt/sf] lu/fj6 PS;Knf]//n] j]a a|fph/sf] ahf/df jftfj/0f clxn]sf] h:tf] cTofw'lgs
/ cfnf]rgfsf afah't klg OG6/g]6 8]Ao' u/];Fu} 5f]6f] ;dodf 7"nf] lyPg .Ú To;otf gofF dfOqmf];ˆ6 Ph
PS;Knf]// @^ jif{;Dd cl:tTj sfod nf]slk|otf xfl;n u¥of] . OG6/g]6 h:tf cf]kg j]a :6fG88{ tyf gofF
/fVg ;kmn eof] . dfOqmf];ˆ6n] PS;Knf]// cfP;Fu} g]6:s]k g]leu]6/sf] a|fph/x? cfO;s]sf] 5g\ h;n]
cem}klg ljG8f]h ;ˆ6j]o/df OG6/g]6 cl:tTj ;dfKt eof] / ;g\ @))) sf] cgnfOg cg'ejnfO{ pTs[i6tf tyf
PS;Knf]// /fVg] u/]sf] 5 . vf;u/L bzssf] ;'?jftL r/0fdf o;n] j]a gjLgtf k|bfg ul//x]sf 5g\ . To;}n]
ljG8f]hsf skf]{/]6 u|fxsx? gofF a|fph/sf] b'lgofFdf Psflwsf/ sfod kl5Nnf % jif{ dfOqmf];ˆ6n] OG6/g]6
e;{gsf] a|fph/df :yfgfGt/0f x'g] u¥of] . ;g\ @))) df j]a a|fph/sf] PS;Knf]//sf] cGTo ug]{ c;kmn k|of;
ult lgs} lwdf x' g ] ePsf] n ] hutdf OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf] lx:;f ub}{ cfof] . oBlk dfOqmf];ˆ6n] ;g\
dfOqmf];ˆ6n] gofF ljG8f]hdf ;d]t (% k|ltzt lyof] . t/ j]a a|fph/df @)!% df k"0f{ gofF a|fph/sf] ¿kdf g] k fn ;/sf/
OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// pknAw u/fpFb} gofF cGj]if0f ug{ dfOqmf];ˆ6 c;kmn dfOqmf];ˆ6 Ph NofPsf] lyof] . t/, ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
cfPsf] lyof] . w]/} ljG8f]h !) sf
u|fxsx?nfO{ t cfˆgf] sDKo'6/df
OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]// OG:6n ePsf]
/Xof] . h;sf] kmn:j?k % jif{;Dd
nuftf/ k|of]ustf{x?n] OG6/g]6
PS;Knf]// ^ k|of]u ul//xg afWo eP .
Pkn] jf:tjdf OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//nfO{
lj:yflkt u/]g . clxn]klg ljG8f]h
sDKo'6/df Ph;Fu} OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
yfxf gx'g klg ;S5 . kl5Nnf] OG6/g]6 PS;Knf]//sf] gofF e;{g klg lk|OG:6N8 x'G5 .
6 @)&* ;fn h]7 @# ut] cfOtaf/

x\jf6\;Pkåf/f ef/tlj?4 d'2f bfo/ Û


sf7df8f}F . ef/tn] nfu" u/]sf] ;f];n ldl8of Knf6kmd{x?n] cf+lzs / o;n] P08 6" P08 OglqmK;gnfO{ tyf /f]syfdsf nflu cfjZos kbf{
! lsnf] lrofkQLsf] d"No !% s/f]8 Û
sf7df8f}F . ;+;f/sf] ;a}eGbf dxFuf] lrofkQLsf] gfd 8f xf]u+ kfcf] xf] . of]
lrofkQLsf] d"No k|ltlsnf] em08} !% s/f]8 ?k}ofF k5{ . rLgsf] km'lhofg k|fGtsf]
gofF lgodn] ;f];n ldl8ofdfly tyf k"0f{?kdf gUgtf ;dfj]z ePsf e+u ug]{ / dflg;x?sf] uf]kgLotfsf] dfq} k|of]ustf{sf lghL 8f6fx? pO;g Onfsfdfdf of] lrofsf] v]tL ul/G5 . :jf:Yosf nflu lgs} nfebfos
cfdlgu/fgLsf] cj:yf l;h{gf x'g] / ;fdu|Lx? x6fpg'kg]{ ljifo klg gofF clwsf/ cfwf/e"t ?kdf pNn+3g pknAw u/fpgsf nflu ;f] ; n
k|of]ustf{sf lghL 8f6fx? ;/sf/nfO{ lgoddf /x]sf] 5 . x'g]5 . ;fy} pgn] k|of]ustf{sf] ldl8of Knf6kmd{x?nfO{ cg'/f]w ul/g]
lbgsf ;f];n ldl8of Knf6kmd{x?nfO{ Xjf6\ ; Pkn] rflxF csf] { Ps uf]kgLotfsf] pNn+3gsf] lj/f]wsf k| i 6 kf/] s f] 5 . d] ; ] l hª Pk
nflu afWo kfg]{ eGb} Xjf6\;Pkn] lgoddf klg s8f cfklQ hgfPsf] nflu cfk"mx? ljZje/sf] gful/s Xjf6\;Pksf nflu ef/t ;a}eGbf 7"nf]
To:tf] lgoddf /f]s nufpg dfu ub}{ 5 . h;cg';f/ ;/sf/L lgsfon] ;dfh tyf lj1x?;F u lg/Gt/ ahf/ xf] . ef/tdf Xjf6\;Pksf $)
lbNnL pRr cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ dfu] s f] v08df ;f] ; n ldl8of ;Fu;Fu} /x]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . s/f] 8 k| o f] u stf{ /x] s f 5g\ .
u/]sf] 5 . ut a'waf/b]lv nfu" x'g] sDkgLx?n] ;f];n ldl8of Knf6kmd{df ef/tsf] On]S6«fl] gS; tyf ;"rgf Xjf6\;Pkn] ;g @)!^ b]lv O08 6"
elgPsf] ;f];n ldl8of;DaGwL gofF k|l] ift d];h] x? ;j{ky| d k|jflxt ug]{ k|ljlw dGqfnon] rflxF Xjf6\;Pkn] O08 PglqmK;g nfu" u/]sf] 5 h;sf
lgod nfu" x' g glbg] k| o f;df k|of]ustf{ kQf nufP/ hfgsf/L bfo/ u/]sf] d'2f gofF lgodnfO{ sf/0f Xjf6\;Pkdf ul/g] sn tyf
Xjf6\ ; Pkn] cbfntsf] 9f] s f u/fpg'kg]{5 . o;n] x/]s Rof6sf] sfof{Gjog x'gaf6 /f]Sgsf nflu k7fOg] d];]h, kmf]6f], lel8of] tyf
9S9sfPsf] atfOPsf] 5 . gofF 6«oflsª ug{'kg]{ x'gfn] To;af6 clGtd ;dodf ePsf] b'ef{Uok"0f{ EjfO; nufotsf ;fdu|Lx? k|fksn]
lgodfg' ; f/ ef/tdf lqmofzLn k|of]ustf{sf] uf]klgotf xgg x'g] k|of; ePsf] atfPsf] 5 . ;fy} afx]s s;}n] klg -:jo+ Xjf6\;Pkn]
sDkgLx?n] :yfgLo sfg"g kfngf Xjf6\;Pksf] egfO 5 . Xjf6\;Pk dGqfnon] d'n'ssf] ;fj{ef}ldstf, klg_ x] g { kfpF b } g . olb ef/t
ug{sf nflu ljz]if e"ldsf lgjf{x k|jQmfsf cg';f/ d];]lhª PknfO{ ;'/Iff tyf cv08tf, ;fj{hlgs ;/sf/sf] gofF lgod kfngf ug]{ xf]
ug{k' g]{ tyf sfg"g sfof{Gjog u/fpg] Rof6 6«]l;ª ug{ nufpg' eg]sf] Joj:yf, anfTsf/, afn of}g b'Jo{jxf/ eg] Xjf6\;Pkn] cfˆgf] O08 6" O08 ePs} x'gfn] of] lrofkQL olt w]/} dxFuf] ePsf] atfOG5 . ;fy} of] lrofkQLnfO{
lgsfo;F u ;Dks{ d f /xg' k g] { Xjf6\;Pkdf k7fOPsf x/]s d];h ] sf] tyf cZnLn ;fdu|Lx?nufotsf OglqmK;g x6fpg' kb{5 / x/]s lgs} b'ne{ klg dflgG5 . of] lrofsf] v]tL lgs} sl7g tyf kl/>dd"ns x'g] /
nufotsf k|fjwfg /x]sf 5g\ . ;fy} cf}F7f5fk /fVg nufpg' h:t} ePsf] clt uDeL/ ck/fwx?sf] cg';Gwfg d];h ] sf] ljzfn 8f6fa]; /fVg' kb{5 . pTkfbg klg sd x'g] x'gfn] o;sf] d"No cTolws ePsf] xf] .

rLgåf/f tLg ;Gtfgsf] gLlt 3f]if0ff Û


8f= xf]u+ kfcf] lrofsf] Oltxf;nfO{ x]bf{ rLgdf ld+u j+zLo zf;gsfnaf6
of] lrofsf] v]tL ;'? ePsf] dflgG5 . pQm ;dodf ld+u j+zsL dxf/fgL
crfgs la/fdL kl/g\ . pgsf] :jf:Yo cj:yf lgs} gfh's aGb} hfFbf afFRg]
sf7df8f}F . lrlgofF ;dfrf/ oBlk of] gLltn] klg rLgdf hGdb/ vf]lh/x]sf] 5 . o;} qmddf ;g\ @)!^ hfgsf/x? atfpF5g\ . lrlgofF gLlt ;Defjgf klg sd x'bF } uPsf] lyof] . lsgls pgnfO{ s'g} klg cf}iflwn] sfd
Ph]G;L l;GXjfsf cg';f/ rLgn] a9fpg eg] ;xof]u u/]g . pQm df rLgn] Ps ;Gtfg gLlt x6fpFb} lgdf{ 0 fsf] 6f] n Lsf Ps ;b:on] ug{ 5f8]sf] lyof] . To;kl5 pgnfO{ /fHosf j}Bx?n] 8f xf]+u kfcf] lrof
cfˆgf] d'ns ' df a:g] bDkQLnfO{ tLg gLltsf] b'O{ jif{ hGdb/df s]xL j[l4 b'O{ ;Gtfg hGdfpg kfpg] gLlt /f]o6;{;uF sf] cGtjf{tf{df eg]sf lyP, lkpg ;Nnfx lbP . cgf}7+ f] t s] eg] pQm lrof lgoldt ?kdf lkpg
;Gtfg hGdfpg kfpg] clwsf/ lbg] b]lvP klg To;df k'gM lu/fj6 NofPsf] lyof] . of] gLltn] klg hGdb/ …olb xfdLn] of] gLltsf] aGwg x6fof}+ eg] yfn]sf] s]xL lbgd} pgnfO{ lgsf] eof] . /fgL lgsf] eP;Fu /fhfn] pQm
lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 b]lvPsf] xf] . rLgn] ;g\ !(&( df a9fpg g;s] k l5 rLgn] tLg u|fdL0f e]udf a:g] dflg;n] ;x/df a:g]n] lrofsf] v]tL ug{sf nflu cfb]z hf/L u/] . pg} /fhfsf] gfdaf6 of]
kf6L{sf] kf]ln6Ao"/f] ldl6ªdf /fi6«klt hg;+Vof lgoGq0fsf] nflu eGb} Ps ;Gtfgsf] gLlt NofPsf] xf] . Ps eGbf w]/} ;Gtfg hGdfpg rfxG5g\ / lrofkQLsf] gfd /xg uPsf] atfOG5 .
