02-BSS Function description | Mobile Telecommunications | Communication

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 2 BSS Functions ............................................................................................................. 2-1 2.1 Basic Functions.................................................................................................................. 2-1 2.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................................. 2-1 2.1.2 Channel ................................................................................................................... 2-2 2.1.3 System Information ................................................................................................. 2-9 2.1.4 Idle Mode Behavior ............................................................................................... 2-15 2.1.5 PLMN Selection..................................................................................................... 2-18 2.1.6 Cell Selection and Reselection ............................................................................. 2-19 2.1.7 Location updating .................................................................................................. 2-24 2.1.8 Access................................................................................................................... 2-32 2.1.9 Paging ................................................................................................................... 2-33 2.1.10 Immediate assignment ........................................................................................ 2-35 2.1.11 Assignment.......................................................................................................... 2-44 2.1.12 Authentication...................................................................................................... 2-45 2.1.13 Ciphering ............................................................................................................. 2-48 2.1.14 DTX ..................................................................................................................... 2-52 2.1.15 Frequency hopping ............................................................................................. 2-55 2.2 Extended Functions ......................................................................................................... 2-60 2.2.1 Handover............................................................................................................... 2-60 2.2.2 Power Control........................................................................................................ 2-74 2.2.3 Extended Cell ........................................................................................................ 2-86 2.2.4 IUO ........................................................................................................................ 2-89 2.2.5 "HW-IUO Property"Satellite Transfer .................................................................... 2-95 2.2.6 Diversity Receiving................................................................................................ 2-97 2.2.7 Aggressive Frequency Reuse Pattern .................................................................. 2-99 2.2.8 Multiband Network .............................................................................................. 2-104 2.2.9 Carrier Mutual-assistance ................................................................................... 2-116 2.2.10 Cell Broadcast ................................................................................................... 2-119 2.2.11 Radio Channel Allocation.................................................................................. 2-121 2.2.12 Half Rate ........................................................................................................... 2-125 2.2.13 E1 Ring Topology.............................................................................................. 2-127 2.2.14 GSM900/GSM1800 Co-cell............................................................................... 2-129 2.2.15 Multi-MNC ......................................................................................................... 2-131 2.2.16 E-GSM/R-GSM.................................................................................................. 2-135 2.3 GPRS Function .............................................................................................................. 2-137 2.3.1 Supported Packet System Information ............................................................... 2-137 2.3.2 Supported GPRS MS Modes .............................................................................. 2-141

Huawei Technologies Proprietary i

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Table of Contents

2.3.3 Supported RLC Modes........................................................................................ 2-143 2.3.4 Supported Channel Coding Scheme .................................................................. 2-144 2.3.5 Supported Network Control Modes ..................................................................... 2-148 2.3.6 Supported Network Operation Mode .................................................................. 2-148 2.3.7 Supported QoS.................................................................................................... 2-150 2.3.8 Supported Assignment........................................................................................ 2-150 2.3.9 Supported Paging ............................................................................................... 2-151 2.3.10 Timing Advance ................................................................................................ 2-152 2.3.11 Measurement Report ........................................................................................ 2-153 2.3.12 Supported Flow Control .................................................................................... 2-153 2.3.13 Supported Dynamic Handover between TCH and PDCH ................................ 2-155 2.3.14 Supported Packet Access Function .................................................................. 2-155

Huawei Technologies Proprietary ii

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

Chapter 2 BSS Functions
BSS is a bridge between MS and NSS, which performs mainly the management of radio links and conversion of radio links and wire links. It is responsible for the communication of MS. BSS system functions can be divided into basic functions, extended functions and GPRS functions.

2.1 Basic Functions
2.1.1 Overview
Figure 2-1 illustrates the GSM Protocol.
MS CM MM L3 L2 L1 RR LAPDm Sign. Layer1 RR BTSM RR BTSM LAPD Sign. Layer1 B BSSMAP SCCP MTP BTS BSC MSC CM MM BSSMAP SCCP MTP

LAPDm LAPD Sign. Sign. Layer1 Layer1

Um

Abis

A

MS: Mobile Station BTS: Base Transceiver Station BSC: Base Station Controller RR: Radio Resource Management MSC: Mobile services Switching Centre, Mobile Switching Centre MTP: Message Transfer Part (MTP) SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part LAPD: Link Access Procedure on the D channel MM: Mobility Management LAPDm: Link Access Procedure on the Dm channel CM: Connection Management BSSMAP: Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part BTSM: Base Transceiver Station Site Management

Figure 2-1 GSM protocol stack According to GSM 04.07, the functions of BSS on layer 3 and related sub-layers on the radio interface (Um) are classified into: 1) 2) 3) RR: Radio Resource Management MM: Mobility Management CM: Communication Management

Where the functions on the MM and CM sub-layers are supported by the DTAP between A- and Um interfaces. The functions of RR sub-layer that include the
Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-1

Types of Radio Channels According to GSM/GPRS specifications. which are Traffic Channel and Control Channel. The functions (RR) that BSS involves are mainly as follows: Radio channel management Channel coding/decoding Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Full-rate & half-rate coding of speech and enhanced full-rate coding Encryption/Decryption Frequency hopping Antenna Diversity RF Power control and handover management 2. while the Control Channel is subdivided into Broadcast Channel. the radio channels fall into two major categories.1. Circuit Data Traffic Channel and Packet Data Traffic Channel. There are corresponding communication management protocol for A interface and Abis interface to realize the air interface between GSM network and MS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions maintenance and release of radio resources are mainly carried out by BSS. The other functions of BSS are also essential for establishing communication between the GSM network and MS. A traffic channel s further divided into Speech Traffic Channel.2 Channel I. Logical channel CCH DCCH BCCH CCCH TCH SDCCH Downlink Uplink ACCH SCH FCCH BCCH (BCCH1) (BCCH2) (BCCH3) PCH AGCH RACH SACCH FACCH Downlink Downlink/Uplink Figure 2-2 GSM/GPRS channel classification Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-2 . Common Control Channel and Dedicated Control Channel.

4 kbit/s user data.4: full rate traffic channel for 2. TCH/H4. TCH/HS: half rate traffic channel for speech.6. Below is the introduction. TCH/AFS: adaptive full rate traffic channel for speech. TCH/F2. TCH/AHS: adaptive half rate traffic channel for speech. TCH/HS and TCH/EFS. E-TCH/F28. the speech traffic channels are divided into: TCH/FS: full rate traffic channel for speech. E-TCH/F43. II. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-3 . TCH/F4. Traffic Channel 1) Speech traffic channels In the latest GSM 05. PDTCH/U: uplink PDTCH. Huawei BSS currently supportsTCH/F9.4.8 and TCH/F2. TCH/F4. E-TCH/F32.8 kbit/s user data.2: enhanced circuit switched full rate traffic channel for 43.4 kbit/s user data. PDTCH is a one-way channel and categorized by the direction as: PDTCH/D: downlink PDTCH.4: half rate traffic channel for 2. while PDTCH with an 8PSK modulation system can carry packet data whose momentary rates are 0~69.8 kbit/s user data.02.6: full rate traffic channel for 9.0: enhanced circuit switched full rate traffic channel for 32. 4 kbit/s user data. 2) Circuit data traffic channel In the most updated GSM 05. Huawei BSS currently supports three types of traffic channels for speech: TCH/FS.8: half rate traffic channel for 4.0 kbit/s user data. 3) Packet Data Traffic Channel There are two rates for the PDTCH: PDTCH: full-rate PDTCH. TCH/H2. 02.6 kbit/s user data.4: full rate traffic channel for 14.2 kbit/s user data.8 kbit/s user data. for MS originated packet transmission.6 kbit/s. for MS terminated packet transmission.8 kbit/s.8: full rate traffic channel for 4. TCH/F14. TCH/EFS: enhanced full rate traffic channel for speech.8: enhanced circuit switched full rate traffic channel for 28. With GMSK modulation it can carry packet data whose momentary rates are 0~22. the circuit data traffic channels are divided into: TCH/F9.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Figure 2-2 illustrates the logical channels.

It includes the following logical channels: 1) FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel): This channel is responsible for transferring the frequency correction signals to the MS so that the MS can be adjusted to the corresponding frequency. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-4 . BCCH carrier frequency of the adjacent cells. 2) SCH (Synchronization Channel): This channel is responsible for transmission of the frame synchronization number (TDMA frame number) and the Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) to the MS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. It uses the same physical channels as SDCCH. The network notifies the MS of the allocation of the packet data traffic channels via the PAGCH channel. PAGCH (Packet Access Grant Channel): Downlink channel. NCH (Notification Channel): Downlink channel used for Voice Group Call Service (VGCS) and Voice Broadcast Service (VBS). through which an MS accesses the network and requests for allocating SDCCH. 3) BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel): This channel transmits the information common to all cells. Access Grant Channel (AGCH): Through which the network notifies the MS about the allocation of the dedicated channel. MS requests to access the network via the PRACH channel. such as Location Area Identity (LAI). IV. Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH): This channel is used for the cell broadcast short message services. cell maximum allowable output power. Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) PCCH includes the following four channels: 1) 2) 3) PPCH (Packet Paging Channel): Downlink packet paging channel. Common Control Channel (CCCH) CCCH are classified into the following four channels: 1) 2) 3) 4) Paging Channel (PCH): Downlink channel. The channels introduced above are downlink channels. 4) 5) PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Channel): This channel transfers the messages related to packet services. Random Access Channel (RACH): Uplink channel. Broadcast Channel (BCH) BCH is used to transmit broadcast messages to the MS in down link direction. MS tunes to the PPCH channel at a regular interval to check if there is any call from SGSN. and packet service system parameters. PRACH (Packet Random Access Channel): Uplink packet random access channel. MS tunes to and receives the information from this channel to check for any call from MSC at regular intervals. V.

etc. 2) PTCCH/U (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel Uplink): PTCCH/U sends the timing advance by way of random access burst when the MS operates in a transmission mode. designed for point-to-multipoint multicast call. between the MS and the network. Packet Dedicated Control Channel 1) PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel): Downlink channel serving to transmit the signaling. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-5 . and meanwhile receives the system information including transmission power. SACCH/C4: SACCH associated with SDCCH/4. including response messages and power control messages. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) DCCH consists of the following channels: 1) SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel): Associated with the SDCCH or TCH. FACCH can be further divided into: FACCH/F: FACCH associated with TCH/F. PRACH and PAGCH. One PTCCH/D corresponds to several PTCCH/Us. This channel is designed for MS to send received signal quality and signal intensity of adjacent BTSs to the network. Huawei BSS supports PPCH. mostly for transmitting handover command. location updating information. 3) PTCCH/D (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel Downlink): PTCCH/D is designed to send transmission timing advance to several MSs. VI. power adjustment and timing advance. 3) SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control Channel): it serves to transmit the signaling such as short message information. SACCH/C8: SACCH associated with SDCCH/8. FACCH/H: FACCH associated with TCH/H. SACCH/TH: SACCH associated with TCH/H. to the MS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 4) PNCH (Packet Notification Channel): Downlink channel. SDCCH/8SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4SDCCH/4 VII. 2) FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel): FACCH implements transmission by occupying a part on TCH. SACCH/M: SACCH associated with TCH/F for multi-TS configuration. prior to the call setup. SGSN can page the MS via PACCH to initiate CS service. PACCH can also transmit the resources allocation and re-allocation messages. PACCH shares the resource with the PDTCH currently allocated to MS. When MS is in transmission mode. SACCH can be further divided into: SACCH/TF: SACCH associated with TCH/F.

Terrestrial channel management The management of terrestrial channels between BSS and MSC is to keep the terrestrial circuit states at BSS and MSC consistent so that an idle circuit can be Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-6 . Traffic channel management BSS is in charge of all the configured traffic channels. XIII. paging message dispatching. a user can configure the following channel combinations in the M900/M1800 BSS. Radio channel management Radio channel management involves the management of diverse radio channels in the GSM/GPRS. BSS also assumes the task for the measurement and release of these traffic channels. This process occurs in the phase of connection setup. Dedicated control channel management BSS manages all the available dedicated control channels. IX. channel code and other parameters regarding the call to BSS. Radio channel combination As per the logical channel types as listed above. Besides. XII. XI. Broadcast channel and common control channel management The management of the available broadcast channels and common control channels by the BSS involves DRX management. modification and release. BSS will allocate a DCCH for the MS. TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF SDCCH/8+SACCH/C8 FCCH+SCCH+BCCH+CCCH FCCH+SCCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/C4 BCCH+CCCH BCCH+CBCH SDCCH+CBCH PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH X. which chooses a traffic channel based on the messages. BSS is also responsible for monitoring and releasing the link of DCCH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions VIII. RACH and PRACH control. maintenance. MSC sends the channel type. After MS has sends a random access request via RACH or PRACH. and BCCH message broadcast. AGCH and PAGCH control. When a call is established.

When the BTS and the TRAU are physically detached. For circuits blocked on the maintenance console at MSC side. Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Transcoding (TC) and Rate Adaptation provides an interface between the standard 64 kbit/s transmission at NSS side and the lower rate transmission at BSS side. There are various coding and interleaving methods for different logical channels (speech. If a PSTN subscriber wants to call an MS. The TRAU is introduced to complete this function. newly designed algorithms are used but it does not affect the coding rate on the Um interface. This is to ensure the success for the call and the handover. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-7 . while the 12 kbit/s rate is for the 16 kbit/s channel. Circuit Group Block/Unblock. the compression algorithm for the MS and Transcoder & Rate Adaptor Unit (TRAU) must be modified. Unequipped Circuit.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions available when MSC makes a call (“assign circuit”) and when MS performs handover (“assign terrestrial circuit”). General principles of the circuit control includes: Circuit management message is normally initiated by BSC. MSC can only block or unblock its circuits without affecting the circuits at the BSS side. While resetting circuit can be initiated either by MSC or BSC.6 kbit/s and 6 kbit/s data rates on the Um interface are arranged for the 8 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s channel (for transmission either on the full-rate channel or the half-rate channel). rate adaptation must be performed for the voice. 3. EFR (Enhanced Full Rate) is introduced. the BSS has no authority to unblock or reset the circuit. at a rate of 64 kbit/s whereas in GSM. Channel Coding & Decoding The messages are encoded/decoded before being transmitted on the radio channel to avoid radio channel interference. XIV. 03. When adopting EFR. data and signaling). A detailed description of the conversions on the interfaces is given in the related GSM specifications. RPE-LTP or CELP coding with much lower rate (16 kbit/s) is used due to the limitation of radio channel resources. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is used for normal speech in PLMN. Procedures included in the A-interface circuit resource management are Circuit Block/Unblock. please refer to the specifications GSM 05. and Reset Circuit. To implement EFR. Generally. To further improve the voice quality. these conversions will be especially important. It is widely applied to PSTN. The conventional voice-coding mode is PCM with a rate of 64 kbit/s. For a detailed description of the coding methods for various channels. The BSS can not change the circuit state that has been changed at the local end of the MSC. XV.

A frame of voice data contains 160 PCM sampling points. making up 1280 bit. To save terrestrial line resources. the TRAU coding / encoding can be omitted. The output parameters after encoding are 260 bit. TRAU and SMUX are integrated in one unit called TCSM. sub-multiplexer (SMUX) is used between MSC and BSC to multiplex 4 % 16 kbit/s channels to transmit four speech channels over one terrestrial channel. TFO is implemented by FTC via in-band signaling to reduce the primary coding/decoding during MS-MS session and improve the voice quality. both to FR or EFR service). i.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Since the rate of each channel of existing terrestrial lines is 64 kbit/s. the following should be realized: Both parties of the session should subscribe to the same service (i. There should be no other equipment that is capable of changing the PCM signal on the PCM link between the FTCs of the MSs. In the occasion of MS-MS session. As the coding / encoding process will degrade the voice quality. Table 2-1 introduces the full-rate coding/decoding process and enhanced full-rate coding/decoding process. making up the 320 bit TRAU frame together with the synchronous header and control parameter. The output parameters after encoding are 244 bit. it restores them into speech data by applying decoding algorithm before sending them to MSC.e. After TRAU receives the TRAU frames sent from the BSC. The FTCs seized by the two MSs should support TFO function. e. i. it handles both rate conversion and multiplexing. making up 1280 bit. In general. Decoding is a reverse process of coding. FTC will perform the normal coding/decoding.. because TFO message and frame are transmitted with the low bit of the PCM sampling value. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-8 . If these conditions are not satisfied. TFO features: Realized in the occasion of MS-MS session. A frame of voice data contains 160 PCM sampling points. To set up TFO status. it should be a direct link. it is a waste if one channel is used to carry one 16 kbit/s GSM channel.e. it is possible to improve the voice quality by removing TRAU coding/decoding with Tandem Free Operation (TFO). EFR (Enhanced Full Rate) ACELP algorithm (arithmetic code book excitation linear prediction) TRAU converts the voice signal received from MSC into frames in the format of 20 ms/fr. After TRAU receives the TRAU frames sent Decoding from the BSC. it restores them into speech Process data by applying decoding algorithm before sending them to MSC.. Coding Process Decoding is a reverse process of coding. making up the 320 bit TRAU frame together with the synchronous header and control parameter. Table 2-1 Voice coding comparison FR (Full Rate) Algorithm RPE-LTP algorithm (regular impulse excitation-long term prediction) TRAU converts the voice signal received from MSC into frames in the format of 20 ms/fr.

7. 2. 2bis. While the content in the channel associated message can be inconsistent with that in the broadcast system information.1. MS can be properly accessed and perform network selection so that it can make full use of the services and cooperate with network. because the channel associated message has the effect on only one MS. II. The broadcast system information is closely related to the channel-associated message. 2ter. including BCCH frequencies and FH frequency to provide the frequency reference for MS Frequency Hopping (FH). 8 and 9 are broadcast information transmitted via BCCH under idle mode.3 System Information I. 8 and 9. 2ter. cell selection parameter. 3. 1. 4. 4. Network equipment sends some contents in the channel-associated message to MS so as to control the behaviors such as transmission. 5bis. power control and handover of MS. MS communicates with the network via the broadcasting of system information. 3. including network identifier parameter. Type 1: Cell channel description + RACH control information (optional) Cell channel description: all frequencies used by this cell. In idle mode. system control parameter and network function parameter. while the broadcast system information affects all MSs in idle mode. 7. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-9 . Overview System information contains the major wireless network parameter on the air interface. 5. By receiving system information. The network sends system information to MS so that MS knows its current position and the service type available. 5ter. Some parameters can also control the cell reselection of MS.5 points (totally 5 points). 5bis. the communication between network equipment is realized with the channel associated system information. 2. Among them. Types and content of system information There are totally 13 types: 1. When MS is establishing calls. The content in the broadcast system information can overlap with that in the channel associated message. 6. 2. 5. especially the former with the MOS can be improved by 0. There are two modes for the transmission of system information: broadcast message and channel associated message. 5ter and 6 are channel associated information transmitted via SACCH in active mode.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions TFO can improve the voice quality of both FR and EFR. 2bis.

Therefore.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RACH control information: parameters such as maximum times of retransmission (MAX RETRANS). Attach-Detach Allowed). Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description 2: describes the extended frequency allocation table of the adjacent cell (part of BA1 table). Control channel description: contains the MS attach/detach allowed indication (ATT. LAI: location area identifier of the current cell. Cell Bar Access. Type 3:Cell ID + LAI + control channel description + cell option + cell selection parameter + RACH control information (mandatory) Cell ID: identifier of the current cell. Type 2: Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description + Network color code allowed + RACH control information (mandatory) Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the BCCH frequency used by the adjacent cell. Type 2bis: Adjacent extended cell BCCH frequencies description + RACH control information (optional) Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the number of frequencies described in the frequency allocation table in system information type 2 is limited. Type 2ter: Attached multi-frequency information + extended cell BCCH frequency description 2 (optional) Attached multi-frequency information: Number of the multi-frame measurement needed. number of retransmission timeslot (TX Integer). bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). Restricted user level. The frequency contained in this information is located at the different frequency segment as the current cell. Cell Bar Access. number of transmission timeslots (TX Integer). therefore system information type 2bis contains the information of other frequencies in BA1 which are in the same frequency segment as system information type 2. bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-10 . number of blocks reserved for AGCH (BS AG BLKS RES). bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. The single-band GSM 900 of GSM 1800 MS will skip this information. RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). Network color code allowed: NCC allowed for the MS test on the BCCH carrier in the cell. These parameters are used to control the behavior of MS in the initial access. bit allowed for emergency call (EC) and access restricted user level (AC). only the multiband MS can read this information.

Cell Bar Access. Cell selection parameter: includes the cell reselection hysteresis value. (ARFCN). discontinuous transmission (DTX) and radio link timeout value (Radio Link Timeout). bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. mobile allocation index offset (MAIO). FH channel indication (H). FH serial No. number of retransmission timeslot (TX Integer). CBCH mobile allocation information: the relation between the sequence of frequencies used for FH and cell channel description. Restricted user level. Cell option: includes the power control indication (PWRC). maximum Tx power level allowed for MS access to the cell (MS TXPWR MAX CCH) and minimum access level allowed for MS to access system (RXLEV Access MIN). Type 4: LAI + cell selection parameter + RACH control information + CBCH description + CBCH dynamic allocation information (mandatory) LAI: the location area identifier of the current cell. number of retransmission timeslot (TX Integer). RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). System information type 3 rest bytes: cell reselection parameter information and type 3 MS control information. training sequence code (TSC).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions common control channel configuration (CCCH CONF). timeslot No. RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). CBCH description: includes the channel type and TDMA offset (which type of dedicated channel combination). bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). Restricted user level. Cell Bar Access. Comparing with system information type 2. Type 5: Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description (mandatory) Adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the BCCH frequency used by the adjacent cell. bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). (HSN) and absolute RF channel No. the difference is that MS can get the frequencies described in system information type 5 in active mode. number of 51 TDMA multi-frames reserved for the same paging group in the paging information (BA PA MFRMS) and the interval of periodic location update. Cell selection parameter: includes the cell reselection hysteresis value. System information types 4 rest bytes: cell reselection parameter. (TN). bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. maximum Tx power level allowed for MS access to the cell (MS TXPWR MAX CCH) and minimum access level allowed for MS to access system (RxLEV Access MIN). and report the related information of the adjacent cell in the measurement report as the reference of Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-11 .

Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ). Similarly. discontinuous transmission (DTX) and radio link timeout value (Radio Link Timeout). Therefore. Type 7: Cell reselection parameter Cell reselection parameter: includes cell reselection indication (PI). Broadcast channel parameter Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-12 . Type 8: Cell reselection parameter Cell reselection parameter: includes cell reselection indication (PI). Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ). only the multiband MS can read this information. LAI: the location area identifier of the current cell. Temporary Offset (TO) and Penalty Time (PT). Type 6: Cell ID + LAI + cell option (mandatory) Cell ID: identifier of the current cell. Cell Bar Access. Cell Reselect Offset (CRO). Restricted user level. Type 9: RACH control information + broadcast channel parameter RACH control information: contains the maximum times of parameter retransmission (MAX RETRANS). Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description 2: describes the extended frequency allocation table of the adjacent cell (part of BA2 table). number of retransmission timeslot (Tx Integer).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions handover. Temporary Offset (TO) and Penalty Time (PT). The frequency contained in this information is located at the different frequency segment as the current cell. Type 5bis: Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description (optional) Extended adjacent cell BCCH frequency description: the number of frequencies described in the frequency allocation table in system information type 5 is limited. Cell option: includes the power control indication (PWRC). the GSM900 MS in Phase 1 recognizes only the adjacent cell frequencies described in system information type 5 and ignore those contained in 5bis and 5ter. therefore system information 5bis contains the information of other frequencies in BA2 which are in the same frequency segment as system information 5. The single-band GSM 900 of GSM 1800 MS will skip this information. Type 5ter: Attached multi-frequency information + extended cell BCCH frequency description 2 (optional) Attached multi-frequency information: Number of the multi-frame measurement needed. bit allowed for call reestablishment (RE). bit allowed for emergency call (EC) to control the MS behavior during initial access. Cell Reselect Offset (CRO).

BSIC identifies the local color code of each BTS in the GSM system. while 0X0000 and 0XFFFF are reserved. It serves to keep contact between MS and BTS. In GSM system. It is also used to check whether the current location area has changed so as to initialize the location updating process.4 and 6 include all or part of CGI information.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. CGI consists of LAI and CI. LAI is composed of MCC. It is transmitted in control channel description in the system information type 3. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-13 . consisting of two decimal digits. ATT has 1 bit. MS decides whether to connect to the network in this cell according to the MCC and MNC indicated by CGI. Therefore. it is necessary to guarantee the uniqueness of BSICs of the cells using the same BCCH carrier frequency. is allocated by the country in unified way. It is transmitted in the control channel description in the system information type 3. CCCH CONF is a 3 bit code. Therefore. CCCH CONF decides the integration mode of the CCCH in the cell. both consisting of 2 bytes. MS differentiates two cells' same frequency with their BSICs. It consists of NCC (3 bits) and BCC (3 bits). MNC and LAC. BSIC is transmitted on the SCH of each cell. MCC. is allocated worldwide in unified way. IMSI attach and detach allowed (ATT) is used to notify MS whether the local cell allows IMSI attach/detach process. 2) System control parameter System control parameter is transmitted to MS with system information via air interface by BTS. are arranged by GSM carrier in unified way. see Table 2-2. For details. consisting of three decimal digits. LAC and CI. MS decodes the system information to get the CGI. Note that the value range of CI is 0X0001~0XFFFE. reasonable setting of these parameters is important in maintaining of the normal operation of GSM system. Besides. Meaning and function of wireless network parameter 1) Network identification parameters Network identification parameters include CGI and BSIC. these parameters have the direct effect on the service bearing and signaling flow of various part of system. Note that the TSC described in system information type 4 is the BCC of the current cell. frequencies are multiplexed to different extents according to the different requirements in network plan. and "1" stands for the process allowed. MNC. System information type 3. "0" stands for IMSI attach/detach process not allowed.

of the local cell. The value range is 0~255. and 0 means no location updating. Note that the maximum number of channels configured in cell channel description is 64. It decides how many multiframes making up a cycle of a page sub-channel.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-2 CCCH code meaning CCCH CONF 000 001 010 100 110 Others Meaning CCCH uses a basic physical channel which is not shared with SDCCH. Cell Channel Description. transmitted in system information type 1. BS PA MFRAMS is transmitted in the control channel description in system information type 3. It is possible to adjust this parameter to achieve the bearing balance between AGCH and PCH. CCCH uses two basic physical channels which are not shared with SDCCH. This parameter actually decides how many sub-channels the PCH of a cell will be deviled into. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-14 . It is decided by the traffic module of the cell. The value range is 0~7. It is used in frequency hopping. It is an 8-bit code. BS AG BLKS RES is transmitted in the control channel of system information type 3. CCCH uses three basic physical channels which are not shared with SDCCH. CCCH uses a basic physical channel which is shared with SDCCH. describes the RF channel No. CCCH uses four basic physical channels which are not shared with SDCCH. It is transmitted in the control channel description in system information type 3. Reserved Number of CCCH information blocks in BCCH multiframe 9 3 18 27 36 Note: The CCCH CONF setting of a cell should be in line with the actual setting of the cell's CCCH. each unit of which is the duration of six minutes. BS AG BLKS RES will be used to arrange the occupancy ratio between AGCH and PCH on CCCH. After setting CCCH CONF. respectively meaning that the number of multi-frame of a paging group cycled on the PCH is 2~9. BS PA MFRAMS is a 3 bit code. Periodic location updating timer (T3212) decides the frequency of periodic location updating. It is used together with CCCH CONF to decide the number of information blocks in each BCCH of the current cell.

"0" means that system information type 2 and 5 contains the complete BA table. Huawei BSS supports at most 32 adjacent cells. the BA Indication in system information type 5 will be 1 instead of stead of 0. Overview A powered on mobile station (MS) that does not have a dedicated channel allocated is defined as being in idle mode. transmitted in system information type 2. It will then tune to the control channel of the cell to receive information about the available services provided by the PLMN. 2bis. Extension Indication. Moreover. It can be controlled by parameters which the MS receives from the base station on the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). regardless of where the MS was powered off. of the BCCH TRX of the cell adjacent to the current cell. indicating MS to report adjacent cell information on multiple frequency bands. used for MS to select the data in BA 2 before or after modification. The idle mode behavior is managed by the MS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Neighbor Cells Discretion. and "1" means that type 2 and 5 contains part of BA table. if the adjacent cell relation of the current cell and the BA2 table is changed during a session. All the main controlling parameters for idle mode behavior are transmitted on the BCCH carrier in each cell. describes the absolute channel No. The MS will look for and select a suitable cell of the chosen PLMN. indicates whether there are still extended adjacent cells to be transmitted in system information type 2bis and 5bis. It is a 1-bit code. It is a 2-bit code. When an MS is in idle mode it will always try to camp on the best cell according to a signal level based criterion. The purpose of the tasks performed in the idle mode is to be able to access the system and be reached by the system from any location in the network. 5. BA Indication transmitted in system information type 2 and 5. It is a 1-bit code. 2. This selecting is known as “camping” on a cell. It is applicable to multiband MS only.4 Idle Mode Behavior I. When the MS is powered on but neither making nor receiving any calls (idle mode) there has to be a mechanism that always selects the best cell on which to camp. When a mobile is powered on. The particular PLMN contacted may be selected either automatically or manually. This indicate that MS perform decoding in the adjacent cell indicated in the system information type 5 again. transmitted in system information type 2ter and 5ter.1. 5bis and 5ter. to be able to access the system from anywhere in the network. it has to be able to select a Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-15 . it immediately attempts to make contact with a GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). 2ter. Multiband Reporting (MBR). transmitted in system information type 2 and 5. In another word.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

specific GSM base station, tune to its frequency and listen to the system message informations transmitted in that cell. It must also be able to register its current location to the network so that the network knows where to route incoming calls. The PLMN selection mechanism, the cell selection and reselection algorithms in addition to the location updating procedure are the core of the idle mode behavior. The purpose is to always ensure that the mobile is camped on the cell where it has the highest probability of successful communication.

II. Usage
1) High signal level when accessing the system

The MS will at all times try to obtain the highest possible signal level when accessing the system. This is achieved by means of the idle mode cell selection and reselection algorithms. These algorithms will enable the MS to choose the most suitable cell to camp on, based on signal level. A cell is suitable if certain criteria are satisfied. Camping on the most suitable cell provides the MS with a high probability of good communication with the system. The cell selection and reselection algorithms are governed by parameter settings. Using these parameters an operator can, on a per cell basis, make a specific cell more or less attractive to camp on for the MS. This makes it possible for the operator to achieve similar behavior for MSs in idle mode as in active mode. Well-designed parameter settings for cell selection and reselection in idle mode, will make the MS to camp on the cell that would have been chosen if the MS had been in active mode. 2) Control of the paging load

In idle mode the MS will notify the network whenever it changes location area by the location updating procedure. Thus, the network will be kept updated concerning which location area the MS is presently in. When the system receives an incoming call it knows in which location area it should page the MS, and does not need to page it throughout the whole MSC service area. This reduces the load on the system. If the MS does not respond to the first paging information, then the network can send a second paging information. The MS can also, periodically and when powered on or off, notify the network of its present status by the location updating procedure. This prevents the network from doing unnecessary paging of MSs that have been powered off or left the coverage area. This would otherwise cause unnecessary load on the system. 3) Low idle mode power consumption

In idle mode, the MS only occasionally monitors the system information being transmitted in the current cell or does measurements on neighboring cells to see if a cell change should be initiated.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-16

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

However, most of the time it will be in “sleep mode”. Hence, the power consumption during idle mode will be low. This is also referred to as discontinuous reception (DRX).

