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C.POORN IMA(09x71a0411), K.SNEHA RAMYA(09X71A0479)
Nanotechnology is increasingly considered to be the future technology. Instead of "ever higher, ever wider" its motto is "ever smaller, ever faster". Nanotechnology provides access to the world of the smallest things. One nanometre is a millionth part of a millimetre. The diameter of a human hair is fifty thousand times bigger. The possible applications of this technology are immense. Future progress in nanotechnology will also determine the further development of future-oriented branches.
History of nanotechnology
TAThe first use of the concepts in 'nano-technology' (but predating use of that name) was in "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," a talk given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. Feynman described a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, so on down to the needed scale. In the course of this, he noted, scaling issues would arise from the changing magnitude of various physical phenomena: gravity would become less important, surface tension and Van der Waals attraction would become more important, etc. This basic idea appears plausible, and exponential assembly enhances it with parallelism to produce a useful quantity of end products. The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper as follows: "'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule."
Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers , where unique phenomena enable novel applications. It involves measuring, modelling and manipulating matter at this length scale.
The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper as follows: "'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule.". Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major developments; the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Today nanotechnology is reshaping technology. Nanotechnology is dealing with research and the construction in the sphere of very small structures: one nanometre is one millionth of a millimetre. Nano (Greek: dwarf) includes research areas in animate and inanimate nature. Applications emerge in energy technology (fuel cells and solar cells), in environmental technology (materials cycles and disposal) or in information technology (new memories and processors) but also in the healthcare area. Nanotechnology is the umbrella term for the most different types of analysis and processing of materials which have one thing in common: Their size is one to one hundred nanometres (one nanometre is one millionth of a millimetre). Nanotechnology makes use of the special characteristics of many nanostructures. The mechanical, optical, magnetic, electrical and chemical characteristics of these very small structures do not only depend on their original material but very much also on their size and shape. A precondition for nanotechnology is the discovery of the possibilities of working with individual components of matter as well as the related growing understanding of the self-organization of these components.
Applications of nanotechnology
Medicine: Nanomedicine The biological and medical research communities have exploited the unique properties of nanomaterials for various applications (e.g., contrast agents for cell imaging and therapeutics for treating cancer). Terms such as biomedical nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, and nanomedicine are used to describe this hybrid field. Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of
and enhanced renewable energy sources. 1. because the latter frequently display first-order kinetics (the blood concentration goes up rapidly. but drops exponentially over time). They could hold small drug molecules transporting them to the desired location. Nanotechnological approaches like light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or quantum caged atoms (QCAs) could lead to a strong reduction of energy consumption for illumination. Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures. Magnetic nanoparticles. Commercially available solar cells have much lower efficiencies (15-20%). Currently used light bulbs only convert approximately 5% of the electrical energy into light. The use of batteries with higher energy content or the use of rechargeable batteries or supercapacitors with higher rate of recharging using nanomaterials could be helpful for the battery disposal problem. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. This rapid rise may cause difficulties with toxicity. physical therapy applications. conversion. Some potentially important applications include cancer treatment with iron nanoparticles or gold shells. Buckyballs can "interrupt" the allergy/immune response by preventing mast cells (which cause allergic response) from releasing histamine into the blood and tissues. such as vitamin E". Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric microbeads. which are often preferable to the use of injectable drugs. thermal insulation for example). analytical tools. Heavy Industry An inevitable use of nanotechnology will be in heavy industry. 