l; lhglkªn] pQm gLltnfO{ :jLs[lt
lbPsf x'g\ . rLgsf] hg;+Vof j[l4b/
;Gtfg dfq hGdfpg kfpg] gLlt
NofPsf] lyof] . hlta]nf rLgsf]
;Gtfg gLltsf] sf/0f rLgdf n}lËs
c;Gt'ngsf] ;d:of klg b]lvPsf]
o;n] cGo ;d:of lgDTofpg ;S5 .Ú
o;cl3 hfgsf/x?n] rLgsf] ;+;f/s} dx“uf] lx/f ;f9] # ca{ ?k}of“df laSof] Û
bzsotfs} ;a}eGbf sd /x]sf] hg;+Vof (& s/f]8 lyof] . ljZj lyof] . ;g\ @)@) df rLgdf k'?ifsf] hg;+Vofdf sdL cfP To;sf] c;/ sf7df8f}F . lqm:6L cS;g xfp;n] xªsªdf u/]sf] lnnfdLdf ;+;f/s}
tYof+s ;fj{hlgs ePsf] s]xL ;dodf a}s
+ sf] tYof+scg';f/ To;otf rLgsf] ;+Vof &@ s/f]8 ## nfv 5 lyof] rLgdf dfq geO{ ljZje/ g} x'g ;Sg] ;a}eGbf b'n{e tyf cfsif{s dflgg] j}hgL–u'nfaL lx/f em08} ;f9] # ca{
g} rLgn] o:tf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] xf] . hg;+Vof $! s/f]8 &) nfv a9]sf] eg] dlxnfsf] ;+Vof ^* s/f]8 *$ r]tfjgL lbPsf lyP . lj:sf]lG;g– ?k}ofFdf laqmL ePsf] 5 . !%=*! Sof/]6sf] pQm lx/fsf] gfd b ;fs'/f xf] .
hg;+ V of j[ l 4b/ sd b] l vP;F u } 5 . oBlk hg;+Vofsf] j[l4b/ eg] nfv dfq 5 . To;}n] o; lsl;dsf] Dofl8;g o'lgel;{6Lsf j}1flgs lo
rLgnfO{ b'O{ ;Gtfgsf] gLlt x6fpg pNn]Vo?kdf 36]sf] 5 . kl5Nnf] c;Gt'ng x6fpg klg b'O{ ;Gtfg km'l;ofg eG5g\, …rLgsf] cy{tGq lgs}
bafa a9]sf] xf] . o;cl3 ;g\ @)!^ ;do hGdb/ lgs} sd b]lvPsfn] gLltn] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ tLj} ultdf a9\ b } cfPsf] 5 /
df rLgn] ljjflbt Ps ;Gtfg gLlt eljiodf rLgdf j[4x?sf] ;+Vof w]/} ;Sg] ck]Iff ul/Psf] lyof] . ljZje/sf pBf]ux? rLgdf lge{/
cGTo ub}{ Ps bDkQLn] b'O{ ;Gtfg x'g ;Sg] cfz+sfsf] sf/0f rLgn] clxn] NofPsf] gLltn] u|fdL0f / ;x/L 5g\ . o:tf]df rLgsf] hg;+Vofdf sdL
hGdfpg kfpg] gLlt NofPsf] lyof] . hGdb/ a9fpg] pkfo clxn] e]udf km/s–km/s k|efj kg{ ;Sg] cfpg'sf] c;/ 7"nf] x'g ;S5 .Ú

Ps ldg]6leq} sf]/f]gf kQf nufpg] pks/0f Û


sf7df8f}F . sf]/f]gf efO/;n] @ aif{bl] v sf]/f]gf kQf nufpg] of] g} klxnf] pks/0f
efUodf ePkl5====
sf7df8f}F . efUodf ePsf] s'/f k;nsf] 8:6lagdf /Xof] . !)
ljZj tx;gx; ePsf] 5 . o;af6 xf] . clwsf/Lsf cg';f/ o; pks/0faf6 h;/L klg xft nfU5 eGg] s'/f lbgkl5 k;n]sf 5f]/f cle zfxn]
5'6sf/f kfpgsf nflu w]/} k|of;x? t'?Gt glthf yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 . cd]l/sfsL Ps dlxnfsf] efUonfO{ Tof] l6s6 k"/f :q\mofr gul/Psf]
eO/x]sf 5g\ . o;af6 d[To'sf] b/ klg lgdf{tf sDkgL a|y] f]lgS;n] of] pks/0f
b]Vbf kTofpg s/ nfU5 . oL dlxnfn] kfPkl5 pgn] To;nfO{ k"/} ::q\mofr
cToflws /x]sf] 5 . of] efO/;af6 s;/L 6«flkms k|x/Ln] dfk;] r]s ug{ k|of]u ug]{
5'6s\ f/f kfpg] eg]/ lrGtf a9]sf] 5 . pks/0fh:t} u/L sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0f kQf ! ldlnog 8n/ -!! s/f]8 ^& nfv u/]/ x]/] . Tof] gDa/ ljh]tf lyof] .
sf]/f]gf b]vfk/]bl] v g} ljZjsf j}1flgsn] nufpg ;lsg] hgfPsf] 5 . of] eof] ?k} o fF _ a/fa/sf] n6« L sf] l6s6 8An'8An'PnkL l6eL;Fu s'/f ub}{
o;af/] ljleGg cg';Gwfg ul//x]sf 5g\ . klg b'ud{ ;Dd klg k7fpg ;lsG5 . 8:6lagdf kmflnlbPsL lyOg\ . t/, clen] eg] …d}n] ::q\mofr u/]/ x]bf{}
o;nfO{ hlt;Sbf] l56f] kQf nufpg] o;n] w]/n} fO{ ;xh agfpg ;lsG5 . !) lbgkl5 Tof] l6s6 3'ldlkm/L pgs} Tof] l6s6n] ! lslnog 8n/ lht]sf]
k|ljlwsf] vf]hL u/] . o;}qmddf l;+ufk'/df sDkgLsf cg';f/ sf]/f]gf k/LIf0f lyof] . dnfO{ ofb
j}1flgsn] hDdf ! ldg]6df s;}nfO{ ug]{ o; pks/0fdf ;DalGwt JolQmn] lyof] d]/L cfdf
sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0f 5 ls 5}g eg]/ kQf c?0ffn] of] l6s6 lnnfdLsf qmddf pQm b'n{e lx/f @ s/f]8 (# nfv 8n/df laqmL ePsf]
PskN6 km' ug{ ' k 5{ . o;f] ubf{
nufpg] pks/0f ljsf; u/]sf] va/ pks/0fleq ;f; hfG5 / o;kl5 nL gfdsL xf] . To;;Fu} b ;fs'/f ;+;f/sf] ;a}eGbf dxFuf] kk{n lk+s lx/f aGg ;kmn
cfPsf] 5 . dflg;sf] ;f;af6 o; pks/0fdf /x]sf] nlg{ª ;ˆ6j]o/sf] dlxnfnfO{ ePsf] 5 . of] lx/f ;+;f/df clxn];Dd kfOPsf]dWo] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] a}hgL–
pks/0fn] To; JolQmdf sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0f ;xfotfaf6 JolQmdf sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0f 5 a]Rg'ePsf] lyof] .Ú u'nfaL lx/f ePsf] x'gfn] klg of] lgs} ljz]if x'g uPsf] xf] . r]/L km'Ng]
ls 5}g eg]/ kQf nfUg] j}1flgsn] bfaL ls 5}g eGg] kQf nufpF5 . ljz]if s'/f clenfO{ oL hfkfgL zJbaf6 gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] pQm lx/f Pp6f ;fdfGo Knfl6gd tyf
u/]sf 5g\ . xf˜˜ u/]/ ;f; d]l;gdf s] xf] eg] hDdf ! ldg]6leq of] k|lqmof dlxnfsf] af/]df ;'gsf] cf}F7Ldf /flvPsf] 5 .
k7fpg;fy efO/; ;+qmd0f 5 of 5}g k"/f x'G5 . clxn] hf/L gd'gf -:jfa_ o;sf/0f klg ofb utjif{ !$=* Sof/]6sf] kk{n lk+s lx/f b l:kl/6 ckm /f]h em08} # ca{
eGg] kQf nfUg]5 . ef/tLo ;~rf/dfWon] ;+sng, kL;Lcf/ ug{k' g]{ emGem6 tyf lyof] lsgls nL !# ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] d"Nodf laqmL ePsf] lyof] . b ;fs"/fn] pQm lx/fsf] /]s8{
of] pks/0f ljsf; ug]{ Pshgf nfdf] ;do s'gk' { g]{ cj:yfdf of] pks/0f xftdf cfof] . cd] l /sfsf] pgsL lgoldt u|fxs lyOg\ . e+u u/]sf] xf] . pQm lx/fnfO{ Pl;ofnL v/Lbstf{n] lsg]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . t/,
k|fWofkssf] hGd ef/td} ePsf] bfaL j/bfg x'g] 7flgPsf] 5 . ;f;af6 sf]/f]gf Dof;fr';6] ;
\ df ePsf] of] 36gf clxn] To;kl5 clen] nLsf] 3/d} uP/ lnnfd 3/n] v/Lbstf{sf] af/]df yk hfgsf/L ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5}g .