III. Technical description
While the MS is in idle mode it will continuously make measurements on the BCCH-carriers of serving and neighboring cells to decide on which cell to camp on. It will also, if necessary, register its presence in the location area of the chosen cell by performing a location updating. The purpose of camping on a cell is threefold: 1) 2) 3) It enables the MS to receive system information from the PLMN The MS can initiate a call by accessing the network on the Random Access Channel (RACH) of the cell on which it is camped, The PLMN will know the location area of the cell in which the MS is camped (unless the MS has entered a limited service state) and can therefore page the MS when an incoming call is received. The idle mode task can be subdivided into four processes: PLMN selection Cell selection Cell reselection Location updating. The relationship between these processes is illustrated in Figure 2-3.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-17

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

Service indication to User

Automatic/Manual Mode Selection User Selection of PLMN Indication to User

PLMN Selection PLMN Selection Cell Selection New Location Area PLMN Available

Initial Cell Selected Cell Reselectin

Cell & Location Area Changes Periodic Registration

Location Updating Responses

Location Updating

Figure 2-3 Overall idle mode processes

2.1.5 PLMN Selection
I. Overview
The MS will select a PLMN when it is powered on or upon recovery from a lack of coverage. It will first try to select and register on the registered PLMN if one exists. If registration on a PLMN is successful, the MS indicates this PLMN (the “registered PLMN”) and is capable of making and receiving calls on it. If there is no registered PLMN, or if the registered PLMN is unavailable, the MS will try to select another PLMN either automatically or manually depending on its operating mode, The MS normally operates on its home PLMN. However, another PLMN may be selected if, for example, the MS loses coverage. The MS will register on a PLMN if the MS finds a suitable cell to camp on and if a location-updating request is accepted. Registration has to be successful in order for the MS to be able to access that network. However, it does not need to perform location updating if it is in the same location area belonging to the same PLMN as it was before it entered the inactive state. The MS can select and register on another PLMN of its home country than its home PLMN if national roaming or international roaming is permitted. However, the MS will then do periodical attempts to return to its home PLMN. This is controlled by a timer.
Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-18

III. the MS will select PLMN if available and allowable. its communication with the network becomes possible on this cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The interval between attempts is stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). If this registration fails or if the user has initiated a PLMN reselection the MS will indicate to the user all available PLMNs.1.6 Cell Selection and Reselection I. Overview The purpose of cell selection and reselection is to enable MS to find a most suitable cell on which MS can reliably decipher the downlink data and maintain a high communication rate on uplink (so as to realize various telecom services). in the following order if no registered PLMN exists or is available: Home PLMN 1) Each PLMN that has been stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) in priority order 2) 3) Other PLMNs with received signal level above -85 dBm in random order All other PLMNs in order of decreasing signal level. the MS will first try to select the registered PLMN or home PLMN (if no registered PLMN exist). Only the service provider is able to set the timer value for return to home PLMN. MS will tune to the BCCH to receive the paging message and the system information broadcast on BCCH and use the RACH to send access request after it has selected this cell. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-19 . This is done either using automatic or manual mode. II. depending on the mode selected by the user. 2. Manual mode In manual mode. The user can at any time request the MS to initiate reselection and registration onto an alternative available PLMN. Automatic mode In automatic mode. automatic and manual. The user can then select a desired PLMN which causes the MS to initiate a registration on this PLMN. If the selected PLMN is not allowable. There are two modes for PLMN selection. The automatic mode utilizes a list of PLMNs in an order of priority whereas the manual mode leaves the decision to the user and only indicates which PLMNs that are available. Once MS has selected a cell as its serving cell. an indication to the user to select another PLMN will be made.

After finding this carrier. MS will camp on this cell without considering its PLMN ID. MS will monitor the level of all channels and search for the BCCH of C>0 and no access barring. Cell selection procedure in the case of no BCCH information in MS MS first searches the 124 RF channels of GSM 900(if the MS is a multiband one. If no suitable cells are found after searching 30 RF channels with the highest level. only emergency call can be implemented. but access is barred (parameter CBA is set as "bar") or algorithm C1<0. Case 1: If the access level of the MS is barred at the cell. II. There are two BA tables in GSM network. it will first judge which one is the BCCH carrier (by searching FCCH burst). The process will not stop until MS receives the first BA (SACCH) information. In this occasion. The entire measurement procedure lasts 3~5 s. MS obtains the information of adjacent cell BCCH frequency through BA (BCCH). Cell selection procedure When MS is powered on and move from blind spot of coverage to the serving area. MS will use the BA table obtained from this cell to search for these BCCH carriers. In active mode. MS can camp on this cell. during which. parameter C1>0. If the MS can properly decode BCCH data. It includes the BCCH carrier used in a certain physical area for the MS in idle mode to implement cell selection and reselection. One is transmitted in the system information via BCCH. If so. it will search for all available frequencies in the PLMN and select the suitable cell to camp on. Otherwise. It is used to indicate the MS in active mode about the BCCH carrier for handover monitoring. Cell selection procedure in the case of BCCH information already stored in MS Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-20 . the cell selection algorithm will not be affected. and this cell has no access barring. and compares the signal level on the channels to calculate the average level. The other one is transmitted in the system information via SACCH. After MS has tuned to the maximum carriers of the receiving level. at least five sampling points will be extracted from different RF channels. i. MS will still camp on it. MS searches 374 GSM 1800 RF channels). MS will keep tuning to the next highest carriers until it reaches the available cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MS implements cell reselection according to the message in BA table in the system broadcast information from the serving cell.. when the cell satisfies the criterion. and make sure that this cell belongs to the selected PLMN. This is the procedure of "cell selection". MS will attempt to decode SCH to obtain the BCCH system broadcast information synchronous with this carrier. Case 2: If the cell selected by MS belongs to PLMN. e.

C1 is the path loss criterion as the reference of cell selection and reselection. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-21 . Table 2-3 Name of powers Name RxLEV RxLEV Access MIN MS TxPWR MAX CCH P Meaning (Unit d Bm) Average level MS received Maximum receiving level allowed for MS to access Maximum transmitting power level allowed for MS to access the system Maximum output power of MS C1 algorithm is used during cell selection procedure. Cell reselection procedure After MS has selected a serving cell. If no suitable cells found after all BCCH carriers have been searched. C1 of the serving cell should be larger than 0. The selected cell is the main serving cell Figure 2-4. MS will select Cell 1 as the main serving cell to if the priorities are the same. If MS can decode the BCCH data of the cell. as shown in Figure 2-4. the previous procedure will be implemented. it will camp on this selected cell and continue the monitoring on all BCCH carriers configured in the adjacent cell frequency configuration table indicated in the BCCH system information of the serving cell if the conditions are not changed greatly.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions If the BCCH carrier information has been stored in MS during the last powering off. Cell1 Cell2 C1=15 C1=8 Figure 2-4 Cell selection MS select the suitable cell to camp on according to the priority and C1. III. but cannot camp on it. MS will first search the stored BCCH carrier.0 ) See Table 2-3 for formula explanation. The formula is as follows: C1 = RxLEV − RxLEV _ Access _ MIN − MAX ((MS _ TxPWR _ MAX _ CCH − P ). MS will check the BA table of this cell.

MS should measure the receiving level of each carrier in BA table when performing decoding page group. the procedure of cell reselection will be initiated. If MS has selected a cell. During the process above. and decode the BCCH data again. the measurement of their receiving level should base on at least the average of 5 sampling points. After MS has found a new BCCH carrier as one of the strongest carriers. If BSIC is changed. During random access. The current cell barred. MS should attempt to decode all system informations broadcast on BCCH of the serving cell at least every 30 s. To lower the power consumption of MS. add 1 to DSC. The six strongest BCCH carriers should be refreshed at least once per minute. BS PA MFRMS is the number of multiframes of the 51 TDMA frame for the BTS transmission paging information for the MSs of the same paging level. MS should implement decoding of BCCH data block to the BCCH carriers of the six strongest non-serving cells at least every 5 min. MS finds that the C1 value of a cell (not in the current location area) has been larger than the sum of the C2 value of the serving cell and the cell selection hysteresis for five seconds. MS finds that the C2 value of a cell (in the same location area as the serving cell) has been larger than that of the serving cell for 5 seconds. MS will regard the carrier as a new one. The value of C1 has been smaller than 0 for 5 s. and the number of measured sampling points extracted from all BCCHs should be the same. The MS routine measurement program also includes the measurement of the BCCH carrier of the current serving cell. C2 = C1). MS fails to register at the retry after maximum retransmission. Under the following occasions. DSC is set as [90/BS PA MFRMS] round number. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-22 . This data block contains the parameter concerning cell reselection. MS should check the BSIC of one of the six strongest carriers within at least 30s to verify that the monitored objective is the same cell. The sampling points allocated to each carrier should be as even as possible in each measurement period. (If C2 algorithm has not been activated. When DSC = 0. subtract 4 from DSC. MS tries not to interrupt the monitoring to PCH. if succeeded.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When monitoring these BCCH carriers. there is downlink signaling failure. MS finds the downlink failure: the criterion of downlink signaling failure is based on the downlink signaling failure counter DSC. it will decode the BCCH data of the new carrier within at least 30 sums. Therefore. if failed. It is possible to obtain some BCCH frequencies and sample values of receiving level on the BCCH frequency of the serving cell during the appearance of MS page group. when MS is decoding on the PCH.

each subscriber (IMSI) corresponds to a dedicated paging group. MS will regard that the information unit in system information type 2 contains the complete BA table and will ignore the system information type 2bis. IV. i.. System information type 2~4 and the optional type 1. V. If it is changed. MS should decode all of the BCCH data of the new cell to check whether the parameter concerning cell reselection has changed. e. The MSs in idle mode decides whether and how to access the network according to these information. Definition of discontinuous receiving mode (DRX) and PCH If MS in idle mode has selected its serving cell. To lower the power consumption of MS. 7 and 8 are broadcast periodically from the network via BCCH. MS will decide whether this change satisfies the criterion of cell reselection. Each group corresponds to a paging Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-23 . The impact of the network to the MS in idle mode Network side is responsible for completing system informations broadcast and paging task for idle MSs in downlink. as shown in Figure 2-5 Cell1 Cell2 C2=4 C2=18 Figure 2-5 Cell Reselection MS selects the cell to camp on according to the priority and C1 value. If the criterion is satisfied. With the same priority. it will initialize location updating. If the information sent from the multiband network is received. See Figure 2-5. 2bis. C2 algorithm is used in cell reselection. MS will select Cell 2 as the main serving cell if reselection hysteresis and the reselection time are both satisfied.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note that after MS reselection and camping on the cell. it is ready to monitor the paging information from this cell. It regards the EXT IND bit described in adjacent cell in system information type 2 as the standby bit. the GSM specification adopts the discontinuous receiving mechanism. MS will camp on this cell. MS of GSM 900 supports the band of GSM 900 only. If MS finds that LAI has changed. The camped-on cell becomes the main serving cell.

7 Location updating Location updating is an important task of Mobile Management (MM). the load of PCH and the signaling flow on Abis interface will increase since one single paging information will be broadcast in all cells of this location area. the location updating of MS will trigger frequently. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-24 . MS ignores the information from other paging sub-channel or even shuts down the power of some hardware to lower its power consumption during the broadcasting of other paging sub-channels. which is broadcast with the system information via BCCH. If the coverage of a location area is too small.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions sub-channel of the cell. if the coverage of a location area is too large. BS PA MFRMS (how many 51 multiframes to make up a cycle of the paging sub-channel). Common Control Channel (CCCH) includes AGCH and PCH. CCCH can be bearded by a physical channel or shared by multiple physical channels. the recommended CCCH configuration is sharing one physical channel with SDCCH (3 CCCH information blocks in this case). TS4 and TS6 of the carrier. the GSM specification allows configuring extra CCCHs on the TS0. But MS must measure the network information task periodically. On the other hand.1. MS in idle mode uses its own paging sub-channel to receive the paging information (or to monitor the receiving level of the BCCH carrier of the non-serving cell). CCCH can share the same physical channel with SDCCH. each GSM PLMN domain is divided into locations areas covering one or more cells. The combination mode of CCCH is decided by the parameter CCCH CONF. The number of the paging sub-channels can be calculated according to the configuration type and BS AG BLKS RES (how many AGCH blocks for 51 multiframes). The design of location area is very important in network planning. The configuration of CCCH CONF should be consistent with that of CCCH. TS2. 2. The size of a location area has a great effect on the system. With the introduction of the concept of location area. It is used to transmit the immediate assign information and paging information. For the cell with one TRX. For some location area with very heavy paging traffic. Location Area To locate MS. which will increase the signaling flow of system. thus lowering the paging load. Therefore. only one physical timeslot is insufficient to transmit the paging information. the paging MS can be implemented with a location area instead of all cells controlled by MSC. The location area of each MS is recorded by the network as the location reference for paging this MS. MS recognizes its paging group and the corresponding paging sub-channel according to the last three digits of the IMSI. I. Each location area is assigned with a Location Area Code (LAC).

optimization of location area is a very important task in network planning. This is "forced register". Their specific differences are whether only one VLR is involved in the location updating process and whether IMSI is used in the process. once driven by certain needs or finding that the LAI stored is different from that of the current cell. III. MSC will send MAP Update Location Area to VLR. According to the labels of location updating in the network. When designing the location areas. the generic location updating will also be initiated as a response to the request of MM connection setup. MS will not notify the network about this change although the serving cell has changed. II. the access cause indicated in the initialization information contained in SABM frame sent from MS to the network is Location updating Request. inter-location area location updating). it is to be registered in the new location area.e. MS will notify the network about this change. MS uses the former TMSI). If the two cells before and after reselection are not in the same location area. If the MS in idle mode triggers cell reselection when moving within the same location area. 1) Intra-VLR location updating This is the simplest location updating process. periodic location updating (T3212 timeout) and IMSI attach (MS powered on). It will update the location information of the MS and store the new LAI and then allocate a new TMSI for MS if necessary (TMSI can also be absent in the TMSI reallocation command. MS does not need to provide its IMSI. there are three types of location updating: generic location updating (i. Location updating When MS roams from one location area to another. The procedure is called location updating. If the network indicates that the status of MS in VLR is unknown. This information also contains MSTMSI and LAI noted as for generic location updating. The information unit of type of location updating in "location updating" should be indicated as generic location updating. In other words. In this case. and HLR will not be notified about the process. It is implemented within the current VLR. During the initialization process. in which.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Therefore. Generic location updating Generic location updating is for the purpose of updating the actual MS's location registered in the network. After receiving TMSI Reallocation Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-25 . after receiving this information. After receiving this information. so as to avoid waste of network resource. VLR. will implement the location updating. it is necessary to lessen the frequency of location updating on the basis of no overweigh paging load. MS will notify the network to change the stored location area.

If the new Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-26 . according to the address of the previous VLR (PVLR) indicated in TMSI and LAI. IV. See Figure 2-6. "HLR Location Information Acknowledge" will be labeled as "Unacknowledged". and as a response PVLR will return the IMSI and authentication parameter to the new VLR. it will label the "VLR Location Information Acknowledge" as "Unacknowledged" for the subsequent updating in HLR. it will then sends Identity Request to MS to request for its IMSI. VLR will send MAP Send Identification to PVLR to request for IMSI and authentication parameter. This information contains the identification of MS and other related information for HLR the query the data and set up the path.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Complete from MS. If the subscriber has not registered in that VLR. and then release the channel to end the process. And then. VLR will send the information of location updating of MS to HLR. After receiving IMSI. it will send the old LAI and stored TMSI via MSC to VLR in the process of location updating If TMSI cannot be identified. VLR sends Location updating Accept to MS. If the new VLR fails to get the IMSI. Inter-VLR location updating If MS roams to a cell whose LAI is different from the current one. D A MS Location Update Request MAP Update Location Area MAP Update Location MAPCancel Location MAPCancel Location ACK MSC B VLR PVLR D HLR MAP Insert Subscriber Data MAP Insert Subscriber Data ACK MAP Update Location ACK MAP Update Location Area ACK Location Update Accept Figure 2-6 Interfaces and process of inter-VLR location updating 1) Update with TMSI If VLR finds that the TMSI is unknown after receiving MAP Update Location Area from MSC. MS can also be identified with its IMSI.

network will lose contact with MS: A powered on MS roams to the area beyond network coverage (blind spot). The process is almost the same as INTRA VLR Location Updating. In the following cases. Since the network is not notified about the current status of MS. and sends MAP Cancel Location ACK to HLR. and then initialize HLR updating. If so. Periodic location updating Periodic location updating is used to periodically notify the network about the accessibility of MS. including authentication information. MS sends Location Updating Request to the network. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-27 .. it still considers the MS in the status of IMSI attach. e. If the cell where MS is powered on supports this function. HLR will store the new VLR No. After receiving this information. sending the information of "IMSI Attach" to notify the network about the change of its current status. it will label "HLR Acknowledge" as "Unacknowledged". If the IMSI is a known one.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MSC/VLR has the normal service authority. i. V. If MS finds that the stored LAI is the same as the current LAI when powered on. When these processes are done. If not. PVLR will delete all information related to this MS. ciphering and TMSI reallocation. it will be labeled the "HLR Acknowledge" as "Unacknowledged". and then initializes HLR updating. in which the information unit of the type of location updating is periodic location updating. and the latter one is marked as access denied. it will notify its power-on status to the network. 2) Update with IMSI If the identification of the subscriber is IMSI. VLR will check whether the previous LAI provided in the information from MSC belongs to this VLR. VI. IMSI attach and detach is an option of system. Authentication is needed in these two cases. When the network receives this indication. The former one is marked as access granted. After receiving the response from VLR. and sends MAP Cancel Location to HLR. it will note down the subscriber status in the system data so as to initialize the paging process when there is an paging information of this MS. HLR sends MAP Insert Subscriber Data to VLR to provide the subscriber information needed. The new VLR continues to handle the processes of authentication. HLR will send Location updating Ark to that VLR. IMSI attach and detach process IMSI attach and detach means to attach a binary mark to the subscriber record in MSC/VLR. VLR will check whether this subscriber is unknown. it will initialized the process of IMSI attach. The only difference is that the type of location updating marked in Location Updating Request is IMSI attach.

Periodic location updating is an important measure to keep the contact between the network and MSs. T3212 timed out. This means that system still regards this MS in the IMSI attach status. If the above cases happen and the MS is paged. Therefore. whenever T3212 times out.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 1) When MS is transmitting "IMSI Detach". BSS sends the period of periodic location updating (T3212) to all subscribers in the cell with system broadcast system via the cell's BCCH. it receives the first correct L3 message (excluding RR message). the more frequent periodic location updating is. and system resources are wasted. the network will periodically query the subscribers marked as IMSI attach in its VLR to mark those without any contact with it witting this period as implicit power-off in order to avoid paging these MSs and wasting system resources. so that MS will automatically initialized location updating request to the network when the timer times out. After that. resulting in the loss of contact with the network. This process is called periodic location updating. MS will read T3212 from the system information of the serving cell. MS will automatically initialize location updating. MS cannot notify the network about its current status. MS deactivated (equipment powered off or SIM removed). Ciphering mode complete when receiving the first MM message. the network may not be able to decode this information. This paging will sure end up with paging timeout. However. T3212 will be reset to 0: When receiving "Location Updating Request" or "Location Updating Refuse". the better overall performance of network can be achieved. After cell selection or cell reselection. Increase of MS power consumption which will shorten the standby time of the MSs served by this system. To tackle this problem. N this way. therefore. and after which. At NSS side. and then activate this timer and store it in SIM. MS responds to its paging. frequent periodic location updating has two drawbacks: Increase of signaling flow which may lower the processing power of MSC/BSC/BTS and the utilization of radio resources if the situation is serious. the network can have the timely information of the current location status of MS. system will still sends the paging information to the location area where the subscriber registered. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-28 . or MM connection being established. if there is interference to the radio uplink path. 2) In the case of MS power failure. the setting of T3212 should be based on the actual situation. the corresponding measure is taken in GSM system to make the MS automatically reports its current location information to the network periodically. In the following cases.

the timer of MS will be restarted with the value of t mod t1. assumed that "t1" is the new T3212 timeout value and "t" is the current value of T3212. "service restricted" and "searching PLMN". and the timer is not running. then the new timer will be started with a random number whose value range is 0~t1 ("t1" is new T3212 timeout value. MS will initialize periodic location updating. or "service restricted" or "searching for PLMN. the network will initiate the process of ciphering mode setting. or it is necessary to change T3212 value. In this case. T3212 timeout value is broadcast in the CCH description in "system information type 3". T3212 cannot be changed. the counter will add one. the network can initialize the type querying procedure (e. If T3212 times out when MS is in the status of "no available cell". this process will not be activated. 1) Attempt counter To restrict the frequency of location updating attempt. the network will initialize the authentication process. The signaling flow of periodic location updating is the same as that of generic location updating. On this occasion. and start T3210. the attempt counter is recommended in the specification. It is used to count the number of consecutive unsuccessful location updating. to get the ciphering capability of MS). After receiving "Location Updating Request" from MS. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-29 . the network can initialize the identification process. VII. MS sends "Location Updating Request" to the network. after cell reselection. If MS is in the activated status. If the network cannot obtain the IMSI according to TMSI and LAI. MS. When a location updating failure occurs. If BCCH information indicates periodic location updating not applied. The information unit of location updating type in this message will indicate the type of this location updating.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When T3212 times out. MS will delay location updating will be delayed until these status changed. If it is necessary to reallocate TMSI. g. MM sub-layer of MS will request RR sub-layer to establish RR connection. In the status of "no available cell". Generic location updating (specification) MS initialize location updating If there is no RR connection available when initializing location updating. The attempt counter will be reset in the following cases: MS powered on. may find that the T3212 of the new cell is different from the previous one (sharing the same LAC) or the broadcast T3212 of the current cell is manually changed).

Attempt counter is used to decide whether to implement another attempt after T3212 timeout.g. 2) Location update accepted by the network If the network accept location updating. If neither of them can be received. restarts the attempt counter. Location update initiated by CM sub-layer. Location update successfully completed. MS will set the location updating status as Roaming not Allowed. MS sends a request subsequent to "Location Updating Request"). b) If the reject cause is : PLMN not allow. MS will delete the original TMSI stored in SIM. it will send "Location Updating Accept" to MS. T3212 timeout. and sets the status in SIM as Updated. If the message contains TMSI. and set the update status as "Roaming not Allowed". stored LAI and ciphering SN and regard the SIM as an invalid one until MS powered off or SIM removed. After receiving this message. After receiving "Location Updating Accept".Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions SIM inserted. the network will send "Location Updating Denied" to MS. 3) Location update denied by the network If location updating is denied. After that. If the network needs to prolong the RR connection so that MS can initialize MM connection (e. invalid ME. If this unit exists. activate T3240. If MS receives "domestic roaming not Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-30 . MS will delete the corresponding TMSI stored in SIM. enter location denied status and wait for the network to trigger RR connection release. it will send "CM Service Request" to the network. When authenticating the validity of security. and store it in SIM. Delete TMSI. TMSI and ciphering serial key. If what contained in the message is IMSI. and the service statuses switch from Attempting to Update. "Location Updating Accept" contains the TMSI allocated for MS and the current LAI. location area not allow. MS will terminate T3210. MS roaming into a new location updating area. MS will use "Continue" to direct it action. invalid MS. the network will attach "Continue" to "Location Updating Accept" and initiate T3255. and MS has the underway CM service request. all of original input will be deleted. store the reject cause. If the LAI or PLMN identifier in "Location Updating Accept" is one of "Barred series". terminates T3210. a) If the reject cause is IMSI unknown to HLR. MS will store it in the SIM and send "TMSI Reallocation Complete" to the network. international roaming not allowed in this location area. MS will delete any LAI. MS stores LAI. reset the attempt counter. In this case the network will initialize T3250. TMSI reallocation is a part of location updating process.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions allowed in this location area". and enter MM idle sub-status "Attempt update". MS stays in the selected cell and initializes normal cell selection. g) Location update denied caused by other reasons: MS waits for RR connection release. Activate location updating after it times out. TMSI. c) Random access failed: activate T3213. MS will terminate T3210. the stored LAI equals to the one received from the previous cell. or the stored LAI is different from the one received from BCCH. RR connection will be canceled. b) Random access delayed (after receiving Immediate Allocation Denied): unable to initiate location updating. and implements normal cell reselection. 4) RR connection release after location updating After location updating. After T3211 timeout. and the record of attempt counter is four. unable to initiate location updating. f) RR released before normal termination: terminate location-updating process. If MS cannot receive RR connection release command from the network within a period of time (controlled by T3240). When changing. ciphering SN in SIM. MS stores the type of location updating. MS will set T3240. If the Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-31 . No matter RR connection is released by MS or the network. Other situations will be treated as abnormal ones. MS will enter "idle status". After RR connection release. enter "wait for network command phase" and wait for the release of RR connection. When T3210 times out. MS will delete LAI. it will return to MM Idle and then implement PLMN selection instead of cell selection. set the update status as "Not updated". it will terminate RR connection. MS camps on the current serving cell. After RR connection release. For (d) ~ (g) and random access occurring for many times. or the record in the attempt counter is larger than 4. e) T3210 timeout: terminate location updating process and RR connection. The action afterwards is decided by LAI and the record of the attempt counter: a) The update status is "Updated". initialize location updating before T3122 timeout. MS will reinitiate location-updating process (adopting the stored type). T3211 will be activated. The MM idle status after RR connection release is "Normal Service". d) RR connection failure: terminate location-updating process. 5) Abnormality at MS side a) Access denial controlled by access level. and attempt counter adds 1. Try to initiate before denial status ends or cell changed. b) If the update status is not "Updated". MS will maintain the "Updated" status.

2. After the channel activation via Abis interface. the network will initialize the process of channel release. and encryption information.1. Then BSC transmits the setup indication reported by the MS to MSC. the network should implement according to the common program description. power control record. MS gives the access cause and analysis of the cause in the 8-bit information during access request. In idle mode. If RR connection failure occurs successively and there is no common program. If there is no available channel during channel allocation.8 Access I. it will allocate an SDCCH by default. the network should return "Location Updating Denied". the network sends "Immediate Assign" to MS. Circuit service access An MS can be either in "active" state or in "idle" state. b) Protocol error If protocol error exits in "Location Updating Request". MS sets up a dedicated channel to the network with "Setup Indication" and enters active mode. In the "dedicated/active" mode. In idle mode. T3211 stored in MS will be initiated during RR connection release. If the network cannot select the suitable channel type with limited cause analysis. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-32 . not regulated When these errors occurs. the MS can make effective transmission to the network through an allocated channel. including the processing of MS class mark. the location updating process should be terminated. otherwise the stored T3212 will be initiated. the network will notify the MS to implement access attempt after a period of time with the command "Immediate Assign Denied". After receiving the setup indication reported by the MS. BSC analyzes the contents of the setup indication. After receiving "Immediate Assign".Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions record in attempt counter is smaller than four. The reject cause is Mandatory information unit incorrect Information unit not exist or unable to be realized Invalid information unit content Protocol error. and gets the channel for access after channel allocation. MS is not allowed to implement any transmission. 6) Abnormality at NSS side a) RR connection failure If the RR connection failure occurs successively when there is a common program.

MS starts access procedure. This is decided by SGSN. PCU forwards the packet to SGSN. At the same time. If the PCCCH channel is configured for the BSS system. Circuit service paging 1) Overview Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-33 . I. 2. MS will initialize the process of uplink Temporary Block Flow setup. Packet paging is mainly implemented at routing area. packet paging and circuit paging. packet service is accessed on the CCCH. There are two types of paging. and then sends the paging response packet in data form to PCU via the air interface. which will be examined respectively below. Packet service access When no PCCCH is configured in the serving cell. SGSN is ready to transmit downlink data. GSM/GPRS network initializes the call at the current location area or routing area of the called MS. On receipt of the packet paging message. After receiving the paging response. the message will be sent on the PPCH directly.1.e. The BSC transfers the packet paging messages coming from the PCU to the MS on the PCH of the CCCH. On the reception of EST_IND of RR_INITIALITION_REQ message. The paging request message originated by the SGSN is sent through Gb interface to PCU. If the MS accesses packet service via the PCCCH. SGSN needs to initiate a packet paging call. i. the BSC will first allocate the DCCH and enter the active mode. and transfer it to the MS. then the packet call process is transparent to the BSC. Packet service paging When there are downlink data that shall be sent to the MS. If mobile channel request message is for Paging Response (corresponding to the MTC). transfers it to the MS and completes the packet call access.9 Paging Paging means that when a call is routed to the destination office. After receiving packet paging message. PCU will send the message via the Pb interface to the BSC. II. which sends it on the PCH. the BSC will transfer it to the PCU.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions II. the BSC will not process it and will transfer it to the PCU. The channel request message issued from the MS is transferred to the BTS via the RACH of the CCCH and then reported via the BTS to the BSC. which converts it into the packet paging request of the air interface (Um interface) before sending. completing packet call access. And it will receive the PDCH message of the PCU. If PCCCH is not configured for the system. If the channel request message is for packet access (corresponding to the MOC). but location area is available. the BSC receives the packet immediate allocation message from the PCU.

and PCU will determine on which channel to transmit the paging. and determines the paging channel of the MS according to the IMSI. When flow control is allowed. it shall be sent by priority on the PCCH. If the MS is not allocated to the PDCH. called paging group. PCU transfers the paging message to BSC through Pb interface. the concept of Location Area (LA) is introduced to reduce waste of resources. and then sends the paging message to all BSCs in this location area. If the system is configured with PCCCH. The PCH configuration information of each cell must be notified to each MS in the cell. BSC and BTS as follows: When a call is routed to the serving MSC of the called MS. its circuit paging shall go from MSC to SGSN and then to PCU through the Gs and Gb interfaces. the paging message of the circuit will be sent directly by PCU on the PPCH or PACCH channel. When the configuration changes. After receiving the circuit-paging message. An MS belongs to a LA at specific time. BSC determines which BTS to page according to the LA. it shall be sent on the PPCH. The paging message contains the information that can be used to identify the subscriber (IMSI or TMSI). The configuration of the PCH can be changed as the traffic increases or decreases. which then transmit the paging message on the PCH. The LA information is stored in VLR from which MSC can query them. and sends them to the BTS. A paging process is completed jointly by MSC. If the MS is already allocated to PDCH. MS accesses the RACH and starts the circuit connection setup process.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When a call reaches the MSC where the subscriber is located. MS will initiate the GPRS SUSPEND process to suspend the GPRS services and will not recover the GPRS service till the circuit is released. BTS will transmit the paging message of the MS on the specified PCH. In the GSM network. If the GPRS/GSM system runs in network operation mode 1 and there exists a Gs interface. a group of paging request combinations. In other words. the MSC sends a paging message to all cells in that location area according to the registered location area of MS. A page is generally sent three times. BSC must modify the broadcast messages accordingly so that the MS in the cell can wait on the specified PCH sub-channel to answer the paging message. To enhance the signaling efficiency. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-34 . If the system is not configured with PCCCH. A LA contains a small group of cells. can be sent together. the circuit paging of the GSM service can be sent on the GPRS channel. if an MS is GPRS-attached. MSC first figures out the location area of MS. the BSC can automatically adjust the configuration of PAGCH.

i.1. and reach the BSC by way of MSC-SGSN-PCU.10 Immediate assignment I. If the MS has been allocated with a PDCH. there are three possibilities that the paging message will be transmitted to the MS. 2. Therefore. subscribers in the serving cell will not lose the paging message. it indicates that the paging messages of this subscriber group might be transmitted on any PCH at the same time slot. When MS needs to set up a connection. Gb interface. This channel can be either a SDCCH or a TCH. If the serving cell is not configured with the PCCCH. Technology description 1) Channel request Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-35 . Then. the message is transmitted on the PACCH. the access allocation and allocation initialization process is started. In other words. the message is transmitted on the PCH. circuit paging to this MS will go through Gs interface. “Spaced” paging mode: BSS attaches a group of paging messages to another paging channel for transmission. Overview Immediate assignment is for the purpose of establishing the wireless connection. "complete" paging mode and “spaced” paging mode. this mode can be used to avoid the loss of paging messages. the MS that receives an “ordinary” paging on the paging channel N can receive the paging message on the paging channel N+2. If the serving cell has been allocated with a PCCCH. in PAGCH channel adjustment due to traffic flow. “Complete” paging mode: When a notice is given to an MS group in this mode.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2) Paging mode The GSM network defines three commonly used paging modes: “Ordinary” paging mode: The paging messages are only transmitted on the channel defined by PCH configuration and IMSI. RR connection with MS at Um interface. which are described according to their priorities. the immediate assignment process will allocate a channel necessary for the signaling interaction of establishing this connection. and Pb interface. II. M900/M1800 BSS supports all the three paging modes: "ordinary" paging mode. When the PCH configuration is modified dynamically. the message is transmitted on the PPCH. e. This is to avoid temporary overload. If an MS is GPRS-attached in network operation mode 1. Huawei BSC supports the immediate assignment of SDCCH and immediate assignment of TCH at the level of cell. Once a paging message is received by MS.

