TYPES OF PARAGRAPHS

SITUJUH NAZARA
ENGLISH TEACHING STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA JAKARTA, 2011

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Sequence of Dates and Events

Sequence of Steps
List of Characteristics Comparison and Contrast Causes and Effects Classifications Mixed Paragraph

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Contents

Sequence of Dates and Events
• A paragraph of sequence of dates and events consists of a list of events, which are given chronologically • If the paragraph simply outlines or traces a sequence of dates and events, it has a topic but not a main idea. • if it also presents the author’s comment, thoughts or perceptions in addition to the sequence of dates and events, it must have a topic and a main idea as well
Sequence of Dates and Events

Thomas Jefferson graduated from William and Mary College in 1762 and was admitted to the bar in 1767. He became a member of the Second Continental Congress in 1775 and was chairman of the committee that wrote Declaration of Independence. From 1785 to 1789, he was the United States minister to France, and from 1790 to 1793 he served as the United States secretary of state. Jefferson served as vice president from 1797 to 1801; and on March 4, 1801, he was inaugurated as the third president of the United States Topic Support: 1762 1767 1775 1785-1789 1790-1793 1791-1801 1801 : : : : : : : : Jefferson’s career graduated from William and Mary College admitted to the bar member of the Second Continental Congress, chairman of the committee that wrote Declaration of Independence U.S. minister to France U.S. secretary of state vice president inaugurated president

Since the paragraph simply outlines or traces some major events in Jefferson’s career, it has no main idea.

Sequence of Dates and Events

The years between 1918 and 1945 brought violence and upheaval to the newly formed Polish nation. In 1918, Poland was declared independent, and army officer Jozef Pilsudski took control of the government. After 1926, the government became a dictatorship, first under Pilsudski and later, after his death in 1935, under officers loyal to him. The officers, however, did not rule for long. In 1939, Germany and Russia invaded Poland, and both powers divided up the country. During the war years that followed, the Germans murdered anywhere from three to five and a half million Polish Jews; they killed more than half of the population of Warsaw, and the capital itself was completely destroyed. Warsaw, once one of the most beautiful capitals n Europe, was reduced to rubble Topic : Political events in Poland in 1918-1945

Main idea :

Poland experienced violence and upheaval between the years 1918 and 1945.

Support: 1918: Poland declared independence; Pilsudski took control 1926: government became a dictatorship 1935: Pilsudski died; loyal officers maintained dictatorship 1939: Germany and Russia invaded Poland and divided up the country 1939-1945: Germans murdered 3 to 5.5 million Polish Jews Warsaw was destroyed Sequence of Dates and Events

Sequence of Steps
• a descriptive paragraph that explains how something develops, how to do something, or how something functions • make sure that you indicate the process or activity explained in the paragraph and list all the given steps in the correct order

Sequence of Steps

There are three basic stages involved in the development of identical twins. Their growth begins when the father’s sperm pierces the egg of the mother. The fertilized egg then splits and divides into equal halves, each half receiving exactly the same number of chromosomes and genes. The halves of the egg then develop into to two babies who are of the same sex and who are identical in all hereditary traits such as hair color and eye color

Topic: The development of identical twins Main Idea: There are three stages in the development of identical twins. Support: 1. Father’s sperm pierces the mother’s egg 2. Fertilized egg splits and divides into equal halves; each half receives same number of chromosomes and genes. 3. Halves of egg develops into to two babies of the same sex, identical in all hereditary traits such as hair color and eye color.

Sequence of Steps

List of Characteristics
describes a person, place, thing or event by exposing certain characteristic
The prehistoric elephant bird, also known as the roc bird, lived in Southern Madagascar. Standing around nine to ten feet high, the bird was unable to fly and weighed close to 1,000 pounds. This enormous bird also had enormous eggs. One specimen, still preserved in the British Museum in London, has a circumference of twenty-eight inches and is seven times larger than an ostrich egg Topic: The elephant bird Support: 1. Known as the roc bird 2. Lived in southern Madagascar 3. Flightless 4. Nine to ten feet high, unable to fly, weighed around 1,000 pounds 5. Had enormous eggs 6. One specimen, 28 inches circumference and seven times larger than an ostrich egg