u/]sf] 5 . g];gn o'lgel;{6L ckm l;+ufk'/
-Pgo"P;_ sf tLg :gfts / ef/tdf
hlGdPsf Ps k|fWofks ldn]/ ;f; ;'3F /] }
kQf nufpg] of] pks/0fn] clxn];Dd
tLg r/0fsf] lSnlgsn k/LIf0f k"/f
ul/;s]sf] 5 . b'O{ r/0fsf] k/LIf0f
lgs} rrf{ d f 5 . 8] n Ld] n sf]
l/kf]6{cg';f/ nL /f]h lkmPuf gfdsL
pgnfO{ ! ldlnog 8n/ k'/:sf/
u/]sf] hfgsf/L lbP . ;a} s'/f yfxf b'O{j6f v/a'hfsf] d"No #) nfv Û
oL dlxnfn] ;fpyljsdf nSsL :6k kfPkl5 nL lgs} efj's eOg\ . pgn] sf7df8f}F . hfkfgdf v/a'hf hftsf] o'af/L d]nf]g elgg] b'O{j6f kmn
sf]/f]gf kQf nfUg] oGq agfPsf x'g\ . of] l;+ufk'/d} / Ps r/0fsf] k/LIf0f b'aO{df :6f]/af6 #) ldlnog 8n/sf] :q\mofr elgg\ …dnfO{ nfUb}gYof] ls cfw'lgs em08} #) nfv ?k}ofFdf laqmL ePsf] 5 . hfkfgsf] xf]SsfO8f] k|fGtdf x'g]
dfk;] kQf nufpg k|of]u ul/g] ;fgf] ul/Psf] xf] . o; qmddf sf]/f]gf k/LIf0fdf
ckm l6s6 lsg]sL lyOg\ . To; lbg ;dodf klg s;}n] o:tf] OdfGbf/L of] v/a'hfsf] jflif{s k/Dk/fut lnnfdLsf qmddf of] jif{ b'O{ uf]6f kmn
d]l;g h:t} 5 . af]s/] lxF8g« klg ;lhnf] o;sf] k|efjsfl/tf (# k|ltzt b]lvPsf]
5 . l;+ufk'/df xfn PlG6h]g ¥oflk8 j}1flgsn] atfPsf 5g\ . ha ls c? pgL xtf/df lyOg\ To;}n] pgn] l6s6 b]vfpF5 . d cfk"mnfO{ lgs} efUozfnL @& nfv hfkfgL o]gdf laqmL ePsf] xf] . of] d"No ut jif{sf] eGbf @@ u'0ff
6]:6;Fu} ;f;sf dfWodaf6 ;+qmd0f kQf ls6x?df Tolt klg ljZjf; x'bF g} . o;}n] :q\mofr u/]/ x]l/g\ . pgnfO{ cfk"mnfO{ dx;'; ul//x]sL 5' . of] 36gf efO/n a9L ePsf] lnnfdL cfof]hsn] hgfPsf] 5 . pRr u'0f:t/ tyf dL7f]
nufpg] k/LIf0f ul/G5 . …a|k] m]G; uf] ca of] g} k|efjsf/L aGg ;Sg] / of] k'/:sf/ gk/]sf] h:tf] nfUof] To;kl5 ePkl5 :6]6 n6«L sldzgn] k;n]nfO{
sf]le8–!( la|y 6]:6 l;:6dÚ gfdsf] Tolt vlr{nf] klg gx'g] ePsfn] ljZje/L pgL Tof] l6s6nfO{ ˆofFlslbg eg]/ klg !) xhf/ 8n/ lbPsf] 5 . o;sf
o; pks/0f Pgo"P;sf] a|y] f]lgS; g} oxL d]l;g nf]slk|o aGg] cfFsng k;n]nfO{ lbOg\ / aflx/ lgl:sg\ . cnfjf nLsf] kl/jf/n] klg pgLx?nfO{
sDkgLn] ljsf; u/]sf] xf] . ;f;af6 ul/Psf] 5 . To;kl5 Tof] l6s6 !) lbg;Dd pkxf/ lbg] of]hgf agfPsf 5g\ .

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+ :jfbsf nflu hfkfgdf gfd sdfPsf] o'af/L d]nf]g cfd?kdf klg dxFuf]

OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ d"Nodf laqmL x'G5 . ut jif{sf] lnnfdLdf b'O{u]8f o'af/Lsf] ! nfv @)
xhf/ o]g k/]sf] lyof] . ha ls To;eGbf cl3Nnf] jif{rflxF b'Ou{ f]6f o'af/LnfO{
sLlt{dfgL %) nfv o]g k/]sf] lyof] . o'af/L d]nf]g xf]SsfO8f] k|fGtsf]
k|lti7fsf] ljifosf] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . of] kmn cToGt} lr;f] tyf k|lts"n
df};ddf kmnfOG5 . kmn leqfpg] sfd d] dlxgfdf ;'? eP/ cui6 dlxgfdf
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 ;lsG5 . of] jif{sf] lnnfdLdf s"n $ ;o ^^ bfgf o'af/L laqmL eP .
:yfgLo ldl8ofsf cg';f/ of] k6s aRrfsf vfg]s'/f pTkfbs sDkgLn]
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&! pRrtd d"No lt/]/ o'af/L vl/b u/]sf] xf] . lnnfdLaf6 vl/b ul/Psf
o'af/LnfO{ sDkgLn] uf]nfk|yfåf/f 5flgPsf cfˆgf u|fxsnfO{ pkxf/ lbg]5 .
@)&* ;fn h]7 @# ut] cfOtaf/ 7
;fpg ! b]lv cj}w ?kdf lelqPsf
bnfn kf]:g] ah]6
Jofks g] k fnL
;/sf/n] cfly{s jif{ @)&*÷&(
b[ l i6n] cNkdtdf x' G 5g . emg}
To;leqsf] klg Pp6f k|eT' jzfnL
ef]ln ltg} /f]huf/L lbOPsf JolQmnfO{
cfkm\gf] ;dy{gdf ;8sdf ptf/L ;Qf
vfg] k|fjwfg / ;'ljwf ;Qfn] lbPsf]
5 . ltgn] kl/rfng ug]{ ljQLo ;|ft]
df]afOn kmf]g lgoGq0fdf
sf7df8f}F . cfufdL ;fpg ! ut]bl] v df]afOn l8efO; Dofg]hd]G6 l;:6d -
Pd8LPdP;_ ;~rfngdf NofOg] ePsf] 5 . cy{dGqL lji0f'k; | fb kf}8n] n] cfly{s
sf] ljQ gLlt 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 . u'6n] xflnd'xfnL u/L ah]6 Nofpg] sAhfdfkm{t\ lg/+sz ' tfsf] cEof; ug]{ eg]sf] vf8Lsf] %) l8u|L tfkqmddf jif{ @)&*–&( sf] ah]6 ;fj{hlgs ub}{ ;fpg ! ut]bl] v pQm k|ljlw ;~rfngdf
;+;b\df b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dt ePsf] ePsf]n] clt g} cNkdtn] bf]xgsf/L tof/L ul/G5 . o;af6 o'jfnfO{ gLr sfd u/L dfl;s #) xhf/ ?k}ofF cfpg] atfPsf x'g\ . pgsf cg';f/ pQm k|ljlw ;~rfngdf cfPkl5 xfn cj}w
kf6L{ 6'qmf6'qmf xF'b} ;+;b\ lj36g gLlt nflb/x]sf] x'G5 . txsf] ef8fsf] j:t' agfpg] sfd tna k|fKt ug]{ sfdbf/n] g]kfn ?kdf lelqPsf -lagf btf{_ df]afOn kmf]g lgoGq0fdf cfpFg5 ] . g]kfn b"/;~rf/
eP;Fu} ;+;bLo Joj:yf;d]t lj36g %= /ut, kl/>d, kl;gf / eO/x]sf] 5 . k7fPsf] /]ld6\ofG; g} xf] . Tof] k|flws/0fn] cj}w ¿kdf lelqPsf df]afOn aGb u/fpg eGb} @)&# ;fnb]lv
ePsf] cj:yfdf cWofb]zdfkm{t\ cf“ z ' s f] d" N odf (= sf] l e8 !( dxfdf/L /sd;d]t cg'Tkfbs l/on:6]6, z]o/ OG6/g];gn df]afOn OlSjkd]G6 cfO8]lG66L -cfOPdOcfO{_ gDa/ btf{ u/fpg]
cfPsf] of] ah]6n] ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] cfoft / Jofkf/sf] bnfnLhGo cj}1flgs, blIf0fkGyL / wd{eL? ahf/sf] ;§]afhL / cfoftdf vr{ sfd ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . k|flws/0fn] @)&$ ;fn j}zfv @* ut] k|flws/0fn] cj}w
r/d\ c;kmntfnfO{ k|dfl0ft ug{'sf sf/f]af/af6 nfe lng] ju{afx]s Zff;s ePsf g]kfnh:tf b]zdf eO{ b] z leq pTkfbg, /f] h uf/L, df]afOn /f]Sg] k|0ffnL -Pd8LPdP;_ h8fg ug{ k/fdz{bftf 5gf]6sf nflu
;fy} g]kfnsf] cy{/fhgLltdf b]xfosf /fli6«o pTkfbs, pBf]uL, ls;fg, sf]le8n] a9L gful/ssf] d[To ePsf] cfocfh{gdf gnufPsf] sf/0fn] 6]G8/ cfXjfg u/]sf] lyof] . k|flws/0fn] cfXjfg u/]sf] 6]G8/df cfj]bg k/]sf
cNksfnLg tyf bL3{sfnLg rf]6 dhb'/, dWodju{sf] nflu ah]6n] 5 . of] jf:tjdf sf]le8n] geO{ ;Qfn] k/lge{/tf a9]sf] 5 . !# sDkgL dWo]af6 @)&^ ;fn c;f/df 5gf]6 ePsf] sDkgLn] 5 dlxgfleq
yKg] b]lvG5 . 5f]Psf] xF'b}g . of] ah]6sf] !) va{ gful/ssf] xTof u/]sf] xf] . dxfdf/Ln] !#= k' : tf} + k ' : tfsf] nflu C0fsf] pQm l;i6d h8fg ug{k' g]{ lyof] . cf]P;cfO{ sG;lN6ª k|fln ef/t / gd:t]
!= ljQLo cg' z f;g /fhZjsf] ;|f]t eg]s} %) nfv logLx?sf] ;d[l4 / ljsf;sf] em'7f] ef/ Unf]an sd k|fln l;+ufk'/sf] HjfOG6 e]Gr/ 5gf]6 ePsf] lyof] . pQm sDkgLnfO{
s"n cg'dflgt Vfr{ !^$& ca{ gful/sn] k7fpg] ( va{ a/fa/sf] bfjLnfO{ pbfËf] kf/]sf] 5 . ;fdfGo Uft tLg jif{df ;fj{ef}d C0f - Pd8LPdP; h8fg ug{ ?= *) s/f]8 a/fa/sf] 7]Ssf lbO{Psf] lyof] . ;Demf}tf
?k}ofFdWo] ;+3 / k|b]zn] ug]{ rfn' /]ld6\ofG;af6 cfoft ul/g] j:t'df clS;hg / cf}ifwL gkfP/ clwsf+z :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL_ bf]Aa/n] j[l4 ePsf] ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq cyf{t\ ut jif{sf] k'; dlxgfdf Pd8LPdP; k|0ffnL
vr{ ^! k|ltzteGbf a9L 5, h'g lng] eG;f/, Eof6 / cGo cfos/ lj/fdLsf] d[To x'g'n] hg:jf:Yo eO{ !^ va{ gf3]sf] 5 . of] s"n ufx{:Yo h8fg u/]/ ;~rfng NofO;Sg'kg]{ xf] t/ ut jif{ sf]/f]gf ;+qmd0fnfO{ Wofgdf
/sd s" n /fhZj a/fa/ xf] . xf] . dfgj a]rljvgh;/L b]z lgsfnf k"jf{wf/df ul/Psf] Go"g nufgL / pTkfbgsf] #& k|ltzteGbf a9L xf] . /fVb} g]kfn ;/sf/n] u/]sf] aGbfaGbL / xfn nfu' ul/Psf] lgif]wf1fnfO{ b]vfpFg}
o;af6 ljsf;sf] ;a}eGbf lkFwdf ul/Psf gful/ssf] /ut, kl/>d, :jf:Yo Pj+ lzIff If]qdf ul/Psf] o;n] k|ltJolQm %% xhf/ ?k}ofF h8fgsf] sfd /f]lsPsf] 5 .