The access level is stored in SIM. The identification code will be returned to MS in this message. MS judges whether the information is for it by comparing the identification code it sent and the one returned from the network. In which. MS can also belong to one of the 5 special access levels (Level 11~15).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The process of initialization is actually the process of random access. it has to send a message to the network via RACH to request for a signaling channel. the information. The channel request message is processed only within BSS. or belongs to the allowed special access level. If the setup cause requested by MM is not emergency call. The other 5 bits is the identification code selected by MS at random (for Phase 1 standard). The network will decide the type of the channel to be allocated according to the channel request. The collision leads to two results: the network will Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-36 . In the case of network congestion. such as the access levels and special access levels allowed by the network. in Phase 2. such as the specific cause of channel request. All MSs with SIMs belong to a level among Level 0~9. and the maximum one can be 6 bit). can their access be grated. the bit occupied by the cause is not a fixed. Two MSs initializing calls simultaneously do not necessarily have the random identification codes different from each other. will be broadcast. If the setup cause requested by MM is emergency call. Such as emergency call. there is only 8 bits of meaningful signaling message. This message sent via RACH is called Channel Request. In this message. In BCCH system information. But it has only 5 bits. then only when MS belongs to the access level or special access level. After that. due to concept of half rate. and whether all MS or only those of special levels is allowed to initiate emergency calls. which can be used to differentiate 32 MSs simultaneously. Since the network cannot control the access time of MS. the response messages on Um interface are used as another reference. it is impossible to transmit all information to be transmitted. the network will send "Immediate Assign Command" (includes the information of the allocated channel) to MS. location updating. the event of two MSs contending for the same RACH timeslot will inevitably happen in the areas with heavy traffic. Such level is also stored in SIM. In this indication. then only when all MSs in the cell are allowed to initialize emergency call. subscriber identity and the feature of mobile equipment (all transmitted in SABM) to the network. etc. the cause occupies only 3 bits. It is not used to notify the network about the MS's location but to enable the network to identify the request initialized by different MSs. This is called the collision. due to the capacity limit of the channel. response to paging or caller request. To further differentiate MSs initializing calls simultaneously. 3 bits are used to the minimum indication of the access cause (in Phase 1. and allocate the most suitable channels for them. Whenever MS needs to set up connection with the network. system can implement different processing (which type of call will be accepted or denied) to the channel request of different access purposes according to this rough indication. can its access be grated.

6 5. MS will return to idle mode. This will become the major problem of network capacity. 25 7. The other one is that the network can receive neither of them due to their mutual interference. When T3120 times out while RACH retransmission times has not exceeded "Max Retrans". Between the assign process and a "Channel Request" (not including the timeslot containing the information itself) is selected at random from {0. MS will activate T3120 and stay on the entire downlink CCCH (to receive answer) and BCCH. When T3120 times out. In this case. MS figures out that it allowed to transmit "Channel Request" via RACH for at most M + 1 times with the following methods: The timeslot No. T is the parameter "Tx integer" broadcast on BCCH. 14.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions receive a burst level from this timeslot obviously higher than the other. MS will give up request attempt and perform cell reselection. After transmitting initial channel request. Therefore. M is "Max Retrans". MS will activate T3126. 50 4. See Table 2-4. and the Max Retrans is reached. the value of S depends of the configuration of CCCH. 10. If no network response received after T3126 timeout. 20 6. Table 2-4 Value of Parameter S Tx 3. 12. it is necessary to introduce the mechanism of retranslating channel request. 8)-} with the same probability. 32 Non-combined CCCH 55 76 109 163 217 Combined CCCH/SDCCH 41 52 58 86 115 If the immediate assign command is not received even after Max Retrans. . With the increase of traffic. 11. 2) The allocation of the initial channel Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-37 . the possibility of loss of message due to collision will become higher. 9. 8. and activate T3120 with a new value. between the two consecutive "Information Request" of MS is selected at random from {S. The timeslot No. and then wait for a period of time and allow network to give up. MS will retransmit the channel request message containing a new random reference. 1 MAC (T. S + T – 1} with the same probability. the network will process the random access request with higher level. S + 1.

a) Immediate assignment After BSC receive Channel Active ACK from BTS. When the corresponding resources are ready. g. The allocated channel type (TCH or SDCCH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions After correctly decoding the Channel Request of MS. This message contains important attachment information and the estimation to TA that is important to activating timer advance control. while Extended Immediate Assignment contains the assignment information of two MSs. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-38 . working mode. After receiving this message. the availability of the allocated channel and the related terrestrial resources is to be acknowledged with the response from BT. Immediate Assignment contains the assignment information of only one MS. physical feature and initial lead. This channel seizes 1/8 sub-timeslots of a timeslot. and BSC allocates a SDCCH for this call. Normally. The process of requesting for SDCCH connection includes location updating. including channel type. BTS will send Channel Required to BSC via Abis interface. Therefore it is necessary for MS to monitor all information block on CCCH. BSC will allocate SDCCH. channel mode is set as signaling) is decided by the carrier. via the CCCH for MS receiving Channel Request. if there is an idle SDCCH available that can satisfy the access request. The signaling interaction necessary for call establishment is implemented on that channel. The signaling flow of SDCCH immediate assignment is illustrated in Figure 2-7. This process is realized by sending "Channel Active" from BSC to BTS to query the availability of corresponding terrestrial resources (e. transmission circuit). BTS can send Immediate Assignment or Extended Immediate Assignment on any message block of downlink CCCH. This message indicates all properties needed in activating the channel. MS initializes access request. supplementary service. IMSI detach. However. will send Immediate Assignment or Extended Immediate Assignment to allocate dedicated signaling channel for MS in the non-acknowledge mode. BSC will select a corresponding idle channel for MS according to the judgement to the existing radio resources. BTS will return "Channel Active ACK" as a response to BSC. short message at non-session status and services only supported by SDCCH.

Signaling flow of TCH immediate assignment is illustrated in Figure 2-8. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-39 . there is no need to reallocate TCH during the process of assignment. Mode conversion process can be used to change the function of TCH from signaling transfer to voice transmission.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MS Channel Request BTS Channel Required Channel Active Channel Active ACK Immediate Assignment Immediate Assignment SDCCH: SABM SDCCH: UA BSC MSC Establishment Indication Complete Layer3 Informaiton SDCCH: Authentication Request SDCCH: Authentication Response SDCCH: Ciphering Mode Command SDCCH: Ciphering Mode Complete SDCCH: Setup SDCCH: Call Proceed Channel Active Channel ACK Assignment Command Encryption Command Ciphering Mode Command Assignment Request SDCCH: Assignment Command TCH: SABM TCH: UA TCH: Assignment Complete TCH: Alert TCH: Connect TCH: Connect ACK Assignment Complete Figure 2-7 Immediate assignment If TCH has been allocated before immediate assignment.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem MS Channel Request BTS Channel Required Channel Active Channel Active ACK Immediate Assignment TCH: SABM TCH: UA TCH: Authentication Request TCH: Authentication Response TCH: Ciphering Mode Command TCH: Ciphering Mode Complete TCH: Setup TCH: Call Proceed Mode Modify Mode Modify ACK Channel Mode Modify Channel Mode Modify ACK Encryption Command Immediate Assignment Establishment Indication BSC Chapter 2 BSS Functions MSC Complete Layer3 Informaiton Ciphering Mode Command Assignment Request TCH: TCH: TCH: Alert TCH: Connect TCH: Connect ACK Assignment Complete Figure 2-8 Immediate assignment Messages of immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment contain: Description of assigned channel. After receiving immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-40 . MS figures out the next initial lead for transmitting according to TA. MS switches to the channel assigned by the network. is a frame No. received by BTS during channel request. The random reference and abbreviated frame No. TA is the initial lead calculated from equalizing the channel request information received by BTS on RACH. Start time indication (optional). They are used to reduce the conflict of request among MSs. of the received channel request frame (abbreviated frame No. with narrow value range calculated from the TDMA frame No. Information field of channel request and abbreviated frame No.) Initial lead. are directly related to the MS channel request. sets the channel modes as signaling only and sends the SABM with information field via the allocated channel to establish the main signaling link.

e. MS will first access to the channel used before the indication time. After T3126 timeout. MS cannot start RR connection attempt until T3122 timeout. radio resources shortage. MS will decode MA with the CA got from BCCH system message. If MS is ready after the specified time it will access the channel after the indication time. e. If the network adopts FH. system indicates failure of random access to MM. The reject cause can be MSC traffic closed. b) Immediate assignment denied If there is no available channel for BSC to allocate. The message of immediate assignment denied contains request reference and waiting indication. MS terminates T3120. immediate assignment command may appear in any CCCH message block in 51 multiframe. But system does not specify the part on downlink CCCH for immediate assignment denied transmission. MS will immediately switch to this channel after receiving the message. Therefore it is necessary for MS to monitor the entire CCCH block after sending channel request. CA refers to all the frequencies used in the cell (including FH frequencies). If it misses the time. If the random access program is initiated by MM. activates T3122 with the specified value and returns CCCH idle mode. as the response to one of the last three channel requests. MS will access the channel after receiving the message. If the message contains the description of the channel used after indication time as well as that before the indication time. After sending the first channel request message. MAIO and HSN). i. immediate assignment process will be terminated. If the received immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment message contains only the description of the channel used after start time. After receiving Immediate Assignment Denied. i. TA value exceeding limit. channel activation no response and BSC traffic overload. can be used to indicate the frequency change in the process. If MS has already sent the channel requests for maximum allowed times RR entity will start T3126. MS starts to monitor the system message on BCCH as well as the CCCH timeslot corresponding to its paging group. containing the start time and description of possible alternative channel. and switch to the one after the indication time when the time comes (new frequency series.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Immediate assignment or extended immediate assignment message. If MS is ready for access to the channel upon the indicated time. decode the messages of the entire paging sub-channel for response from the network. MA refers to all FH frequencies used in the cell. MS will access to the channel during the time waiting for start. the network can send the immediate assignment denied message in non-acknowledge mode to MS via CCCH. MS is not allowed to initialize another call attempt except for emergency calls until Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-41 .

The first task for MS on the allocated SDCCH/TCH is to send a SABM frame to establish asynchronous balance mode (service access point type: SAPI = 0) so as to establish signaling message link connection in acknowledge mode. The message of extended immediate assignment denied can contain information of rejecting at most four MSs. system do not know whether a channel request message is a retransmitted one. If two MSs send the channel requests with the same message content at the same (possible in the case of high load). The others are regarded invalid ones. After T3122 timeout. the format of extended immediate assignment denied is introduced.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions T3122 timeout. According to the specification. If the random identification code and the abbreviated frame No. satisfy the requirement. BSS will repines to one of them only. But according to the specification. MS will use the channel in the first assignment message it decoded. verification) with the content Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-42 . It corresponds to the immediate assignment extension. While these two MSs can both be allocated with the same dedicated channel. This message contains the L3 service request message. which results in request retransmission. This is called allocation overlapping. Emergency call attempt can be established in the same cell before T3122 timeout as long as no "Immediate Assignment Denied" of RR emergency attempt received. On Um interface. 3) Initialization message After receiving immediate assignment command. initialization message. MS will decode this message. In this case. To settle this problem. SABM has a signaling message. In order to improve AGCH efficiency. MS will tune its transceiver equipment to the specified channel and start to transmit signaling according to TA specified by BSC and maximum transmitting power (defined in the parameter "MS TxPWR MAX CCH" in BCCH system broadcast message). This measure can avoid the waste of system resources. It is possible to cope with CCCH congestion caused by to many overlapped allocations by reducing the retransmission of MS or shorten T3101. c) Signaling channel assignment overlap The system may have a slow response to the channel request of MS. MS will not respond to paging but sends "Channel Request" instead till MS receives "Paging Request". The value of the wait indication information unit (T3122) depends on the cell receiving this message. there should be a mechanism judging such contention. SABM frame is a message requesting for the establishment of a multiframe response operation mode on LAPDm. MS should receive the last three network response messages to the channel request. i. In GSM specification. e. the cell will send a UA frame (no No. so it may send the immediate assignment command to the MS for multiple times. The reason for different standards about standard HDLC is to guarantee the correctness of MS receiving.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

completely the same as that of SABM frame after the cell has received the SABM frame. MS compares it and the SABM information. If the content is completely the same, the access will proceed. Otherwise, it will give up this channel and repeat the immediate allocation process. Only when the consistency is guaranteed, will MS stay on the channel. According to different request causes, the initialization messages in SABM can be divided into four types: CM service request (call establishment, short message, supplementary service management), location updating request (generic location updating, periodic location updating, IMSI attach), IMSI detach and paging response. All these messages contain the identity of MS, detailed access cause and Classmark of MS (used to indicate some key features of MS, such as transmission power level, ciphering algorithm, short message capability and frequency capability). Upon receiving SABM frame, BTS will send a message "Establishment Indication" to BSC. On Abis interface, this message is used to notify LAPDm that the connection has been established. It is a response to the immediate assignment message. After receiving the indication message of establishment, BSC will send a L3 service request message (Complete Layer3 INFO) to MSC. To be specific, this message is Location Updating Request, CM Service Request, Paging Response and IMSI Detach. This message contains the SCCP connection request (SCCP CR), cause of CM service request (e.g. MO call, emergency call, location updating and short message service), ciphering key sequence No., LAC, CI, physical information of this MS (e.g. transmitting power level, ciphering algorithm support, pseudo-synchronous capability and short message capability) and the ID of MS. Although the MTP connection at An interface has been established before the session, there should still be a SCCP connection on L2 for each call. This establishment request message will be transmitted in the SCCP CR message via A interface. If the request is permitted, the first downlink message at An interface will be contained in the CC frame at SCCP layer. For SCCP layer, the exchange between CR and CC is the exchange between original reference address and destination reference addresses. For different calls, the same SPC may refer to different original addresses and destination addresses. If SCCP cannot be established, MSC will send the message SCCP Refused. The access ends at this step. The signaling link between MS and MSC has been established, MSC at this phase is able to control the transmission feature of the RR management, and BSS is in the status of monitoring transmission quality and ready for handover. 4) Phase1 and Phase2 MS

BSC cannot differentiate whether a call is for voice, data or signaling completely according to MS establishment cause. In the case of Phase 2 MS, BSC can obtain the access request cause more detailed than that of Phase1 MS. For Phase 2 MS, BSC is able to recognize the information unit "Channel Needed" in the paging message. This

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-43

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

information unit indicates whether the current channel is for voice/data or signaling. MS selects a suitable establishment cause to response according to its own capability. Huawei BSC supports the information unit "Channel Needed" in the paging message.

III. Parameter
Huawei BSC controls the function of immediate TCH assignment with the switch of "Immediate assign TCH. The detailed configuration process, as well as the data table and parameters involved are listed below: [Cell/Modify Cell's Call Control Parameter/Modify Cell Call Parameter/Call Control] Parameter: Immediate Assignment of TCH If “Immediate Assignment of TCH” is set as “No”, this indicates that the function of immediately assigned TCH is disabled. All call access requests use SDCCH. If “Immediate Assignment of TCH” is set as “Yes”, this indicates that the function of immediately assigned TCH is enabled. For emergency call and call re-establishment, BSC will preferentially assign TCH for them. If no idle TCH is available, the BSC assigns SDCCH for them. For other the channel access request of calls, SDCCH will be preferentially assigned and then TCH.

2.1.11 Assignment
I. Overview
BSS switches MS to TCH by means of assignment. Normally, the assignment is finished at the cell where the call is initialized. Huawei BSC supports the function of direct retry, which can assign MS to other cells. Huawei BSC supports re-assignment process. When BSC receive ASSIGNMENT FAILURE from UM interface, BSC allocate a new radio channel and initiate the second assignment process.

II. Working principle
After MS initializes service request, BSC will assign the MS to TCH by means of the assignment process. If BSC figures out that there is idle TCH in the cell where MS initialized the call, it will assign the MS to that TCH. Huawei BSC provides two algorithms of channel selection: "Huawei Channel Algorithm I" and "Huawei Channel Algorithm II". The channel allocation algorithms of Huawei guarantee that the currently allocated channel is the best one.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-44

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

If BSC has already assigned the MS to TCH during immediate assignment, it will not assign the MS to a new TCH, but to the old one. If there is no idle TCH in the cell of the MS, the function of directed retry can be used to assign the MS to other cells with idle TCH and go on with the service. BSC can select the best cell among the adjacent cells with the measurement reports as the destination cell in directed retry. If BSC receive ASSIGNMENT FAILURE from UM interface, the re-assignment process is controlled by the parameter "Allow Reassign". Re-assignment process chooses different TRX preference. If there is no other idle TRX in the same cell, the re-assignment process is initiated at the same TRX.

III. Parameter
BSC decides whether to use the function of directed retry with the parameter "Directed retry permitted". The detailed data table and parameters involved are listed below: [Cell/Modify Cell's Call Control Parameter/Modify Cell Call Control

Parameter/Call Control] Parameter: Directed Retry Perm Parameter: Allow Reassign

2.1.12 Authentication
One of GSM system's advantages comparing with analog system is security system. It has the following improvements: on access network: AUC authenticates the subscriber; on radio path: communication information ciphering; EIR identifies the mobile equipment; IMSI is protected by TMSI; SIM is protected with PIN. The authentication process is one of the common processes of Mobility Management (MM) process. The common processes of MM includes authentication process, identification process, TMSI reallocation process and IMSI detach process initialized by MS. Other common processes will also be mentioned in this chapter.

I. Authentication process
1) Authentication triplet

Authentication and ciphering process is realized with the triplet allocated by the system. The triplet is generated in the Authentication Center (AUC). After subscribing to GSM service, each MS will be allocated with a MSISDN and IMSI. IMSI is written to the SIM of the subscriber with SIM writer. Together with this IMSI, the authentication key Ki uniquely corresponding to the IMSI is also stored in the SIM and in AUC. In AUC, there
Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-45

Kc has to be calculated with authentication process. and Kc is generated by processing RAND and Ki with A8. location updating. CM service request. When there is two triplets left. SRES is generated by processing RAND and Ki with A3. RAND. The GSM specification also defines the algorithms of A3. Whether to trigger the authentication process depends on Kc at network side (stored after the previous processing of the MS service) is the same as that stored in the MS accessing currently. When MSC/VLR requests HLR for triplet. AUC transmits five triplets at a time to HLR. Below is the detailed introduction to the process of parameter transference. Normally. In AUC. paging response. CKSN is stored in SIM as well as in MSC/VLR together with Kc and is processed by the network. CKSN = 0 means no Kc allocated. system will skip authentication and go to ciphering process with Kc stored in MS. In the first L3 message (e. Otherwise. VLR will return the message of "Process Access Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-46 . It is called CKSN in the specification. the network is able to decide whether to trigger the authentication process to verify the identification of the mobile subscriber. the concept of ciphering key sequence number is introduced. If they are the same. MSC/VLR uses one triplet each time. and the other is to allocate a new ciphering key for MS. MSC will send "Process Access Request" to VLR for authentication and ciphering. A8 and A5 used in authentication and ciphering process. HLR will transmit five triplets to it. After the establishment of RR layer between MSC and BSS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions is a pseudo-random code generator used to generate a unpredictable pseudo-random code RAND (randomly selected from 0~2128-1). The calculation of Kc is illustrated in Figure 2-9. 2) Authentication process There are two purposes for authentication: one is to check whether the identification provided by MS is effective. Kc and SRES make up the triplet. MS will indicate the CKSN to the network. g. it will request HLR for triplets again. Ki RAND A8 Kc Figure 2-9 Kc calculation After receiving Complete Layer3 INFO. To enable the ciphering in the case of initializing RR connection without authentication process. which will be transmitted to HLR and be saved in the database of that subscriber. HLR can store 10 triplets.

authentication failed. After receiving "Authentication Response". but simple for HLR/AUC for it stores Ki. MS will sends the SRES to the network with the message Authentication Response. a 64-bit Kc is calculated by processing Ki and RAND with A8. MSC/VLR will send the message “Authentication Request” to MS to trigger the authentication process. for each authentication. And then. MS will send the message "Run GSM Algorithm" to SIM after receiving this message. And after that MSC proceeds ahead with the ciphering process.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Accepted". and system will reject the access of the MS. Meanwhile. MS will store it and CKSN to the suitable position SIM for the future activation of ciphering transmission. The authentication process ends at this step. it causes the increase of signaling traffic between HLR and MSC. But it will be complicated for MSC/VLR. the authentication will succeed and access to network will be grated. If they are different. the A3 and A8 will also be carried out to generate a SRES and Kc and store them in VLR. the network will terminate T3260 and check the validity of the SRES. MS should respond to the authentication request message. AUC Ki RAND RAND Ki A3 A3 SRES MS Equal Network Authentication succeeded SRES Figure 2-10 Authentication algorithm A3 and A8 can be executed either in MSC/VLR or in HLR/AUC. System compares these two SRESs. However. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-47 . A 32-bit SRES will be generated by processing Ki stored in SIM and this SRES with A3. At the same time. SRES and Kc to MSC/VLR. T3260 will be activated. it is a better way to achieve security and roaming. "Authentication Request" contains a RAND and a CKSN. HLR/AUC will send RAND. Furthermore. If RR connection exits. Since Ki is stored in VLR or HLR as a subscriber data. If they are the same. see Figure 2-10. RAND is 128 bit.

4) Abnormality handling during authentication process a) RR connection failure If RR connection is detected before receiving "Authentication Response". MS will set the status of SIM as "Roaming Denied". 2. and delete the existing TMSI. the network can initiate the identification process. In this case.1. Overview The feature of wireless transmission has a negative effect on the security and interest of the subscribers. It is up to the radio resources management to decide whether to adopt the encryption mode or not.13 Ciphering I. then "Authentication Denied" will be sent to MS. all MM connection in process will be released. is sent to the BTS before encryption starts. the network will release RR connection. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-48 . including signaling information and user information.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 3) Unsuccessful authentication If the authentication failed. the network can use the subscriber's identification. The ciphering key Kc. a) MS uses TMSI If MS uses TMSI. The digital transmission of GSM guarantees excellent security. b) MS uses IMSI If MS uses IMSI or the network decides not to initiate identification program. releases all MM connection and initializes RR connection process. The encryption function is implemented in the BTS to encrypt user data. LAI and CKSN. authentication will be restarted. b) T3260 timeout If T3260 timeout. The analog mobile communication has always been the victim of interception and misappropriation. After sending this message. If the TMSI does not correspond to the IMSI. The related parameters must be sent to the encryption program. the network will release all MM connection and terminate all running MM special process. After receiving "Authentication Denied". The encryption function deals with the security for information exchange between MS and BTS. the network will terminate the authentication process and all ongoing MM process. and then the network will initialize the RR connection release process. and regards SIM invalid until MS powered off or SIM removed. generated by AC and stored in the MSC/VLR.

MS should initiate the Tx and Rx in ciphering mode. "Non-ciphering" is indicated when MS is in the status of "Non-ciphering". Afterwards TMSI is used in place of IMSI to protect the IMSI for the sake of subscriber security. VLR allocates a TMSI to the subscriber during the MS registration. "Non-ciphering" is indicated when MS is in the status of "Ciphering". BTS and MS carry out the encryption/decryption of the radio path. b) Ciphering mode setting complete Once MS receives the valid "Ciphering Mode Command". MSC will send "Ciphering Mode Command" to BSC. This message contains Kc. BSC sends Ciphering Mode Command to MS to indicate whether ciphering is necessary. the network will initialize the transmission in ciphering mode. It will respond with "RR Status". and the cause value is "Error: protocol not defined". TMSI is valid only in a VLR area. it will send the Kc stored in SIM to the mobile equipment. which type of dedicated resources are to be adopted. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-49 . The relation between TMSI and IMSI is not fixed. encryption process and Kc generation. The process of encryption and decryption is shown in Figure 2-11. After receiving "Ciphering Mode Complete". After MS has activated the actions of "Ciphering Mode Command". then MS will include its IMEI in "RR Ciphering Mode Complete". MS will regard the "Ciphering Mode Command" of other type received as an incorrect one. and if needed. 2) Ciphering and deciphering processes a) Initializing ciphering mode setting After authentication process. Due to the importance of IMSI it is not transmitted on the radio link repeatedly. Technical description In order to achieve a general understanding of the encryption/decryption process of GSM. If the field "Ciphering Response" in the information unit of ciphering response message "IMEI shall be included". we will examine it here from three perspectives: TMSI. After receiving the indication of "Ciphering Mode Command" and the ciphering process. The valid "Ciphering Mode Command" are as follows: "Initialize Ciphering" is indicated when MS is in the status of "Non-ciphering". it will returns "RR Ciphering Mode Complete" to the network.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions II. 1) TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) IMSI is the identity for mobile subscriber.

The frame No.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Kc (TDMA( Kc (TDMA( A5 Data flow Mod 2+1 A5 Data flow Mod 2+1 TX Data not ciphered RX Data not ciphered Figure 2-11 Process of ciphering and deciphering The algorithm for generating the ciphering code is called A5. which then performs "exclusive or" operation together with the burst 114 bit (the data not ciphered in Figure 2-11). one sequence is used for the ciphering in MS and the deciphering sequence of BTS. T3 and T2). A5/2 and A5/3 are supported. and is more detailed in the description of ciphering algorithm at MS side. According to the system configuration. it calculates result is the 114-bit ciphering sequence (the data flow in Figure 2-11). On uplink and downlink. If the communication lasts as long as the period of hyper frame (about 3 and half hours). MS can decide whether to report the processing power of MS after Authentication Request. the network uses the same ciphering sequence. After receiving this message. the other one is for the ciphering of BTS and deciphering of MS. Using the Kc consistent in MS and the network (64 bits) and the current pulse string frame number (22 bits). while the Classmark Change further states whether A5/4~A5/7 are supported. code consists of three values (T1. The establishment indication states whether A5/1. the network first response with the message MS PWR CTRL to describe the power range available for MS and the transmitting power of the TRX corresponding to this MS. The name of this message is Classmark Change. For each burst. Its content is the same as that in the establishment indication. the ciphering sequence will appear repetitiously. 3) Generation of Kc Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-50 .

The data configuration involved is as follows: 1) BSC [BSC/Modify BSC Interface Phase Flag] A Interface Version: GSM_Phase_2 Um Interface Version: GSM_Phase_2 Abis Interface Version: GSM_Phase_2 2) BSC [Cell/Modify Cell's system information/Modify Cell Configuration Data] Encryption Algorithm Setting: Encryption Not Support. which is stored in the authentication centre and the SIM card. After registering in the network. all kinds of ciphering algorithm and authentication in service access procedure. A5/2 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-51 . III. Here Ki is a user authentication key. a subscriber obtains the Ki.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RAND generator Ki RAND Ki A8 Kc storing KC A8 Kc storing KC MS Figure 2-12 Generation of Kc NSS Ciphering key (Kc) is produced by A8 algorithm as shown in the Figure 2-9. The MS and the network use the same Ki and random number (which is generated by the network and transmitted to the MS) so that the same Kc can be obtained. Parameter Condition: MSC support ciphering. Huawei BSS supports both A5/1 and A5/2. A5/1.

For the configuration of ciphering algorithm. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-52 . If the intersection contains multiple algorithms. Therefore. the transmitting channel is closed to lower the interference level and improve the system efficiency. This is because BSC software selects ciphering algorithm from the intersection of algorithms allowed in MSC data configuration. When there is no session. DTX will have a negative effect on the communication quality. not only the system resources are wasted.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: This manual only introduces the related parameters. The meaning of algorithm No. will be selected. this function also saves the power consumption of MS. For details. All data configuration of BSC is realized with auto data configuration console. the voice stream is encoded as 13kbit/s regardless of the MS's session status. When both parties of the communication are GSM subscribers. Only one mode can be selected in one session. 2 (A5/1). algorithms allowed in BSC data configuration and algorithms supported by MS. There are two types of voice transmission in GSM system: one is normal mode. Most of the time is not engaged in the transmission of voice message.1. only 40% of time of the mobile subscriber is engaged in session. GSM adopts Discontinuous Transmission (DTX). and the other is DTX mode. Technologies description If DTX mode is adopted. see M900/M1800 Base Station Controller Data Configuration Manual. but also the intra-system interference will be worsened. 2. If all information during the non-session period is sent to the network. the one with the largest algorithm No. To tackle the above problems.: 1 (No ciphering).14 DTX I. 3 (A5/2)… 8 (A5/7). this function cannot be applied. II. Overview In the process of communication. DTX affects the transmission of TCH frame. DTX mode is not allowed on the occasion. it is recommended select ciphering option not selected for BSC. When transferring data. In addition. the voice coding of 13 kbit/s will be used in voice activation period. and that of 500 bit/s (for transmitting the feature parameter of comfort noise only) in non-voice activation period.

ciphering and modulating like voice frame to become a field containing noise message and be transmitted in the 8 consecutive bursts. 2) Silence descriptor The noise coding process is similar to that of voice coding process: after sampling and quantization.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions IRAU VAD MSC Voice coding SID DTX Processing SP Information BTS Information BFI SID TAF DTX Processing MS Voice frame replacing Voice decoding CN VAD: Voice Activity Detection TAF: Time Adjust Flag SID: Silence Indicator BFI: Bad Frame Indication CN: Comfort Noise SP: Speech Flag Figure 2-13 Principle of DTX 1) Voice Activity Detection Voice Activity Detection (VAD) indicated the time to use DTX. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-53 . it is used to detect whether voice or noise is transmitted. When DTX is activated. To enable the peer end to differentiate the voice frame and SID frame. each 20 ms will be encoded as a noise block. Other frames (excluding SACCH) within the same period will not be used to transmit any message. SID frame is applied to channel encoding. it will be transmitted as the voice signal. If the background noise is too loud. these 8 consecutive bursts are fixedly arranged at the beginning of the third multiframe. It also indicates whether the auxiliary bit of this frame is transmitted. A complete SACCH message block on TCH has four 26-multiframe (480 ms). interleaving. The encoded noise block will also become a block of 260 bits like the voice block. This judgement is based on the principle of the energy of noise being lower than that of voice. This algorithm judges whether voice or noise is contained in the output frame by comparing the filter signal and the configured threshold. VAD generates a group of threshold values in each voice block of 20 ms for judging whether the next voice block of 20 ms is voice or noise. This is a Silence Descriptor (SID). VAD algorithm and voice coding/decoding algorithm is closely related.

DTX. No matter whether DTX is used or not. III. which is applicable for voice and non-transparent data transmission. Note: No matter whether DTX is used. independent in the direction of uplink/downlink and based on the control unit of a cell. To ensure the consistency. There measurement methods in GSM system: Global measurement: average the levels and quality of the 100 timeslots within the entire period (totally 4 TCHs of 26-multiframe. BSC can select whether to use global measurement or partial measurement to judge according to according to the measurement report. BTS and MS should both complete these two types of measurement.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Caution The SID frame generated from 20 ms noise block completes the process of interleaving together with the SID frames before and after it. Parameter [Cell/Modify Cell's System Message/Modify Cell System Message/Bsic Data] Parameter: Discontinuous Transmission Indication Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-54 . Since each SACCH measurement report of BTS and MS indicates whether DTX is used. The first SID frame completes the interleaving together with the voice frame before it and the SID frame after it. and are activated by system parameters respectively. the uplink and downlink will proceed with global and partial measurement. The uplink and downlink DTXs are two processes independent to each other. involves the operations of MS and TRAU. no matter whether the uplink or downlink activates DTX. idle frame not included) Partial measurement: average the levels and quality of 12 timeslots. the decision-maker is MSC and the executor is BSC. The DTX functions are optional. including 8 consecutive TCH bursts and 4 SACCH bursts containing measurement report.

