77

Art.

on the Gupta Coinage. By Ytncent Arthur S., Indian Civil Service Smith, M.R.A (N.W.P. and Oudh). With Read before the Inter three Plates. IV.?Observations national Congress of Orientalists, London, 1892.

Contents. PAGE

List of Abbreviations. 77 Part I. General Observations,
Table.

with

a Synoptic
.. 79

Part

II.

Additions
Gold

to Catalogue
Coins .

. 94
. 94

Silver Coins.
Copper Copper and Coins Coins

132
. of Kum?ra Gupta silver I. and 133

Skanda Gupta,
legend with Coins Miscellaneous

agreeing
the

in device
coins . .. 137 144

Abbreviations. A.A. A.C. H. H. Wilson's Ariana Antiqua. Sir London.

Cabinet ham,

of Major-General K.C.I.E., of etc.,

Alexander

Cunning

JE. A.G. JR.

Copper. Cabinet Silver.

Alexander

Grant,

C.I.E.1

Arch.Eep.

lieports
volumes

of

the Archaeological
i.-xxiii., written or

Survey
edited

of
by

India,
Sir A.

Cunningham.

1Mr.

Grant's

gold

Gupta

coins

are now

in the Ermitage

Imp?rial

at St.

Petersburg.

78 A. SB.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. Cabinet of Asiatic
N. Gold.

Society of Bengal, Library, Oxford.
B.C.S.

Calcutta.

B. Cabinet of Bodleian
Barstow. B.M. Cabinet British of H. Museum.

C. Barstow,

(retired).

Boys.
Diam.

Cabinet of H.
C. Cabinet Diameter of H.

S. Boys, B.C.S.
inch.

(retired).
I.C.S.,1 India.

Rivett-Carnac, of an in decimals

d.E.,

E.C.B.
G.E.

Cabinet
Ascot. Gupta H. Cabinet

of the

late Sir E.
year I.C.S.,

C. Bayley,
a.d. 319-20.

K.C.S.I.,

Era, of

of which J. Hooper,

1 was

India.

Ind Ant.
J.A.S.B.

Indian Antiquary, Bombay. LO. Cabinet of India Office, in B.M.
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

J.Bo.Br.R.A.S.Journal J.R.A.S.

of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great
Britain and reader, proper Ireland. when left, used when to used denote to position denote parts on of of

1. Left coin;

Lane.
Mon. Obv. P.E.

the body. Cabinet of Wilmot
Marsden's M. The Numismata so-called

Lane, B.C.S.
Orientalia. or

(retired).
emblem.

monogram,

monogrammatic

Obverse. Prinsep's Essays on Indian Antiquities, ed. Thomas

Proc.A.S.B.

(London, 1858). Proceedings of the Asiatic
r. Right coin; of reader, proper when right, when

Society of Bengal,
used to denote used to on position denote parts

of the body.
Rev. Reverse. S. Cabinet Taylor. Temple. Cabinet Cabinet of J. Sykes, Barrister-at-law, B.C.S., C. Temple, Stroud. S.C., Rangoon. Lucknow.

Taylor, R. of Major

of R.

in English grains. Wt. Weight Cabinet of W. Theobald, Esq., Budleigh W.T.
Devon.

Salterton,

1 Gold

coins now

in Indian

Museum,

Calcutta.

79

Part

I.?General

Observations.

in January, the publication, 1889, of my monograph the Gupta Coinage,1 I have kept by me an interleaved copy of that work, in which I have noted from time to time all miscellaneous information bearing on the subject which to come to my notice, and descriptions of coins happened I am especially for my inspection. submitted indebted to friend Mr. J. H. Rivett-Carnac, for placing in C.I.E., my my hands the whole of his splendid collection of gold Gupta several novelties, includes and many fine and coins, which Since on
rare specimens.