1) Diagnostics Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of lab-ona-chip technology. contrast agents. Another vision is based on small electromechanical systems. An example can be found in dendrimers and nanoporous materials. by the use of more efficient lighting or combustion systems. The degree of efficiency of the internal combustion engine is about 30-40% at the moment. 2) Drug delivery Nanotechnology has been a boom in medical field by delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles. Energy applications of nanotechnology The most advanced nanotechnology projects related to energy are: storage. The overall drug consumption and side-effects can be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. In 2005. structures or microorganisms. Spacecraft will also benefit. bound to a suitable antibody. This highly selective approach reduces costs and human suffering. The huge number of spent batteries and accumulators represent a disposal problem. Nanotechnology is also opening up new opportunities in implantable delivery systems. energy saving (by better 3) Recycling of batteries Nanobatteries Because of the relatively low energy density of batteries the operating time is limited and a replacement or recharging is needed. when applied to a surface. A targeted or personalized medicine reduces the drug consumption and treatment expenses resulting in an overall societal benefit by reducing the costs to the public health system.Aerospace Lighter and stronger materials will be of immense use to aircraft manufacturers. Another example is to use block co-polymers. and drug delivery vehicles. instantly transforms it into a solar collector.diagnostic devices. and by use of lighter and stronger materials in the transportation sector. NEMS are being investigated for the active release of drugs. scientists at the University of Toronto developed a spray-on nanoparticle substance that. . which form micelles for drug encapsulation. leading to increased performance. by binding to free radicals "dramatically better than any anti-oxidant currently available. 2. and drug efficacy can diminish as the drug concentration falls below the targeted range. manufacturing improvements by reducing materials and process rates. Nanotechnology could improve combustion by designing specific catalysts with maximized surface area. Reduction of energy consumption A reduction of energy consumption can be reached by better insulation systems. where weight is a major factor. Nanotechnology could help increase the efficiency of light conversion by using nanostructures with a continuum of bandgaps. 1. are used to label specific molecules. Increasing the efficiency of energy production Today's best solar cells have layers of several different semiconductors stacked together to absorb light at different energies but they still only manage to use 40 percent of the Sun's energy.
The capacity of high strength bolts is obtained through quenching and tempering .200 MPa even a very small amount of hydrogen embrittles the grain boundaries and the steel material may fail during use. Nanoparticles and steel Steel has been widely available material and has a major role in the construction industry. Advancements in this technology using nanoparticles would lead to increased safety. The particles catalyze powerful reactions which breakdown organic pollutants. especially in suspension bridges as the cables are run from end to end of the span. the proportion of atoms on the surface increases relative to those inside and this leads to novel properties. service life or regular inspection regime. The fatigue . such as in bridges or towers.The addition of nanoparticles of magnesium and calcium makes the HAZ grains finer in plate steel and this leads to an increase in weld toughness. safer. high strength composites and electronic applications. Fire- . biomechanics and coatings including civil engineering and construction materials.Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are used to coat glazing since it has sterilizing and anti-fouling properties. they have found little application as compared to steel.The current steel designs are based on the reduction in the allowable stress.The addition of copper nanoparticles reduces the surface un-evenness of steel which then limits the number of stress risers and hence fatigue cracking. Since at the nanoscale the properties of the material are different from that of their bulk counter parts. 2. which is known as delayed fracture. The increase in toughness at would result in a smaller resource requirement because less material is required in order to keep stresses within allowable limits.Nanotechnology would help to reduce the size of equipment and thereby decrease fuel-consumption required to get it airborne.because it is difficult to bind them with bulk material and they pull out easily.There is a lot of research being carried out on the application of nanotechnology to glass.The microstructures of such products consist of tempered martensite. Hang gliders may be able to halve their weight while increasing their strength and toughness through the use of nanotech materials. The nano-size steel produce stronger steel cables which can be in bridge construction . Nanotech is lowering the mass of supercapacitors that will increasingly be used to give power to assistive electrical motors for launching hang gliders off flatland to