FH mode can be divided into RF FH and base band FH by carrier realization mode. FH mode can be divided into frame FH and timeslot FH by the concept of time-domain. There are fast FH and slow FH. 5 dB. This sequence is called frequency-hopping sequence (HSN). the FH in GSM system belongs to slow FH. each carrier can be regarded as a channel. and improve the average C/I of the interference restriction system (especially in cities).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. thus greatly improving the quality of session. (FN) by using certain algorithms. The frequency of changing frequency is about 217 times per second. Huawei BSS realizes the base band FH at timeslot level.15 Frequency hopping I. Technology description 1) FH modes FH means that the carrier containing meaningful information hops under the control of a sequence. The TCH of the TRX which bears BCCH cannot be used for FH while other different TRXs should have their own MAIO. The frequency occupied by channel in the Um interface of GSM system is changed regularly. Fast FH means that the change rate of frequency is faster than modulation rate of signal. Adopting FH can improve the transmission quality of the slowly moving MS by 6. Channels on different timeslots (TN) can use the same HSN. 2) Frame FH Frequency changes for each TDMA frame. Different channels on the same timeslot in the same cell should use different MAIOs. II.1. Besides. But currently it is realized only on the occasion of base band FH. it is required that the frequency should remain unchanged within a burst period. Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) and Frame No. It involves frequency diversity and interference diversity technologies. strengthening the capability of high-density multiplexing and increasing the system capacity. In the mode. Overview The purpose of frequency hopping (FH) is for obtaining better security and anti-interference capability. RF FH at timeslot level. Therefore. base band FH at frame level and RF FH at frame level. An HSN is an array of all frequencies in a frequency set uniquely defined with HSN. This is the expiation of timeslot FH. FH can also improve the security of communication. The FH can avoid the attenuation caused by multi-path transmission and same frequency interference. The TCH of the TRX which bears BCCH can be used for FH. In GSM system. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-55 . 3) Timeslot FH Frequency changes for each timeslot of each TDMA frame.

one of the two frequency synthesizers serves as the standby when there is no FH to enhance system reliability. For base band FH. voltage controlled oscillator and loop bandwidth. When one oscillator is working. Tx is not involved in FH. the serious voice disconnection. if some TRXs in the FH group are faulty. When a TRX is faulty. system will activate FH on resource checking. caused by frame lost. the system can skip it when implementing FH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 4) RH FH Both Tx and Rx can be both used in FH. the speed requirements are easier to implement. will appear during call. so that the output signal can be the best. When base band FH is opened. All FH indices satisfy the requirements in GSM protocols. and the best performance of the system can be guaranteed. 5) Base band FH Each transmitter works on a fixed frequency. e. loop bandwidth needs to be dynamically adjusted along with the needs of system. After “TRX Aiding Function Control” is set to “Allowed & Recover When Check Res. Therefore the number of FH frequencies in a cell cannot be larger than number of the TRXs of the cell.”. Rx is involved in FH. The RF FH of the M900/M1800 BTS is enabled through real-time switchover between two frequency synthesizers. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-56 .”. and that beyond loop bandwidth is decided by collage controlled oscillator. Huawei BTS adopts dynamic loop bandwidth and Ping-Pong handover to solve the inconsistency between fast FH and signal quality. lower speed requirements of the frequency synthesizer can be practical. i. The transmitting FH is realized by switching the base band signal. second. the number of FH frequencies engaged in FH can be larger than the number of TRX. loop bandwidth changes back to best bandwidth. If the system is not in the working status. There are two advantages for this implementation: first. the other one locks on the next frequency quickly. When those TRXs recover. the system will close base band FH function in this case. etc. This avoids the instant performance worsening at the beginning and end of the timeslot. the parameter “TRX Aiding Function Control” in the [cell configuration table] must be set to “Allowed & Recover When Check Res. Switching to another oscillator is realized with a switch between two timeslots. Ping-Pong handover: Two identical oscillators are designed on the circuit. In a cell. A switch is in charge of selecting between these two oscillators. Dynamic loop band width technologies: local oscillation signal is mainly decided by reference clock (phase discrimination frequency). and realize the unrestricted FH in GSM 900 bandwidth of 25 MHz and DCS 1800 bandwidth of 75 MHz. During the operation of Huawei BTS. The phase noise of local oscillation within the loop bandwidth is decided by reference clock.

i. it will be random FH. which implement FH on the basis of timeslot exchange. and delay for a timeslot and then transmitted to the air interface. and adds the attached information related to power control to generate a special data packet. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-57 . Each transmitter is tuned to a fixed frequency. and if HSN ≠ 0. In other words. 0~N-1): indicating an element in MA. e. If HSN = 0. broadcast on the synchronous channel. BTS and MS achieve synchronous with FN (0~2715647). The coder of transmitter encodes the downlink signal to convert the data to burst format. it will accept the data packet. MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset (0~N-1). it will be cycle FH. Its purpose is avoid multiple channels contends the same carrier. The process of calculating the actual working frequency on each FH timeslot is as shown in Figure 2-14.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions If the base band FH must be opened. FN: TDMA frame No. HSN: FH serial No. Base band FH has a very high requirement on the real-time identification of the ID of TRX. TRX) to be modulated for the burst according to FH algorithm. If the TRX ID is different from the local TRX. 6) FH algorithm Parameters involved: CA: Cell allocation table. e. the radio frequency ID adopted on air interface is an element in MA. If the TRX IDs are the same. Huawei BTS adopts the technology of (FH_BUS). the frequency actually used is decided by MAI. it will receive that from the next sub-timeslot.. During communication. MAIO is an initial offset of MAI. the collection of frequency ID used in the cells. a subset of CA. the faulty TRXs must be removed from the FH group. 1 ≤ N ≤ 64. and has a fixed ID. (generator) (0~63). The coder transmits the data packet periodically (sub-timeslot). MA: the radio frequency ID collection for MS FH. Modulator checks the TRX ID of the data packet from each sub-timeslot. M contains N frequency Ids. Huawei base band FH technology realizes fast and reliable TRX ID identification on the basis of the ASIC. MAI (Mobile Allocation Index. It calculates the channel (i.

) RFCHN = MA (MAI) mod: MOD ^: power NBIN: INTEGER(log2N + 1) Table: see Table 2-5.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MAI (m0~mN-1) MAIO (0~N-1) NBIN bit FN T3(0~50) 6bit HSN (0~63) 6bit FN T1(0~2047) 11bit T1R= T1 MOD 64 6bit FN T2(0~25) 5bit Represent in 7 bit 7bit Exclusive OR 6bit Addition 7bit Look-up table 7bit Addition 8bit T=T3 mod 2^NBIN NBIN bit N M'<N M'=M mod 2^NBIN NBIN bit Y S=(M'+T) mod N NBIN bit MAI=(S+MAIO) mod N S=M' NBIN bit RFCN=MA(MAI) Figure 2-14 FH algorithm In the figure above: MAI = (S + MAIO) MOD N (S is the result after calculating the frame No. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-58 .

fN}. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-59 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-5 "Table" meaning table Address 000~009 010~019 020~029 030~039 040~049 050~059 060~069 070~079 080~089 090~099 100~109 110~113 48 0 101 80 55 87 82 77 117 16 91 129 98 64 47 34 111 19 58 108 114 49 15 99 63 25 118 127 75 3 40 122 4 7 21 17 1 81 85 13 38 68 107 37 90 79 24 123 Content 36 76 18 6 109 110 32 60 43 119 46 95 59 56 89 71 26 5 66 52 61 39 78 124 96 57 112 33 106 121 53 22 93 102 23 86 103 29 31 92 42 113 84 105 94 104 54 12 11 8 62 51 120 9 65 73 100 2 74 88 45 67 126 72 97 70 7) Concept synchronous cell The concept of synchronous cell plays an important role in planning FH strategy and lowering intra-network interference. In synchronous cell. Adjust MAIO to avoid the collision between cells and the adjacent frequencies of the same cell. III. FN The data tables and parameters involved in configuration are detailed below. Parameter: FH Sequence No.↑. BTS and MS achieve synchronization through their agreement on FN. it is possible for different FH groups to use the same HSN. f2. [Cell/Modify Cell's FH Property/Modify Cell FH] Parameter: FH Mode Parameter: FH Group Assignment Table [Cell/Modify Cell's FH Property/Modify Cell FH /Configure MA Group] Parameter: MA Frequencies Assigned Parameter: Current MA Group No. MAIO. HSN. Parameter FH data configuration sequence: CAξMAξHSNξMAIO Four parameters of FH algorithm: MA = {f1. since the FNs of all TRXs are completely the same.

can enter the standby cell list. The overall handover process is implemented in the MS. II. Overview Handover is a very important function in a cellular mobile communication network. M principle: check whether the downlink receiving level of the adjacent cell is higher than the minimum receiving level while taking uplink and downlink balance compensation. a) Basic cell sorting. The BSS measures the uplink performance for the MS being served and also assesses the signal level of interference on its idle traffic channels. Only the cell with receiving level lower than the minimum receiving cell. With M principle and K principle. Handover enables the continuous session of subscribers while moving around different cells. may be performed in the MSC. In the above handover process. In that formula Pa = MS TxPWR MAX . (TSC) 2. Assessment requiring measurement results from other BTS or other information resident in the MSC. Measurement of radio subsystem downlink performance and signal levels received from surrounding cells. Initial assessment of the measurements in conjunction with defined thresholds and handover strategy may be performed in the BSS. the serving cell and all adjacent cells are sequenced according to their levels to obtain the standby cell list on the basis of levels. Besides. Pa). Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-60 . Huawei handover algorithm adopts the M principle and K principle based on level comparison in stead of L principle based on path loss. thus optimizing the overall performance.1 Handover I. 1) Cell sequencing The cell sequencing can be divided into two parts: basic sequencing and network feature adjustment. e. These measurements are send to the BSS for assessment. handover can also adjust the traffic of the cell.2 Extended Functions 2. RxLEV > MS Rx MIN + MAX (0. Technology description Huawei handover algorithm includes cell sequencing and handover judgement.P. is made in the MS. handover decision algorithm is the most important part because it determines the service quality and frequency efficiency. BSS and MSC.2.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Parameter: Training Sequence No. i.

handover will not be easily triggered. The communication may be handed over back and forth due to the unstable signal at the edge of the cells. b) Adjustment according to network features Network feature adjustment uses the network information except for the power level to decide the position of each cell in the standby cell list. RxSUFF(n) is adjacent cell minimum receiving level threshold RxLEV(o) is serving cell receiving level RxSUFF(o) is serving cell minimum receiving level threshold Note: The purpose of hysteresis is to avoid Ping-Pong handover. MS Rx MIN is the minimum receiving level of MS required by the cell. (RxLEV(o) – RxSUFF(o)) shows the difference between the serving cell receiving level RxLEV(o) and serving cell minimum receiving level threshold RxSUFF(o). These two differences decide the position of an adjacent cell in the standby cell list. MS TxPWR MAX is for restricting the maximum transmitting power of MS. In this way. (RxLEV(n) – RxSUFF(n)) shows the difference between the adjacent cell receiving level RxLEV (n) and adjacent cell minimum receiving level threshold RxSUFF (n). and the Ping-Pong handover can be eliminated. This causes much increase in the load to the system. Implemented according to the load of the cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RxLEV is the MS receiving level for this cell. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-61 . The formula of K sequencing: K _ rank (n ) = (RxLEV (n ) − RxSUFF (n )) − (RxLEV (o ) − RxSUFF (o )) In this formula. Implemented according to whether BSC/MSC is the same. K principle: K _ rank (n ) = RxLEV (n ) − RxLEV (o ) − K _ BIAS (o. thus providing the ultimate standby cell list for handover judgement. P is the maximum transmitting power of the MS. Applying hysteresis is like enlarging the coverage radius of the serving cell while shortening the coverage of the coverage radius of adjacent cell. The cell controlled by the same BSC or MSC has the higher priority. n ) K _ BIAS (n ) = RxSUFF (n ) − (RxSUFF (o ) − KOFFSET − KHYST ) After removing KOFFSET (offset) and KHYST (Hysteresis). The cell with less load has the higher priority.

it is possible to have a best cell list on broad sense. In the same layer. In the multiband network. according to the needs of network planning. regardless of the cause that triggers handover. it is also possible to differentiate the priority of GSM900/GSM1800 band according to the cell's layer. With basic sequencing of cell and network feature structure adjustment. the top layer GSM 900 is usually set as Umbrella. c) Layers and levels of the cell Hierarchical classification of the network can fulfill the demands of both coverage and hot spot traffic. The basic frame of Huawei network hierarchy has four layers. The major layer of GSM 1800 is Micro and micro cell of GSM900/GSM1800 is Pico. In other words. The smaller priority level has the higher priority. and the major layer of GSM900 is Macro. There are 16 levels of priority at each layer. the network is first considered according to the layers. the macro cell settles the problem of coverage. Macro. Micro and Pico. Normally. Besides. Umbrella Cell Layer 4 GSM 900 GSM 900 Macro Cell GSM 1800 GSM900 GSM900 GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM900 GSM900 GSM 900 Layer 3 GSM 1800 GSM900 Layer 2 Micro Cell GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 Pico Cell GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 Layer 1 GSM1800 Figure 2-15 Layers and levels of the cell 2) Operation types a) TA handover Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-62 . This is a mandatory function to be realized. while the micro cell tackles the problem of hot spot traffic. In the network planning following this mechanism. They are Umbrella. The cell of lower layer or level has the higher priority. The lower layer has higher property.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Implemented according to the layer and level of the cell. a cell ranking first in the list is not a result of certain processing based on certain criteria. the GSM 900 and GSM 1800 can be set with different priority.

If the serving cell satisfies the requirement of TA handover. After a successful handover.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions TA can be regarded as a criterion for controlling the size of a cell. 2% 0. BQ handover will be started so that the MS can maintain transmission quality of a certain level. After a successful handover. 4% 0. 13% 2. 05% 18. 2% 3. BSC assesses the quality of radio link according to the quality level in the measurement report. The value range of TA is 0~63. 2% to 6. c) Signal level rapid dropping handover Handovers such as edge handover and PBGT adopt methods such as averaging filter and P/N judgement. 14% 0. If the serving cell satisfies the requirement of BQ handover. the original cell will be punished so as to avoid this MS hands over back to it for other causes. This kind of filter has a quick response to the rapid dropping slope of the original receiving signal level signal. 5 m. 28% 0. 4% to 12. The correspondence between quality level and actual BER is shown in Table 2-6. If so. BSC judges whether the TA of the current MS exceeds the maximum Timing Advanced LIMit (TALIM). Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-63 . 10% 14 28 57 113 226 453 905 1. 4% to 0. the TA setting can compensate for a distance 35 km over 63 steps. The step length of each bit is 553. However it is not sensitive to short term signal level rapid dropping. b) BQ handover The BER values used to define a quality band are the estimated error probabilities before channel decoding.810 Calculated value The cause of BER increase could be signal power too low or channel interference. 4% 6. 2% to 0. it will initiate an emergent handover. the original cell will be punished so as to avoid this MS handover back to it for other causes. When the receiving quality in the serving cell is lower than the BQ handover threshold. 8% Greater than 12. 26% 4. 6% to 3. 8% 0. FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter to original receiving signal level is used to settle this problem. 57% 1. 8% Assumed value 0. Table 2-6 BER corresponding to quality level Quality level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BER range Less than 0. 8% to 1. 53% 9. 6% 1.

Interference handover is illustrated in Figure 2-16. If RxLev > Lev_Thr and RxQual > Qual_Thr. the level of the destination cell is required to be higher than that of serving cell for at least one hysteresis value (inter-cell handover hysteresis). At the same time. If edge handover is to be triggered. Receiving quality (dtqu) Qual_Thr 0 Lev_Thr Receiving level Figure 2-16 Interference handover zone The shadowed part in the figure stands for zones within which interference handover occurs. it is not easy to obtain experience point. The parameters of interference handover algorithm: Qual_Thr and Lev_Thr. but they still can sustain the ongoing communication. this function is usually not used.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: Since the parameter setting of level rapid dropping handover algorithm is rather complicated. but the receiving quality deteriorates to a certain extent. Therefore. interference handover is started so that the MS can maintain transmission quality at the certain level. There is possibility less interference on other channels in the serving cell. Difference between interference handover and bad quality handover: in the former case. When the active channel quality is affected by little interference in the serving cell. and the receiving level is still high. the interference handover is triggered. This to decide whether to trigger interference handover. the quality is not low enough to affect session. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-64 . e) Edge handover This is a level-based handover and is rescue handover. the receiving level in the serving cell is higher. so intra-cell handover can be carried out. d) Interference handover When the receiving level in the serving cell is high.

the edge handover will be triggered to ensure the communication quality. PBGT (n) calculates according to the control parameter and the information reported by BTS. PBGT handover algorithm searches for the cell with lower path loss and satisfying the system requirement on real-time basis so as to judge whether handover is needed.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The criterion for triggering edge handover: When the receiving level of the serving cell is lower than the edge handover threshold. Triggering condition of PBGT handover: The path loss of the adjacent cell is smaller than the threshold of the serving cell and the P/N criterion is satisfied within a period of measurement time. P/N criterion is that there are P satisfying the criterion during N measurements. PBGT(n) > PGBT_HO_Margin (n) In the inequality above. N and PBGT_HO_Margin (n) are configured at data configuration console. P ) − RxLEV _ NCELL(n )) Meanings of the parameters: MS TxPWR MAX: maximum transmitting power allowed in the serving cell MS TxPWR MAX (n): maximum transmitting power allowed in the adjacent cell n RxLEV_DL: downlink receiving power of the serving cell RxLEV_NCELL (n): downlink receiving power of the adjacent cell n PWR_C_D: difference between the maximum downlink transmitting power caused by power control and the actual downlink transmitting power of the serving cell. a handover based on path fading. Difference from other handover algorithms: the trigger condition is path loss and receiving power. and fulfilling the P/N criterion within a certain measurement period. Cell1 -97dBm Cell2 -85dBm Figure 2-17 Edge handover f) PBGT handover PBGT also belongs to better cell handover. P. P ) − RxLEV _ DL − PWR _ C _ D ) − (Min(MS _ TxPWR _ MAX (n ). The method of calculating PBGT (n): PBGT (n ) = (Min(MS _ TxPWR _ MAX . Edge handover is illustrated in Figure 2-17. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-65 .

i. this cell is consider to have a heavy traffic load. the traffic at the cell edge will be handed over those with less traffic. i. it is consider having a low traffic load. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-66 . If the cell flow of a cell is lower than the low traffic threshold (Load HO Rx Threshold). system flow level. The basis for judging the traffic of a cell is the cell flow (i.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions P: maximum transmitting capability of MS PBGT handover occurs only between cells of the same layer and same level. and preventing the traffic of the adjacent cells being handed over to this cell. g) Load handover There may be cells with heavy load while their upper layer cell and the adjacent cell bears less load. and is allowed to accept the traffic handed over from other heavy traffic load cells. Since the load handover mechanism is likely to trigger a good number of handovers. High traffic cell Low traffic cell Low traffic cell Heavy traffic cell Low traffic cell Low traffic cell High traffic cell Figure 2-18 Load handover The method of realizing load share: by heightening the edge handover threshold towards that of the serving cell. edge handover threshold will increase by certain step length (CLS_Ramp) and period (CLS_Period). the situation of system CPU load should be taken into consideration before triggering handover. TCH occupation rate) and the preset threshold. Its aim is to hand over part of the traffic in the heavily loaded cell to less loaded cells. e. e. Load handover is illustrated in Figure 2-18. to avoid too many handovers happening simultaneously. To achieve load balance between cells by sharing the load with upper layer and adjacent cell. If the cell flow of a cell is higher than the heavy traffic load threshold (Load HO Start Threshold ). Load handover can be implemented between cells within the same BSC. and the load handover algorithm needs to be activated. the traffic load handover is applied. e. In addition. the load handover is implemented step by step.

the traffic will be handed over to this cell even if the serving cell can still provide normal services. Load HO zone Normal HO border Cell A Cell B CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Offset CONF_HO_RXLEV CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Ramp Figure 2-19 Load handover h) Hierarchical handover The GSM network is classified into layers. The purpose of hierarchical handover is to direct the traffic to the cell with higher priority so that the traffic can be distributed more reasonably. If the fast moving MS registered in the macro cell. it will be handed over to the macro cell. i) Fast moving handover This kind of handover is carried out for fast moving MS to reduce the number of handover and hence reduced call drop rate. Fast moving handover is illustrated in Figure 2-20. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-67 . time penalty will be implemented to the micro cell so that the MS will stay in the macro cell. If a cell has a high priority and its signal level is higher than a threshold (Inter-layer HO Threshold) and satisfy the P/N criterion. Load handover is illustrated in Figure 2-19.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The increase ends when the threshold reaches the load handover bandwidth (CLS_Offset). so as to flexibly direct its traffic and fulfill the needs of different network structure. If MS is moving quickly with micro cell as the reference.

When MS moves to another BM. it will be handed over to the macro cell. To avoid the fast moving MS registered in macro cell enter the micro cell. and extended cell handover. To avoid miscarriage of justice. which will complete handover-signaling process together with BTS. If a handover fails for a Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-68 . Before the speed sensitive timer of a certain micro cell times out. P/N measurement will be implemented to several cells. this MS is considering to be moving fast with this cell as the reference. Fast moving handover algorithm can only perform accumulation judgement to the MS within the same BM and same BSC. so that the position of this micro cell in the cell sequencing will be lowered. For MS registered in macro cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Umbrella Cell Micro Cell Figure 2-20 Fast moving handover There are two principles for fast moving handover: If the MS is moving fast with the micro cell as the reference. time penalty will be implemented to micro cell. this MS will be handed over the macro cells. etc.) according to the various conditions. Handover decision algorithm sends the message of decided handover result to call process module. it is necessary to re-judge. j) Other handovers Other handovers include IUO handover. MSC and MS. inter-cell handover in the same BSC. forced handover. If the duration of MS camping in a cell is lower than a certain threshold (Fast Moving Time Threshold). 3) Handover procedure Handover decision algorithm enables the preprocessing of the input MR and decides whether handover should be done and which type of handover it should be (intra-cell handover. this receiving level of this micro cell will be punished. outgoing BSC handover. If the criterion of fast moving is satisfied. directed retry. the method of "timer + penalty" is applied.

which will decide how to further process this handover. MS measures the receiving quality (RxQual) and receiving level (RxLev) of the downlink of the serving cell as well as the downlink RxLev of the BCCH carrier frequency of adjacent cells (best six adjacent cells average). Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-69 . If SACCH is used for the transmission of other signals. MR preprocessing Handover decision algorithm starting decision MR averaging procesing Penalty processing of cell measurement value Basic cell sorting Adjustment according to network features Handover decision Sending handover commands to the call handling module Call control Processing of handover results Figure 2-21 Handover decision process flow chart Each phase of the process is described as follows. a) MR preprocessing.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions certain reason. MR provides basic parameters needed in handover decision. call process module will notify the handover result to the algorithm. Handover process is as shown in Figure 2-21. MS sends the measurement results once every 960ms. BTS measures the RxQual and RxLev of the corresponding uplink. BTS combines the uplink measurement value and the downlink measurement value to form a MR message. Then MS sends these measurement results to BTS through SACCH once every 480ms.

This procedure is called MR interpolation. A simple and practical algorithm is weighted filtering. 4% ~ 0. 2% 0. 28% 0. 14% 0.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: If messages transmitted on the uplink SACCH do not include the MR (transmitted by MS). speech and data channels. The preprocessing of the MR includes the following three procedures: MR interpolation processing: When discontinuous MRs are received by BTS or BSC. Table 2-7 Receiving level calculation assumed value RxLev number 0 1 2 … 62 63 Implication < -110dBm -110dBm~109dBm -109dBm~-108dBm … -49dBm ~ -48dBm > -48dBm Assumed value -110dBm -109dBm -108dBm … -48dBm -47dBm Table 2-8 Receiving quality calculation assumed value RxQual number 0 1 2 BER range < 0. 8% Assumed value 0. To eliminate the uncertainty in handover decision. it is necessary to perform smooth processing over the MRs. MR should be preprocessed so that it can have a better reflection of radio links. the uplink measurement result will indicate that the MR transmitted by MS is lost. previously received MRs will be regarded as invalid ones and re-collection is needed. MR preprocessing process can be realized in both BTS and BSC and controlled by OMC. or different channel types like signaling channels. Different filter lengths can be respectively defined for different types of measurement values like the receiving level. receiving quality and TA. lost MRs should be interpolated so as to guarantee the continuity of the whole MR processing process. The receiving level (RxLev) and receiving quality (RxQual) use corresponding assumed value for calculations. If the number of lost MRs exceeds a limit. 57% 0 10 20 Calculated value Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-70 . as shown in Table 2-7. and Table 2-8. or filtering. 2% ~ 0. 4% 0.

10% Calculated value 30 40 50 60 70 The MR represents the condition of radio channels in the previous measurement cycle. After the cycle of a handover decision is finished.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions RxQual number 3 4 5 6 7 BER range 0. And the BSC will forward the decision. 13% 2. When the multiplexing on the Abis interface is 15:1. the target cell shall be Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-71 . of Preprocessed Measurement Report]. 2% ~ 6. 8% ~ 1. 4% ~ 12. 53% 9. [Transfer Original Measurement Report] and [Report Freq. so it is of hysteresis to some extent. c) MR averaging processing Filter MRs according to a certain algorithm. 4% 6. Accordingly. The prediction algorithm is mainly responsible for MR values for the next cycle(s) based on the radio environment changes prediction. Therefore. modify [BTS Measurement Report Preprocessing]. every 4 signaling links multiplex a 64kbit/s timeslot statistically. which might cause invalid handover attempt or handover failure. d) Penalty processing of cell measurement value Practically there is a possibility that a handover can not be successful. Moreover. handover decision algorithm is started. 26% 4. If conditions are satisfied. 05% 18. 6% 1. handover decisions and processing are still carried out in the BSC. thus to prevent incorrect handovers due to individual interference. such as whether there are enough MRs. cancel their noise. the emergency handover due to fast level dropping is decided by BTS. MR reporting frequency can adopt interval reporting. MR prediction is a process that can be selected by the operator. 8% > 12. MR is transmitted through RSL. b) Handover decision algorithm starting decision Judge whether basic conditions for handover are satisfied. For other handovers completed within BSC. 6% ~ 3. and smooth MRs. 8% Assumed value 1. In order to minimize signaling transmission error bit. MR processing mode requires that MR should be a preprocessed one instead of the original one. the MS will stick to the original serving cell. or even interruption. It can be realized with data configuration: in [Cell/Modify Cell's Handover parameter/Modify Handover Parameter/HO Control Data]. the system might try to hand over the MS to the above-mentioned target cell again. when Abis interface multiplexing mode is 15:1. 2% 3. In case the handover to the selected target cell fails.

thus the position of each cell is located. III. Adjacent cells that have been imposed penalty and the serving cell are sorted through a certain algorithm. then the latter starts the signaling procedures for this handover. Parameter 1) TA Handover “TA Thrsh ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “Filter Length for TA ” in [Handover\Filter Table] “Penalty Time after TA HO ” in [Handover\Penalty Table] “Penalty Level after TA HO ” in [Handover\ Penalty Table] Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-72 . it returns the result to the handover decision module. Penalty types include the penalty of the forsaken cell due to TA value. adjust cells adjusted in last procedure and finalize a uniform clear list of cells that are ready to be handed over. e) Basic cell sorting. cell priority. BSC sends handover message containing the type of incoming handover to the call-handling module. and fast-moving penalty (this is a penalty imposed on the microcell in the candidate queue in order to prevent frequent handover when the fast moving MS accesses a cell of small coverage). penalty of the forsaken cell due to bad quality (BQ). and the specific network environment. h) Sending handover commands to the call handling module After making the handover decision with the algorithm and deciding to execute the handover.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions punished. which is to reduce the receiving power of the corresponding cell by a set penalty value for a period (called the penalty time). speed sensibility. penalty to the failed cell due to ordinary handover failure. f) Adjustment according to network features To adjust candidate queue through a certain algorithm according to hierarchical network. the module will set a new handover interval timer to avoid frequent handovers. This is to get ready for final handover. i) Processing of handover results After the call handling module has processed handover signaling. g) Handover decision Handover decision algorithm is used to decide the time to start handover and the target cell to be handed over. Confirm the candidate cell queue list. If the handover fails. If the handover is successful. the handover decision module will start penalty to the cell responsible for the failure.

HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “DL RX_LEV Thrsh. Thrsh. Thrsh. Thrsh ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “DL Qual. for Interf. HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “DL Qual. for Interf. for Interf. Thrsh ” in [Handover\ Emergency Handover Table] “Filter Length for TCH Level ” in [Handover\Filter Table] “Filter Length for SD Qual ” in [Handover\Filter Table] “Penalty Level after BQ HO ” in [Handover\Penalty Table] “Penalty Time after BQ HO ” in [Handover\Penalty Table] 3) Level rapid dropping handover “Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed ” in [Handover\Handover Control Table] “Filter parameter A1~A8 ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “Filter parameter B ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] 4) Interference handover “UL Qual. HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] 5) Edge handover “Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh ” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Edge HO DL RX_LEV Thrsh ” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Edge HO watch time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Edge HO valid time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Inter-cell HO Hysteresis” in [Handover\Adjacent Cell Relation Table] 6) PBGT handover “PBGT HO Allowed” in [Handover\Handover Control Table] “PBGT HO Thrsh” in [Handover\Adjacent Cell Relation Table] “PBGT Watch Time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “PBGT Valid Time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] 7) Load handover “load HO Allowed ” in [Handover\Handover Control Table] “System Flux Thrsh. HO ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “UL RX_LEV Thrsh. for Load HO” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-73 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2) BQ Handover “UL Qual. for Interf.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-74 . power control adjusts the transmit power of MS and BTS according to the expected value configured in OMC data management system.2. Overview As an important method to control radio link. Basic rules for power control are: 1) 2) 3) When the level or signal quality is higher than the expected value. the power should be increased accordingly. The level and signal quality should be both considered so as to improve the accuracy and effectiveness. on Candiate Cell” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load HO Bandwidth” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load HO Step Period” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load HO Step Level” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] 8) Layered and hierarchical handover.2 Power Control I.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions “Load HO Thrsh” in [Handover\Load Handover Table] “Load Req. the power should be decreased accordingly. the receiving level (including uplink and downlink) from BTS and the MR of receiving quality. When the level or signal quality is lower than the expected value. “Layer of The Cell” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Cell Priority” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Inter-layer HO Thrsh” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Inter-layer HO hysteresis” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Layer HO watch time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] “Layer HO valid time” in [Handover\Normal Handover Table] 9) Fast Moving handover “MS Fast Moving HO Allowed” in [Handover\ Handover Control Table] “MS Fast-moving Watch cells” in [Handover\Fast-moving handover Table] “MS Fast-moving Valid cells” in [Handover\Fast-moving handover Table] “MS Fast-moving time Thrsh” in [Handover\Fast-moving handover Table] “Penalty on MS Fast Moving HO” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] “Penalty Time on MS Fast moving HO” in [Handover\Cell Description Table] 2.

the quality of other call supported by this BTS may be deteriorated due to Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-75 . Technical description 1) Power control classification Power control comprises uplink and downlink power controls. With the limited resource of the RF spectrum cellular systems depend upon the reuse of the RF channels. since BTS may simultaneously support multiple calls. easy operations and easy command. The stable adjusting is the normal method for performing the power control algorithm. while the initial adjusting is used in the time when the call connection is initially started. the greater the density the shorter the reuse distance. thus maximizing available talking time.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions The nature of a cellular system requires that the output power of the BSC and MS should be set as low as possible. otherwise. particularly co-channel. If MS does not support this power class. By keeping the MS and BSC at the minimum acceptable power output it reduces the chances of interference. the stable adjusting stage and the initial adjusting stage. the supported power class that is nearest to it will be utilized. When a connection is performed. Any algorithm can be selected among these three algorithms. which are executed separately. a) MS power control The purpose of MS power control is to adjust the MS output power in order to achieve the stable receiving signal so as to reduce the interference from subscribers of adjacent channels. effectiveness. The reuse distance between these channels mainly upon the subscriber density in a particular area. Another benefit of effective power control is that the battery of MS is extended.. such as the maximum output power class supported by the reported MS Classmark in the establishment indication message). the receiving signal intensity should be reduced in a new connection as quick as possible. which is GSM 0508 power control algorithm. Huawei BSS offers three different algorithms for the implementation of power control. and Huawei I (HW_I) and Huawei II (HW_II) algorithms. However. These Huawei-developed algorithms are compatible nicely with the GSM900 and GSM1800 systems. The uplink power control is for MS while the downlink power control is for BTS. The MS power control is divided into two adjusting stages.e. MS is output as the nominal power of the cell where it is located (the nominal power indicates that the MS transmitting power is the MS maximum transmitting power MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH in the broadcast system messages on the BCCH channel of the cell where it is located. i. decrease the saturation degree of BTS multicoupler and reduce MS power consumption. II. HW_I and HW_II algorithms are recommended due to their flexible configurations.

