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Mar 19, 2011

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process fluid mechanicsViscous flows

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process fluid mechanicsViscous flows

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Lecture 2.20 In one dimensional ﬂows� the inertial term is absent and the problems are usually

amenable to analytical solutions.

In this lecture we will consider simple ﬂow application of Navier-Stokes equation, on which it is pos-

sible to obtain a closed form analytical solution to the velocity ﬁelds. Many problems are discussed

in the introductory texts Wilkes (1999); Fox and McDonald (2001); Denn (1980), we will consider only

a few illustrative applications which have more of chemical engineering relevance.

A general procedure to solve the Navier-Stokes equation The Navier-Stokes Equations Equa-

tion (2.29) is a set of four coupled non-linear second order partial differential equations. Even if

the boundary conditions are known, obtaining a solution is not a straight forward mathematical

problem. For most engineering applications, at least if the problem can be simpliﬁed, it is possible

to reduce the complexity in the equations at the very beginning. This is achieved by making some

assumptions, and idealisations. Good approximations come with experience and practice. But there

is a general sequence of steps that may be followed to simplify the problem.

3. Validate the guess by substituting it in the continuity equation. Remember there are no physical

parameters appearing in the continuity equation which could alter the balance. It could be

possible to obtain additional information about the velocity ﬁeld. This approach was used in

the differential analysis of the boundary layer.

4. Substitute the guesses in the momentum equation and simplify the differentials. For many

problems, the concentrating on pressure terms usually leads to further simpliﬁcations.

Poiseuille ﬂow is a pressure driven motion of a ﬂuid. Couette ﬂows are those in which the pressure

gradients are absent, and the ﬂow is driven by motion of the boundary; it is also called as a drag ﬂow.

You have studied Poiseuille ﬂows in a pipe and steady and unsteady Couette ﬂows, in your earlier

course Transport Phenomena. Here we will consider pressure driven ﬂow in a rectangular channel.

Consider a rectangular channel of length L (along the x direction), and cross-section of W × H

(along z and y directions respectively), through which there is a ﬂow driven by a pressure gradient

acting in the x-direction. We will make certain assumptions and simplify the problem. If we obtain a

solution and it is consistent with the assumptions, then we take that we have found out one solution

to the non-linear differential equations. But we must admit there there could be other possibilities as

well, which can be veriﬁed only by experiments, or the complete solution to the equation.

Assumption-1: Steady ﬂow. This immediately drops all the time derivatives, and we have al-

ready restricted our solution space. Assumption-2: The aspect ratio of the channel is very large. This

implies W � H. This seems a restrictive assumption, but again it is only an assumption. We can

take this to an extreme, which we call idealisation, and take W/H → ∞. This implies the wall does

not inﬂuence the velocity, or that there is “no wall” in the z direction. This means the velocities do

not change in the z-direction. Assumption-3 The ﬂow is fully-developed. This means that regions of

inﬂuence of the entrance and exit are negligible in comparison with the length L. This is also to say

that the velocities are not a function of x. This reduces the problem statement in the velocities to the

following

ui = fi �y) (2.131)

�P

90 Chapter 2. Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow

Substituting in the continuity equation we get uy = v = constant. From the no-slip condition, we

have that the velocity has to vanish at the boundaries. This implies v = 0 through out. The NSE in

Cartesian coordinates reduce to

∂p d2 u

0=− �µ 2 (2.132)

∂x dy

∂p

0=− (2.133)

∂y

∂p d2 w

0=− �µ 2 (2.134)

∂z dy

Note we have used complete derivative for the velocities, and partial for the pressure. Inspecting the

pressure terms, we ﬁnd that the pressure is only a function of �x� z). In Equation (2.132), ∂p

∂x is not a

function of y where as the viscous term is, and the viscous term is not a function of x whereas the

pressure term is. This implies each of them must be equal to the same constant. A similar argument

applies for the z-momentum equation. This gives us the solutions (along with the no-slip conditions)

� � �2

H 2 Δp

�

2y

u= − 1 − (2.135)

8µ L H

� �2

H 2 Δp

� �

2y

w= − 1 − (2.136)

8µ W H

�H/2

H2

� �

1 Δp

�w� ≡ dy w = − (2.137)

H 12 µ W

−H/2

Since there is no net-ﬂow in the z-direction because of the presence of the walls, this implies the

pressure gradient is zero, or from Equation (2.136), w = 0. Equation (2.135), v = w = 0 is the solution

we obtain. This is consistent with our assumptions.