/x]sf] xfd|f] b]zn] k'h F Lut vr{dfkm{t\ kl;gf / cfFz'df ;+;bjfbLsf] n"6sf] Jofkf/Ls/0f s;/L gful/s xTofsf] C0fef/ / Pp6f kl/jf/df % hgf lj=;+= @)&# j}zfvaf6 k|flws/0fn] OG6/g];gn df]afOn OlSjkd]G6
l5§} Sofr cksf] nfe gkfpg] k|i6 :ju{ l6s]sf]n] g} hlt;Sbf] w]/} o'jfnfO{ lhDd]jf/ 5 eGg] k|dfl0ft ub{5 . ;b:o dfGg] xf] eg] ;fjfF / Jofh
5 . o;n] bf]xgsf/L /fHo ;+oGq b]zaflx/ k7fpg] gLlt sfof{Gjogdf !)= cfly{s j[l4 / d'b|f:kmLltsf] u/L em08} # nfv ?k}ofFsf] /fli6«o cfO8]lG6kmfo/ -cfO{PdOcfO{_ gDa/ …o'lgs sf]8Ú btf{ ug{ ;'? u/]sf] 5 .
g] k fnL hgtfsf] ;d[ l 4sf] ;/sf/ nfUg] u/]sf] 5 . e| d C0fsf] ef/ kg{ cfpF5 . /fHon] klxnf] r/0fdf cfOPdOcfO{ gDa/ btf{ / bf];|f] r/0fdf df]afOn l8efO;
cfsf+Iffljkl/t s;/L ;]tf] xfQL ePsf] ^= c;Gt' l nt / cjf:tljs Jfflif{s ^=% k|ltztsf] cfly{s lnPsf] C0faf6 3/kl/jf/sf] Dofg]hd]G6 l;:6d -Pd8LPdP;_ h8fg ug]{ hgfPsf] lyof] .
5 eGg] b]vfpF5 . cGo sltko k|wfgdGqL / cGo kx'Frjfnfsf] j[l4 xfl;n ug]{ gfddf Go"gtd bL3{sfnLg pTkfbg Ifdtf tyf o;}aLr, g]kfn b"/;~rf/ k|flws/0fn] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] rfn' cfly{s jif{
cg'Tkfbs vr{sf] nflu cfGtl/s lgjf{rg If]q s]lGb|t ah]6 aGg] rng Sofnf]/L;lxtsf] vfgf, 3fdkfgL 5]Sg] pTkfbsTj j[l4 u/L cfo cfh{g j[l4 @)&&–&* sf] cf7 dlxgf -ut ;fpgb]lv kmfu'g d;fGt;Dd_ sf] tYofÍcg';f/
C0fsf] s]xL c+z;d]t k|of]u x'g] ePsf]n] sfod} 5 . To;}u/L hDdf ah]6sf] 5fgf, zLtnx/n] dg'{ gkg]{;Ddsf] x'g] xf] eg] o;nfO{ ;fdfGo dfGg g]kfndf g]kfndf b'O{ s/f]8 ^# nfv %^ xhf/eGbf a9L hg;+Vofsf] kx'Frdf
ah] 6 zf;s kfNg] cf} h f/sf] Ps ltxfO{ c+z C0faf6 h'6fpg] / gfgf, k| f /lDes lzIff, ;fdfGo ;lsGYof] t/ of] /sdsf] nfe cf;]kf;] OG6/g]6 ;]jfsf] kx'Fr k''u]sf]] hgfPs 5 . k|flws/0fsf] tYofÍcg';f/ ut
3f]if0ffkq dfq ePsf] 5 . ah]6n] To;nfO{ yk cfocfh{g x'g] cfly{s /f]huf/L, ;DklQ / cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo / bnfnn] dfq k|fKt ug]{ ePsf]n] df3sf] t'ngfdf kmfu'gdf gf} nfv #^ xhf/eGbf a9L k|of]ustf{ ylkPsf
eljiodf aGg] ;/sf/ / efjL Ifdtf lgdf{0fdf vr{ gul/g] sf/0fn] ;]jfaf6 hgtfnfO{ jl~rt u/L /fi6« / >dhLlj hgtfsf] nflu 5g\ . ut df3df s"n b'O{ s/f]8 %$ nfv !( xhf/ hgfsf] kx'Frdf OG6/g]6
k' : tfnfO{ ef/ / hf] l vd yKg] efjL k':tfsf] nflu C0fef/ / s/ bnfnx?sf] cfDbfgL j[l4dfkm{t\ dfq k|To'Tkfbs ef/ dfq ePsf] 5 . ;]jf k'us ] f] lyof] . g]kfndf s"n hg;+VofdWo] kmfu'g d;fGt;Dd *& bzdnj
cg'zf;gxLg sfo{ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . o;n] bfloTj dfq ylkg] xf]Og ls ljQLo k|fKt ul/g] cfly{s j[l4 ul/aL / !$= bf] x gsf] k/fsfi7f !( k|ltzt hg;+Vofdf OG6/g]6sf] kx'r F k'us] f] k|flws/0fsf] tYofÍdf pNn]v
/f]huf/L ;[hgf, ul/aL / c;dfgtf c;Gt'ngaf6 ;[hgf x'g] ;+s6n] c;dfgtfsf] hudf 7l8Psf] em'6sf] ah]6n] cfly{s tyf ljQLo bf]xg 5 . k|flws/0fn] hg;+Vof k|If]k0f -@)!!–@)#)_ nfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ k|ltj]bg
Go"gLs/0faf6 ;dfhjfbf]Gd'v /fHo tfgfzfxL / n'6]/f zlQmnfO{ nfe w/x/f xf] . To;}u/L Ps aif{sf] dfq geO{ !# va{ ?k}ofFsf] Jofkf/ tof/ kf/]sf] xf] . k|ltj]bgdf k|flws/0fn] g]kfnsf] s"n hg;+Vof b'O{ s/f]8
:yfkgf c;Dej 5 . k'¥ofpg] b]lvG5 . xfn k|fKt u/]sf] cjlwdf @) nfv hgtf ul/aLsf] 3f6f ;'wf/ ug{ lu6L, afn'jf, 9+'uf (* nfv &^ xhf/ %#! nfO{ cfwf/ agfPsf] 5 .
@= ;+ 3 Lotflj/f] w L eGbf em08} $ u'0ff a9L j}bl] zs /] v fd' g L ws] l nPsf] / !^ nfv lgof{t u/L t/fO{ dw]zsf] h}ljs / k|flws/0fsf] tYofÍcg';f/ ;a}eGbf w]/} of]ubfg df]afOn OG6/g]6sf] /x]sf]
tLg 306f nufP/ jfrg ul/Psf] C0f / cg'bfg k|fKt x'G5 eGg] a]/f]huf/ eO{ dfu / qmozlQm kof{j/0fLo ;Gt'ngnfO{ Wj:t agfpg] 5 . kmfu'g;Dd df]afOn OG6/g]6sf] lx:;f ^$ bzdnj )* k|ltzt 5 . Ps
!%) k]hsf] ah]6n] j8f:t/n] ug]{ ck]Iffn] vr{ ug{ vf]Hg'n] c;Gt'ng, sdhf]/ eO{ d"Noj[l4 #=! k|ltztdf / sfo{ s tf{ n fO{ 7] s ] b f/ agfpg] s/f]8 !% nfv ^% xhf/eGbf a9Lsf] kx'r F df ly|hL OG6/g]6 k'us ] f] 5 . h;df
sfo{nfO{ ;d]t ;dfj]z u/L s]Gb|nfO{ cjf:tljstf / dxTjfsfFIffsf] of] ;Lldt ePsf] cj:yfnfO{ ;/sf/sf] b] l vG5 . o;af6 %) k| l tzt ;a}eGbf w]/} g]kfn 6]lnsdsf] () nfv ($ xhf/ / Pg;]nsf] @$ nfv &)
zlQmzfnL agfP/ k|bz ] tyf :yfgLo k'lnGbfnfO{ g+UofPsf] 5 . ;kmntf egL k|rf/ ul/Psf] 5 . hgtfsf] ;'/Iffsjr r'/] gi6 u/L xhf/ /x]sf] hgfOPsf] 5 . ut df3df Ps s/f]8 !# nfv %! xhf/ k|of]ustf
txnfO{ k/fl>t agfO{ ltgsf] df}lns &= c;dfgtf / ul/aL a9fpg] gjpbf/jfbL l6«sn8fpg l;4fGt d?e"lds/0f ug]{5 . ef/t lgof{t /x]sfdf kmfu'gdf b'O{ nfveGbf a9L ly|hLsf k|of]u] stf{ ylkPsf 5g\ .
Ifdtf ljsf;nfO{ c:jLsf/ u/]sf]n] bnfn k'FhLjfbL ;Qfsf] Wofg c;kmn xF'bf klg ;Qfwf/Lsf] r]t ul/g] lgdf{0f ;fdu|Ln] :jb]zdf cfk"lt{
To:t}, kmf]/hLsf k|of]ustf{ &^ nfv ^* xhf/ !*! k'u]sf] 5 . g]kfndf
lgoGq0f, lgb]{zgd'vL / hgtfsf] /fhZj j[l4df dfq x'g] / To;sf] v'n]sf] 5}g . 36\g uO{ d"No a9]/ lasf; lgdf{0f
;zQmLs/0flj/f]wL 5 . nflu 7" n f Jofkfl/s 3/fgf / !!= bnfn k' “ h Ljfbsf] s] G b| dx+uf] kg]{5 . tLg b"/;~rf/ ;]jf sDkgLn] kmf]/hL ;]jf ;~rfng u/]sf 5g\ . tLg sDkgL
#= sfof{ G jog Ifdtf skf]/{ 6] sf] sf/f]af/ / laqmL a9fpgsf] ;Dklt n'sfpg, ljb]z knfog !%= /fli6« o ;' / Iff / dWo]df ;a}eGbf w]/} u|fxs Pg;]nsf] /x]sf] 5 . cf7 dlxgfdf Pg;]n sDkgLsf
bzsf}b+ l] v Gf]kfnsf] :6]6 km]No/n] nflu ug{k' g]{ ;a} gLlt sfof{Gjog ug{÷u/fpg ;lhnf] x'g] ePsf]n] :jfwLgtfdf vt/f kmf]/hLsf u|fxs $* nfv %^ xhf/ &$@ hgf k'u]sf] 5 . ut df3sf]
lg/Gt/tf kfPsf] 5 . ljlgof]lht ug{ tof/ x'G5 . cy{dGqLn] jfrg b]zsf bnfn, ;§]afh, Jofkf/L / cfly{s ;'/Iff / ;d[l4 /fli6«o t'ngfdf kmfu'gdf kfFr nfv #) xhf/ *)^ hgf a9]sf 5g\ . ut df3df
kFh
' Lut vr{sf] tLg rf}yfO{ dfq vr{ ug]{ ah]6sf] jf:tljs tof/Lstf{ ltg} /fhgLltsdL{n] ljQLo kF'hL ahf/df ;'/Iffsf] d]?b08 xf] . o:tf gLltx?n] kmf]/hLsf u|fxs $# nfv @% xhf/ (#^ hgf /x]sf lyP .
x'g] / To;sf] sl/a %) k|ltzt ah]6 bnfn x'G5g . cy{tGqdf ;Lldt ;Dklt nufgL ug],{ s]xL ;o 3/fgLo # s/f]8 hgtfnfO{ ;Ifd agfO{ ;d[4 k|flws/0fsf] tYofÍcg';f/ ;/sf/L :jfldTjdf ;~rflnt g]kfn b"/;~rf/
vr{ c;f/ dlxgfdf x'g] tYon] ;|ft] ;fwg x'g] ePsf]n] ;a}h;f] ;|ft] nufgLstf{n] b}lgs aL;f}+ ca{sf] agfpg' kg] { d f yk sdhf] / sDkgL lnld6]8 -g]kfn 6]lnsd_ sf] kmf]/hLsf u|fxs @% nfv *( xhf/
ah] 6 af6 bL3{ s fnLg u' 0 f:t/Lo / cfly{s pkfh{g ;Qf j/Lk/Lsf ! sf/f]af/ ug]{ / To;sf] lglZrt c+z agfO/x]sf]n] g]kfnsf] k/lge{/tf @($ hgf k'us ] f 5g\ . ut df3sf] t'ngfdf kmfu'gdf $$ xhf/ %&) hgfn]
ljsf; geO{ ;/sf/L kf6L{ glhssf k|ltztsf] lgoGq0fdf x'g] ePsf]n] ;Qfwf/Ln] r'gfj vr{ c;'Ng] sfo{ a9b} uO{ ;/sf/n] /fli6«o ;'/Iff / j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ut df3df kmf]/hLsf u|fxs @% nfv $$ xhf/ /x]sf lyP .