05 protocol specification specifies that the base station static power class is divided into 6 (2dB/per class). the purpose of the initial stage power control adjusting is to reduce the MS transmitting power as quick as possible until the stable measurement report is obtained. The essence of the uplink power control adjusting is to enable the actual uplink receiving level and receiving quality obtained from interpolation and filtering to progressively approach the desirable uplink receiving level and receiving quality set by O&M. e. when the maximum power output by the base station is 46dBm (40W). clear the temporary nature (spiffiness). desirable uplink receiving quality. The purpose for the interpolation and filtering of the measurement reports is to process the lost measurement report. the actual uplink receiving level and the receiving quality are obtained. the class 6 is 34 dBm. class 0 of the receiving level is the lowest. The static power level is defined in the cell attribute table of the data management console. except that the base power control utilizes only the stable power control algorithm.. The base station power control is divided into the static power control and the dynamic power control. Therefore. The parameters that must be selected in the uplink power control. the maximum output power value Pn of the current dynamic power control is specified. filter lengths are different. b) BTS power control The BTS power control is an optional function. The parameters that must be selected in the power control include the receiving level threshold (lower limitation) to be performed the power control and the receivable maximum sending level threshold (upper limitation). i. so as to ensure the stability of the power control algorithm. while the class 63 of the receiving level is the highest.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions the saturation of the BTS multi-coupler. with the power control algorithm. The difference between power controls in initial phase and stable phase is that their expected uplink receiving levels and receiving qualities. and the former one only adjusts downwards. by the processing methods such as interpolation and filtering. etc. After a given number of the uplink measurement reports is received. the power class to which the MS should be adjusted is calculated. As the dynamic power control classes are Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-76 . the power adjusting command is sent. The base station power control is basically identical to the MS power control. such as the expected desirable uplink receiving level. if it is different from the current MS output power class and meets a given application restricted conditions (such as the power adjusting step length restriction. The receiving level RXLEV is divided into 64 classes. and the call quality of other cells may be affected due to the high interference. MS output power range restriction). with numbers from 0 to 63. then they are compared with the desirable uplink receiving level and the receiving quality. the later is the fine adjusting based on the former. The GSM 05. the data configuration can be dynamically carried out according to the actual situations of the cell. are all set by the O&M data management console. . so that the MS can be adjusted according to the stable power control algorithm.

which will be reported to BTS in next SACCH uplink MR. MS will execute the power control command in next cycle instead of upon the receipt of these headers in first cycle. 16×2=32dB. 480ms. the current transmit power (refers to the power level used by the last burst pulse of SACCH MS cycle) is stored. clear the temporary nature (spilliness). 8×2=16dB. the range of the dynamic power control is Pn-Pn-30dB. one MR cycle) to complete power regulation. If the regulation step length is 8. In the 26 multiframe the 12th frame is for Report period of SACCH: sending SACCH 26× 4=104 frame (480ms) SA0 SA1 SA2 SA3 SA0 SA1 SA2 SA3 SA0 SA1 SA2 SA3 BTS transmifs the command of adjust power and TA at SACCH header MS adopts new powerand TA MS starts to send the messurement report of the previous multi-frame MS obtains SACCH block MS Generates new SACCH BTS receives the header to report new TA and measurement report power control message Figure 2-22 Power control execution process a) In the first MR cycle.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions set to 15. e. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-77 . If the requirements cannot be satisfied when the dynamic power control reaches its maximum value. 2) Execution process of power control There are 3 MR cycles from sending command to execution. The maximum rate of change of MS power is 2dB/13 frame (60ms). i. power control is executed. It needs 104 frames (i. The purpose for the interpolation and filtering of the measurement reports is to process the lost measurement report. i. as shown in Figure 2-22. so as to ensure the stability of the power control algorithm. the static power control classes should be adjusted to increase the maximum output power value Pn of the dynamic power control. c) In the third cycle. If the regulation step length is 16. MS receives the power regulation message carried by SACCH header on dedicated channel and the first layer header carried by a downlink SACCH message block. It takes 2 MR cycleS to complete power regulation. e. e. b) In the second MR cycle. enable the actual uplink receiving level and receiving quality obtained from interpolation and filtering to progressively approach the desirable uplink receiving level and receiving quality set by O&M.

the power control will never stop and the level fluctuates with the expected value.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 3) Power Control Algorithm BSC can dynamically implement power control on each MS and BTS Three algorithms can be adopted as power control algorithm: GSM 0508 algorithm. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-78 . HW_I algorithm and HW_II algorithm. Usually the steps for power control are: MR preprocessing Power calculation Power control decision Adjustment by sending power control commands 4) Huawei HW_I algorithm Huawei HW_I has following features: Compared with protocol algorithm. power regulation will be executed. Power control decision process HW_I algorithm power control decision process is as shown in Figure 2-24. Data configuration is rather complicated. The power control adjustment involves many parameters and complicated calculation. Counters P' and N' are used to count the MR and the values of these counters can be set through OMC. Once the adjustment results of the receiving level and receiving quality are contrary. the initial state regulation is added. When N' MRs in the consecutively received P' MRs exceeds the above threshold. Algorithm process is as shown in Figure 2-23 MR Preprocessing Power Control Algorithm selection GSM0508 power control algorithm HW_I Power control algorithm HW_II Power control algorithm Figure 2-23 Power control algorithm selection Power control algorithm is specified in the 0508 protocols (for further details refer to the related specifications). For uplink. upper limit and lower limit thresholds are set for the receiving signal level and the receiving signal quality. Power control decision is the sum of the level and quality. and the expected value is just a specified value instead of a range.

Network side on SACCH will receive MRs from MS and BTS every 480 ms. including receiving signal level.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MR pre-processing Satisfying power control target N Power control calculation and regulation cinitial state and stable state Y Figure 2-24 HW_I algorithm power control decision process b) Measurement Report In order to implement power control decision. in which various kinds of information needed for power control decision are contained. MR MR MR MR Uplink measurement Downlink measurement Figure 2-25 Reporting MR An example of BSS MR is shown in Figure 2-26. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-79 . various kinds of information about the current communications status from MS and BTS should be collected. The process of MS reporting is as shown in Figure 2-25. and communication quality etc.

d) Power control decision Number of transmit power to be adjusted (Expected stable signal level . Interpolation: each MR has a serial number. Filtering: Several continuous MRs results will be used to reflect the state of MS in a period of time thus to avoid the one-sidedness caused by judging the state of MS according to only one MR result. this means that there are some MRs gets lost. network will add all lost MRs according to interpolation algorithm. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-80 . In this case.current receiving signaling level) × uplink (downlink) compensating factor + (current actual receiving uplink (downlink) quality – expected uplink (downlink) quality) × 10 × uplink (downlink) quality compensating factor Caution: The last regulated power level cannot exceed the maximum power control step length. If the serial numbers of received MRs are found not continuous.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Figure 2-26 MR example c) MR preprocessing.

Table 2-10 GSM900 tolerance table Level Tolerance 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 4 1 0 4 1 1 4 1 2 4 1 3 4 1 4 4 1 5 4 1 6 6 1 7 6 1 8 6 1 9 6 The similarities and difference of HW_I algorithm uplink power control and downlink power control is as follows: Similarities: In order to avoid the fluctuation caused by power controls.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Actual stable level equals to the sum of current actual level and transmit power to be regulated During the process of judging power control level to be adjusted. Both uplink and downlink power controls have power control on level and quality respectively. Both have maximum power control step length and compensating factor. In order to not being affected by unexpected factors. 5) Huawei HW_II algorithm Compared with HW_I. HW_II has following advantages: MR compensation. Table 2-9 GSM1800 tolerance table Level Tolerance 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 1 0 3 1 1 3 1 2 3 1 3 3 1 4 4 1 5 4 1 6 4 1 7 2 1 8 2 1 9 2 GSM900 tolerance table is shown in Table 2-10. the interval between two continuous controls is specified for both uplink and downlink. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-81 . all MRs should be filtered. it needs to search tolerance table according to the level of current transmit power. which makes the power control decision more accurate. GSM1800 tolerance table is shown in Table 2-9. the regulation is unnecessary. If the final power regulation level is with the tolerance range. Uplink has measures to improve transmit power in the case of MS handover failure. Downlink has the restriction for both maximum and minimum MS transmit power. The purpose is to lower MS transmit power as soon as possible. Difference: MS has power control not only for stable state but also for initial connecting phase before a call is connected.

Calculate the transmit step length to be regulated Improving transmitting power for low receiving quality. Easy and flexible data configuration. Then the transmit level step length is calculated. which sufficiently guarantees the algorithm stability and high efficiency. which guarantees effective regulation of network optimized parameters. Keep power control target within the range between upper limit and lower limit so as to avoid power control fluctuation. When receiving level regulates transmit power. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-82 . Adaptive power control. a) Power control decision process HW_II power control decision process is as shown in Figure 2-27. c) Request power control according to receiving quality After the preprocessing of MR. Configure the upward and the downward power control step respectively. variable step length can be adopted so that the quick power control can be obtained. which reduces power control delay. power control module compares the evaluation value of the current receiving quality with expected value. MR pre-processing Power control requested by receiving level Power control requested by receicing quality Conprehensive decision of power control Figure 2-27 HW_II power control decision process b) Request power control according to level After the preprocessing of MR.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MR prediction. power control module compares the current receiving level with expected value. The regulation is to make the receiving level closer to the expected value.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-83 . f) Predict filtering The power control is a process of transmitting power control based upon the current received level and the receiving quality. so there will exist certain hysteresis between the receiving change and corresponding transmitting power adjustment. The sending and transmission of power control command and power adjustment will take certain period of time.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Decreasing transmitting power for high receiving quality. Filtering prediction enables MR on which power control decision is based to get closer to the state of power regulation so as to erase delay effectively. The interpolated and compensated MRs are filtered so as to make control power decision more effective. AdjStep_Qul) No action οAdjStep_Lev μAdjStep_Lev μMAX(AdjStep_Lev. the receiving level value of history MRs should be compensated. In order to guarantee the accuracy of receiving level to be used. Do not adjust the transmitting power when the receiving quality falls between the upper/lower thresholds. d) Comprehensive decision of power control Comprehensive decision of power control is shown in Table 2-11. These MRs might be obtained in different transmit powers. if the transmit powers in these MRs are different. AdjStep_Qul) μAdjStep_Lev οAdjStep_Qul μAdjStep_Qul No action e) MR compensation Power control module will extract the receiving level and receiving quality of some history MRs when it implements power control decision. Table 2-11 Table of comprehensive decision of power control Receiving level power control regulation οAdjStep_Lev οAdjStep_Lev οAdjStep_Lev μAdjStep_Lev μAdjStep_Lev μAdjStep_Lev No action No action No action Receiving quality power control regulation οAdjStep_Qul μAdjStep_Qul No action οAdjStep_Qul μAdjStep_Qul No action οAdjStep_Qul μAdjStep_Qul No action Comprehensive decision of power control οMAX(AdjStep_Lev.

HW_II adopts the power control strategy of dual threshold so as to try to keep receiving within two thresholds. Thus. Receiving quality threshold is also set with dual thresholds. Therefore. then 0~3 MRs of after the current time are predicted. Generally. This interference is interactive. transmit power cannot be lowered greatly. As a consequence. i) Adaptive power control Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-84 . if that the level or quality is greatly different from its expected value. the accuracy of prediction is guaranteed. the change of receiving quality is associated with interference. h) Variable step length power control When variable step length regulation is adopted. both requirements should be satisfied as much as possible. which is about 1. there are 3 MRs between power control decision and power regulation.5 second. quick and accurate power regulation is achieved. the effect on power control caused by level and quality should be both considered. interpolated MRs. Power control decision is made after the filtering of predicted MRs. Adjust power step length according receiving quality: Generally. On one hand. in the case that the requirements are not consistent or completely contrary. One call increases its power means that it exerts a stronger interference on the other call. in the case that the level or quality is slightly different from its expected value. on the other hand. The main interference of GSM comes to same frequency interference generated from frequency multiplexing. use the larger step length to quickly adjust power. For the power regulation caused by quality factor should use fixed step length to avoid.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions MR filtering prediction is implemented in a very short time and changes of receiving level and quality are likely to be continuous. Therefore. Considering the requirements of both level and quality. the stability should be fully considered to prohibit the unstable regulation process. While receiving quality beyond the range should be adjusted. due to the instability of radio link and the external interference. However. use the smaller step length to adjust power. the power regulation caused by the change of receiving quality should avoid the group effect of increasing transmit power due to bad quality. and compensated history MRs. N MRs before the current time are used for weighted filtering. Therefore. g) Dual threshold power control algorithm Dual threshold power control algorithm adopts the following three strategies: Adjust power control step length according to receiving level: The final purpose of power control is to obtain the best communication quality at the lowest level. Receiving quality with the range between two thresholds needs not to adjust transmit power. Considering both power control strategies of receiving level and receiving quality regulation.

the value of upper threshold can be increased furthermore.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Adaptive power control is to change power control strategy according different communication environments. Compensation ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “Max PC Step ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] 2) HW_II algorithm parameters “Filter Length for UL RX_LEV ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “Filter Length for DL RX_LEV ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “Filter Length for UL Qual ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “Filter Length for DL Qual ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MR Compensation Allowed ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-85 . III. When the receiving quality is good. When the receiving quality is rather poor. This is reflected in following two aspects: Power control adjustable maximum step length can be adjusted automatically according to the different communication environments. there are upper threshold of uplink (downlink) signal strength and lower threshold of uplink (downlink) signal strength. The different power control strategies are adopted for different communication environments. When the up/down link signal quality or receiving quality become worse suddenly. this enable the system can control the power rapidly and flexibly according to the actual network. k) Configure the upward and the downward power control step respectively System configure the upward and the downward power control step respectively. the lower value of upper threshold can be adopted so as to reduce the transmit power of mobile phone or base station. system increase the power rapidly to avoid call drop. the higher value of upper threshold can be adopted so as to improve the communication quality. This fact leads to a more effective and more stable power control. For level. When the receiving quality is rather poor. Expected ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “UL Qual. j) Adjustment of upper threshold of signal strength Double-threshold power control algorithm is adopted for power control. Parameter 1) HW_I algorithm parameters “Initial RX_LEV Expected ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “Stable RX_LEV Expected ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “Uplink RX_LEV Compensation ” in [Power\MS Power Control Table] “UL Qual.

with low traffic. Bad UpLEVDiff ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] BTS PC class 2. Bad TrigThrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual.2. value Qual. which results that the cell coverage radius should be within 35km." in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual. Overview In GSM specifications. PC Value by Qual. the TA of cell has a restriction of 63 bit at the radio interface. Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MAX Down Adj. Bad UpLEVDiff ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual. Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL RX_LEV Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL RX_LEV Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual. zone 0” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MAX Down Adj. with scattered subscribers.Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual. value Qual.R.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions “UL M. zone 1” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MAX Down Adj. Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual. Number Predicted ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “PC Interval ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL RX_LEV Upper Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL RX_LEV Lower Thrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “UL Qual. and the infrastructure facilities such as transmission and power supply are hard to be constructed or unavailable.3 Extended Cell I. the cell with radius over 35km should be provided.R. value Qual. Bad TrigThrsh ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL Qual. In regions such as vast land. Number Predicted ” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “DL M. PC Value by RX_LEV" in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] "MAX Up Adj. zone 2” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] “MAX Down Adj.” in [Power\HWII Power Control Table] "MAX Up Adj. PC Value by Qual. The extended cell breaks the restriction Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-86 .

TA value of TA in MS has a maximum of 63+156. and to attract the mobile subscribers in special regions so as to improve profit. In order to enable MSs in extended range to initiate call at any time. For MS. II. Supported by BTS hardware. The principle of extended cell delay regulation is as shown in Figure 2-28. two continuous time slots in BTS are specified for each MS call. 25 = 219. 25 bit. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-87 . . i. 4/5. only channel 0. TA supports a maximum of 63 bit. the system uses TA to make the uplink signals of MSs with different distances reach within the corresponding local time slot. 2.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions of radius within 35km. Technical description When the cell coverage radius exceeds 35km. its TA value changes within the range 0~63. e. In order to support the extended MS signals over 63 bit. While BTS demodulates uplink data in two continuous time slots. if the MS continues to move outside of cell range. it can cover a range with radius of 120km under its ideal state. and part of signaling transmitted by MS will reach BTS receiver at next time slot. and 6 are distributed. signal delay will exceed the duration corresponding with the maximum value 63 bit specified in GSM specifications. 4. and the receiving window of BTS receiver is also extended to a width of two time slots thus the cell coverage radius is extended to over 35km. Each time slot is a channel. dual time slot solution binds odd and even time slots and regards each TDMA frame as only with four channels: 0/1. Normally. The frame TDMA of GSM radio interface is composed of 8 time slots. 6/7. it will transmit at the maximum TA allowed by system. 2/3. Carriers can use this technology to fast construct their GSM networks with fewer stations and at lower cost. The MS in the range 0~35km. two time slots should be always distributed to BCCH. the system is no longer able to implement adaptive regulation on TA value due to the TA has reached its maximum. The TA value of MS with radius over 35km is always maintained as 63. It is this principle that extended cell uses to realize the cell extension. If an MS reaches the ordinary coverage verge. CCCH and SDCCH.

The calls within TA value accessed randomly being within 35km radius are distributed to ordinary carrier. Parameter “Cell Extension Type ” in [Cell\Cell Attribute Table] “CH Type ” in [Local Office\Radio Channel Configuration Table] “TA Thrsh ” in [Handover\Emergency Handover Table] “TA Thrsh ” in [Handover\Concentric cell Handover Table] Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-88 . there are ordinary carrier and dual time slot ones. When carrier level dual time slot extended cell is adopted. while the calls within 34~120km radius and the incoming handovers are distributed to dual time slot carrier. then this is called carrier level dual time slot solution. The conversion of carrier frequencies between ordinary one and dual time slot one can be set through BSC data configuration III. which is from the dual time slot frequency to the ordinary one or from the ordinary to dual time slot frequency. this will lead to an intra-cell handover. If part of carrier frequencies in a cell are set as ordinary ones and other carrier frequencies are configured as dual time slot ones. and BCCH is located in dual time slot carrier. When the calling MS crosses 35 km line. this is called cell level dual time slot solution. BCCH in dual time slot guarantees the random access of any areas.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions DELAY<=63 After TA adjustment unlink data demodulation range TS0 TS1 TS2 delay>63 After TA adjustment TS0 TS1 Dual times lot extendend cell TS2 Figure 2-28 Principle of extended cell delay regulation If all carrier frequencies in a cell are set as ordinary ones. the system can handover them again to ordinary carrier. For the incoming handovers to be found as 0~35km ones.

Its function is to absorb the most subscribers within the cell coverage area. the aggressive frequency reuse increases the radio interference greatly and even to affect the communication quality seriously. The IUO technology divides an ordinary cell into two service layers: OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell. such as BCCH frequency. However. for the MS in the OverLaid subcell. Under the circumstance of aggressive frequency reuse. Overview With the development of GSM network. The frequency inside the OverLaid subcell adopts aggressive frequency reuse mode. so the contradict between short frequency resource and great demand is particularly obvious. OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell can be regarded as two cells because their coverage areas are different. For the MS in the UnderLaid subcell.2. Technical description IUO refers to the different carrier circle cells formed by different carrier frequencies in a cell with difference on coverage. In order to increase capacity. Logically.4 IUO I. the technology of aggressive frequency reuse should be used to improve the frequency utilization. try to distribute the more reuse frequency. such as frequency except BCCH. try to distribute the less reuse frequency. The OverLaid subcell is the main traffic carrier layer because it has many channels. which can improve system capacity effectively. UnderLaid subcell Cell A OverLaid subcell Cell B Signal Interference Figure 2-29 Aggressive Frequency Reuse of IUO cell Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-89 . the number of subscribers increases gradually. the IUO technology can be used to avoid or decrease radio interference so as to guarantee communication quality. UnderLaid subcell solve the problem of coverage and provide service for the areas not covered by overlaid cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions “TA Hysteresis ” in [Handover\ Concentric cell Handover Table] 2. II. e The technical description of IUO is as shown in Figure 2-29.

The power that provided by BCCH carrier is greater than other carriers. the IUO can effectively reduce the interference for the whole network and obtain the better network quality than 1x3 multiplexing without the decrease of network capacity. While the cell coverage area depends on the carrier of smaller coverage.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions As shown above. Underlaid Overlaid Figure 2-30 IUO coverage After the employment of the IUO cell. the carrier with wide coverage can be used to serve as UnderLaid subcell to realize the far end coverage of site. while the carrier with small coverage can be used to serve as OverLaid subcell to increase the near end capacity of site. it adopts more reuse frequency mode such as 1x3 due to its small coverage. In this way. The wider coverage can be realized through having the carrier in which BCCH is used large power amplifier. the cell coverage area can be greatly increased. so the coverage distance of different carrier is different. then the IUO cell is completely the same as the cell with the multiplexing mode of 1x3 adopted and the average frequency multiplexing ratio is the same as that of 1x3 multiplexing. the cell coverage area can be increased. For the UnderLaid subcell cell. in this case. When the IUO technology is employed. After the IUO technology is employed. For the OverLaid subcell cell. it can greatly increase the network capacity and guarantee the network quality because the OverLaid subcell employs of aggressive frequency reuse mode. Therefore. the IUO divides the cell coverage into OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell. The carrier frequencies of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell can adopt different multiplexing modes. the UnderLaid subcell is configured with only one carrier BCCH with the multiplexing mode of 4x3 being adopted and the rest TCH carrier frequencies are configured in OverLaid subcell with the multiplexing mode of 1x3 being adopted. The theoretically added coverage of various typical stations with different combining modes is shown in Table 2-12. so the coverage area is greatly restricted. In some special cases. compared with Multiple Reuse Pattern (MRP). it adopts less reuse frequency mode such as 4x3. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-90 .

0dB Added coverage area after the employment of IUO 27% 60% 27% 27% The division of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell is based on the MS downlink receiving level. The division of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell of common IUO is based on the "RX-LEV Thrsh.5 5." and "O to U HO received level Thrsh.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-12 Coverage changes for typical sites after the employment of IUO cell Number of cell carrier frequencies 3 4. 5dB Loss of high loss carrier 4. 0dB 1. 0dB 4. 5dB 8. as shown in Figure 2-31. The division of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell of enhanced IUO is based on the "U to O HO received level Thrsh.6 Combining mode CDU+CDU CDU+CDU+SCU CDU+CDU+CD U CDU+CDU+SCU Loss of low loss carrier 1. Figure 2-31 Division of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell in a common IUO cell Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-91 ." and "RX-LEV Hysteresis". downlink receiving quality and TA. 0dB 4. 5dB 8. 0dB 1.5 4.".

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: The division foundation of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell is as follows: OverLaid subcell: Receiving Level>= RX_LEV Thrsh. O to U HO received level Thrsh. can be adjusted through data configuration. Therefore. RX_LEV Thrsh. under the precondition of without affecting the network performance indexes. + RX_LEV Hysteresis and TA<TA Thrsh – TA Hysteresis and Receiving Quality < Receiving Quality Thrsh. UnderLaid subsell: Receiving Level < RX_LEV Thrsh. Receiving Quality Threshold Overlaid subcell TA Threshold TA Hysteresis Figure 2-32 Division of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell in a enhanced IUO cell Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-92 .. Receiving Quality Thrsh. – RX_LEV Hysteresis or TA >=TA Thrsh + TA Hysteresis or Receiving Quality >= Receiving Quality Thrsh. the boarders of UnderLaid subcell and OverLaid subcell can be adjusted flexibly to let OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell rationally share the traffic. Underlaid subcell U to O HO received level Thrsh. and TA Thrsh.

the UnderLaid subcell channel will be assigned as far as possible when the subscriber is in the UnderLaid subcell coverage. 1) Channel assignment technology of IUO cell This technology can adopt different assignment strategies in various channel assignment cases in fully consideration of features of IUO. System assigns the channel in overlaid subcell for the MS in the overlaid subcell. There is no reference receiving level. UnderLaid subsell: Receiving Level < O to U HO received level Thrsh. The OverLaid subcell channel will be assigned as far as possible when the subscriber is in the OverLaid subcell coverage. Only when there is no signaling channel available in the UnderLaid subcell. the SDCCH of UnderLaid subcell is assigned preferentially. or TA >=TA Thrsh + TA Hysteresis or Receiving Quality >= Receiving Quality Thrsh. The OverLaid subcell channel will be assigned when no UnderLaid subcell channel is available. In order to guarantee the service quality. system assigns the channel in underlaid subcell for the MS in the underlaid subcell. Select the suitable service layer to serve the subscriber. Use the IUO channel assignment strategy to assign channels and select the suitable service layer to serve the MS. and TA<TA Thrsh – TA Hysteresis and Receiving Quality < Receiving Quality Thrsh. System always selects the appropriate service layer for MS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: The division foundation of OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell is as follows: OverLaid subcell: Receiving Level>= U to O HO received level Thrsh. c) Intra-BSC handover Intra-BSC handover is applicable to the non-IUO handover and the handover from the OverLaid subcell directly to an adjacent cell. receiving quality and TA for immediate assignment. Similarly. will the signaling channel in the OverLaid subcell be assigned. The UnderLaid subcell channel will be assigned when no OverLaid subcell channel is available. The following are the main cases: a) Immediate assignment System assigns channel through access_delay in Channel Request message. b) Assignment The channel assignment strategy of IUO is used to assign channels. d) Inter-BSC handover Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-93 .

BSC can intelligently direct the traffic so as to utilize the frequency resource effectively." "Assign-Optimum-TA Thrsh" "TA pref." "TA Hysteresis" "IUO HO Watch Time" "IUO HO Valid Time" "Assign optimum layer" "Assign-optimum-level thrsh. When the MS crosses the boundary between OverLaid subcell and UnderLaid subcell. III." "TA Thrsh. Of Imme-Assign Allowed" "TA Thrsh. or non-strategy mode through switch.Assign pref." "Incoming-to-BSC HO optimum layer" Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-94 . the IUO handover can be initiated to enable the MS to setup a call at a suitable service layer. the handover will not be initiated.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Being unable to get the receiving level. the system selects the preferential UnderLaid subcell. Parameter Parameters in [Handover/ Concentric Cell Handover Table]: "Direction for IUO HO – UL to OL HO Allowed" "Direction for IUO HO – OL to UL HO Allowed" "Criterion for IUO HO – Rx_Lev for UO HO Allowed" "Criterion for IUO HO – Rx_Qual for UO HO Allowed" "Criterion for IUO HO – TA UO HO Allowed" "UO signal intensity difference " "RX_LEV Thrsh. 2) IUO cell handover technology Huawei handover algorithm has the IUO handover judgement function to realize the IUO technology. With the IUO cell handover technology. receiving quality and TA of adjacent cells. If the object handover layer is congested." "RX_LEV Hysteresis" "Receiving Quality Thrsh. or preferential OverLaid subcell. Of Imme.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-95 . of underlay" "Underlay HO Step period" "Underlay HO Step level" "Penalty Time of U to O HO (S)" Parameters in [Handover/Penalty Data Table]: "Penalty time after IUO HO Fail. which leads to the Abis interface of ordinary GSM equipment not supporting satellite transfer. it has the problems such as delay. the supplement and backup to conventional communication means. The solution principle is described as follows: 1) LAPD protocol processing During the LAPD protocol process. Meanwhile." "U to O Traffic HO Allowed" "Traffic Thrsh. fine mobility. little effected by landform. subcell in HO of intra-BSC " "Enhanced IUO allowed" "O to U HO received level Thrsh. Huawei BSS adopts dedicated satellite transfer equipment to realize the satellite transfer of Abis interface according to the features of satellite transfer." Parameters in [Handover/Cell Description Data]: "Cell Type" Parameters in [Site/Carrier Configuration Table]: 2." "U to O HO received level Thrsh. and bit error. 2) TRAU frame algorithm The adjustment algorithm of the TRAU frame is modified from fixed cycle adjustment to self-adaptive adjustment. and flexible link calling.5 "HW-IUO Property"Satellite Transfer I.2. Technical description Satellite communication is the development and the special form of microwave communication. jitter. the timer duration is prolonged and the value of slide window is increased to resist delay.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions "Pref. Satellite communication features wide coverage.

the satellite orbit plane is on the equator plane. the flying direction is the same as the earth rotation. 6km from the earth surface. TS31) and the time slot 0 of DDN circuit is used for the synchronization of DDN instead of transmitting service. the star networking mode is usually adopted. the accuracy of DDN clock is only 10E-7. the solution of Abis interface transmission by using satellite transfer should be positioned for the special areas where the ordinary transmission means is dissatisfactory and for the emergency communication.e.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 3) BTS clock work mode The transmission between BSC and BTS can only occupy 19 time slots of DDN circuit (TS1~18. BTS adopts internal clock. the satellite communication adopts synchronous satellite. BTS can only use the clock of DDN. As the link lease is very expensive and the quality is particularly sensitive to environments. When the satellite transfer is used for networking. the transmission bit error of satellite circuit is less than 10E-8. Satelite MSC Earth Station Earth Receiving E1 Station BTS BSC BTS SDH/PDH /HDSL/Microware /E1 BTS Earth Receiving E1 BTS Station Figure 2-33 Typical satellite transfer networking diagram Satellite communication is composed of satellite and ground station. and the duration of satellite rotation Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-96 . The typical satellite transfer networking diagram is shown in Figure 2-33. i. the satellite is 35786. which cannot satisfy the requirement of GSM protocol. the Voice quality is not affected. Usually. Therefore. However. 4) Voice quality When the transmission bit error is less than 10E-6. which accuracy meets the requirement of GSM protocol. Generally.

receiver. The receiver is made up of two completely independent paths. polarization diversity and space diversity. The ground station consists of antenna system. The ground station of ordinary satellite communication is a kind of large-sized international or European standard communication station. feeder. the system receives two or more input signals. antenna of small caliber. Technical description In radio waves propagation. telemetry system. and flexible application. communication control system and power supply system. antenna of large caliber. power supply system and temperature control system.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions cycle is the same as that of the earth. The satellite consists of control system. fading (including slow fading and fast fading) may impact on the communication quality and may even interrupt the communication. This mode is featured by its low cost of equipment.2. channel terminal equipment (modem). and expensive cost of equipment. including antenna. 1) Space diversity Space diversity is implemented by providing two sets of stand-alone receiving equipment concurrently.6 Diversity Receiving I. II. Parameter 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) “Transfer Mode ” in [Site\Site Description Table] “Immediate Assignment opt ” in [Cell\Cell Call Control Table] “MS MAX retrans ” in [Cell\System Information Table] “Tx-integer ” in [Cell\System Information Table] “CCCH_CONF ” in [Cell\System Information Table] 2. It has such features as high transmission rate. transmitter. diversity technique is used. DMUX and receiver. The subscriber data are connected to the ground station through the ground communication network to complete communication. The two signals of space diversity receiving have different propagation environments and different kinds of fading so they have the feature of coherence or little coherence. communication system (antenna and trunk equipment). The subscribers in VSAT system form a dedicated network to communicate through satellite respectively. To minimize these impacts and enhance the transmission quality. In this technique. time diversity. It is an effective approach to overcome fading. The input signals of the two channels come from the master and diversity antennas. tower amplifier (optional). which carry identical information but irrelevant random fading features. encompasses frequency diversity. It lowers the impact of propagation factor to adopt diversity combining technology and Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-97 .

In the mobile communication. another path of received signals may vary in signal quality as they are from an irrelevant transmission path. feeder. If the duplexer is used. e. so it is rarely used. tower top amplifier (optional). which value is related with adopted combing technology. a better diversity can be achieved when the distance between 2 sets of antenna is greater than 10 wavelengths. for a sector. only one set of antenna integrated by Tx and Rx antennas is needed. The interval between antennas can be either vertical or horizontal. the most powerful signals or combined signals with minimum fading can be selected through diversity combining technology. 2) Time diversity Time diversity can be used to send the same message through a certain delay. The diversity gain can be used to indicate the improvement of space diversity. the signal coherence coefficient on two sets of antennas is the smallest one and the gain is the greatest one. 3) Frequency diversity Frequency diversity is realized through frequency hopping. Interleaving technology is used to realize time diversity. α=0o) is received.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions make it output powerful useful signals. it has the advantage of convenient antenna extension and saving hoist space and is increasedly used. Space diversity is the most effective and most common mode in the mobile communication. demodulates and combines them. This can realize the combination of antenna. the more different multipath propagation. when the lateral signal (α=90o) is received. if two sets of antennas with an interval of dozens of wavelength are used to receive the same signal. Moreover. The vertical interval has a poor performance of diversity. For the polarization diversity. Huawei BTS uses dual polarization antenna to realize polarization diversity. Therefore. the coherence coefficient is the greatest one and the gain is the smallest one. and divider. or send a part of message at different times within the allowed range of delay. When the frontal signal (i. It has been proven that for the space diversity. only one set of Tx antenna and one set of Rx antenna are needed. The BTS receives two paths of signals: main and diversity signals. When the complicated radio transmission conditions result in deterioration in a path of the received signals. This gives 3~5dB diversity gain. In the same BTS or cell. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-98 . However. the improvement depends on the ratio between the effective height of diversity antenna (he) and level interval (d). and the less relativity. the wider spacing interval. 4) Polarization diversity It can get a better diversity gain to set two sets of antenna to form a certain angle. and the incoming wave angle α. the two sets of antenna can be integrated as one set of antenna.