Viscometers are used to determine the viscosity of ﬂuids. They are usually employed to measure

viscosities of liquids. The commercial viscometers can typically measure only high viscosity liquids,

about 100 times that of water. A cylinder is rotated in a liquid and the torque required to generate

a constant rpm is measured. This is used to compute the viscosity of the ﬂuid. Rheometers are

more sophisticated and have many more controls, and can measure many more properties of ﬂow

for complex ﬂuids that exhibit both viscous and elastic behaviours.

In reality the velocities around the shaft can be complex, but we make simpliﬁcations as before.

We assume that the length of the shaft L � R, the radius of the shaft, thereby neglecting the end

effects between the bottom of the vessel and the shaft. Further we assume that there is no axial or

radial motion, but motion only in the θ-direction. From the continuity equation we have that vθ = f �r)

(we have neglected the variation in the z direction due to the length assumption above). The NSE

reduce to

vθ ∂p

−ρ =− (2.138)

r ∂r � �

d 1 d�r vθ )

0=µ (2.139)

dr r dr

∂p

0=− (2.140)

∂z

�P

Lecture 2.20. One Dimensional Flows 91

C2

vθ = C1 r � (2.141)

r

At the outer radius of the vessel the velocity is zero, so for any large r the velocity is ﬁnite, therefore

the term proportional to r term must vanish from the equation. No-slip at the shaft surface (vθ = R ω

at r = R,) gives

ω R2

vθ = (2.142)

r

The torque is proportional to the surface force exerted by the ﬂuid on the shaft. We require to estimate

τrθ , which can be obtained from the tables for the velocity gradient in cylindrical coordinates

τ = µ�∇ v � ∇ vT )

(2.143)

� �

∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ

τrθ = µ � −

∂r r ∂θ r

The stress at r = R is therefore

τrθ �r = R) = −2 µ ω (2.144)

The differential force on an element swept by dθ across the length is τrθ L R dθ and the corresponding

torque is τrθ L R2 dθ. Integrating over the angle, we get an expression for the total torque

G = −4 π L R2 µ ω

So far we have considered a ﬂow where there is only a single ﬂuid. In the presence of more than

one ﬂuid, proper interface condition for the force needs to be speciﬁed. The simplest condition when

the interface is stationary or moving with a constant velocity. In this case the forces (surface forces)

acting on either side of the interface must balance each other.

σ1 = σ2 or σ�1) �2)

i j = σi j (2.145)

We can also equate the normal and tangential component of the forces on either side. For the simplest

case of a stationary ﬂuids with a curved interface this reduces to the normal stress balance:

2γ

p�1) = p�2) � (2.146)

R

at the interface, where γ is the surface tension and R is the radius of curvature. When two ﬂuids ﬂow

past each other, with a ﬂat interface, the tangential force arises due to the viscous stress. A stress

balance gives

∂u1 ∂u2

τ�1) �2)

yx = τyx or µ1 = µ2 (2.147)

∂y ∂y

In the case of air-water interface, we rewrite this as

∂uw µa ∂ua

= (2.148)

∂y µw ∂y

In most cases the air region is unbounded (like in the case of a jet of liquid in air) therefore the velocity

gradient is also negligibly small. Even if the region of air is bounded by walls present in comparable

length scales, the viscosity of water is about 50 times that of air, making the RHS negligibly small for

the velocity gradient in water. This leads to a general condition that there is no shear stress acting

on the surface, or it is a stress-free boundary; the condition is also known as an inviscid boundary

condition. This is a very useful simpliﬁcation in treating ﬂows of air water interface. The stress free

condition leads to the conclusion that in the cases of jets the velocity proﬁle in the liquid is ﬂat.