7]s]bf/ sfo{stf{n] dfq nfe lng] ;j{ x f/f, ul/a, ls;fg, dhb' / , ul//x] s f 5g . ul/a hgtfn] :jfwLgtfdf vt/f a9fpFb} nu]sf] 5 . o;}u/L, :df6{ 6]lnsdsf kmf]/hL k|of]ustf{ b'O{ nfv @# xhf/ !$% hgf
u/]sf] b]lvG5 . sd{rf/Lsf] dfl;s dWodju{ / /fli6«o kFh ' Lkltx? x/]s k7fPsf] /]ld6\ofG;af6 hDdf ePsf] ctM gful/ssf] hLjg /Iff ug]{, k'u]sf] 5 . ut df3sf] t'ngfdf kmf]/hLsf u|fxs Ps xhf/n] dfq a9]sf
@ xhf/ tna j[l4, ## k|ltzt jif{ sdhf] / xF ' b } hfg] ePsf] n ] $@ va{ ?k}ofFsf] lgIf]knfO{ ;Qf cy{tGqsf] k'g?Tyfg ug]{, ;fdflhs 5g\ . :df6{ 6]lnsdsf kmf]/hLsf dfq u|fxs /x]sf 5g\ . lkmS; a|f]8AofG8sf]
;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQf j[l4 / tnawf/L qmlds?kdf ul/aL / c;dfgtf j/Lk/Lsf Ps zo bnfnn] a}+saf6 Gofo;lxtsf] ;d[l4 xfl;n ug]{ / lx:;f @@ bzdnj #% k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . o;df Pl8P;Pnsf cf7 nfv !@
/fhgLltsdL{sf] nflu ul/g] vr{ a9b} uPsf] 5 . clxn] klg Ps ltxfO{ shf{ lnO{ v/af}+ ;Dkltsf] dflns pTkfbgzLn If]qdf ;|ft] sf] ljlgof]hg xhf/ / Pkml6l6Pr OG6/g]6 %( nfv $@ xhf/eGbf a9L 5g\ .
ztk|ltzt x'G5 eg] hgtf / /fi6«sf] hgtf ul/a 5g eg] c:fdfgtf x'g] k|0ffnL sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] 5 . u/L k|ultzLn cy{tGq lgdf{0f ug]{
lxt;Fu ;DalGwt vr{ sl/a ^)
k|ltztdfq x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ;Dk"0f{
dfkg ug]{ lugL sf]lkml;oG6 x/]s
jif{ al9/x]sf] 5 . o;/L bnfn ;/sf/,
s]Gb|Lo a}+s, cy{ dGqfno, of]hgf
cfof]u / x/]s k|wfgdGqLx? bnfn
eGg] ah]6sf p2]Zox? ljutdf em}+
efif0fdf ;Lldt x'g]5g . ah]6sf]
o; jif{sf] dg;'g h'g !# b]lv ;'? x'g]
vr{ / lgdf{0fhGo kl/of]hgfsf] o;sf cjoj / cfly{snufotsf kF'hLjfbL ;Qfsf k|d'v ;+/Ifs, ;+jw} flgs j}wtfdfq geO{ sfo{qmlds sf7df8f}F . hn tyf df};d lj1fg ljefu df};d k"jf{g'dfg dxfzfvfn]
u'0f:t/xLgtfnfO{ dxfn]vf k/LIfs gLltx? clt wgf9\o (Super Rich) ;fem]bf/ / dltof/ x'g . oL ;+:yf / Ifdtf;d]t bzsf}+b]lv lg/Gt/?kdf o; jif{bl] v g]kfndf dg;'g ;'? x'g,] alxu{dg x'g] / dg;'gsf] cjlw;d]tsf]
tyf ;'zf;gsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ pTkfbg ug]{ d]l;gdfq ag]sf 5g\ . o;sf g]tT[ jnfO{ b]zeQm / >dhLlj c;kmn ePsf]n] sf]le8sf] pkrf/, cjlw k5fl8 ws]lnPsf] hgfPsf] 5 . dxfzfvfn] o;cl3sf !) jif{sf]
cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx?n] x/]s jif{ *= ;fdGtjfb / lg/+ s ' z tfsf] hgtfn] hjfkmb]xL agfpg'k5{ . lkFwsf >dhLlj gful/ssf] cfly{s cjlwdf x/]s jif{ h'g !) dg;'g ;'? x'g] lbg to ul/Psf] lyof] t/ o;
s}lkmot pNn]v ug]{ u/]sf 5g . lg/Gt/tf !@= k| l tufdL s/ k| 0 ffnL ;Ifdtfdf lj:tf/, /f]huf/L ;[hgf, jif{b]lv h'g !# nfO{ dg;'g ;'? x'g] ldlt to ePsf] hgfPsf] 5 .
$= :jLsfo{ t f zlQmzfnLsf] lgjf{rg If]qdf Zf]o/ ahf/df v/af}+ sf/f]af/ u' 0 f:t/Lo k" j f{ w f/df nufgL, ut jif{;Dd dg;'g ;lsg] cjlw ;]K6]Da/ @# /x]sf]df ca dg;'g
x/]s jif{ Kf|:t't x'g] ah]6nfO{ sfo{qmdsf] rfª b]lvG5 . s[lif, pBf]u u/]/ c/af}+ kF'hLut gfkmf cfh{g cf}Bf]lusLs/0f, ljsf;sf] k|ltkmndf ;lsg] ldlt;d]t kl5 ;b}{ cS6f]a/ @ k'u]sf] 5 . To;}n] o;} jif{b]lv dg;'g
;Qfwf/L bnsf] Pp6f u'6afx]s / ;]jf If]qsf] dhj't lj:tf/dfkm{t\ ug]{nfO{ &=% k|ltztdfq kF'hLut Gofok" 0 f{ kF x ' r / hgpQ/bfoL ;'? x'g] / cGTo x'g] cjlw g} k5fl8 ;/]sf] hn tyf dxfzfvfn] hgfPsf] 5 .
;a}h;f] /fhgLlts bnn] cfnf]rgf k|0ffnLut?kdf g} Jfflif{s % nfv nfes/ nufpg] of] ;fdflhs bnfn ;'zf;gdf ;'wf/ x'g] xf]Og yk ;+s6 ljut rf/–kfFr jif{otf dg;'g ;'? x'g] ;do l9nf x'bF } uPsf] cj:yf / x/]s
ub}{ c:jLsf/ ub{5g . o;/L ;+;bLo /f]huf/L ;[hgf ug{k' g]d{ f k|wfgdGqLsf] ;/sf/n] b}lgs afx| 306f;Dd sfd ylkFb} uPsf] 5 . To;}n], bnfn !) jif{df dg;'g cjlw cBfjlws ug{ cfjZos df};d ljZn]if0fkl5 dg;'g
Joj:yfdf cNkdtn] s;/L ljQLo gfddf /f] h uf/ sfo{ q md /fvL ug]{ gful/snfO{ eg] #^ k|ltzt;Dd ;Qfsf] ;jnLs/0fdfkm{t\ kmf;LjfbL ;'? x'g] / cGTo x'g] ldlt k5fl8 ;fl/Psf] dxfzfvfn] hgfPsf] 5 .
;|f]t;fwgdf xflnd'xfnL ul//xg] sfo{stf{nfO{ emf/ l6Kg nufP/ bzf}+ cfos/ nufO/x]sf] 5 . a}+s tyf ?kfGt/0fsf] nIok|flKtdf tLa| ultdf ljZj df};d ;Ë7gsf] lgodcg';f/ cGt/f{li6«o dfGotfcg'¿k x/]s !)
k|rng sfod /x]sf] 5 eGg] b]vfpF5 . ca{ ?k} o fF /fHosf] 9' s ' 6 Laf6 ljQLo ;+:yf ;a}eGbf 7"nf dWo:y / cufl8 a9\ g af6 /f] S g j} 1 flgs jif{df df};d kl/jt{gsf] cj:yf ljZn]if0f u/L cBfjlws ug{k' g]{ x'G5 . g]kfnsf]
;+;bLo Joj:yfdf jx'dt k|fKt elgg] /f]huf/Lsf] gfddf ljt/0f ul/Psf] bnfn x' g . tL ;+ : yfsf k| d ' v ;dfhjfbL ;Qf :yfkgfy{ ;a} dg;'g;lxtsf] df};dL cj:yf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu kl5Nnf] #) jif{ cyf{t\
;/sf/x?;d]t hgdtsf] ;+Vofsf 5 . o;n] JolQmnfO{ s]Gb|df /fVg] / sfo{sf/Ln] dfl;s tL;f}+ nfv tna jfdkGYfL / b]zeQm zlQm nfUg'kb{5 . ;g\ !((! b]lv @)@) ;Ddsf] df};dL tYofÍnfO{ ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 .
8 @)&*
sf= lh=;fn h]7 b=@# g+ut]
k|= sf= cfOtaf/
= !^#÷@)^#÷^$
*= lzIfssf] b'3{6gf / :jf:Yo x'G5 . >ldsx¿ ef]s / /f]usf] :yfoL
hgu0ftflGqs=====
/ ljqmd kf} 8 ] n n] ;Ë7gsf]
gLltljk/Lt k' / fgf] lr7L–/l;b
ladfsf] Joj:yf gul/Psf] .