The nature of hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse is a method of frequency planning. The principle of hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse is as shown in Figure 2-34.2. II. 3 indicates three cells.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions II. The comparison of adopting different aggressive frequency reuse is as shown in Table 2-13. the system can adopt hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse and 1x3 multiplexing technology. the technology of aggressive frequency reuse should be used to improve the frequency utilization. 4 indicate four sites. In 4x3 multiplexing. Parameter The system needs no extra data configuration to realize the diversity receiving. and totally there are twelve cells as frequency cluster. Advanced aggressive frequency reuse technology 1) Hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse Hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse supports that there can be several different frequencies multiplexing modes working simultaneously in the same GSM network. According to the actual network circumstance and requirements.7 Aggressive Frequency Reuse Pattern I. 2. while cells of other clusters reuse one certain group of frequency in these twelve frequency clusters. Hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse divides all available frequencies into several groups and each group serves as a carrier layer. Different cells in the same cluster have different frequencies. For example BCCH adopts 4x3 multiplexing mode and TCH adopts 3x3 and 2x3 modes. In order to increase capacity. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-99 . Aggressive Frequency Reuse With the development of network. the contradict between short frequency resource and great demand is particularly obvious. It has no special requirements of software and hardware for equipment. Table 2-13 The maximum configuration under different bandwidths Frequency band 6MHz 10MHz 4x3 multiplexing S(2/2/2) S(4/4/4) Hierarchical multiplexing S(3/3/3) S(6/6/6) 1x3 multiplexing S(4/4/4) S(8/8/8) Note: S(4/4/4) indicates three synchronous cells with each carrier number being 4. the subscribers increase gradually.

514.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions (1. b) Interval packet mode BCCH (12): 512. Both these two packet modes have their advantages and disadvantage. the interference between BCCH carrier layer and TCH carrier layer is little. TCH2 and TCH3. 531. 520.4. 535~561. 534. 532. 12 frequencies are assigned for BCCH. The following examples illustrate these two packets. In the case of continuous packet. The comparison is made as follows. 517. 525. 524. BCCH layer and TCH layer are quite independent and there is only one Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-100 . 521. 523. 522. TCH: 513. Meanwhile..37) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 BCCH BCCH TCH1 TCH1 TCH2 TCH2 TCH3 MICRO Figure 2-34 Principle of hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse After the hierarchical aggressive frequency reuse is used. 518..36.2. There are two modes of carrier packet: Continuous packet: The ARFCNs of frequencies assigned in the same layer are continuous. 526. Provided that frequency range is 512~561. For example: the maximum configuration S (4/4/4) packet mode can be divided into: BCCH. TCH1. Interval packet: The ARFCNs of frequencies assigned in the same layer have intervals. The frequency hopping can get the frequency diversity gain and interference diversity gain.3. 516. 38 for TCH. both same frequency and adjacent frequency interference should be considered as a restriction for the planning of BCCH layer. 519. totally 50 frequencies.. frequency hopping. 533. a) Continuous packet mode BCCH (12): 512~523. TCH (38): 524~561. 528. 530. 515. 529. 527. However. DTX and dynamic power control should be started to improve C/I thus to satisfy the requirement of C/I>12dB.

So the TRX of last layer or the most last layers can realize a higher aggressive frequency reuse ratio (even without the employment of frequency hopping). Under the condition of the same number of frequencies. the interference between BCCH and TCH layers is strong. The employment of interval packet mode can guarantees that there is no adjacent frequency interference between BCCHs. Frequency hopping can get the frequency diversity gain and interference diversity gain so as to avoid Rayleigh fading and same frequency interference. After multiple frequency multiplexing is realized. Therefore. (In the system with frequency hopping adopted. therefore. the continuous packet mode of BCCH carrier layer is more difficult than the interval packet mode. though interference is increased. the above-mentioned interference between frequencies will take place thus the communication quality is not guaranteed. The principle for different carrier layer multiplexing ratios: Assign frequency layer by layer. the less consideration can be given to the restriction of adjacent frequency interference. it is not the case for every cell to use the TRX of last layer or the most last layers. BCCH layer can be easily modified without interference to TCH layer. The less frequencies in the layer. try to apply different multiplexing ratios for different layers. the system must adopt measures such as frequency hopping. Moreover. and realize aggressive frequency reuse layer by layer. This makes more frequencies to participate in frequency hopping and the gain is increased. the planning of TCH layer after the planning of BCCH layer becomes difficult. Then the requirement that the same frequency interference C/I is greater or equal to 12dB in GSM system is not guaranteed. the more serious interference. frequencies of any two cells in network are not completely the same. the different frequencies have different interference situations. e. If frequency hopping and other measures are not adopted. C/I value will be decreased due to the aggressive frequency reuse being adopted for each TCH layer. for more consideration should be given to the restriction of adjacent frequency interference. Therefore. Under the circumstance of non-uniform network sites. If the frequency with weak interference and frequency with strong interference coexist in the Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-101 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions frequency between BCCH and TCH layers. the TRX also increased. It should be noted that the purpose for different carrier layers using different multiplexing ratios is to avoid interference at most. This is shown in the flowing aspects. General principle: BCCH>TCH1>TCH2>TCH3 When multiple frequency multiplexing is adopted. Moreover. there is no the real same frequency cell. i. Since the system tries to s are tried to use different multiplexing modes for each carrier layer. However. the planning of BCCH carrier layer is relatively easy since the same frequency interference is considered as a main restriction. discontinuous transmission. and dynamic power control to minimize these kinds of interference.

Among these 63 frequencies. Then frequencies are divided into 3 groups (combiner hopping mode is adopted): Group 1: 29. 72. Group 2: 30. 1x3 frequency multiplexing mode is as shown in Figure 2-35. III. they will be mixed after frequency hopping is adopted. 70. 35. The system can still use the interfered frequencies according to the feature of decoder. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-102 . and easy assignment of frequency. 55. 34. 67. But for a specified connection. 68. 47. there are many BTSs and the site is complicated. For a specified connection. 65. 53. 64. 12. It has been proven that whether the C/I is good or not depends on same frequency collision probability after radio frequency hopping. 40. 50. 4MHz. 42. 71. 60. 1x3 multiplexing uses the principle that the number of FH frequencies is greater than the number of carrier frequencies in the cell to avoid interference and to reduce same frequency collision probability. 52. the available frequency band is 14. Group 3: 31. 44. its quality depends on C/I equalizing value. 32. So for each burst. 41. easy planning method. 36. 59. 48. 51. 57. 63. 74. and there are totally 63 frequencies. And the collision probability is only related with the frequency utilization. 37. 38. 15 are assigned for BCCH carrier (the assignment on the frequency is continuous). 43. 39. 49. 69.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions same cell. 54. 76. 46. Meanwhile. 73. its quality depends on C/I equalizing value and the equalizing value is not fluctuated. 45. 6MHz is left. 56. Provided that the maximum configuration site is S (8/8/8) in a certain area. 62. 9 frequencies are reserved for micro-cellar. 1x3 frequency multiplexing technology 1x3 frequency multiplexing technology is a kind of aggressive frequency reuse. The following is a simple example to illustrate the principle of 1x3 frequency multiplexing. 58. C/I is changeable. 61. and 48 TCH frequencies are left. 66. 33. 1x3 frequency multiplexing has the advantage of high frequency efficiency. In large cities. The employment of 1x3 frequency planning method can greatly reduce workload and good performance can be achieved in the case of small multiplexing ratio. HSN and MAIO should be carefully planned and the BTS should support radio frequency hopping. 75.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-103 . the network quality will also be decreased rapidly. Carrier interference ratio when carrier has an offset of 400 kHz: C/I is greater than or equal to -38dB. over 50% and the load is over 60% or 70%. the following measures are taken to improve the network anti-interference capability so as to satisfy the carrier interference ratio index: Frequency hopping. MS speed. in the network in which 1x3 planning is implemented. According to the specifications. Frequency hopping has two functions: frequency diversity and interference diversity. frequency number of frequency hopping sequence number. The frequency diversity gain of frequency hopping depends on propagation environment. DTX and power control.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Figure 2-35 1x3 frequency multiplexing mode The frequency planning of 1x3 frequency multiplexing is easy and practical. For example: when sites are distributed irregularly and the landforms are greatly different. IV. When TCH multiplexing ratio is over 40% and the load is over 80%. for example. the network quality will be decreased rapidly. the collision probability will be greatly increase Moreover. The following introduces the effect on improvement of network same frequency C/I and adjacent frequency C/I by frequency hopping. carrier interference ratio index (engineering value) is: Same frequency carrier interference ratio: C/I is greater than or equal to 12dB. Applied conditions for aggressive frequency reuse To adopt aggressive frequency reuse to improve the frequency utilization and the network capacity. as well as some disadvantages. Currently. Adjacent frequency carrier interference ratio: C/I is greater than or equal to-6dB. there is also requirement for network load. a series of anti-interference measures should be taken to reduce the same frequency and adjacent frequency interference caused by aggressive frequency reuse. If the TCH multiplexing ratio is higher.

Each cell in a multiband network has frequencies from only one frequency band. The multiband network allows cell reselection. frequency number of frequency hopping sequence number. Therefore.6 dB . 7. the maximum gain for three-frequency hopping reaches 3.8 Multiband Network I. the electromagnetic wave of mobile communication consists of direct wave component and scattered wave component. MS speed. 6dB for four-frequency hopping. Generally. It has been proven that when interference is distributed as narrow band and the number of FH frequencies is 3. 4. which is about 3~6dB. when scattered wave in a dominant position. the frequency diversity of frequency hopping is not obvious.2 dB. the interference diversity gain for a single frequency is 0 by default and is sent in the system information 2. Its gain is about 0~3dB. The maximum gain of frequency diversity is no greater than 6dB.5 dB respectively. Generally. for the broadband interference. GSM multiband MS can communicate in either GSM900 frequency band or GSM1800 frequency band. The application of multiband network is as shown in Figure 2-36. When direct wave is in a dominant position. For a typical environment in which propagation environment.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions and the inter-frequency relativity. distribution and handover between GSM900 cell and GSM1800 cell. the interference diversity gain for interfered frequency is 3. and the inter-frequency relativity. It is no greater than 6dB. it does not function apparently. 3dB. the gain is obvious. The function of interference diversity is shown on the equalization of interference. When MS has a high. interference diversity functions apparently. On the contrary. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-104 . frequency hopping has no function of frequency diversity. for the narrow band interference. no greater than 5.5dB for 9-frequency hopping. 5. The interference diversity capability of frequency hopping is related to interference distribution. 5. Overview The multiband network is a network combined GSM900 and GSM1800 In the multiband network.2. and interval between frequencies are satisfied to achieve the maximum FP frequency gain.

II. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-105 . supported bands. 1) MS Classmark In the GSM system. Classmark2 and Classmark3. etc. In addition.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions GSM900 MSC BSC BSC BSC GSM1800 MSC BSC GSM900 Cell GSM1800 Cell Figure 2-36 GSM900/GSM1800 multiband network The multiband network can be used to utilize the abundant frequency resources in GSM1800 frequency band. Given below is a description of the technical principles governing the multiband network. the network can request the mobile station to report its Classmark3 immediately after creating a link by setting the parameter “Early Classmark Sending Control”. It also guides the MSs to access and handover correctly so that good services of the radio network can be guaranteed. MS Classmark represents the MS services. to absorb network traffic. 2) BA list In the GSM system. it is required that in the multiband network the equipment should support the processing of MS Classmark. it is of utmost importance to correctly configure the parameters related with the multiband network operation at the stage of network commissioning. the BA (BCCH Allocation) list is a set of all the carrier channel numbers of adjacent cells of each cell. The Classmark of the mobile station falls into three categories: Classmark1. The network can interrogate the Classmark of MS and realize its capabilities. and to satisfy the increasing demand of network capacity. The network carries out compatibility handling for various types of MSs through system information control. Technical description To guarantee the stable operation of multiband network. Since the important messages in Classmark3 are created specially for multiband applications. power. and encryption capability. processing of MS Classmark3. Huawei BSS supports ECSC.

The BA list shall be set in accordance with the network design requirements and the actual status of adjacent cells. 3) Support of system Information for multiband network The network carries out compatibility handling of MSs of various classes through system information (type 2 / 2bis / 2ter and 5 / 5bis / 5ter). 5bis or 5ter on the SACCH. Phase 1 and Phase 2 1800 MSs and multiband MSs. The Phase 1 MS recognizes the bitmap format only. It extracts the parameters of adjacent cells from the associated channel system information type 5. there might be inappropriateness in handover or cell re-selection. The number of adjacent cells on each BA list shall not exceed 32. Only a multiband MS supports the system information type 2ter / 5ter. There are two types of BA list: The BA1 mainly contains the list of adjacent cells searched by the MSs in idle mode. the BA list in the system information type 5. However. 5bis or 5ter. 2bis and 2ter. It is transmitted in the system information 5. Coding can be done on one list without 2bis / 2ter / 5bis / 5ter when the bitmap format is used. and used for handover in active mode. 2bis and 2ter. When an MS is in active mode. The BA1 list is sent in system information type 2 for re-selection. It is the system that informs MS the BA list through system information. The radio network controls the MSs to access and handover correctly and guarantees good services. which is used for cell selection and handover. 2bis or 2ter. The BA2 list is sent in the system information type 5 for handover. it may impact the services provided by the network. this should be adjusted after the multiband system is employed. In this case. In accordance with the actual network status. The BA2 mainly contains the list of adjacent cells searched by the MSs in active mode. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-106 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions BA defines the absolute channel numbers used by carrier of all adjacent frequency cell BCCHs. It is transmitted periodically in the system information type 2. 5bis and 5ter can be either identical to or varied with that in the system information type 2. They are transmitted via the system information type 2ter / 5ter. In GSM900 system. instead of from the system information type 2. the GSM1800 frequency channels on its adjacent cell list are for multiband MSs. the frequency channels are numbered from 1 to 124. Huawei GSM system carries out thorough compatibility processing of Phase 1 and Phase 2 900 MSs. Whereas the frequency channels of its GSM900 adjacent cells are placed in the system information type 2 / 5 and can be coded in the bitmap format. This ensures compatibility with Phase 1 GSM900 MSs. For the GSM900 cells. and used for cell re-selection in the idle mode. or even handover failure. and supports system information type 2 / 2bis / 2ter and 5 / 5bis / 5ter. Otherwise.

ECSC=0. In case of single-band networking. it is advisable to set this parameter to 0. In case of multiband networking. As they cannot be coded on one list. transmitted through the system information type 2ter / 5ter. MS will send the additional Classmark message to the network as early as possible. it need only report the 6 adjacent cells with strongest signals in a band. On receipt of the Classmark change message. When there is a multi-band network. For the multiband network. power level should be correctly described. It is essential to know the Classmark3 message when making a paging call or sending the BA2 list in different bands. In the handover between different frequency bands. Classmark3 information includes the power messages of various frequency bands of multi-frequency MS. therefore. And the information in Classmark3 is for multiband application. it is required that the equipment should support the system information type 2ter/5ter. the BA list needs to be split into two parts. The system parameter “Multi-band Report”. transmission not required. the operator will usually expect the MS to have the priority to enter a band in time of handover depending on the actual status of the network.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions For the GSM1800 cells. they are handled in a similar way. serves to notify the mobile station to report the multi-band adjacent messages. 4) ECSC (Early Classmark Sending Control) ECSC indicates whether MS is required to report the MS Classmark3 voluntarily and early. The parameter ECSC is transmitted in system information type 3. The sampling range of the ECSC is as follows: ECSC=1. transmission required. This function comes into beings for the multiband-networking situation. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-107 . the MS is expected to report the measurement results based not only on the level of the signals but also on the band of the signals. when the MS reports the adjacent cell measurement results to the network. transmitted respectively in the system information type 2 (or 5) and 2bis (or 5bis). Therefore. the recommended value of ECSC is 1 so that signaling flow can be reduced. 5) MBR (Multi-Band Report) MBR serves to help the network to notify the MS that the 6 adjacent cells reported must cover multiple bands. The system information type 2bis (5bis) is for single-band M1800 MSs and multiband MSs only. The 900M frequency channels on the list of its adjacent cells are for multiband MSs. Whereas the frequency channels of its GSM1800 adjacent cells are placed in the system information type 2/5. For further details refer to the protocol 0408. In the single-band GSM system.

Table 2-14 MBR implication MBR 0 Implication MS shall report the measurement results of 6 adjacent cells with strongest signals known and allowed by NCC depending on the signal level of the cells. regardless of which band they are in. Value range of PI: Y or N. Y indicates that MS should extract parameters from broadcasting of system information in cell to work out C2 value and use the value to serve as the standard of cell reselection. the network can request the multiband MSs to send the MR about the adjacent 1800MHz cells by setting the MBR value. The MS shall report the measurement results of two adjacent cells in each band with strongest signals known and allowed by NCC on the adjacent cell list. The mobile station shall report the measurement results of three adjacent cells in each band with strongest signals known and allowed by NCC on the adjacent cell list. none of them is a GSM 1800 cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions In the multiband network. the following situation often occurs because the propagation loss in the 1800 MHz band is larger than that of the 900MHz band: among the 6 adjacent cells with strongest signals as reported by MSs. Generally. which are known and allowed by NCC on the adjacent cell list. Then it shall report the adjacent cells in the band used by the current service area in the remaining space of the report. C2 = C1). it shall report the status of the other adjacent cells. If there is still space left. By setting different values for MBR. PI is set as Y in multiband network. it shall report the status of the other adjacent cells. e. MBR is represented in decimal digits. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-108 . the MSs can report the messages of the adjacent cells of different bands as required when submitting the MRs of 6 best adjacent cells. with the ranges from 0 to 3. Then it shall report the adjacent cells in the band used by the current service area in the remaining space of the report. If there is still space left. Then it shall report the adjacent cells in the band used by the current service area in the remaining space of the report. MS shall report the measurement results of an adjacent cell in each band with strongest signals. regardless of which band they are in. In this case. regardless of which band they are in. If there is still space left. This will affect the absorption of traffic by the GSM1800 network. 1 2 3 6) PI (Cell Reselection Parameter Index) PI is used to notify MS whether to adopt C2 as cell reselection parameter and to calculate whether the parameter of C2 exist. N indicates that MS should use C1 to serve as cell reselection standard (i. Its implication is shown in Table 2-14. it shall report the status of the other adjacent cells. regardless of which band the cells are in.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-109 . try to let GSM1800 cells absorb multiband subscribers. cell reselection. MS TxPWR MAX CCH value range: GSM900: 0~19 available. one of the most important purposes is to try to let GSM1800 network absorb or share traffic so as to satisfy the increasing requirement of network capacity and quality. the traffic distribution can be adjusted by directed retry. In this way. Different traffic control methods are used for different MS states. the cell with maximum C1 value is first selected. In the early stage of multiband network construction. So when the subscriber turns on the mobile to select cell in idle mode or reselects cell in standby state. and multiband handover. cell hierarchy and specifying HCS.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions III. GSM1800 cell can be more likely to be the serving cell for multiband subscribers. GSM1800 cell can have higher priority or better adjacent cell measurement comparison value through the configuration of system parameters. 1 is corresponding to 41dBm. Realize the continuous coverage of GSM1800 network in hot spot areas. 0 is corresponding to 43dBm. The C1 value of selected cell should be greater than zero. The value of higher level is 2dB greater than that of lower level. 0 is corresponding with -110dBm. during the connection of MS call. the subscriber is more likely to wait at GSM1800 before a call connection. C1 value is calculated as follows: C1 = RxLEV − RxLEV _ Access _ MIN − MAX ((MS _ TxPWR _ MAX _ CCH − P ). for the cells with the same priorities. use different bands to share traffic thus to reduce handover and provide better service. 63 is corresponding with -47dBm. In connected state.0 ) RxLEV Access MIN range: 0~63. 1) Cell Selection and Cell Reselection In idle mode. When the number of multiband subscribers reaches a certain level. When MS turns on. The following principles should be followed. The following describes in detail the cell selection. Traffic guide strategy in multiband network In the multiband networking. Principle of cell selection: cells allowing to be accessed and cells with high priority are first selected. the multiband traffic handover can be used to make traffic load more rational. try to connect as much as possible traffic to high level GSM1800 cells in lower layers through cell hierarchy and specifying different hierarchical cell structures (HCS). it first needs to select cell so that to confirm its serving cell. The carrier can realize different traffic control strategy through real-time adjustment of related parameters. directed retry. the system guides the traffic absorption by controlling the process of MS cell selection and cell reselection.

31. This enables GSM1800 cell to have a higher priority. Step is 2dB. In the multiband network. CBA=0 and GSM1800 is set as CBQ=0. 1 is corresponding to 28dBm. and 7. 63=126dB respectively. In order to enable MS can be accessed to GSM1800 system. CRO value can be 0. 1. CBA=0. Table 2-15 Cell selection/reselection hierarchy Case 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 1 CBQ 0 1 0 1 CBA Cell selection Normal Barred Low Low Cell reselection Normal Barred Normal Normal When selecting cell.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions GSM1800: 0~15 available. and. ↑ 63 with grade as unit. 1=10dB. To enable the multiband MS to select GSM1800 cell preferentially. TO value can be 0. signals in GSM900 frequency band is stronger. 0 is corresponding to 30dBm. owing to the strong fading of signals in GSM1800 frequency band. GSM1800 cell can be set as Normal and GSM900 cell as Low. it should reselect cell in standby state in order to select a better serving cell. which are corresponding to 0=0dB. PT value can be 0. 6=60dB. and 30=620s respectively. 1. After MS completes cell selection. 7=infinite respectively. H ( ) = 0 if PT-T<0 H ( ) = 1 if PT-T>0 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-110 . MS reselection principle is to select the cell with maximum C2 value as the serving cell. The parameter that decides cell reselection is C2. which are corresponding to 0=20s. which are corresponding to 0=0dB. the value Cell Reselection Offset (CRO) decides the difficulty of cell reselection and Temporary Offset (TO) functions within penalty time (PT). GSM900 cell is set as CBQ=1. 1. The signals in GSM1800 cell are generally weaker than that in GSM900 cell. C2 depends on the following factors: C2=C1+CRO-TO×H(PT-T) (PT<31) C2=C1-CRO (PT=31) Where. 1=40s. 1=2dB. the cell selection priority can be controlled by setting value of cell bar qualify (CBQ) and cell bar access (CBA).

such as CRO. In this case. C2 is corrected manually. 3) Layers and levels of network Under the connected state. The greater C1 value. and PT so as to confirm the cell reselected for MS. connection. GSM1800 cell can still be reselected for MS by setting parameters. This meets the need of complicated networking circumstances. C2 value of each cell can be adjusted through CRO value. though signals in GSM1800 cell are weaker that of GSM900 cell. So the C2 value can be calculated according to CRO. C2 value of GSM1800 cell can be greater than that of GSM900 cell by setting parameters that can affect C2 value. The design concept of this hierarchy has fully considered the collaboration with the current network equipment and the requirement of future network development. However. Therefore. The cell layers and levels are as shown in Figure 2-37. At the same time. 2) Directed retry Provided that the process to initiate a call by an MS has completed switching. traffic between frequency bands can be distributed rationally through abundant Huawei multiband handover This is the core of multiband traffic guide and control strategy. directed retry can be used to assign TCH of adjacent cells for MS from SDCCH thus to guarantee the successful connection. Parameters of cell selection and reselection can be flexibly used to control MS to select GSM1800 network as required in network planning. Huawei hierarchy handover algorithm divides a cell into 4 layers each layer with 16 levels. it is found that the TCH of this cell is full. That is to say. the better quality of channel. TO. under the precondition that network quality is guaranteed.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions C1 indicates the quality of radio channel. the traffic is shared. control of some signaling and it is time to for SDCCH to assign TCH so as to connect the speech channel of both parties. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-111 . these parameters can be used to make MS establish calls in GSM1800 network so as to share the load of GSM900 network.

3. The propagation loss inside buildings is 5~17dB higher (it varies from material to material). which is to meet the requirements of hot spot and blind spot areas. These are the main cells of the system and most of subscribers gather in this layer. umbrella-like cellular. the cell in lower layer has a higher priority. The bottom layer consists of GSM1800 Pico cells. please refer to 2. that is to say. electromagnetic diffraction of GSM1800 is poorer that than of GSM900. This layer is the main target for capacity expansion so as to solve the problem of short resource of frequencies. For the description of handover. It has two functions: covering and quick connection of MS. Each layer of these four layers is divided into 16 priorities. Features of GSM1800 1) Propagation characteristics of GSM1800 The working frequency of GSM1800 is two times as that of GSM900. Moreover. the layer should combine with level division. i. e. The fast fading of GSM1800 is a disadvantage to realize the fine coverage of GSM1800 and the condition of GSM1800 coverage is directly related with the performance of network. The followed layer consists of GSM1800 micro cells with small coverage. IV.6 . 2) GSM1800 coverage requirements Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-112 . According to COST-231 model and practical experience.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Umbrella Cell Chapter 2 BSS Functions Layer 4 GSM 900 GSM900 Cell GSM 900 GSM 900 GSM 900 Layer 3 GSM 1800 Cell GSM 1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 Layer 2 GSM900 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 Micro Cell GSM1800 GSM1800 Layer 1 Figure 2-37 Cell layers and levels The GSM system covering the same area is divided into 4 layers. the propagation loss of GSM1800 inside stadia is 6dB greater than that of GSM900 and the propagation loss of GSM1800 outside stadia is 10dB greater than that of GSM900. which is generally is a GSM900 cell with wide coverage. each layer should be divided into several levels. The middle layer consists of GSM900 macro cells. to make network planning and optimization more detailed and more flexible. The high layer is the fourth layer. Considering the future network development. For the priority.

In the city with buildings in reinforced concrete structure. 3) GSM1800 coverage mode There are three coverage modes for GSM1800 network in multiband network: Fine continuous coverage. it is hard to plan frequencies and optimize network due to the irregular distribution of GSM1800 BTSs. it is hard to plan frequencies and optimize network due to the irregular distribution of GSM1800 BTSs. it is only needs to configure carrier instead of constructing new sites. which penetration loss is very great. the frequency planning and network optimization is easy to be realized and the traffic distribution is easy to be controlled. strict requirement for locating traffic hot spot. The disadvantage is that the investment is large and it is hard to select sites in one time. scattered coverage of hot spot areas. so it is recommended that the distance between BTSs should be 500~800m. The construction and maintenance is complicated. The construction and maintenance is complicated. and it is convenient to be constructed and maintained. after sites are constructed. the distance between BTSs in the city should not exceed 1000m. The advantage is that the initial investment is small. strict requirement for locating traffic hot spot. if capacity expansion is needed. c) Scattered coverage of hot spot areas This coverage mode has the following disadvantages: the traffic absorption of GSM1800 is low and there are frequent multiband handovers. b) Indoor coverage In order to guarantee the fine indoor coverage of GSM1800. The advantage is that the site in highly intense areas can be gradual constructed so as to save the investment. besides the installation of GSM1800 equipment on the site of original GSM900 site. If necessary. a) Fine continuous coverage This coverage mode has the following advantages: GSM1800 is easy to absorb traffic and has less handovers and high quality of operation.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions a) Outdoor coverage The outdoor coverage can be easily realized if the distance between sites is not too far. continuous coverage of hot spot areas. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-113 . the new sites should be installed in proper places. b) Continuous coverage of hot spot areas This coverage mode has the following disadvantages: the traffic absorption of GSM1800 is limited and there are frequent multiband handovers.

clear network data configuration.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions V. In general. Convenient to manage the whole network and develop new services. 1) Standalone MSC networking Standalone MSC networking refers to that GSM900 and GSM1800 use different MSCs for networking respectively. the former two modes are called standalone networking and shared BSC network is also known as mixed networking. shared MSC/standalone BSC networking. the standalone MSC networking has the problem of collaboration of equipment of different providers. and easy to construct. and shared BSC. The initial investment of network is relative large but the investment for each subscriber is the smallest. thus the load of signaling link is increased. 2) Shared MSC / standalone BSC networking Shared MSC / standalone BSC network refers to GSM900 and GSM1800 network adopts the same MSC and different BSCs for networking. In a long-term view. Multiband networking modes There are three modes for multiband networking: standalone MSC networking. as shown in Figure 2-38. BTS MS BTS OMC SMC BTS MS BTS BSC M S C /V L R H L R /A U C BSC M S C /V L R E IR G SM 900 G SM 1800 Figure 2-38 Standalone MSC networking mode The standalone MSC networking has the following features: No impact on original network Clear network planning. it is better than mixed networking. In addition. the standalone MSC networking increases the inter-office handovers and position updates. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-114 . Besides the above features. Introduce competition so as to lower equipment investment and improve quality of service. as shown in Figure 2-39. Satisfy the requirement of long-term capacity expansion.

Introduce competition so as to lower equipment investment and improve quality of service.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions BTS MS BTS OMC MSC/VLR SMC BTS MS BTS BSC HLR/AUC EIR BSC GSM900 GSM1800 Figure 2-39 Shared MSC/standalone BSC networking Shared MSC/standalone BSC networking has the following features: It has impact on the original network. construction and maintenance might become difficult. The initial investment of network is relative small and the investment for each subscriber is small. As network develops. as shown in Figure 2-40. BSC has backup function so the network security is good. It needs to plan NSS again and it is hard to be constructed. BTS MS BTS BTS BSC OMC MSC/VLR SMC BTS MS BTS BTS GSM900 GSM1800 BTS GSM1800/GSM900 BSC HLR/AUC EIR Figure 2-40 Shared BSC networking mode Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-115 . 3) Shared BSC networking Shared BSC networking refers to that BTSs of GSM900 and GSM1800 access the same BSC or multiband mixed BTS accesses BSC. It is hard to expand its capacity.

