# History Graphics

The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics
Hern´n Dario Cort´s Solar a e
1

Department of Exact and Natural Sciences Universidad de Cartagena
2

Faculty of Pure Mathemathics Universidad de Cartagena

Coloquio Seminario de Investigacion, 2011

Cort´s,Hern´n e a

The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics

Many formulae from mathematics. which makes it one of the most important mathematical constants.Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics . science. and engineering involve π.14159265 in the usual decimal notation. this is the same value as the ratio of a circle’s area to the square of its radius.History Graphics Meaning of Pi π (sometimes written pi) is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratio of any Euclidean plane circle’s circumference to its diameter. Cort´s. It is approximately equal to 3.

both within 1 per 81 8 cent of the true value. 108 Archimedes (287-212 BC) was the ﬁrst to estimate π rigorously. they are 256 (Egypt) and 25 (Babylonia).History Graphics Research of π. Antiquity The earliest known textually evidenced approximations date from around 1900 BC. By using the equivalent of 96-sided polygons. he proved that: 3 10 10 <π<3 71 70 Cort´s.Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics . The Indian text Shatapatha Brahmana gives π as 3 339 .

which permit the estimation of π to any desired accuracy by considering suﬃciently many terms of a relevant series. Around 1400.History Graphics Second Millenium AD Until the second millennium AD. The next major advances in the study of p came with the development of inﬁnite series and subsequently with the discovery of calculus.Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics . estimations of π were accurate to fewer than 10 decimal digits. Madhava of Sangamagrama found the ﬁrst known such series: √ ∞ −1k 4 4 4 4 4 π = 12 = − + − + ··· 2k + 1 1 3 5 7 9 k=0 This is now known as the Madhava-Leibniz series or Gregory-Leibniz series since it was rediscovered by James Gregory and Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century Cort´s.

Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics . Another famous result is Wallis’ product.History Graphics Second Millenium AD Around XVI century. the methods of calculus and determination of inﬁnite series and products for geometrical quantities began to emerge in Europe. π = 2 ∞ k=1 (2k)2 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 4 16 36 64 = · · · · · · · ··· = · · · ··· (2k)2 − 1 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 9 3 15 35 63 Cort´s. The ﬁrst such representation was the Vite’s formula: √ 2 2 = · π 2 2+ 2 √ 2 2+ 2 2+ √ 2 · ··· found by Francois Vite in 1593.

History Graphics π in the computer age Practically. Cort´s. mathematical depth and rapid convergence.Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics . The advent of digital computers in the 20th century led to an increased rate of new π calculation records. √ ∞ 1 2 2 (4k)!(1103 + 26390k) = π 9801 (k!)4 3964k k=0 where k! is the factorial of k. a calculation that took 70 hours. John von Neumann used ENIAC to compute 2037 digits of π in 1949. In the beginning of the 20th century. a physicist needs only 39 digits of π to make a circle the size of the observable universe accurate to the size of a hydrogen atom. some remarkable for their elegance. One of his formulas is the series. the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan found many new formulas for π.

History Graphics Graphic aproximation of Pi Cort´s.Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics .

Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics .History Graphics Calculations of Pi Pre-Computer Age Cort´s.

Hern´n e a The Number π and The Evolution of Mathemathics .History Graphics Calculations of Pi in Computer Age Cort´s.