�P

92 Chapter 2. Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow

Radius: Rd Rw Rc

Figure 2.16: Schematic diagram of wire coating.

Wire coating is the process of coating a polymeric material on, usually, metallic wires. The process

is done in the liquid state of the polymer, and then it is let to dry. A wire is pulled through a die

connected to a reservoir of molten polymer, leaving a coat of constant thickness. The problem is

to determine the coating thickness as a function of rate of pulling and the other parameters of the

system. Also of importance is the force required to pull the wire, at a given velocity.

Consider the schematic shown in Figure 2.16. Inside the die the liquid is ﬂowing in an annular

space created by the void between the wire and the die. At distances far away from the die exit, the

coating is uniform, implying the interface is ﬂat and the free surface condition (stress-free) yields a

ﬂat velocity proﬁle. Performing a integral mass balance across a large control volume, that takes the

shape of the liquid we get at steady state

�Rd

− dr 2 π r ρ vz � Vw π �R2c − R2w ) = 0 (2.149)

Rw

where Vw is the velocity the wire is pulled with. In order to ﬁnd Rc we need to know the velocity

proﬁle vz �r) inside the die annulus. As before, we consider a fully developed velocity proﬁle, as this

makes the equations simpler (Note that when we positioned the CV boundary in the die, we did

not require it to have a fully developed velocity proﬁle, i.e., the Equation (2.149) is valid even if the

velocity is not fully developed, but the expression is easier to evaluate for fully developed ﬂow). The

NSE reduce to p = constant and � � ��

1 ∂ ∂vz

0=µ r (2.150)

r ∂r ∂r

With the no-slip boundary conditions this gives

ln r/Rd

vz �r) = Vw (2.151)

ln Rw /Rd

Substituting in Equation (2.149) we get

� 2 1/2

R − R2w

Rc = d (2.152)

2 ln Rd /Rw

and the force required to pull the die is obtained by integrating the surface force on the wire over the

length of the die

2 π µ Vw L

Fw = (2.153)

ln Rw /Rd

assuming the same the fully developed velocity proﬁle to be dominating the entire length. This also

ignores any radial variations in the velocity from the die exit to the regime of constant wire thickness.

�P

Lecture 2.20. One Dimensional Flows 93

Most of the ﬂuid we have considered are Newtonian, that is the shear stress is related by a linear

relationship to the local velocity gradient as given in Equation (2.30). However, there are several

ﬂuids which do not exhibit this behaviour. This is especially true of polymeric ﬂuids, and other

ﬂuids that have a constituent substance that cannot be considered to be simple spherical molecules

of same size. These ﬂuids exhibit behaviours that are vastly different and rich in variety. Any ﬂuid

that does not show the Newtonian behaviour, in the velocity gradients of practical interest, is called a

non-Newtonian ﬂuid (Strictly speaking, there could be very high gradients of velocity where even the

so called Newtonian ﬂuids, such as air and water, exhibit non-linear behaviour; but these are very

rare for practical considerations.)

The local velocity gradient (also called as the local shear rate) can be vastly different for various

processes. Below is a compilation of some of the processes.

Phenomenon Shear rate (s−1 ) Application

−6

Sedimentation of powders 10 Medicines, paints

Extruders 10 Polymers

Mixing 102

Rubbing 103 Application of creams

High speed Coating 105 Printing inks

Lubrication 106 Engines

For non-Newtonian ﬂuids, the viscosity is not a constant. It could be dependent on the local

velocity gradient (or shear rate). It could be time-varying as well. It is convenient to deﬁne a viscosity

function

τ

η≡ (2.154)

γ̇

where τ is the local shear stress, in a simple Couette geometry, and γ̇ is the local shear rate (or velocity

gradient). Some of the common non-Newtonian behaviours are

� Shear-thinning materials. The shear stress is no longer linear with the shear rate, but increases

sub-linearly. Or in other words, the viscosity (which is the local slope in the stress vs rate curve)

decreases as the shear rate is increased. Most polymeric substances exhibit this behaviour. The

behaviour is also called as pseudo-plastic.

� Thickening. Slurries and suspensions of particles in a ﬂuid (paint for example) show a increase

in the viscosity with shear rate, and is called as shear-thickening or dialatant materials.