(= lghfdtL ;]gf, k|x/Lsf] h:t}
lzIfs c:ktfnaf/] gLlt tyf
;dfwfg rfxG5\g\ g ls slyt r'gfjL
gf}6ÍL . >lds ju{sf] k"0f{ d'lQmsf
lglDt ;zQm ;‹if{/t xfd|f] nf]slk|o
sf]/f]gf efO/;sf cnu cnu e]l/oG6nfO{ 5'§f5'§} gfd
sf7df8f}F . ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gn] e]l/oG6sf] gfddf ;xhLs/0f ug{ gofF l;gf]Eofs vf]k b'Ob{ l] v cf7 l8u|L
b'?kof]u ub}{ cfly{s clgoldttf sfo{qmd df}g . ;Ë7g clvn g]kfn qmflGtsf/L 6«]8
u/]sf] kfOPsfn] pgLx¿;Fu ;fjwfg ljZjsf ljleGg b]zdf km]nf k/]sf gfds/0f ul/Psf] xf] . o;cl3 h'g ;]lN;o; tfkqmddf e08f/0f ug{
!)= lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ h:t} o'lgog dxf;‹ >lds lxtlj/f]wL pQm sf] / f] g f efO/;sf cnu–cnu b]zdf gofF e]l/oG6 e]l6of], ToxL b]zsf] ldN5 . cyf{t\ 3/df rngrNtLdf
/xg ;r]t u/fPsf x'g\ . cWoIf k|To]s jif{sf] z}lIfs ;qsf] ljjflbt ah]6 sfo{qmddf plNnlvt
sdfgl;+xåf/f hf/L lj1lKtdf pgLx¿ e]l/oG6nfO{ 5'§f5'§} gfd lbPsf] 5 . gfdaf6 o;nfO{ lrgfpg] ul/Psf] lyof] . k|of]u x'g] /]lk|mh]/6] / -lk|mh_ df /fVg
z'?df gofF lzIfssf] b/aGbL em"§f cfZjf;g / dhb'/sf] ;f]emf] 8An'Prcf]n] a]nfotdf e]l6Psf] leotgfddf xfn} e]l6Psf] elgPsf] gofF ldN5 . sd tfkqmddf klg vf]k
kf6L{ k|ltalGwt ePsf] cjlwe/ Joj:yf u/L :yfoL lgo'lQm efjgfdflysf] v]naf8 xs{t tTsfn
;Dks{ljxLg /x]sf] / To;otf klg e]l/oG6nfO{ …cNkmfÚ gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] e]l/oG6nfO{ eg] clxn];Dd gfd lbO{Psf] e08f/ ug]{ ldNg] ePsfn] of] vf]k
lbg]af/]df gLlt tyf sfo{qmddf aGb u/L >ldssf] lxtdf tTsfn 5 eg] a|flhndf e]l6Psf] e]l/oG6sf] 5}g . o;sf] h]gl] 6s sf]8 g}+ ;fj{hlgs ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zx?nfO{ ;xh x'g]
xfn;Dd ;Ë7gsf] s'g} ;ldltdf pNn]v 5}g . s]lGb|t aGg ;/sf/nfO{ cfu|x ug{
g/x]sf] cj:yfdf d~rsf] n]6/Kof8 gfd …ufdfÚ, /flvPsf] 5 . o:t} blIf0f ug{ afFsL 5 . ljZjf; ul/Psf] 5 .
!!= !) lbgsf] kfl/>lds / rfxG5 . ;fy} Gofok|d] L, d'lQmsfdL / clk|msfdf e]l6Psf] e]l/oG6nfO{ …a]6fÚ o;}aLr, ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7g - l;gf]Eofs vf]kn] vf]k nufPsf
b'?kof]u u/L /sd c;'ln/x]sf] sfh;lxtsf] ko{6g e|d0fsf] qmflGtsf/L dhb'/ >ldsx¿df slyt
kfOPsfn] ;r]t /xg ;a}df clkn tyf ef/tdf e]l6Psf b'O{ k|sf/sf 8ANo"Prcf]_ n] lrlgofF l;gf]Eofs ztk|ltzt dflg;df sf]/f]gfaf6
Joj:yfdf lghfdtL sd{rf/L sDo'lg:6 ;/sf/ / bnfn k'FhLjfbL e]l/oG6nfO{ …8]N6fÚ / …sKkfÚ gfd sDkgLsf] vf]knfO{ cfktsfnLg k|of]u ;+qmldt eP/ c:ktfn egf{ x'gk' g]{
ul/Psf] 5 . dfq pNn]v u/]/ cGof]n l;h{gf ;+;bLo ;Qfsf] s'g} cfZjf;gdf gk/L
cWoIf sdfgl;+xåf/f lj1lKtdf lbOPsf] 5 . ug{ cg'dlt lbPsf] 5 . o;cl3 rLgs} cj:yf /f]Sg] cWoogx?df kfOPsf] 5 .
ul/Psf] . plrt, Gofof]lrt tyf ck]Iffs[t 8An' P rcf] n ] u| L s efiffaf6 l;gf]kmfd{ vf]knfO{ klg 8ANo"Prcf]n] 8ANo"Prcf]n] l;gf]Eofsn] pTkfbg
elgPsf] 5– cfh ldlt @)&*–@– !@= lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf 5f]/f5f]/L /fxt, :jf:Yof]krf/sf] Joj:yf Pjd\
!* ut] xfd|f] uf}/jzfnL ;Ë7g efO{/;sf] e]l/oG6nfO{ lrgfPsf] xf] . cg'dlt lbPsf] lyof] . 8ANo"Prcf]af6 u/]sf] vf]kn] ;'/Iff, k|efjsfl/tf tyf
cWoog ug] { lghfdlt /f]huf/ ;'lglZrttfsf] Ph]G8fdf ef/tdf km]nf k/]sf e]l/oG6x? g]kfndf cg'dlt kfPsf] rLgsf] l;gf]Eofs pTkfbgsf] cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08 k"/f
hgu0ftflGqs ;Dks{ d~r s]Gb|Lo ljBfnoeGb} ubf{ lzIfs ;zQm ¿kdf cl3 a9\g xflb{s clkn
;dGjo ;ldlt, g] k fnsf klg b]lvPsf]n] ca g]kfndf klg of] sDkgLsf] vf]k !* jif{ dflysfnfO{ u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . 8ANo"Prcf]af6
;d'bfo dfly 3f]/ ckdfg ub{5 . >lds clwsf/, Gofok"0f{ efO{/;nfO{ sf]le8 8]N6f / sKkf nufpg ldNg] l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 . cg'dlt kfpg'cl3 g} l;gf]Eofssf] of]
kbflwsf/Lx?sf] er{c ' n a}7s a:of] . ul/Psf] . ;dfgtf / d'lQmsf lglDt j}1flgs
sf]/f]gf efO/; -sf]le8–!(_ sf] of] eGg'kg]5{ . Hofb} ;+qmfds dflgg] …8]N6fÚ of] vf]k klg b'O{ 8f]h nufpg'k5{ . vf]k rLgsf ;fy} lrnL, a|flhn,
!#= b]ze/ sf]le8 ;+qmldt lzIfs– ;dfhjfb :yfkgfsf] af6f]df cl3 a9\g e]l/oG6 ljZjsf %) eGbf a9L b]zdf klxnf] 8f]h nufPsf] b'Ob{ l] v rf/ OG8f] g ] l zof, d] l S;sf] , 6sL{ /
dxfdf/Lsf] a]nfdf kf6L{sf] ;Dks{df la= sd{ r f/LnfO{ u/fO{ P sf] xfd|f] ;Ë7g ;DalGwt ;Dk"0f{ kIf /
g/x]sf, klxn] g} sf/afxLdf kl/;s]sf km}ln;s]sf] 5 . sf]/f]gf efO/;sf] ;ftfkl5 bf];|f] 8f]h nufpg'k5{ . yfONofG8df k|of]u eO;s]sf] 5 .
ladfsf] ;dofjlwdf ljljwtf tx;dIf xflb{s clkn ug{ rfxG5 .Ú c¿ ;a}n] pxL cfkm}n F ] k}/aL ug]{ u/]sf]
;'/z] clwsf/L, b'uf{ clwsf/L, ch{g'
s6'jfn, a'l4 9'Ëfgf / ljqmd kf}8n
;Ë7gsf] gLltljk/Lt k'/fgf] lr7L–
] n]
/x] s f] n ] ladf e' Q mfgLaf6
al~rt ul/Psf]n] Ps?ktf
g]skfåf/f=====
g} ;a}vfn] ;Í6sf] ;dfwfg x'g] wf/0ff /fv] .
s'/f u/]/ pgs} s'/fdf ;xL 5fk
7f]ls/x]sf 5g\ eGg] df}sf kfPsf 5g\ .
‘s[lifof]Uo hldg v08Ls/0f gu/’
Nofpg'kg]{ t/ o;af/] gLlt sfo{ q mddf sf] / f] g f laz] i f s'g} a]nf pgsf] s'/f l;w} vf/]h sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] s[lifof]Uo hldg v08Ls/0f gug{
/l;b b' ? kof] u ub} { cfly{ s sfo{qmd df}g .