List of characteristics

Comparison and Contrast
• A paragraph of comparison usually emphasizes on similarities of two people, places, events, or ideas of the topic; while a paragraph of contrast emphasizes on differences of two people, places, events, or ideas. • identify the two topics compared and list the similarities/contrasts cited in support of the main idea

When Gerald Ford, the thirty-eighth president of the U.S., came to office, he was fond of emphasizing his resemblance to one of his famous predecessors, Harry S. Truman. Like Ford, Truman had been a vice president who became president only by chance. Truman took over when Franklin Roosevelt died in office, a circumstance that resembled Ford’s own ascent to the presidency when Richard Nixon resigned from office. Truman, like Ford, was not an intellectual, and he tended to exaggerate his lack of learning, insisting that he was just a simple man with simple tastes. Ford also like to emphasize that both he and Truman came to office at a difficult time. Truman led the nation during the final months of World War II, and Ford entered office after the nation had been faced with the Watergate scandals
Topic : Some similarities between Ford and Truman Main Idea: Gerald Ford liked to emphasize his resemblance to Harry Truman. Support: 1. Both became president by chance: a. Truman took over when Roosevelt died b. Ford took over when Nixon resigned 2. Both paved the role of anti-intellectual. 3. Both came to office at difficult times: a. Truman at the end of World War II b. Ford after political scandal of Watergate Comparison and Contrast

Causes and Effects
A paragraph of cause and effect deals with two or more events, one of which happened because the other(s) came before

Growing numbers of well-to-do Americans are making the decision to move to more rural parts of the country. From their point of view, it is impossible to walk the streets of a big city at night without fear of being raped, mugged, or murdered. They claim, too, that city is poisonous, more lethal than cigarette smoke, thanks to the everincreasing traffic congestion. In addition, they complain that the food, filled with chemical additives used to preserve the appearance of freshness, grows worse with every passing day. Last but not least, fugitives from city life claim that the pace of urban living exhausts them, leaving them without the energy to enjoy the entertainment a large city supposedly offers.
Topic : Why American move to the country Main Idea: Dissatisfied with their life in the city, growing numbers of wealthy, Americans are moving to the country. Support: Afraid to walk the streets at night Think air is poisonous due to traffic congestion. Think food is getting worse because of so many chemical additives. Find pace exhausting

Cause and effect

Classifications
• explains how a larger group of similar persons, places, or things can be divided into smaller categories. • contains the name of the larger group that is being broken down into categories; the names of the categories, if any names are given; and the characteristics of each category.

Studies indicate that human beings use two kinds of memory: short-term and long-term. When we use short-term memory, we retain information for a very brief period of time. For example, we use short-term memory when we look up a phone number and remember it only long enough to dial. When we use long-term memory, we retain information for a considerable length of time. A young child, for example, may memorize a poem and remember it for the next twenty years.

Topic : Memory Main Idea: human beings use two kinds of memory Support: 1. short-term memory retains information for a very brief period of time. - look up a phone number and remember it only long enough to dial. 2. long-term memory retains information for a longer period of time. - memorize a poem and remember it for 20 years

Classification

Mixed Paragraph
In reading materials, like textbooks, articles, and journals, authors frequently use mixed paragraphs; that is you will run across paragraphs that seem to be a mixture of two different paragraph types

John Calvin’s famous work, Institutes of the Christian Religion (published in 1536), helped spread the protestant faith those countries not already under the sway of Lutheranism; after reading Calvin’s book, countless people became protestants. Although the book owed almost all its ideals to the writings of Martin Luther, it still had a wider appeal than anything Luther had published. While Luther’s emphasis on the saving power faith was difficult for many to accept, Calvin’s emphasis on the unimportance of mankind in the face of God’s majesty and power was something that people of the sixteenth century could readily grasp.
Topic : Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion Main Idea: Reading Calvin’s book, Institutes of the Christian Religion, caused many people to convert to Protestant faith. Support: 1. Ideas were similar, but Calvin’s writings had wider appeal 2. People responded to Calvin’s emphasis on God’s power but not to Luther’s emphasis on power of faith.

Mixed paragraph

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