1) BCCH TRX aiding In the idle state. system parameters of packet service. the cell can continue to provide the services. It cannot introduce competition thus it is hard to lower the cost and to improve service. changed back) onto this TRX. Thus. all services of this cell will be interrupted. only BCCH TRX aiding will occur. For the non-baseband frequency hopping cell. II. Technical description TRX aiding contains BCCH TRX aiding and baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding. For the baseband frequency hopping cell. cell identification code. location.9 Carrier Mutual-assistance I. 2. This is the function of BCCH TRX aiding. BCCH can be recovered (or. After the fault of TRX that BCCH is originally on is removed. another available TRX of the cell can substitute for the TRX that BCCH is originally on. and BTS broadcasts it on BCCH. 2) Baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-116 . It needs to plan NSS and BSS again so the construction is difficult. BCCH is a low-capacity channel and can send a message of 23 bytes every 0. Overview In case of BCCH TRX failure or baseband frequency hopping TRX failure. especially when BSC has a small capacity. It is hard to expand its capacity. Development of new services is restricted.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Shared BSC networking has the following features: It might impact on original network greatly. the cell services can not be affected before the failed TRX is replaced. When BCCH TRX of a cell is failed. In order to ensure the cell services not to be affected. the cell can handle it automatically through the TRX aiding function. access control information. both BCCH TRX aiding and baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding may occur. adjacent cell information. construction and maintenance might become difficult. The initial investment of network is the smallest and the investment for each subscriber is the largest. Thus. etc. BSC sends the generic broadcast message to BTS. The broadcast information includes cell selection information. MS needs to know some information about the infrastructure of the network.235s. in case of BCCH TRX failure. private channel control information. As network develops.2.

this cell can be restored to the frequency hopping mode. When TRX aiding or TRX aiding recovery occurs. the conversations on this frequency hopping channel will lose some voice frames. the failure of a TRX will not affect the communication quality of the entire cell. the communication quality will be decreased. BSC will start the TRX aiding function. 199: BCCH TRX aiding recovery alarm. if a TRX participating in frequency hopping is failed. Correspondingly. in case of baseband frequency hopping TRX failure.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions In the baseband frequency hopping cell. Thus. It will automatically change the cell to the non-frequency-hopping mode. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-117 . In order to ensure the communication quality. 201: Baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding recovery alarm. This is the function of baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding. When the fault is removed. 200: Baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding alarm. there will be corresponding alarms reported (all are event alarms): 198: BCCH TRX aiding alarm.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: If BCCH TRX in a baseband frequency hopping cell is failed. only when the faults of all TRXs participating in frequency hopping and the original BCCH TRX are removed.1120A. can the baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding recovery occur.1120A. TRX aiding is allowed.10102.06. the cell is changed to the non-frequncy-hopping mode. III. After the fault TRX is restored.1120A. If such adjustment as SDCCH dynamic adjustment. full-rate/half-rate dynamic adjustment or PDCH channel dynamic adjustment occurred in the cell. the TRX aiding function cannot be used together with the baseband timeslot frequency hopping function. TRX recovery is forbidden. That is. However. TRX aiding is allowed. after the fault TRX is restored. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-118 . For baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding. the cell is restored to the frequency hopping mode. For BCCH TRX aiding.06. In the previous BSC versions of G3BSC32. From the version of G3BSC32. this limitation is canceled. When inter-E1 BCCH TRX aiding occurs. the traffic channels of the current BCCH TRX can not work normally if the E1 carrying the original BCCH TRX is broken. The parameter is configured in [Cell Configuration Data Table]. the TRX aiding function is closed. From the version of G3BSC32. the involved TRXs contain the current BCCH TRX and TRX to be aided. it can be recovered immediately. baseband frequency hopping TRX aiding will also occur. the dynamic adjustment channel on the TRXs involved in TRX aiding will be restored to the channel type configured originally. the cell will be initialized again. Parameters The TRX aiding function only uses a parameter for controlling. That is. After the fault TRX is restored. These channels will be unblocked when that E1 recovers. Recover Immediately Allowed. it will not be recovered immediately but recovered during resource check at 3:00 am. as shown in Table 2-16. Recover When Check Res (default value of the field). Table 2-16 Description of parameter of Cell Configuration Date Table Parameter Value range TRX Aiding Not Allowed Allowed.10100. Recover Forbidden TRX Aiding Function Control Allowed. In addition. the involved TRXs are all TRXs in the entire cell. BSC will automatically block the traffic channels of the current BCCH TRX when the E1 carrying the original BCCH TRX is broken. When TRX aiding or TRX aiding recovery occurs.10100.06. Description TRX aiding is not allowed. These two functions can be used at the same time. That is. except for BCCH TRX aiding. TRX aiding is allowed.

and BSC will manage and dispatch the message. delete an outdated message or a message that meet specified requirements. WAN Remote connection LAN connection LAN CDB GMEM GMEM . BTS CBC OMC CBC BSC BTS CDB BTS BSC Figure 2-41 Cell broadcast system architecture II. GMEM GMEM . The short message from Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) is sent to BSC. e.10 Cell Broadcast I.. There are three kinds of commands to broadcast short messages sent from the CBC: send a new broadcast short message. Overview Cell broadcast is a specific service of the GSM system. These areas may be one or several cells... The MS supporting this service can monitor this broadcast information continuously and this information can be displayed on the MS terminals. i. 2) Dispatching and transmitting of short messages Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-119 . even the entire PLMN area. broadcast information to all mobile stations in a specific area periodically. or deletes the older message before adding a new message after the reception of replacing message.2. Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) allows short message to be broadcast to all mobile stations in certain areas. On the reception of new command it deletes the older one. If old message can not be deleted then the new message will not be added. Cell broadcast functions 1) Receiving and storing of short messages CDB receives and stores the short message from CBC. and send the received message to BTS.. The architecture of cell broadcast system is as shown in Figure 2-41. CDB handles these three cases respectively and updates the memory of short messages.. adding the new message to the short message database. and replace an old message with a new one.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. The typical examples of cell broadcast are to broadcast traffic information and weather forecast. which can control the flow of short message broadcast.

e. every message has its own transmission requirements. 3) Responding to the query of cell broadcast centre While storing and transmitting short messages. In the meantime. which will stop sending short messages to this cell. and send these messages to BTS in turn according to the assigned sequence. 2) Supporting traffic control for BTS Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-120 . each subscriber (IMSI) corresponds to a dedicated paging group and each group corresponds to a paging sub-channel of the cell. it is ready to monitor the paging message from this cell. MS in idle mode uses its own paging sub-channel to receive the paging message (or to monitor the receiving level of the BCCH carrier of the non-serving cell). the GSM specification adopts the discontinuous receiving mechanism (DRX). the transmit times and frequencies are different. BSC should send each message to the specific area according to its transmit requirements. III. thus minimizing power consumption. BSC should calculate the transmitting time sequence according to specific message dispatch algorithm. i. The cycle occupied by short messages in one dispatch message is called dispatch cycle. the number sent by each cell. which correspond to one or more cells. But MS must measure the network messages task periodically. When CBC identifies that a specific broadcast message is been sent. It can adjust and optimize the system to ensure satisfactory running. CDB will record the completion message. CDB will report it to CBC.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Every short message should be broadcast in specific areas. When a cell requests multiple short message. and indicates the message position in dispatch cycle. Dispatch message contains the descriptions of each short message to be broadcast according to the transmit sequence. Mobile subscriber can read concerned short message in less time by reading dispatch message. To lower the power consumption of MS. it will send a command to delete or replace this message from CDB to reduce its load. i. e. CBC can keep track of the current system running state by querying and monitoring the cell broadcast system. When fault occurs in cell. MS ignores the message from other paging sub-channel or even shuts down the power of some hardware to lower its power consumption during the broadcasting of other paging sub-channels. MS recognizes its paging group and the corresponding paging sub-channel according to the last three digits of the IMSI and PCH allocation on service cell. The BSC supporting DRX mode needs to send scheduling messages to satisfy the requirement of the discontinuous receiving by MS. One dispatch message contains the information of the short messages to be sent one after another in a cell. Cell broadcast features 1) Supporting MS DRX mode If MS in idle mode has selected its serving cell. message load conditions of each cell and the broadcast channel state of each cell.

2. MS has been allocated SDCCH. configuration.. BTS will report this asynchronous state to BSC in the form of load indication message.11 Radio Channel Allocation BSC is responsible for the allocation of circuit channel and PCU for the allocation of packet data channel. the VEA is used for some special calls.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Transmit sequence of short messages in each cell is dispatched by BSC and transmitted by BTS. Handover: Due to the subscriber mobility or the change in the interference level. EA refers to the allocation of TCH after the initial allocation of SDCCH. 2) Radio channel allocation algorithm BSC channel allocation algorithm selects the channel for allocation by considering channel interference. For the dedicated channel allocation management of the BSC system. which can effectively improve channel utilization efficiency. For example. etc. VEA refers to the allocation of TCH at initial stage. load distribution. During channel allocation in the BSC. Thus the requirement of sending broadcast messages is satisfied as much as possible. Channel interference directly determines such critical traffic statistic indices as the quality of communication completion ratio and call drop rate on the channel.2. Connection allocation: The channels allocated can not meet the requirements. there will be an asynchronous state of sending short messages between BSC and BTS. In this case. BSC will send out some short messages so that the time sequence for sending short message in this cell will be met. By sending broadcast messages to BTS to control traffic. it is necessary to hand the MS call to another channel. CDB can schedule the balance of the broadcast system of the whole cell. For common calls. If a specific TRX receives too many short messages and can not send them in time. or location updating. MS transmitted power. If a TRX barely receives short messages. 1) Radio channel allocation requirements Radio channel allocation is based on the following requirements: Initial channel allocation: An idle MS enters active mode during MOC. It is the Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-121 . paging response. BSC will temporarily stop sending short messages of this TRX. but if need to transfer speech or data. and based on the specific call event and environment. Thus. the EA technique is used. VEA (Very Early Allocation) and EA (Early Allocation) are used in a combined manner as an allocation strategy. history record. Each TRX maintains one message buffer and sends short message periodically to MS through specific channel.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

most important factor to be considered during the channel allocation. The measurable interference includes uplink interference of the idle channel and the uplink / downlink interference of the occupied channels. The rule for the interference-based channel allocation algorithm is to select the channel of lower interference for allocation. But there are two special cases. The first is that for a high-level call or user, the MSC may have an interference limit for channel allocation. The channel with interference higher than this limit can not be allocated. The second is the specific call environment in which the maximum transmitting power capacity of MS and path loss are considered. The call with better receiving level can be allocated with a channel having severer interference. The channel with lower interference is reserved for the call of poorer receiving level and thus the call completion ratio and communication quality can be improved. The channel allocation algorithm based on channel configuration is based on the following factors: whether the carrier of the channel is that of BCCH, the frequency reuse distance of the TRX, whether the channel use frequency hopping, and the number of frequency in the frequency hopping group. Proper frequency allocation based on channel configuration helps to reduce the interference of network, and improve the quality of network. The channel allocation algorithm based on channel history record is characterized by the memory function. The history record includes the channel seizure success or failure and call drops, and it needs to verify whether the cause of seizure failure and that of call drop lies in the radio channel itself. Such history records can provide reliable facts for the current channel allocation. The channel allocation algorithm based on load balancing is characterized by even distribution of the carrier frequencies, Time Slots (TS) and sub-TSs during the channel allocation. It can reduce adjacent-channel interference and same frequency interference. On the other hand, it also helps to avoid the risk caused by calls being concentrated on a few carriers. There are also special allocation methods for specific call events such as intra-cell handover and IUO handover. For example, intra-cell handover is mainly caused by the quality problem of the speech channel, which indicates that the carrier where the original channel is located has suffered interference. If the original channel frequency hops, then some frequency bands in the frequency-hopping group of the original channel may have suffered severe interference. In case of intra-cell handover, the allocation of new channel may select the carrier and frequency hopping group that are different from those of the original channel. 3) Queuing

Channel allocation algorithm used in the BSC supports queuing. In case of initial allocation, no queuing takes place because an MS will resend the channel request.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-122

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

Queuing is mainly applied to connection allocation and handover, where the MSC decides if queuing is allowed in the allocation request or handover request. If no allocable radio channel is available and queuing is allowed, then the M900/M1800 BSC will queue the allocation requests. Try to allocate traffic channel with the allowed period of time so as to reduce the subscriber’s wait time. 4) Allocation by priority

The channel allocation algorithm in the M900/M1800 BSC supports different priority levels, that is, channel allocation can be carried out according to the preset priority levels. In some cases, the request of higher priority can be forcibly implemented and can occupy the channel, which is being used by a user of lower priority. 5) Dynamic allocation of SDCCH

a) Purpose The objective of SDCCH dynamic allocation is to optimize the usage of traffic channels and signaling channels, reduce the occurrence of congestion on the SDCCH, and lower the impact of the initial configuration of the SDCCH on the system performance. The number of SDCCHs required is based on the traffic model, that is, the current traffic distribution and statistical data about handover. An increase of short message service will lead to the increase of requirement for the SDCCHs, which makes the prediction of the SDCCHs requirement very difficult. There may be the case that the number of users in a cell suddenly increases, and many users can not access the network just because they fail to request the SDCCH. In this case, TCHs have to be converted into SDCCHs so as to ensure that most of the users can access the network and communication can be implemented through directed retry function, which improves the call success rate. b) Advantages It's not necessary to work out the exact number of SDCCH in advance after implementing SDCCH dynamic allocation. SDCCH dynamic allocation increases the system capacity and improves the call completion ratio. The disadvantage of SDCCH dynamic allocation is increased intra-cell handover traffic. It can be overlooked on account of its advantages. c) Approach SDCCHs are allocated with the cell as a unit. The following should be configured in the data management console: dynamic/static allocation of SDCCH, idle SDCCH threshold, and maximum number of cell SDCCHs, minimum time for TCH recovery, etc. If SDCCH allows dynamic allocation and satisfy the following conditions: When number of SDCCHs is less than or equal to idle SDCCH threshold;

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-123

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

And number of existing SDCCHs in the cell is less than the maximum number of SDCCHs; Number of idle TCHs is greater than 4 or greater than the number of configuration carriers. The system will automatically select a TCH and turn it into SDCCH. At the same time, BSC delivers configuration command to BTS to configure this TCH as SDCCH and update the channel list of internal BSC. When there are many idle SDCCHs, the SDCCH channels are dynamically converted into TCHs. 6) Dynamic allocation of PDCH

a) Introduction To support GPRS service, two types of channels are introduced, i. e. , static PDCHs and dynamic PDCHs. Static PDCHs are used for packet service only. Dynamic PDCH is initialized as a TCH and controlled by BSC. When the static PDCHs are not sufficient, the PCU will apply for dynamic PDCHs from the BSC. When the PCU is granted with the control authority, dynamic PDCHs are used for packet service. On the contrary, if TCHs are insufficient, the BSC can request dynamic PDCHs from the PCU. When the BSC is in control, the dynamic PDCHs serve as TCHs. According to the protocol, following channel combinations are provided. PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PBCCH+PCCCH Huawei BSS supports the first three combinations. b) Approach The dynamic PDCH control is based on cell, the following two items should be configured: Idle TCH threshold N1; application TCH decision period T (minute). Set a Count for each cell with initial value being 0. Count value ranges -T~T. Adjust Count every one minute. If the number of the current channels is greater than N1, then 1 is added to the counter value, if the number of the current idle TCHs is less than or equal to N1, then 1 is subtracted from the counter value. If the counter value is less than -T/2 after adjustment, then the BSC requests dynamic PDCHs from the PCU. After the BSC acquires the control power, dynamic PDCHs serve as TCHs. If any change takes place to the current type of a dynamic PDCH, it is necessary to issue a configuration command to the BTS so as to configure this channel as the current type and update the channel list in the BSC. c) Note:

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-124

With the half rate function. The BSC shall select a speech version (in the case of speech transmission) or data rate (in the case of data transmission) for the current call after allocating a TCH. Function Description Increasing BSS capacity. This raises the call proceeding rate. the contents of some signaling messages may change because a different channel type is selected. the rate type of the current channel. Due to the FTC capability limitation. With the half rate function. However. II. Then the BSC fetches the intersection of the above four sets.12 Half Rate I. The introduction of dynamic PDCH can improve the utilization of the channels. A Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-125 . Since the BSS system can provide more TCHs. Raising call proceeding rate. For selecting a speech version. The PCU will automatically release the dynamic PDCH when the number of idle PDCH is enough. Technical Description 1) Call procedure The fundamental principle of the half rate function is that two logical half rate TCHs are multiplexed in a timeslot of a physical TDMA frame as two logical channels. there is no need to worry about channel congestion even though the TCH is assigned during the immediate assignment procedure. a half rate channel can be assigned via the immediate assignment procedure. that BSC allocates a half rate TCH to MS may be reported to the MSC in an Assignment Complete or Handover Complete message. a multi-module BSC takes into consideration the speech version the MSC allows. For example. The operator may enable the corresponding software parameter switch (see "Parameter") to enable the BSC to support the half rate data services. The hardware provides a more advanced speech coding/decoding algorithm to make the speech QoS on a half rate channel close to that on a full rate channel. This makes the BSS capacity almost doubled. The BSC always select the first data rate the MSC allows. The BSC deals with the same call signaling procedures as before after the half rate function is performed. the BSC does not support half rate data services by default. It selects the latest one among the speech versions (if so) in the intersection. Channel allocation follows the principle that circuit switching service being preferred to packet switching service.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions It is difficult to predict the packet traffic of the cell.2. the speech version supported by the circuit pool of the A interface circuit of the current call and the capability of the FTC bearing the current circuit. 2. a TRX can provide a maximum of 16 half rate traffic channels (TCHs) and can simultaneously support a maximum of 16 MSs.

a full rate TCH shall be allocated if other conditions are satisfied and there is a full rate TCH in the cell. III. 2) MSC channel rate selection policy When the requested channel type is "Only select full rate channel" or "Only select half rate channel ". To break down this limitation. Huawei introduces a BSC channel rate selection policy. The MSC channel rate selection policy is still provided in order that the A interface interconnection test may prove that channel allocation can be implemented as per MSC's assignment. only a channel at a fully matched rate can be allocated. Parameter 1) Channel Management Parameter "TCH Rate Adjust Allowed" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. This is the basic principle of BSC channel rate selection. only a channel at a fully matched rate can be allocated. When the requested channel type is "Select full rate channel priority". "TCH Rate Adjust Traffic Thrsh" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. When the requested channel type is " Select full rate channel priority " or " Select half rate channel priority ". a full rate TCH is preferred when the number of idle full rate TCHs > Idle Thrsh for TCH/F Priori in the current cell and a half rate TCH is preferred when the number of idle full rate TCHs ≤ Idle Thrsh for TCH/F Priori in the current cell. the A interface circuit configuration in a single-module BSC should comply with the principle that the speech version set supported by the circuit pool should be a subset of that supported by the FTC.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions single-module BSC differs from a multi-module BSC in speech version selection. a half rate TCH shall be allocated if other conditions are satisfied and there is a half rate TCH in the cell. table]. This lessens the possibility of TCH congestion and makes it no longer a problem that the initially configured full rate TCHs and half rate TCHs cannot satisfy the actual traffic requirement. table] Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-126 . This rigid channel allocation as per MSC's rate assignment is difficult to get the system capacity and speech QoS into the optimum status. Therefore. table] "Idle Thrsh for TCH/F Priori" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. The dynamic switchover between a full rate TCH and a half rate TCH makes it possible to optimize the TCH configuration according to the current capacity situation on the existing resource basis. 3) BSC channel rate selection policy When the requested channel type is" Only select full rate channel " or " Only select half rate channel ". In practice. a full rate TCH is preferred to guarantee the speech QoS if there are many idle full rate TCHs and a half rate TCH is preferred to guarantee the system capacity if there are few full rate TCHs. When the requested channel type is "Select half rate channel priority ". table] "MIN Recovery Time of TCH/H (s)" in [Channel\Radio CH management ctrl. The single-module BSC does not take the capability of the FTC bearing the A interface circuit into consideration.

table]. the following networking parameters are added or modified.13 E1 Ring Topology I. table]. Since the 34BIE applies a different exchange mode from before. connection table] 2. the sites before the breakpoint still work in the forward ring while those after the breakpoint are reinitialized and begin to work in the reverse ring. E1 ring topology has an advantage that the transmission ring can be automatically divided into two chains when it is broken at one point so that the sites before and after the breakpoint can both still work normally. In case the transmission ring is broken at one point. connection table] "Transfer Rate "in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. "Connection mode" in [Local Office\BSC BIE description table].Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2) Networking Parameter The 34BIE has to be used to support the half rate function. "Site ID 1 ~ Site ID 30" in [Local Office\BSC BIE active/stby. "BSC BIE E1Timeslot No " in [Local Office\Radio channel config. group table]. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-127 . All the sites work in the forward ring normally. It includes the following fields: "Module No. "BSC BIE E1Timeslot No "in [Local Office\LAPD semi-perm. "BSC BIE Port No " in [Local Office\Radio channel config. This enhances the robustness of the system. "BSC BIE port No " in [Local Office\LAPD semi-perm.1 ~ Belong to BIE group No.8" in [Site\Site description table]. Overview E1 ring topology is a networking mode in which several sites are connected in a ring.2. connection table] is added to support semi-perm. table]. connection table]."in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. connection table]. connection establishment. Compared with the normal chain topology. connection table] "E1 Timeslot No "in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm."in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. "BIE networking configuration" in [Local Office\Site BIE config. connection table] "BIE Port No "in [Local Office\BSC BIE semi-perm. A [BSC BIE semi-perm. "Belong to BIE group No. connection table] "Trunk circuit No.

The operator may also dynamically modify those parameters in the data management system or auto data configuration system. the operator shall begin with the site at the first level in the forward ring to be rotated and then the one at the next level and so on. the sites after the breakpoint automatically form a chain in the reverse direction and begin to work in the reverse ring after reinitialization. the sites do not automatically rotate back to the forward ring after the forward ring recovers. To realize a manual ring rotate-back. cell adding/deletion. the BSC reports a ring rotate (rotate-back) alarm to the alarm system to notify the operator to examine and repair the transmission ring and so on. In case the transmission ring is broken at one point. The operator can also manually rotate the sites to the reverse ring in case the transmission quality in the forward ring is not good. To realize a manual ring rotate. The dynamic BTS adding must be implemented in the forward ring at the time when the forward transmission is normal. If the transmission in the reverse ring is interrupted. The operator can forcedly rotate them back to the forward ring. Technical Description To be specific. the operator shall begin with the site at the first level in the reverse ring to be rotated and then the one at the next level and so on. the sites do not automatically rotate back to the forward ring after the forward ring recovers from failure. TRX adding/deletion. the sites automatically rotate back to the forward ring after the forward ring recovers.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions II. 3) Dynamic rotate parameter configuration and query The operator may query the ring topology parameters and the current ring direction of a site in the site maintenance system. 4) Dynamic data configuration The BSC still supports dynamic data configuration in the E1 ring topology. TRX or modification of channel type in the ring or tributary. A site is successfully rotated to the reverse direction and then reinitialized before the next site is rotated. In the case of rotate (rotate-back). cell. If the transmission in the reverse ring is normal. 5) Involved Technology Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-128 . such as dynamic BTS adding/deletion. 2) Manual rotate/rotate-back If they work normally in the reverse ring. the E1 ring topology has the following functions: 1) Automatic rotate in case of ring breakage Normally all sites in a ring work in the forward ring as if they were in a normal chain. The manual rotate/rotate-back for a site is performed by specifying port 1/port 0 of the site as a reset port in the site maintenance system during the site reset process. All sites in a ring shall be reset after dynamic adding/deletion of BTS. etc.

. there are three networking modes available to the construction of dual band network: standalone MSC. In any of the above networking modes. Its value range is 60~300. as will inevitably reduce the network quality. 2. III. 3) Try rotating duration time: A site continuously tries to establish a chain via port 0 or port 1 after it begins to rotate. The site is initialized and started after it receives the data.2. The value range of this parameter is 60~300 and the default value is 90. This time is measured in seconds. Otherwise. the BSC sends the reverse ring data to the site when a chain is established in the reverse ring. It turns to the other port if it has not established a chain via one port after the "Try rotating duration time". the inter-cell handover and cell reselection will be inevitable. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-129 . Overview With the sharp increase in MS quantity. Its default value is 90.e. Parameter This parameter determined a group of BIE working under “Full Rate Ring Topology” or “Half Rate Ring Topology” Rotate parameters: 1) Auto rotate permit: It indicates whether a site is allowed to rotate automatically in case of transmission interruption. At present. a site in a ring continuously tries to establish a chain via port 0 or port 1 till it succeeds. Its default value is Yes. and shared-BSC. The BSC sends the forward ring data to a site when a chain is established for the site in the forward ring.14 GSM900/GSM1800 Co-cell I. This avoids cell reselection and inter-cell handover that are inevitable in other networking modes. shared-MSC but standalone BSC.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When it detects OML breakage. it has become an inevitable tendency to construct a dual band network. 2) Waiting time before rotate: It indicates the time measured in seconds a site waits before it rotates to the reverse direction in case of transmission interruption. The best advantage of using the 900M/1800M co-cell to construct a dual band network is that two frequency bands coexist in a cell and that the 1800M frequency band becomes a natural extension of 900M frequency band in this mode. forward ring data and reverse ring data for each site. The MPU prepares two sets of data i. A 900M/1800M co-cell is a networking mode in which the GSM900 and DCS1800 TRXs coexist in the same cell.

2) Intra-BSC incoming cell HO: When the MS classmark 3 is not obtained or when the MS classmark 3 indicates only the frequency band of the underlaid subcell is supported. 1) 900M/1800M Co-cell Channel Allocation Since a 900M/1800M co-cell is based on a concentric platform. The TRXs in the frequency band the BCCH belongs to shall be in the underlaid subcell and those in the other frequency band the BCCH does not belong to shall be in the overlaid subcell. for a single band MS may not support the frequency band in the overlaid subcell. So does a two-timeslot extended cell. the two types of cells have different application purposes: the former is used for continuous coverage and scattered coverage in hot spots while the latter for wide coverage. only the channel in the frequency band of the underlaid subcell can be allocated no matter how the Assign Optimum Layer is configured. Assignment: When the MS classmark 3 is not obtained or when the MS classmark 3 indicates only the frequency band of the underlaid subcell is supported. a 900M/1800M co-cell cannot be a two-timeslot extended cell. A 900M/1800M co-cell is based on a concentric platform. only the channels in the underlaid subcell shall be allocated. That is. For other MSs.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions II. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-130 . Technical Description A dual band MS can be freely handed over between the two frequency bands. Therefore. However. the channel in the underlaid subcell shall be preferred. the channel allocation can be implemented as per the concentric channel allocation strategy. However. That is. the BSC shall distinguish the MS frequency band capability before performing channel allocation. Therefore. a 900M/1800M co-cell repels a two-timeslot extended cell. the channel can be allocated according to the Assign Optimum Layer configuration. an underlaid-preferred channel allocation strategy is adopted to guarantee the MS can most possibly initiate a call. the 900M/1800M co-cell channel allocation shall comply with the concentric channel allocation strategy. and vice versa. only the channel in the frequency band of the underlaid subcell can be allocated no matter how the Pref. Since the 900M is characterized by less propagation loss and larger coverage. Details are given below: Immediate assignment: When immediate assignment is performed in a 900M/1800M co-cell. E-GSM and R-GSM. When the MS classmark 3 indicates both frequency bands are supported. it is recommended as the BCCH in this networking mode. for an MS supporting the frequency bands in both overlaid and underlaid subcells. Note: The GSM900 in this document includes P-GSM. since no MS information is available for reference. cannot be a 900M/1800M co-cell.

In this case.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC is configured. III. the 900M/1800M co-cell handover shall comply with the normal concentric handover strategy. Subcell in HO of Inter-BSC is configured. See Figure 2-42. Parameters: "Cell system type " in [Local Office\BSC Cell Table] " HW-IUO property" in [Site\Carrier Configuration Table] Table name: [Handover\Concentric Cell HO Table] Parameter: All data in [Concentric Cell HO Table] are applicable to a 900M/1800M co-cell. Subcell in HO of Inter-BSC configuration. II. Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC configuration. When the MS classmark 3 indicates both frequency bands are supported.2. Technical Description 1) System message processing The system sends different system messages including different MNCs respectively to the multi-MNC cell and the normal cell. The multi-MNC function is applied when two or more network operators are integrated or when some small operators rent equipment from a large operator. 2. 3) Inter-BSC incoming cell HO: When the MS classmark 3 is not obtained or when the MS classmark 3 indicates only the frequency band of the underlaid subcell is supported. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-131 .15 Multi-MNC I. only the channel in the frequency band of the underlaid subcell can be allocated no matter how the Pref. the channel can be allocated according to the Pref. (The BSC contains the same Cell Global Identification (CGI) for a cell as the MSC does if the MSC supports a multi-MNC cell. the BSC need not use the multi-MNC function parameter). When the MS classmark 3 indicates both frequency bands are supported. Overview The multi Mobile Network Code (multi-MNC) function allows the operator to configure the cells which have different MNC in one BSC. the channel can be allocated according to the Pref. and then an MS can display the mobile network name it subscribes to as per the system message. 4) 900M/1800M Co-cell Handover Since a 900M/1800M co-cell is based on a concentric platform.

a cell with a different MNC first. mobile phones can be handed over to a cell with the same MNC or a cell with a different MNC. a better cell with the same MNC first. a cell with the same MNC first. The following will give an introduction to the control strategy and the possible applicable situation of each handover type. In the situations where multiple MNCs are used. etc. and only the handover to a cell with a different MNC allowed. a multi-MNC cell is a cell whose CGI includes a MNC different from the MNC configured in the [Local Office Information Table]. quality.).Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions A-MSC B-MSC Operator A: MNC = 12 A-BSS Operator B: MNC = 34 T R X 1 T R X 2 Cell 1: 460 12 1850 0001 Cell 2: 460 34 1810 0002 MS Display: 12 MS Display: 34 Figure 2-42 Multi-MNC diagram In this document. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-132 . load. whether to share the same BSC (MSC). There are seven handover control means provided: normal handover. cell level. 2) Handover strategy System provides flexible handover control means. "Multi-MNC handover type" can be configured with the expected types according to the actual requirements. configure "Multi-MNC handover judgement allowed" with "Y". a better cell with a different MNC first. The control strategy and applicable situation of each handover type are as follows: a) Normal handover Control strategy: Handover to a cell with better QoS (considering all such factors as level. In different situations. Select a suitable multi-MNC handover control type according to the actual situation. only the handover to a cell with the same MNC allowed.

c) A cell with the same MNC first Control strategy: As long as the adjacent cell has the same MNC with the service cell and the received level is higher than "minimal downlink power of candidate handover cell" of this adjacent cell. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to a cell in the same network. including the service cell. Not considering whether the object cell has the same MNC or a different MNC. mobile phones will be handed over to a cell with the better QoS. including the service cell.e. including the service cell. regardless of whether the object cell with the same MNC or a different MNC.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Applicable situation: The situations where mobile phones are expected to be handed over to a cell with better QoS. Applicable situation: When a cell in the same network can provide good services (i. b) Only the handover to a cell with the same MNC allowed Control strategy: Only the handover to a cell with the same MNC is allowed.e. higher than the inter-layer handover threshold). d) A better cell with the same MNC first Control strategy: If the adjacent cell and the service cell have the same MNC and the received level of the adjacent cell is higher than the inter-layer handover threshold of this adjacent cell. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to this cell. mobile phones will be handed over to this adjacent cell. Applicable situation: As long as a cell in the same network can provide normal services. If no cell that can provide good Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-133 . mobile phones can be handed over to this adjacent cell. e) A better cell with a different MNC first Control strategy: If the adjacent cell has a different MNC from the service cell and the received level of the adjacent cell is higher than the inter-layer handover threshold.. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to this cell. Applicable situation: The situations where mobile phones are expected to be handed over to a cell in the same network. When mobile phones cannot be handed over to a cell in the same network (for example. If no cell that can provide good services is available in the same network. they can be handed over to a cell with a different MNC.. no signal can be detected in a cell with the same MNC). mobile phones will be handed over to this adjacent cell. Applicable situation: When a cell with a different MNC from the service cell can provide good services (i. higher than the inter-layer handover threshold).

inter-BSC handover can be implemented only when the peer BSC is also designed as multi-MNC function supportable. this control strategy can be selected in case of congestion and if traffic sharing is allowed in other networks. this control strategy can be selected in case of congestion and if traffic sharing is allowed in other networks.. mobile phones will be handed over to a cell with the better QoS. g) Only the handover to a cell with a different MNC allowed Control strategy: Only the handover to a cell with a different MNC is allowed. Applicable situation: As long as a cell in another network can provide normal services. mobile phones are expected to be handed over to this cell. different MNCs. c) For a BSC with the multi-MNC function. When mobile phones cannot be handed over to a cell in another network (for example. If there are only a few cell channels in this network but the coverage is satisfied. III. mobile phones can be handed over to a cell with the same MNC. the cell CGI is configured as the CGI over the Abis interface of the local BSC and the external cell CGI as the CGI over the Abis interface of the peer BSC. At the BSC side.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions services is available in other networks. no signal can be detected in this cell). Applicable situation: Mobile phones are expected to be handed over only to a cell in another network. b) The MNC in the [Local Office Information Table] at the BSC side should be the same as the MNC configured at the MSC side. d) The multi-MNC cell cannot support GPRS services presently and the normal cell can. If there are only a few cell channels in this network but the coverage is satisfied. Parameter "Multi-MNC HO Allowed" in [Handover/ Handover Control Data] "Multi-MNC HO Type" in [Handover/ Handover Control Data] Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-134 . There should be only one difference between the multi-MNC cell CGI configured at the BSC side and the corresponding CGI at the MSC side i. f) A cell with a different MNC first Control strategy: As long as the adjacent cell has a different MNC from the service cell and the received level of the adjacent cell is higher than "minimal downlink power of candidate handover cell". mobile phones will be handed over to this adjacent cell.e. 3) Application note a) The CGI allocated by the MSC to a normal cell should include a LAC different from the LAC in the CGI the MSC allocates to a multi-MNC cell.