clgoldttf u/]sf] k|dfl0ft ePsf] c:ktfn a]nem'08Lsf Joj:yfks b|f0] f ul/lbg] XjfO6 xfp;sf k|dv ' a}1fls r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 . ;f] kf6L{sf] lrtjg lhNnfcGtu{t df8L gu/ ;ldltn]
5 . pgLx¿ kf6L{ k|ltalGwt ePsf] ef/tLo===== jnLn] k|tLIffno lgdf{0f sfo{n] g]skf ;Nnfxsf/ PGyf]gL kmfprLsf] /fo klg df8L gu/kflnsfsf] gu/;efaf6 ePsf] lg0f{oljk/Lt df8L gu/kflnsfsf
cjlwe/ ;Dks{ljxLg lyP / To;otf afn'jfsf] pTvgg tyf lgsf;Lsf hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL kf6L{ /x]sf] ab\ln;s]sf] 5 . ca pgn] klg s] d]o/ 7fs'/k|;fb 9sfn / s]xL j8fWoIfx¿n] e"dflkmof;Fusf] ldnf]dtf]df
xfn;Dd ;Ë7gsf] s'g} klg ;ldltdf nflu eg]/ hglxtlj/f]wL ;Demf}tf - k|dfl0ft ePsf] atfP . lgwf{l/t eGg yfn]sf 5g\ eg] sf]/f]gf efO/;nfO{ !#! lsQf s[lifof]Uo hldg v08Ls/0fsf nflu /sd dfu]sf] / k'/fgf] ldltdf
5}gg\ . t;y{ kf6L{;Fu c;DalGwt cdfgt_ ul/Psf 5g\ . lhNnfsf ;doeGbf klxn] g} lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg k| f s[ l ts dfGg] pgsf] larf/ sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ x:tfIf/ ug{ bafa lbPsf] ljifok|lt kf6L{sf] uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f
pk/f]Qm gfdsf JolQmx¿;Fu cfly{s ljleGg vf]nfx¿df 6]G8/ k|lqmof k"/f u/L x:tfGt/0f u/] s f] d f pgn] ztk|ltzt ;xL gx'g klg ;S5 . ePsf] atfpb} ;f] r]tfjgL lbPsf] xf] . pQm kf6L{sf df8L gu/ ;ldltsf
sf/f]af/ / /fhgLlts ;Dks{ gug{' u/] s f ;Demf} t fx¿df ;d] t kf6L{nfO{ wGojfb klg lbP . k|fb]lzs To;sf/0f 5fglagsf] Pp6f 5]p OGrfh{ /dfn] hf/L u/]sf] lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …df8L gu/kflnsfleq
x' g d~rsf ;Dk" 0 f{ ;ldlt, dfkb08ljk/Lt pTvgg / lgsf;L c:ktfn t' n ;Lk' / sf cWoIf To; k|Zg;Fu klg hf]l8Psf] 5 ls hf] v]tLof]Uo hldg v08Ls/0f ug{ glbg] gu/kflnsfsf] gu/;efaf6 ePsf]
hg;d'bfo, ;xof]uL / pBf]uL– eO/x] s f] 5 . /fhgLlts tyf kbdk| ; fb Gof} k fg] n ] sf] / f] g f afO8]gsf] km};nf cd]l/sf ;d]t lg0f{oljk/Lt xfn !#! lsQf hldg v08Ls/0f ug{ d]o/ 7fs'/k|;fb 9sfnn]
Joj;foLx¿nfO{ cg'/f]w ub{5f}F .Ú k|zf;lgs kx'r F sf] andf eO/x]sf] c:ktfnnfO{ cfjZos /x] s f] b'lgofFsf] a9\bf] bafasf] kl/0fffd xf] k'/fgf] ldltdf sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ x:tfIf/ ug{ bafa lbPsf], x:tfIf/ ug{
To;k|sf/sf] sfo{n] Psflt/ kof{j/0fdf k| t LIffno lgdf{ 0 f u/] / kf6L{ n ] gdfGg] sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ lhDd]jf/Laf6 x6fPsf] / v'nc ] fd ¿kdf s]xL j8fWoIf
clvn===== bL3{sflns uDeL/ c;/ kfg]{ s'/f cg's/0fLo / pbfx/0fLo sfd u/]sf]
of pgsf] xftdf s'g} alnof] ;a't k|df0f
km]nf k/]sf] 5 / pgL PsfPs of] d'2f / :jod\ d]o/n] e"dflkmof;Fu+ /sd dfUg'sf ;fy} ljleGg 7fpFdf kl/rfng
of] ah]6 ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] lzIffdf lglj{jfb 5 eg] csf]l{ t/ cfpFbf] avf{df eGb} wGojfb lbP . k| t LIffno ug{' eg]sf] ljifo uj{;fy ;'gfpFb} lxF8sf] k|df0f km]nfk/]sf] 5 . o:tf] ljifon]
@) k|ltzt ah]6 lalgof]hgsf] dfu p7fpg cu|;/ ePsf 5g\ < Psyl/
7"nf] af9L cfpg] / hgwgsf] Iflt lgdf{0fdf g]skfsf g]tf–sfo{stf{n] laZn]ifsx¿ t rLgdfly t]>f] ljZj xfd|f] kf6L{sf] uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f u/]sf] 5 .Ú
eGbf s/La cfwf ofgL !)=(# k|ltzt x'g;Sg] ePsfn] pTvggsfo{ t'?Gt >dbfg u/]sf lyP eg] Joj;foL g]skfn] pQm lj1lKtdfkm{t\ ;of}F lsQf s[lifof]Uo hldg v08Ls/0f ug]{
/ rfn' cf=a=sf] !!=^$ k|ltzteGbf o'4 5]8g\ ] uf]Ko b:tfa]h;Fu o; sf]/f]gf
/f]Sg ljz]if kxn ug]{ . /fdaxfb'/ v8\sf, /fh' yfkf, u0f]z efO/;sf] ;DjGw t 5}g eGg] k|Zg lg0f{odf k'/fgf] ldltdf sfd{rf/LnfO{ x:tfIf/ ug{ lbPsf] bafa tTsfn
sd ljlgof]hg u/]sf] kfOof] . %_ xfn} g]kfn ;/sf/n] jh]6 OF6 pBf]usf eLd, xg'dfg OF6 pBf]usf /f]Sg'kg]{, pQm ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt ljutsf uNtL, sldsdhf]/L, rnv]n
ljutdf lzIfs dfxf;+ 3 ;F u klg olta]nf p7fO/x]sf 5g\ / rLg
sfo{qmddfkm{t\ Pd;L;L kl/of]hgf df]xg, b]j u'?ª, xl/ s];L, c;f]b t]>f] ljZjo'4 ug]{ tof/Ldf nflu/x]sf] ul/Psf] /sd kf/bzL{ u/L ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf dfkmL dfUg'kg],{ gfkL sfof{no,
;/sf/n] u/]sf] #) a'Fb] ;xdlt nfu" ug]{ tyf lu§L–afn'jf a]Rg] gLlt b] j sf] 6 f, 6« : 6 h8fgdf b' u f{ , dfnkf]t sfof{no / gu/kflnsfleqsf s]xL lglZrt bnfnx¿n] cg}lts,
nTofpFb} ;Qfd'vL ah]6 k|:t't ub}{ h:tf] efg kfg{ vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ .
3f] i f0ff u/] s f] 5 . Pd;L;L 6f]kaxfb'/, cGhgnufotn] cfjZos ltgLx¿ s] eGb}5g\ eg] rLgsf] slyt e|i6 ultljlw tTsfn /f]Sg'kg],{ ltgLx¿nfO{ sf/afxL ug{k' g]{ / rnv]n u/]sf]
lghfdlt sd{rf/LnfO{ / lzIfs, la= kl/of] h gfsf] d" n :jTj lgdf{0f ;fdu|L ;xof]u u/]sf lyP . /sd df8L SofDk; tyf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfdf tTsfn xf:tfGt/0f ug{k' g]{ dfu
sd{rf/LnfO{ ;/sf/n] u/]sf] lje]bk"0f{ lj:tf/jfbL dxTjfsf+Iffsf] k|efj
/fi6« l xtljk/Lt 5 . To;nfO{ k|tLIffno lgdf{0fsf nflu Ps nfv cd]l/sfdf dfq xf]Og Tof]eGbf aflx/ u/]sf] 5 . cGoyf kf6L{n] gu/kflnsf / d]o/sf] cg}lts / e|i6 sbdsf]
Jojxf/n] l;Fuf] lzIff If]q ckdflgt sfof{Gjog ug{ vf]Hg' ;/f;/ /fi6«3ft tL; xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgL ePsf] ;zQm k|lt/f]w ug]{ r]tfjgL;d]t lbPsf] 5 .
ePsf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] ;f} t g] ci6«l] nof, Sofgf8f, Oh/fon, 8]gdfs{,
hfgsf/L o'jf ;Ë7g g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo
Jojxf/sf] lj?4df cfjfh a'nGb ub}{
cfˆgf z}lIfs / k]zfut dfu k"/f
ug{' xf] . ptf lu§–afn'jf a]Rg] gfddf
r'/]nfO{ ;vfk kfg{' klg plQs}
/fi6«3ftL / kof{j/0flj?4sf] ck/fw
;b:o ltnsn] lbP .
sfo{ q mddf g] s kfsf s] G b| L o
ga],{ hfkfg / sfl]/of h:tf !# k|dv
b]zx¿n] klg gofF 9+un] sf]/f]gf
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:jf:Yo dGqfnoåf/f pkrf/ vr{ ;fj{hlgs ug{ lgb]z{ g
u/fpg cem rgfvf] x'g lzIfs lj= efO/;sf] 5fglag x'g' k5{ eGb} sf7df8f}F . :jf:Yo tyf hg;+Vof dGqfnon] ;a} c:ktfnnfO{ ;ft lbgleq
xf] . r'/s] f] bf]xgn] h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;b:o ;ljg, a]kQf of]4f kl/jf/ cd]l/sfsf] kIfdf v8f ePsf] s'/fn]
sd{rf/L, cleefjs, ljBfyL{x?df gf; x'g,] kfgLsf] e08f/0f ;'Sg], e"Ifo ;dfhsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf ;'Gb/, ljz]if sf]le8–!( sf ;+qmldtsf] nfu]sf] pkrf/ vr{ cfˆgf] j]a;fO6 / ;"rgf
clvn g]kfn lzIfs ;+u7g / clvn klg k|i6 kfb{5 klg elg/x]sf 5g\ . kf6Ldf ;a}n] b]Vg] u/L ;fj{hlgs ug{ lgb]z { g lbPsf] 5 . dGqfnosf u'0f:t/
/ e":vngn] af9Lklx/f] lgDTofpg] ;ldlt ;b:o ljqmd, d] l 8sn pNn]vgLo 5 ls ef/tn] klg sf]/f]gf
g]kfn /fli6«o lzIfs ;+u7g cfAxfg lglZrt 5 . o;n] Psflt/ bL3{sfnLg ;'kl/6]G8]G6 8f= ljgf]b l;+x, k|bz ] dfkg tyf cg'udg dxfzfvf k|d'v 8f= dbgs'df/ pkfWoon] ;/sf/L,
ub{ 5 f} . cGTodf ;Dk" 0 f{ lzIfs efO/;sf] pb\udsf] k'gM 5fglag ug{' lghL, ;xsf/L tyf ;fd'bflos :jf:Yo ;+:yfnfO{ Ps xKtfleq cf–cfˆgf]
ljgfzsf/L kof{ j /0fLo c;/ 6'8] b}lgssf ;Dkfbs uf]kfn zdf{ kb{5 eGg] s'/f p7fO/x]sf] 5 .
;d'bfox? ;/sf/sf] of] lje]bsf/L lgDTofpg] / csf]{lt/ 7"nf] hgwgsf] e§/fO{, ;+:s[t ljZjljBfno sd{rf/L ;~rfns ;ldlt, af]8{ / cflwsfl/s lgsfoaf6 lg0f{o u/fO{ ;fj{hlgs ug{
b[li6sf]0fsf] cGTosf] nfuL km]l/ klg kl5Nnf] ;do la|6g] n] of] rLgsf] lgb]z
{ g lbPsf x'g\ .