thermal-chasing altitudes. Which make them ineffective in construction materials. less need for regular inspection regime and more efficient materials free from fatigue issues for construction. The manufactures also investigating the methods of manufacturing of nano-cement. The TiO2 is hydrophilic (attraction to water) which can attract rain drops which then wash off the dirt particles.200 MPa. The use of vanadium and molybdenum nanoparticles improves the delayed fracture problems associated with high strength bolts reducing the effects of hydrogen embrittlement and improving the steel micro-structure through reducing the effects of the inter-granular cementite phase.The Stress risers are responsible for initiating cracks from which fatigue failure results . Construction Nanotechnology has the potential to make construction faster. and more varied. cheaper.The carbon nanotubes are exciting material with tremendous properties of strength and stiffness. volatile organic compounds and bacterial membranes. which hindered the strengthening of steel bolts and their highest strength is limited to only around 1. Welds and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) adjacent to welds can be brittle and fail without warning when subjected to sudden dynamic loading. This has a significant impact on the life-cycle costs of structures and limits the effective use of resources. Nanotechnology and constructions Nanotechnology is one of the most active research areas that encompass a number of disciplines Such as electronics. incorporates the self cleaning property of glass. The use of nanotechnology in steel helps to improve the properties of steel.which lead to the structural failure of steel due to cyclic loading. When the tensile strength of tempered martensite steel exceeds 1. The use of nanotechnology in construction involves the development of new concept and understanding of the hydration of cement particles and the use of nano-size ingredients such as alumina and silica and other nanoparticles. it will open up a large number of opportunities in the fields of ceramics. If cement with nano-size particles can be manufactured and processed. This phenomenon.000 to 1. Automation of nanotechnology construction can allow for the creation of structures from advanced homes to massive skyscrapers much more quickly and at much lower cost. Some applications of nanotechnology in construction are describe below.Thus the introduction of nanotechnology in the Glass industry.Also these stronger cable material would reduce the costs and period of construction. When materials becomes nanosized.This would require high strength joints which leads to the need for high strength bolts. Nanoparticles in glass The glass is also an important material in construction.
vol. craftsmen. J.Most of glass in construction is on the exterior surface of buildings . (1986) Systemantics: How Systems Really Work and How They Fail. Norton. Intl. NY. . 18. J. 2nd ed. This is achieved by using a clear intumescent layer sandwiched between glass panels (an interlayer) formed of silica nanoparticles (SiO2) which turns into a rigid and opaque fire shield when heated. W. nanotechnology will have even more profound effect on the next century. Ann Arbor. machines will get increasingly smaller. ^ Zsigmondy.V. (19952000) ^ Gribbin.So the light and heat entering the building through glass has to be prevented. "On the Basic Concept of 'NanoTechnology'.F. Part II. Conclusions > Nanotechnology is an umbrella term that covers many areas of research dealing with objects that are measured in nanometers. MI : The General Systemantics Press. John. 211. "Periodic Colloidal Structures". Reissue edition (September 19. 3. ^ Richard Dawkins. "Richard Feynman: A Life in Science" Dutton 1997. 7. B. The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design. Titanium oxide nanoparticles have a comparable UV protection property as the bulk material. 10. "Colloids and the ^ Indian 2. airplanes. vol. "Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science". artisans used nanotech 2000 years ago Ultramicroscope".piecing together one atom or molecule at a time to make cars and baseballs. Tokyo.. No. Conf. > As television . Prod. > Nanomachines to manufacture consumer goods at molecular level . (1914) ^ Derjaguin. W. 1974. ^ Norio Taniguchi. 9. 4. 1996) 8. 198. 6. References 1. Japan Society of Precision Engineering. The traditional chemical UV protection approach suffers from its poor longterm stability. 5. NY (1975) ^ Lyklema. Faraday Soc. 215-219 (1954) ^ Efremov. John. I." Proc. computers revolutionized the world in the last century . pg 170. in "Surface and Colloid Science". Cosmetics One field of application is in sunscreens. Discuss. 8.Wiley and Sons. ^ IBM's 35 atoms and the rise of nanotech ^ Gall. The nanotechnology can provide a better solution to block light and heat coming through windows. Wiley.protective glass is another application of nanotechnology. Eng. A sunscreen based on mineral nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide offer several advantages. > In next 50 years .1-5 Academic Press. but lose the cosmetically undesirable whitening as the particle size is decreased. R. 24-27. 182-187.
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