P-GSM: The working frequencies of the GSM900 baseband are: 890 ~ 915MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving. The internal between frequencies is 200kHz. The current solution is to introduce new frequency bands. Fu(n): downlink frequency corresponding to n. The relations between frequency points and absolute frequencies are as follows. 921 ~ 960MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving. Overview Along with the development of GSM in a large scale. the frequency resource becomes more and more insufficient and bottlenecks the further development of GSM. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-135 .0). Fl(n): uplink frequency corresponding to n.05 (version 8.5.16 E-GSM/R-GSM I. 4) DCS1800 band: The working frequencies of DCS1800 band are: 1710 ~ 1785MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving. Technical description According to GSM 05. 925 ~ 960MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving. 935 ~ 960MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. Unit: MHz. R-GSM (including GSM900 base band and GSM900 extended band): The working frequencies of R-GSM900 are: 876 ~ 915MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving. E-GSM (including GSM900 base band): The working frequencies of GSM900 extended band are: 880 ~ 915MHz: For mobile phone sending and BTS receiving. there are four frequency bands: 1) GSM900 base band. The introduction of E-GSM and R-GSM extended bands plays an important role in solving the shortage of frequency resource. 1805 ~ 1880MHz: For BTS sending and mobile phone receiving. II. 3) GSM900 railway band.2. n: frequency point. 2) GSM900 extended band.

the system can work out the support capability of each channel for this mobile phone. The R-GSM extended and refers to the R-GSM band excluding the E-GSM provided in the Protocol. the system has obtained the classmark of the mobile phone. II generation algorithm of channel assignment: Before assignment. I generation algorithm of channel assignment: Before assignment. According to it. the channel assignment technology can adopt different assignment strategies in different situations after fully analyzing the frequency band support capabilities of the mobile phone and channels.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0. Therefore. 975~1023 R-GSM extended band 955~974 0~124.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0. the channel to be assigned can be a channel of P-GSM or E-GSM extended band. the system has obtained the classmark of the mobile phone. Huawei BSC can support four frequency bands: P-GSM.975~1 023 0~124. And then the system can assign a channel from all channels supporting this mobile phone conforming to the polling strategy. R-GSM.2 + 0.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0. the E-GSM extended band and R-GSM extended band are introduced. E-GSM.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-17 Table 1 Relations between frequency points and absolute frequency P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0. and DCS1800. if a mobile phone supports E-GSM. For example. the system can work out Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-136 . Table 2-18 Table 2 Relations between frequency bands and frequency points Frequen cy band Frequen cy point P-GS M 1~124 E-GSM R-GSM DCS1800 E-GSM extended band 0.955~102 3 512~885 Channel assignment technology of E-GSM\R-GSM For the cell configured with frequency points of the E-GSM extended band or the R-GSM extended band. The E-GSM extended band refers to the E-GSM band excluding the P-GSM band provided in the Protocol.2*(n-1024) DCS 1800 Fl(n) = 1710. the frequency points are not continuous. However.2*(n-1024) R-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0. According to it.2*(n-512) 1<= n <=124 0<= n <=124 975<= n <=1023 0<= n <=124 955<= n <= 1023 512<= n <= 885 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 The newly introduced E-GSM 900 band and R-GSM 900 band belong to the same band with P-GSM.

the System Information 13 (SI13) shall be added to the BCCH.3. 2. The radio resources management function involves mainly coding/decoding of radio packet channels. Overview The packet system information broadcast in the cell serves mainly for the MS to access the network. Access control over the MS. The access control function serves primarily to solve the issue of channel contention and allocate radio resources to the MS according to the requested QoS. Parameters "Effective frequency points: 1~64" in [Carrier configuration table] 2. if the mobile phone supports E-GSM and the channels respectively support the P-GSM band and the E-GSM extended band. The radio link management function involves mainly establishment. This will be notified to the MS via SI13. The main Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-137 . the system gives the priority to the channel of the band outside the band intersection. Provision of routes for the transfer of packet data. For the immediate assignment. if not. maintenance and release of the radio links. The routes serve to transfer the uplink data to Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) properly and receive the downlink data from the SGSN. If the cell supports GPRS. the system assigns the channel for the mobile phone according to the frequency band support capability of the host BCCH. switchover of radio channels between the circuit switched traffic channel and the packet switched traffic channel and allocation of channels to the MS. III. The band intersection P-SGM will be reserved for other mobile phones with poor support capability.3 GPRS Function The GPRS functions supported by BSS include: Radio link management and radio resources management. The cell can either be configured with the PBCCH channel or without it. The channel of the E-GSM extended and will be assigned first. multiplexing of radio channels. In all channels supporting this mobile phone.1 Supported Packet System Information I. configuration of radio packet channels.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions the support capability of each channel for this mobile phone. SI13 will not be broadcast. For example.

This message shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. giving information for Cell selection. 4) Packet System Information Type 3 bis (PSI3bis) This information is sent by the network on the PBCCH and PACCH giving information of the BCCH allocation in the neighboring cells and cell selection parameters for non-serving cells. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. II. 5) Packet System Information Type 4 (PSI4) This information is optionally sent by the network on the PBCCH and PACCH giving information directing the mobile station to make measurements on a list of serving cell PDCHs. the remaining information will be sent in other instances of the PSI5. 3) Packet System Information Type 3 (PSI3) This information is sent by the network on the PBCCH or PACCH. The information is sent on PBCCH only if so indicated in PSI1. If not all information fits into one information. 6) Packet System Information Type 5 (PSI5) This optional information is sent by the network on the PBCCH giving information for measurement reporting and network controlled cell reselection. the PSI3bis can be repeated. PSI2 also contains Non-GPRS cell options applicable for non-packet access. giving information of the BCCH allocation (BA_GPRS) in the neighboring cells and cell selection parameters for serving cell and non-serving cells. for control of the PRACH. during the idle frame of those PDCHs. 2) Packet System Information Type 2 (PSI2) This information is sent by the network on PBCCH and PACCH. cell allocation.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions message broadcast on the PBCCH are the dedicated packet system information of GPRS. for description of the control channel(s) and optional global power control parameters. 7) Packet System Information Type 13 (PSI13) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-138 . giving information of reference frequency lists. Technical description There are following types of packet system information: 1) Packet System Information Type 1 (PSI1) This information is sent by the network on the PBCCH or PACCH. If not all information fits into one instance of the PSI3bis. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. This information shall not be segmented across more than one RLC/MAC control block. GPRS mobile allocations and PCCCH descriptions being used in the cell.

the GPRS network usually has neither Gs interface nor PCCCH configured. this parameter is usually set as "1". provide such functions as controlled re-transmission. 2 network operation mode III. The configuration of PSI13 is realized with the command pcu add gprs. Value range: 0~3. PSI13 is usually broadcasted on PACCCH.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions This information may be broadcast by the network on the PACCH. The information in this information shall be the same as provided in the PSI13 on BCCH. only the PSI13 will be broadcast periodically on the PACCH. 1500 ms. 120 ms. 0 ms. Parameter At present. When there is no PBCCH in the cell. 160 ms and 200 ms Default: 500 ms 3) DRXTimerMax Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-139 . PSI13 can be sent only on the PACCH. Value range: 500 ms. M900/M1800 BSS can transfer all the GPRS-related packet system information. the PBCCH and PCCCH are not configured. PSI1~PSI4 can either be broadcast on the PBCCH or sent on the PACCH.↑. 0 . 1000 ms. Therefore. 2) T3168 Description: T3168 timer overtime value. 80 ms.network operation mode I. and control the transfer of packet system information on the PACCH based on the configuration of the PBCCH/PCCCH in a cell. no PSI13 will be transferred on the PACCH. The information provides the mobile station with GPRS cell specific access-related information. but PSI1 will be broadcast periodically on it. high-speed re-transmission and low-speed retransmission. Therefore. 1) NMO Description: network operation mode. 1000 ms. 3 – reserved. When there is PBCCH in the cell.network operation mode II. 4000 ms Default: 1000ms T3192 Description: T3192 timer overtime value. The following parameters are involved. Value range: 500 ms. 1 . The duration for MS to wait for the packet uplink assignment message. Default: At present. PSI5 can be broadcast only on the PBCCH. III. The duration for the MS to wait for TBF release after receiving the last data block.

Default: 0 6) BsCvMax Description: maximum value of MS countdown timer Value range: 0~15 Default: 4 7) PanDec Description: PAN_DEC used by MS N3102 counter. i. N3102 will reduce the value of PAN_DEC. 11bit Default: Some MSs do not support 11 bit access burst type. Value range: 0~7. When MS activates T3182 and receives the corresponding acknowledge message from packet uplink. enter DRX mode after 4 seconds 4) AccBurst Description: the access burst format used by MS in PRACH.e. nouse Default: 3 9) PanMax Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-140 . ↑64 s – 64 s Default: 4 s. 1. 1 s – 1 s. Value range: 8 bit. PTCCH/U or packet control acknowledge message. nouse Default: 3 8) PanInc Description: PAN_INC used by MS N3102 counter. The format adopted by MS in the control acknowledge message. The maximum duration for executing non-DRX mode when MS is switching from packet transfer mode to packet idle mode.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Description: maximum duration of non-DRX. 5) CtrlAckType Description: control acknowledge message type. Value range: 0~7. 1 . Value range: 0. N3102 will increase the value of PAN_DEC.RLC/MAC control block used (TA can be obtained only after sending "polling" message). 0 – 4 access burst used (TA can be obtained without sending "polling" message).. Value range: no – enter DRX mode immediately. so it is recommended to set it as "8 bit". 2 s – 2 s. When MS T3182 times out.

However. e. Class B MS also can automatically handover.3. in a certain moment. GPRS MS is divided into three classes: 1) Class A GPRS MS Class A GPRS MS can simultaneously be connected to both GSM and GPRS networks and activated in both networks. 3) Class C GPRS MS At a certain moment. the maximum value of N3102. nouse Default: 12 2.e. and provide GPRS service and GSM circuit-switched service simultaneously.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Description: PAN_MAX of MS N3102 counter. i. ↑ 32. the service handover should be completed manually. monitor information of each system and start them simultaneously. II. the corresponding MS should be capable to support this mode. ME includes MT and TE. including short message service. 2) Class B GPRS MS Class B GPRS MS can be connected to both GSM and GPRS networks simultaneously. Value range: 4. GPRS MS types The integrated GPRS MS consists of ME and SIM. Class C MS can be connected only GSM network or GPRS If it supports both packet-switched and circuit-switched services. GPRS MS multislot hierarchy GPRS system can use the MAC layer function to provide a subscriber with the multislot mode. i. 8. It can be used in GPRS packet service and GSM circuit-switched service separately but not simultaneously. The classification of MS under different multislot modes is listed as follows. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-141 . it uses either circuit-switched service or packet-switched service. It cannot use both services simultaneously. Class A MS subscriber can initiate/receive call in both services and handover automatically between packet data service and circuit service.2 Supported GPRS MS Modes I.

a=0 for not adopting FH. number of time slots Tta 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 Ttb 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a a a a a 0 b b b b b b b b b b b Tra 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Trb 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a a a a 0 0 c c c c c c c c c c c 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MS type a=1 indicates that FH is adopted. b=1 indicates that FH being adopted or MS changes Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-142 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Table 2-19 Classification of MS under different multislot modes Classification Max. number of time slots Rx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 Tx 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 4 6 2 3 4 4 6 8 Sum 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Min.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions frequency when it changes from receiving to transmitting. The receiving time slots can be discontinuous by time. But in the process of releasing uplink TBF.3. For the type 1 MS. Huawei’ BSS system supports MS of Type B MS of Type C MS with multi-slot capability ranging 1~12. The receiving party can transmit “PACKET ACK/NACK” message to request retransmit RLC data block.3 Supported RLC Modes I. The receiving party sends “PACKET ACK/NACK” to transmit other necessary control signaling. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-143 . Tx indicates the maximum number of time slots used in an MS uplink in a TDMA frame. RLC non-acknowledged mode The transmission of RLC data block under RLC non-acknowledged mode does not support retransmission. RLC acknowledged mode Under RCL acknowledged mode. 1≤Rx + Tx≤Sum Tta relates to the time needed for the MS to perform adjacent cell signal level measurement and get ready to transmit. MS should support configurations of time slot numbers indicated by all integers from 0 to RX. For the type 1 MS. its transmitting time slots will be distributed in a transmitting window with a size of RX. c=0indicates that FH is not adopted and MS does not change frequency when it changes from transmitting to receiving . which can be used for retransmission and recombination. II. Rx indicates the maximum number of time slots used in an MS downlink in a TDMA frame. 2. c=1indicates that FH is adopted and MS changes frequency when it changes from transmitting to receiving. Sum indicates the sum of all available time slots that can be used by MS in each TDMA frame. There is no receiving time slot between transmitting time slots in the TDMA frame. Trb relates to the time needed for the MS to get ready to receive. b=0 indicates that FH is not adopted and MS does not change frequency when it changes from receiving to transmitting. Tra relates to the time needed for the MS to perform adjacent cell signal level measurement and get ready to receive. the last transmitted uplink block might be retransmitted. MS should support configurations of time slot numbers indicated by all integers from 0 to Tx The transmitting time slots can be discontinuous by time. The transmitting party numbers RLC data block through block sequence number (BSN). There is no transmitting time slot between receiving time slots in the TDMA frame. The BSN of RLC data block header numbers the RLC block data for recombination. the transmission of RLC data block adopts retransmission method. its receiving time slots will be distributed in a receiving window with a size of RX. Huawei GPRS BSS supports RLC acknowledged mode and non-acknowledged mode. Ttb relates to the time needed for the MS to get ready to transmit.

4 15. The same channel coding is adopted for uplink packet access burst and random access burst. 4 Channel coding of PACCH. Dynamic Additional Sub-TS Under CS-1/CS-2. PNCH and downlink PTCCH adopt CS-1. II.4 kbit/s. Mapping a Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-144 . PPCH. However. Table 2-20 Coding parameter of coding schemes Channel coding scheme CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 RLC/MAC data block size (octets) 23 33 39 53 Rate kbit/s 9. Channel coding: Channel coding of PDTCH The radio block bearing RLC data block can use 4 types of coding schemes. defines two coding schemes. The coding scheme of 11-bit packet access burst bears 11 information bit. PAGCH. Parameters of each coding scheme are shown in Table 2-20.4 Supported Channel Coding Scheme PDTCH defines four coding schemes: CS-1~CS-4. For PRACH access burst. PBCCH. PAGCH. uplink PTCCH adopts the same coding scheme as PRACH. a PDCH is mapped to two 16 kbit/s links. 8bit packet access burst bears 8 information bits. PBCCH. When CS-3 and CS-4 is adopted. 05 13. I. Huawei BSS supports all these four CS and dynamically handovers between them according to radio transmission quality (RLC block retransmission rate of uplink /downlink TBF). the rate of a PDCH is 15. therefore. Channel coding of PRACH There are two types of packet access burst in PRACH: 8bit and 11bit packet access burst.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 2. Except for PRACH and TPCCH/U.6 kbit/s and 21. PNCH and PTCCH PACCH. Only CS-1 is forced for network. PPCH. All coding schemes are forced for MS. 6 21. when mapping the radio channels to the terrestrial channels. the coding scheme adopted by PDCH is adjusted according to the change of the radio transmission environment of the MS that occupies it. BSS is also based on the 16kbit/s link at the G-Abis interface. CS-1 is usually used for other packet control channels.3.

III. cs4. cs2. The following parameters are involved. M900/M1800 GPRS BSS can resolve the transmission issue of CS-3 and CS-4 on the G-Abis interface perfectly. in its support for CS-3 and CS-4. If the uplink configured to adjust CS type dynamically. thus saving investments on the G-Abis interface transmission equipment. the multiplexing ratio of the G-Abis interface is greatly improved. The dynamic attached sub-slot technology is to statically allocate a main 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot and dynamically allocate a attached 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot at the G-Abis interface for the CS-3/CS-4 PDCH. so that each has maximum utilization. They do not have to be adjacent to the main 16kbit/s sub-TS. cs4. In addition. Default: cs2 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-145 . The locations of the additional 16kbit/s sub-TS are relatively flexible. it is not necessary for GPRS BSS to upgrade the hardware of BTS. Value range: cs1. cs2. With dynamic additional sub-TS allocation. the CS of other TBF is dynamically adjusted according to the signal transmission quality. then the CS of the first TBF to transfer can be set by this parameter. Within a same site address. BSC or PCU for supporting CS-3 and CS-4.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions PDCH permanently onto two 16kbit/s links will greatly decrease the multiplexing ratio of the G-Abis interface. With the dynamic additional sub-TS technology. the additional sub-TSs can be dynamically attached to various main TSs to enhance the utilization ratio of this sub-TSs according to statistical multiplexing rules. Parameter M900/M1800 BSS supports four types of coding schemes: CS-1~CS-4. cs3. 1) UpFixCs Description: CS fixedly adopted for uplink. Value range: cs1. It packs and unpacks the data packets through software to avoid hardware upgrading. unfixed Default: cs2 2) UpDefaultCs Description: Default CS adopted for uplink. cs3. The dynamic additional sub-TS technology used by M900/M1800 GPRS BSS displays the following features: Any idle Sub-TS of the G-Abis interface can be used as additional sub-TS. and thus greatly reduce the utilization ratio of the G-Abis interface transmission equipment. The configuration related to channel coding schemes is realized with the command pcu add cspara.

the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-2 to CS-1. i.e. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 6) UpThdCs3Cs2 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-2. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-2 to CS-3.e.e.e. Value range: 0~100 Default: 5 4) UpThdCs2Cs1 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-2 to CS-1. Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 7) UpThdCs3Cs4 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-4. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 8) UpThdCs4Cs3 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-4 to CS-3.e. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. the coding scheme of it changes from CS-1 to CS-2. i.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions 3) UpThdCs1Cs2 Description: The resend rate conversion threshold. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 5) UpThdCs2Cs3 Description: Uplink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-2 to CS-3. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value.e. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-4 to CS-3. i. i. i. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-146 . when the resend rate of the uplink TBF is smaller than or equals to this value. i. when the uplink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-2. the uplink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-4.

the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-1 to CS-2. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. Value range: cs1. cs2. then the CS of the first TBF can be set by this parameter. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-147 . cs3. If the downlink dynamically adjusts CS. the CS type of other TBF is dynamically adjusted according to the signal transmission quality. Value range: cs1.e.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 9) DnFixCs Description: Fixedly adopted CS for downlink. i. unfixed. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value.e. cs3. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value. Value range: 0~100 Default: 5 12) DnThdCs2Cs1 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-2 to CS-1. cs2. cs4.e. i. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-2.e. Default: unfixed 10) DnDefaultCs Description: Default CS adopted for downlink. Default: cs2 11) DnThdCs1Cs2 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-1 to CS-2. Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 13) DnThdCs3Cs2 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-2. cs4. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-3 to CS-4. i. i. Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 14) DnThdCs3Cs4 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-3 to CS-4. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is smaller than or equals to this value. the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-2 to CS-1.

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

Value range: 0~100 Default: 10 15) DnThdCs4Cs3 Description: Downlink TBF retransmission rate conversion threshold from CS-4 to CS-3, i.e. when the downlink TBF retransmission rate is larger than or equals to this value, the downlink TBF coding scheme changes from CS-4 to CS-3. Value range: 0~100 Default: 20 16) MaxFixCs34Pdch Description: The fixed maximum number of PDCH supporting CS-3/CS-4 in this cell. Value range: 0~255 Default: none

2.3.5 Supported Network Control Modes
During the cell reselection required by network, the network requires MS to send MR so as to control the cell reselection. Here three network control modes are defined. NC0: MS controlled cell re-selection, no measurement reporting. NC1: MS controlled cell re-selection, MS sends measurement reports. NC2: Network controlled cell re-selection, MS sends measurement reports. Huawei BSS supports NC0.

I. Parameter
Network control mode parameter is configured with the command pcu add relatedinfo in PCU. Parameter: NCO Description: Network control mode. Value range: nc0, nc1, nc2 Default: Currently fixedly set as "nc0", meaning MS controlled cell re-selection, no measurement reporting

2.3.6 Supported Network Operation Mode
GPRS network defines three network operation modes in order to uniformly coordinate the pagings of circuit-switched and packet-switched service.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-148

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

I. Network operation mode I
The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS, either on the same channel as the GPRS paging channel (i.e., the packet paging channel or the CCCH paging channel), or on a GPRS traffic channel. This means that the MS needs only to monitor one paging channel, and that it receives CS paging messages on the packet data channel when it has been assigned a packet data channel.

II. Network operation mode II
The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and this channel is also used for GPRS paging. This means that the MS needs only to monitor the CCCH paging channel, but that CS paging continues on this paging channel even if the MS has been assigned a packet data channel.

III. Network operation mode III
The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and sends a GPRS paging message on either the packet paging channel (if allocated in the cell) or on the CCCH paging channel. This means that an MS that wants to receive pages for both circuit-switched and packet-switched services shall monitor both paging channels if the packet paging channel is allocated in the cell. No paging co-ordination is performed by the network. Table 2-21 shows channels that deliver circuit paging message and packet paging message under various network modes. Table 2-21 Network operation mode Network operation mode Circuit paging channel Packet Paging Channel I CCCH Paging Channel Packet Data Channel II CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel GPRS paging channel Packet Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel Not Applicable CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Packet Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel No Yes Paging coordination

III

No

Currently, Huawei GPRS BSS system supports three network operation modes.
Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-149

Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem

Chapter 2 BSS Functions

2.3.7 Supported QoS
GPRS provides the subscriber with negotiable QoS configuration. GPRS QoS has five basic attributes: Precedence class; Delay class; Reliability class; Peak throughput class Mean throughput class. Each attribute has multiple values available. The combination of different priorities enables the system to support various applications with different QoSs required. During the negotiation of QoS profile, MS can apply a value for every QoS attribute, including the default value stored in HLR and used to create new account. Network also needs to negotiate a priority for every attribute so that it can keep consistent with effective GPRS resources. Network always provides adequate resource to support the negotiated QoS profiles. RLC/MAC layer supports four radio priority levels, and whether the cause for the uplink access is user data or signaling message transmission. This information is used by the BSS to determine the radio access precedence and the service precedence. The radio priority levels to be used for transmission of MO SMS shall be determined by the SGSN and delivered to the MS in the Attach Accept message. The radio priority level to be used for user data transmission shall be determined by the SGSN based on the negotiated QoS profile and shall be delivered to the MS during the PDP Context Activation and PDP Context Modification procedures. Huawei BSS can satisfy MS QoS requirements as much as possible according to the state of current radio resources.

2.3.8 Supported Assignment
When network side or MS requests to establish TBF for data transmission, GSM/GPRS network can assign some channel resources for data transmission or refuse the request according the multi-slot capability of MS and network resources state. Network can assign TBF resource from CCCH, PACCH or PCCCH. According to the direction of TBF data transmission, assignment can be divided into uplink and downlink assignment. When channel resource is in short or for other causes, network can refuse the request to establish TBF. When MS requests to establish TBF for uplink data transmission, network sends immediate assignment message on CCCH or packet uplink assignment message on PCCCH to assign channel resource. When MS requests to establish uplink TBF during its downlink TBF data transmission, network assigns packet uplink channel for MS on PACCH. MS transmits data according to assigned channel resource.
Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-150

the message will be sent on the PPCH directly. Network assigns resource on different channels according to CCCH or PCCCH configuration. Packet paging When there are downlink data that shall be sent to the MS. The paging request message originated by the SGSN is sent through Gb interface to PCU. and then sends the paging response packet in data form to PCU via the air interface. network can perform different assignments such as single block assignment and packet resource assignment according to different access requests. GPRS/GSM system operates in network operation mode I and the paging service of GSM service can be sent through Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-151 . paging includes packet paging and circuit paging. After receiving the paging response. I. which sends it on the PCH. and single block request. one phase.9 Supported Paging In GPRS/GSM system. II. When MS requests to establish downlink TBF during its uplink TBF data transmission. M900/M1800 BSS supports: Packet uplink resource assignment on PACCH Packet downlink resource assignment on PACCH Uplink immediate assignment for TBF establishment on CCCH. Paging coordination When a call reaches the MSC where the subscriber is located. such as two phases. network can send immediate assignment message on CCCH or packet assignment message on PCCCH for MS to assign downlink channel resource. 2. If PCCCH is not configured for the system. PCU forwards the packet to SGSN. the MSC sends a paging message to all cells in that location area according to the registered location area of MS. MS will initialize the process of uplink TBF establishment. MS transmits data according to assigned channel resource. After receiving packet paging message. SGSN needs to initiate a packet paging call so as to locate MS accurately. which converts it into the packet paging request of the air interface (Um interface) before sending. PCU will send the message via the Pb interface to the BSC. network can assign packet uplink channel for MS through PACCH. SGSN is ready to transmit downlink data. If the PCCCH channel is configured for the BSS system.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When network requests to establish TBF for downlink data transmission. Downlink immediate assignment for TBF establishment on CCCH.3. If there is Gs interface between SGSN and MSC. Meanwhile.

10 Timing Advance Timing advance (TA) procedure is used to extract the correct TA value so that MS can transmit radio block on uplink. its circuit paging go from MSC to SGSN and then to PCU through the Gs and Gb interfaces. then the circuit paging is sent on PACCH. packet uplink assignment or packet downlink assignment message. If there is no Gs interface between SGSN and MSC. In other words. Then BSC sends this message on PCH. 2. Request. MS will initiate GPRS Suspend process to suspend GPRS service and it will not recover GPRS service until circuit connection is released. estimate TA and send to MS.3. Network also can send TA in packet TA/power control message and packet uplink acknowledged/negative message on PACCH. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-152 . M900/M1800 BSS supports above-mentioned packet paging and paging coordination. PCU forwards the paging message to BSC through Pb interface. GPRS/GSM system can operate only in network operation mode II and mode III. and PCU will determine on which channel to transmit the paging. II. TA includes tow parts: I. In this case. Uplink packet transmission uses packet uplink assignment message to assign TA index (TAI) and PTCCH to MS. If MS is currently handling GPRS service. if an MS is GPRS-attached. And downlink packet transmission uses packet downlink assignment message to assign TA index (TAI) and PTCCH to MSTAI specifies the PTCCH sub-channel for MS. MS sends access burst on assigned PTCCH. if this MS has been assign with packet dedicated channel. TA update is born by PTCCH assigned to MS. New TAs is sent through downlink signaling message on PTCCH/D.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions GPRS packet channel. Then network analyses the received TA and provides new TAs for all MSs that perform TA update on this PDCH. On uplink. MS accesses the RACH and starts the circuit connection setup process. MS uses this value for uplink transmission till a new value is provided. if this MS has not assigned with packet dedicated channel and the system has not been configured with PCCCH. Initial TA estimation Initial TA estimation is based on a single access burst bearing packet channel. the system sends circuit paging on CCCH. Network obtains TA from the burst. After receiving the circuit paging message. In network operation mode I. Continuous TA update The MS in packet transmission mode needs continuous TA update.

Network broadcasts PSI5 on PBCCH. When T3178 is active. and PSI13 on PACCH to control MS.12 Supported Flow Control Gb interface and Um interface have different physical mediums and transfer protocols. MS sending extended MR is controlled by XT Measurement Order parameter. The value of parameter EXT Measurement Order should be EM0. Thus the transfer rate is not constant and it is necessary to implement flow control for downlink data. There are two types of MR: I. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-153 . Extended MR Network can order MS to send extended MR. Network control (NC) MR Network carries relative network control parameters carried in PSI5 broadcast on PBCCH. which leads to their different transfer rates.3. MS should immediately use this period to restart T3178.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Huawei GPRS BSS supports: Continuous TA update procedure Quick TA initial value 2. MR period is specified in field EXT Reporting Period in PSI5 or in order packet measurement message. MS can reselect a new cell which is in EM1 mode. Moreover. The priority and quality of uplink transmission signal from MS to site calculated by BTS is sent to PCU through inband signaling of Abis interface TRAU frame and is used to generate MR. the data transfer through Um interface is restricted by MS multislot capacity. If timer timeout duration is less than this period. it starts timer T3178 according to the instructed report period. or sends order packet measurement message on PCCCH or PACCH to address a specified MS. 2. MS should carry out NC measurement and indicate MR period in PSI5. Under NC1 or NC2 mode.11 Measurement Report Network can request MS to send MR. in downlink data transfer. Uplink MR is supported. then T3178 continues working. II. it should carry out EM measurement.3. SI13 on BCCH. If T3178 timeout duration is greater than the report period indicated in the new cell. whether there is radio channel available in the cell. EM1. After MS receives order of EM MR. This parameter is contained in PSI5 or order packet measurement message. When MS is under EM1 mode. radio quality. The data transfer rate of Gb interface is greater than that of Um interface.

SGSN adjusts the downlink data rate of this cell/MS according to the reported parameters. which is the purpose of downlink data flow control. and reports MS bucket size and bucket rate according radio resource occupation state of MS. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-154 .Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions When cell is in normal state. PCU starts flow control procedure: PCU periodically reports the cell bucket size and the cell bucket rate according to the state of radio packet channel in the cell.

Bucket rate is data transfer rater. BCCH. When there is more packet traffic and the speech channels are relatively idle. mobility management. phase II access. PCCCH.13 Supported Dynamic Handover between TCH and PDCH At the early stage of GPRS service.3. such as TCH. single block not establishing TBF access. 1) Supporting the handover from TCH to PDCH during the establishment of TBF. It varies from the number of packet channels in the cell. GSM network is usually updated to support GPRS service due to the shortage of radio frequencies. SDCCH. It can be converted between TCH and PDCH. and PDCH. voice traffic channel is dedicated for voice service. paging response.14 Supported Packet Access Function When MS upper layers have data to be transferred.3. Uplink flow control supports refusal of immediate assignment on CCCH. MS packet access types are as follows: Short access. In order to reduce the effect on original GSM circuit switched speech services caused by GPRS service. it can also request PCU to return the converted dynamic channel and use it again as speech channel. Fixed packet service channel is dedicated for packet data service. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-155 . and adjust the reported parameters according to the changes of cell packet resource and MS resource occupation. MS bucket refers to the maximum packet data quantity that allowed being stored. 2. Huawei GPRS BSS classifies channel attribute into fixed packet service channel.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions Note: Cell bucket refers to the maximum packet data quantity that allowed being stored. It varies from the number of packet channels assigned to MS. In this process. Whereas when BSC determines the speech channels are busy. MS RLC/MAC will initiate packet access. voice service channel and dynamic channel. cell update. BVC downlink flow control and MS downlink flow control are supported. PCU will request the BSC to convert the dynamic channel into the dynamic packet data channel. the speech service is given the priority over the packet service to guarantee the original speech services. Huawei GPRS BSS supports the dynamic handover between TCH and PDCH. phase I access. and the dynamic channel is voice TCH at its initialization stage. 2) Supporting inter-cell PDCH sharing on the same RPPU 2. For downlink flow control. report the bucket size and bucket rate of the current cell/MS to SGSN. Huawei PCU system can implement downlink data flow control. such as PBCCH.

USF or radio block position list). radio resource is assigned for MS in the first time (such as TFI. For channel request type of paging response. cell update. so it carries a little of information. then the channel request type is monolith not establishing TBF access. The packet channel request is an access burst with 8 bit or 11 bit. MS multislot capacity. and mobility management. Then MS begins to transfer data on assigned resource. radio priority). MS sends packet resource request message on assigned sigle radio block for second resource assignment (including TFI.Feature Description M900/M1800 Base Station Subsystem Chapter 2 BSS Functions If the data to be transferred is less than 8 RLC blocks. they are usually processed as phase I or phase II access. If MS MR is to be transferred. M900/M1800 PCU supports all these access types. it processes them by regarding them as two-phase ones. For access types such as paging response. it can carry relatively more information (including MS TLLI. the first request is for assigning a radio block for MS. While the packet resource request is an RLC/MAC signaling packet with CS-1. If the data to be transferred is more than 8 RLC blocks and RLC mode is required to be acknowledged mode. cell update. the MS channel request type is short access. These kinds of information are helpful in assigning appropriate resource for MS. For short access and phase I access. and mobility management. then MS channel request type is phase I access or phase II access. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-156 . The number of data packets is calculated according to CS-1. dynamic assignment of USF or list of fixed assignment of radio block position list) For two-phase access channel request.

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