Iflt x'g] ePsfn] To;nfO{ k'glj{rf/ Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf ;b:o ljgo 3]/faGbL ug]{ s'/fdf laz]if ;s[otf
cfGbf] n gsf] lasNk g/x] s f] / ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ . kf]v|]n / k|]d v8\sfsf] cfltYo /x]sf] dGqfnon] sltko :jf:Yo ;+:yfn] la/fdLsf] pkrf/afkt rsf]{ z'Ns
cfGbf]ngaf6 pTkGg x'g] kl/l:ylt b]vfO/x]sf] b]lvG5 . p;n] gf6f]bl] v lng] u/]sfn] z'Ns ;fj{hlgs ug{ elgPsf] pgn] atfP . …la/fdLsf] pkrf/afkt
;fy} o;vfn] unt sfo{sf lj?4 lyof] . sfo{qmddf sf]/f]gf laz]if lnP/ la| 6 ] g sf ldq b] z x¿nfO{
;fy} To;af6 kg{ hfg] c;/sf] pleg] ;a};uF xft]dfnf] ug]{ k|lta4tf c:ktfn a] n em' G 8Ln] k| t LIffno nfUg] /sdaf/] hfgsf/L kfpg] k|To]s gful/ssf] clwsf/ xf] eg] la/fdLsf]
hjfkmb]xL :jod\ ;/sf/ x'gk' g]{ Joxf]/f rLgaf6 ;'/Iff lbg] pb]Zon] cfˆgf] pkrf/ z'Ns ;fj{hlgs / kf/bzL{ ug{' x/]s :jf:Yo ;+:yfsf] sfg"gL Pjd\
hfx]/ ub{5f}F .Æ lgdf{0fsf] pRr k|z; + f ub}{ lhNnf gf};g] fsf] ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL hxfhL
la1lKtdfkm{t\ hfgsf/L u/fOG5 . kf6L{nfO{ ;Ddfg kq k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . g}lts st{Tj xf]Ú, pgn] hf/L u/]sf] ;"rgfdf elgPsf] 5 . ;fy} c:ktfn
;/sf/nfO{ lgDg a'bF fx? Wofgfsif{0f cfly{s===== g]skf bfª lhNnf ;]qm]6/L k|bLksf]
a]8f lxGb–k|zfGt If]qsf nflu /jfgf tyf :jf:Yo ;+:yfaf6 k|jfx x'g] ;]jfsf] k|sf/ / ;f]sf] nfut /sd zLif{s;d]t
ug{ of] lj1KtL hf/L u/]sf] 5f}+ . elgPsf] 5– …ljZjJofkL ¿kdf /x]sf] g} ul/;s]sf] 5 . To; a]8fdf #@ pNn]v u/L z'Ns ;fj{hlgs ug{ dGqfnon] cfu|x u/]sf] 5 . dGqfnon]
cWoIftfdf ;DkGg sfo{qmd o'jf ;Ë7g j6f Po/ qm\ofˆ6sf ;fy # xhf/
Wofgfsfif{ 0 f sf]/f]gf efO/; -sf]le8 !(_ dxfdf/L, g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o ltns of]uLn] la/fdLsf nflu cTofjZos k|f0fjfo' -clS;hg_ sf] ;d]t cTolws z'Ns
!= lzIffdf @) k|ltzt ah]6 o;sf] bf];|f] nx/ -Go' e]l/PG6_ / &)) gf}–;}lgs ;jf/ /x]sf] atfOPsf] lnPsf], cgfjZos k/LIf0f ug{ nufO{ la/fdLdfly yk cfly{s Jooef/
:jfut dGtJo / kf6L{ lhNnf ;ldlt 5 . o;n] cfpFbf ;ft dlxgf;Dd e"–
lalgof]hg ug]{ ;a} kIfsf] dfu kl/36gfaf6 dfgj ;d'bfo cfqmfGt ;b:o dgf]hn] ;~rfng u/]sf lyP . a9fPsf], pkrf/sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;fdu|Lsf] a:bf]a:t ug{ la/fdL
/x]sf] cj:yfdf rfn' cf=a= 5 . >lds ju{ k|efjsf] s]Gb|laGb' dWo;fu/ / lxGbdxf;fu/ If]qdf @ cfkm}FnfO{ nufpg] u/]sf], cfjZoseGbf a9L cf}iflw tyf :jf:Yo ;fdu|L
eGbf sd ah]6 lalgof]hg ag]sf] 5 . cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s r'gf}tL===== xhf/ ^)) ;fd'lb|s dfOnel/sf] ofqf v/Lb ug{ nufPsf] u'gf;f] k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifb\ sfof{no x]nf] ;/sf/dfkm{t\
u/]sf] . b' j } If] q df >d s6f} t Ldf k/L /x]sf 5g\ / o:tf] l:ytdf s'g} yk kf/ ug]{ 5 . of] If]q sAhf ug{ rLgn] / sltko u'gf;f ;fdflhs ;~hfn cfpg] u/]sf] dGqfnon] hgfPsf] 5 .
@= ;fljs p=df=lj=sf] lzIfssf a]/f]huf/ ag]sf >ldsx¿sf] ;Î\of k|df0f of] 5fglagaf6 cfpg ;Sg] cfqmfds z}nL ckgfpb} cfPsf] eGg]
af/]df ah]6 df}g . cgk] l Ift ¿kdf al9/x] s f] 5 . ;Defjgf Psbd} sd 5 elg/x]sf pgLx¿sf] cf/f]k 5 . elgG5 ls ca lnP kl5 rLgn] sf]nf]Daf] glhs} Pp6f :jf:Yo ;+u7gn] 5fk nufPdf rLgnfO{
#= sf]le8 ;+qmldtsf] pkrf/ tyf afFRgsf lglDt >d a]Rg lab]l;g] 5g\ . t/, oL ;a} s'/f eO/xFbf klg ToxfF la|6g] n] ef/t ;d]t c¿ sof}+ kf]6{ l;6L agfpg nflu/x]sf] pbfx/0f a9\bf] p;sf] ljZj k|efjaf6 cnUofpg
d[To' ePsf lzIfs, ljBfno >ldsx¿sf] ;+Vof c:jefljs ¿kdf cd]l/sL /fi6«klt hf] afO8]gn] rLgsf b]zx¿sf] ;fydf &) eGbf a9L o'4 lbg] u/]sf] 5 . o:tf] l:yltdf a[6g] sf] ;lsGYof] eGg] pgLx¿sf] of]hgf /x]sf]
sd{ r f/L / ltgsf cfl>t al9/x]s} 5 . g /f]huf/L, g bfdsf] lj?4 …gxndf bxn hf]8g\ ] ;xL ;do cEof;x¿ u/]/ rLgsf lj?4 ljZjsf 7"nf] hxfhL a]8f To; If]qdf t}gfy b]lvG5 . sf]/f]gf efO/;sf] axfgfdf
kl/jf/nfO{ Ifltk"lt{ / /fxt lgolt a]xf]b}{ u/]sf >ldsx¿sf] 5fg]sf 5g\Ú eg]/ pgLx¿ bË klg b]zx¿ nfda4 ePsf] ;Gb]z lbg ubf{ tgfa / ;+3if{sf] ca:yf v8f rLgsf] 3]/faGbL ug]{ rqmAo"x o;/L
lbg]af/] gLlt tyf sfo{qmd kl5Nnf] cj:yf ef]s / /f]uaf6 5g\ . x'g t afO8]gsf k"jj{ tL{ /fi6«klt vf]lh/x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . xf]nf t/ klg To;n] rLgdfly k]r s:g] ag]sf] b]lvb}5 .
df}g . Ps};fy ylng afWo 5 . ;d[l4 / 8f]gfN8 6«Dkn] w]/} klxnfb]lv g} of] clg o;f] x'gn' fO{ ef/tn] lgs} /fd|f] sfd klg ub{5 eg]/ ef/t v'zL 5 . hgdt;+ u | x =====
$= /fxt, afnljsfz, ljBfno ;dfhjfbsf] e"m§f] gf/f af]s/] d'7Le/ efO/; rLgsf] Nofadf tof/ u/]/ 7flg/x]sf] 5 . p;n] rLg o;/L olta]nf sf]/f]gf efO/; pb\udsf] ;/sf/ agfP/ lgsf;sf nflu
sd{rf/L, cg'bfg lzIfsnfO{ s'nLg ju{nfO{ v';L kfg{ k|oTgzLn ;+ ; f/el/ km} n fPsf] eg] / xNnf 3]/faGbLdf kg{n' fO{ 7"nf] /fxt dflg/x]sf] of] an eg] ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf] ;xsfo{ ug{ tof/ /x]sf] ;d]t :ki6
b/aGbLdf ?kfGt/0f af/] df}g . slyt sDo' l g:6 ;/sf/ r/d dRrfO/x]sf lyP . Tolta]nf eg] h:tf] 5 . ef/t jl/k/Lsf k|foM ;a} xftdf 5 eGg] ef/tsf] laZn]if0f 5 . kf/]sf 5, h'g b]zsf] jt{dfg ;+s6
%= afnljsf;, ljBfno :j]R5frf/L, q"m/, hg3ftL Pjd\ 8]df]qm]l6s v]dfn] 6«Dksf] Tof] rLg l5d]sLx¿ ls sf]/f dxTjfsf+Iffn] ls cd]l/sfn] t p;sf] tkm{af6 efO/; ;dfwfgsf] Ps dfq plrt /
sd{rf/LnfO{ ^))) + @))) + /fi6«3ftL af6f]df cl3 al9/x]sf] 5 . la/f]wL s'/f u}/lhDd]jf/ aQmAoafhL rLgsf ;fd' gtd:ts x'g ljjz ePsf 5fglagsf] lau'n rLgsf la¿4 ahfOg} bL3{sfnLg lasNk xf] . /fhgLlts
&))) u/L !%))) agfPtf /f]huf/bftf kIf lg/Lxtfsf] txdf eg]/ la/f]w hgfpg] u/]sf] lyof] . em"6f] sf/0fn] -<_ ef/tsf] la¿4 v8f ePsf] ;s]sf] 5 . ;Dej 5, () lbgleq ljZn]ifsx? ;d]t jt{dfg ;+s6jf6
klg s] G b| ;/sf/ cfˆgf] gtd:ts b]lvG5 . ;Qfsf] lgufxdf aofg / unt hfgsf/L km}nfPsf sf/0f 7fGb5 . sf]/f]gfsf] laklQdf cj;/sf] p;sf u'Ktr/ Ph]G;Lx¿n] sf]/f]gfsf] b]z / hgtfnfO{ d'Qm kfg]{ xf] eg]
bfloTjaf6 x6L :yfgLo 6«8] o'lgog ultljlw ug]{ s]xL :yflkt 6«Dksf] 5la klxnf g} Ps ljjfbf:kb vf]hL ug]{ if8\oGqdf rLg nflu/x]sf] pb\ e j;F u hf] l 8Psf dxTjk" 0 f{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] cufl8 ;f/]sf]
;/sf/nfO{ lhDdf lbg] lbzftkm{ 6« ] 8 o' l gogx¿ j:t' l :yltk| l t g]tfsf] h:tf] ag]sf] lyof] . To;}n] kmQ'/ klg ef/tn] rLgnfO{ nufO/x]sf] hfgsf/Lx¿ k|sfzdf NofpFbf klg /fhgLlts Ph]G8f hgdt ;+ux| sf] g}
pGd'v . d"sbz{s / df}gk|fo 5g\ .Ú /fi6«klt r'gfadf wfFwnLsf] cf/f]kx¿ 5 . sf]/f]gfsf] klxnf] nx/sf a]nf rLgn] xf]nfg\ . t/, rLgn] To;nfO{ ;sf5{ eGg] pQd lasNk ePsf atfpF5g\ . b]zdf
^= åGåkLl8t lzIfsx?sf] ;d:of yfkfåf/f hf/L lj1lKtdf elgPsf] h:t} rLgnfO{ s7\3/fdf pEofpg] pQ/lt/af6 6]9f cfFvfn] x]b{} lyof] ca s'/fdf pgLx¿sf] ljZjf; 5}g . rLgn] ;+;bLo Joj:yf c;kmnl;4 eO;s]sf]
;dfwfgaf/] df}g . 5– …bnfn k'FhLjfbL ;+;bLo ;Qfsf] s'/fdf klg pgn] s'g} ;a't k|df0ff bf]>f] nx/sf a]nf blIf0f ;Ldflt/af6 To;sf] k|fdfl0fstf dfU5 / k|Zg cj:yfdf hgdt ;+ u | x df hfg
&= b/aGbL ldnfg tyf r'gfj nlIft pQm ljjflbt ah]6 k]z ug{ ;s]sf lyPgg\ . clxn] gh/ nufPsf] sf]/f cfIf]k klg ef/tn] p7fO/xG5 eGg] s'/f klg pgLx¿ cfk"mnfO{ nf]stGqsf] kx/]bf/ eGg]
k' g Jo{ j :yfkg ;ldltsf] >lds ;j{xf/f ju{sf lglDt …sfunfO{ 8]df]qm]l6s kf6L{nufot ;a}n] pgs} nufPsf] 5 . o; ;DjGwdf p;n] klxn]bl] v g} elg/x]sf 5g\ . sf]/f]gfsf] /fhgLlts bn / g]tfx?n] v'§f
l;kmfl/;af/] df}g . a]n kfSof] xif{ g lj:dftÚ ag]sf] k'li6 s'/f bf]xf]¥ofO/x]sf 5g\ . To;}n] 6«Dkn] >Ln+sfsf] xDag6f6f aGb/ufx nLhdf ;Totf k|sfzdf cfpgsf nflu ljZj sdfpg gx'g] pgLx?sf] ts{ /x]sf] 5 .
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|åf/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
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