� Yeild Stress materials: Some materials deform elastically upto a certain stress and begin to

ﬂow only beyond a stress known as yeild stress. These materials may exhibit a Newtonian or

non-Newtonian behaviour beyond the yield point. They are also known as Bingham Plastic

� The three types discussed here have a steady viscosity function, so long as the applied shear

rate is kept constant. However some materials show a time-dependent (or history dependent)

viscosity. Thixotropic ﬂuids show a viscosity thinning with time at a constant shear rate, Rheopec-

tic ﬂuids show a viscosity thickening with time.

With that brief introduction to non-Newtonian behaviour, we take up a simple problem of a

Poiseuille ﬂow of a power-law ﬂuid. “Power law” ﬂuids are a class of shear thinning materials that

show a power-law dependence of the viscosity function with the shear rate.

η = K �γ̇)n−1 (2.155)

where K is a empirical constant called as the consistency factor. For a Couette ﬂow the shear stress is

given by

τ xy = η γ̇ = K γ̇n (2.156)

�P

94 Chapter 2. Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow

� �

τ = η�II) ∇v � ∇vT (2.157)

�n−1)/2

η�II) = K |II| (2.158)

� �

where II is called as the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor deﬁned as, II = 12 �tr2�)2 − tr�2�)2 ,

� = 12 �∇v � ∇vT ) is the rate of deformation tensor, and tr denotes the trace of a matrix.

As with the Poiseuille ﬂow we will assume the following (fully-developed, axis-symmetric, and

one-dimensional)

vz = vz �r)� vr = vθ = 0 (2.159)

This satisﬁes the continuity equation. To solve for the velocities, we have to go back to the general

momentum balance, not that for Newtonian ﬂuids. We look up the cylindrical coordinate equations

∂p

0=−

∂r

∂p

0=−

∂θ

∂p 1 d

0=− � �rτrz )

∂z r dr

ΔP

τrz = r (2.160)

2L

Note that even for non-Newtonian ﬂuids the stress is still a linear function of the distance from the

walls. It is only the velocity proﬁles that will be different. Inserting the expression for the shear stress

�� ��n−1

dvz dvz

τrz = K ��� ��� (2.161)

dr dr

and solving for the velocity and using the usual boundary conditions we get

� n�1 � ��1/n � � r ��n�1)/n �

n R ΔP

vz = − 1− (2.162)

n � 1 2K 2K L R

� � r ��n�1)/n �

3n � 1

vz = �vz � 1 − (2.163)

n�1 R

For shear thinning ﬂuids, n < 1 (n is usually in the range 0.3 < n < 1), the proﬁle is ﬂatter towards the

centre in comparison with a parabolic velocity proﬁle for Newtonian ﬂuids.

Physical interpretation of the velocity proﬁle The stress distribution is identical in the cases of

Newtonian and non-Newtonian ﬂuids. For a given pressure drop, the non-Newtonian ﬂuid experi-

ences an lower viscosity, therefore we can expect a higher ﬂow rate, implying the average velocity

�vz � would be higher. This can be seen from Figure 2.17, where the area under the curve for the

non-Newtonian ﬂuid is higher than that for the Newtonian ﬂuid.

�P

Lecture 2.20. One Dimensional Flows 95

0.8

0.6

ylabel

0.4

0.2

n = 1, Newtonian

n = 0.3

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

xlabel

Figure 2.17: Fully developed velocity proﬁles for a power law ﬂuid with n = 0.3 compared to that of

a Newtonian ﬂuid.

2.6.1 Flow past a sphere

Concepts You Must Know

1. Simpliﬁcations of NSE for low Reynolds Number ﬂows

2. Creeping ﬂow equations are linear differential equations: Unique solution exists

3. Uniform ﬂow past a sphere is easily solved in spherical coordinates

4. The net drag force on the sphere is due to “form friction” (normal stresses) and “skin friction”

(tangential stresses) on its surface.

5. The total drag may also be obtained equating the energy supplied to move the sphere to the

total viscous dissipation in the ﬂuid.

�P

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