of the rich Bodleian examination Rapson's cabinet, Lane's of Mr. Wilmot has enabled him to collection, and correct my account of the supplement Gupta coinage The in various of the seal of particulars.2 discovery II. at Bhitar?, bearing a long Kum?ra Gupta genealogical has shown that the direct line of the inscription, imperial to hold royal rank for a continued dynasty Gupta period much been supposed, and has longer than had previously to our added several details Dr. interesting knowledge.3 criticisms have proved Burner's that Mr. Fleet's opinions the chronology of the dynasty are not correct concerning on certain points.4 This accumulation of new material has induced me to make an effort to correct and up to bring treatise by the observations date my systematic now offered of the Congress for the consideration and of the Royal These Asiatic are observations of Society. unfortunately and desultory such a miscellaneous character that are they Mr. and
1 Journal of Royal Asiatic for 1889, pp. 1-158, with five Society ' ' plates' referred to in this paper as Catalogue.' 2 "Notes on Gupta Coins." (Numismatic Chronicle, vol. xi, third series nn ' FF' 48-64," with one plate.) 3 Inscribed Seal of Kum?ra Gupta II." (/. As. Soc. Bengal for 1889, vol and V. A. An Iviii, part i. By Dr. HoernU Smith.) electrotype facsimile of the seal has been placed in the British Museum. * "On the Origin of the Gupta-Yalabh? Era." ' (Vienna Oriental Journal vol. v, part 3).

80

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

even by the few students likely to be thought dry reading, care for Indian numismatics. But this defect will, who as being unavoidable. The amount of I trust, be forgiven new matter at my command is not sufficient to render the of my monograph necessary, and it is impossible, to give my notes an agreeable it, except by re-writing to minimize An attempt of form. the difficulty literary with disjointed notes has been made by discussing dealing more and interest in the first part, general topics of re-writing details to the second part of minute numismatic relegating this communication. Many readers who may not care for interested in watching such details may be warmly every the that is taken in the slow process of disinterring step long buried and forgotten ancient history of India. have convinced me that my Historical researches which was based on Mr. Fleet's work, duction, Recent Intro

requires considerable modification. in accordance The following Synoptic Table, constructed with the combined testimony of coins and other contemporary
records, as now interpreted, expresses in a concise and easily

of the history of the Gupta intelligible seems which and the chronological arrangement dynasty, to me to be best supported by the evidence. of the au the place for a full discussion This^is^^ot such on which the table is based. I give merely thorities form the
explanations as are absolutely necessary to make it in

outline

and to justify the extent to which it differs from telligible, the less complete table published by me in 1889. the view I have accepted by Dr. recently supported that the era used by the Gupta kings was really B?hler, a Gupta era, established by Chandra Gupta I. on his accession. from rival theory that the era was introduced Mr. Fleet's Nepal
era been

must,
a.d.

I think,
according

be given up.1
to the most

The
recent

year

of the Gupta
to have

appears,

calculations,

319-20.

1 The era dates from the accession of Chandra Gupta I. opinion that the Gupta for many years, and was published has been held by Sir A. Cunningham by him in 1879 (Archceol. Survey Rep. vol. ix, p. 21).

X?CHA AND LICHCHHAVIS.

SI

or that K?cha, I have adopted Mr. Rapson's suggestion was not, as I formerly identical with Kacha, supposed, his predecessor Samudra Gupta, but was in all probability of K?cha's and brother. The coins, and their scarcity occurrence that his reign was in only one type, indicate to us solely is known brief. The existence of this king are found with, and are means of his gold coins, which by The omission to, those of Samudra Gupta. is fully from the genealogical inscriptions that he left no son who suc the supposition explained by ceeded to the throne, and that his name was therefore left out of the dynastic In the same lists as being irrelevant. is omitted from the Bhitar? the name of Skanda Gupta way, of Kum?ra Gupta Seal inscription IL, who records himself son of Kum?ra to be the grandson of (?) Sthira Gupta, from inscriptions I. We know recorded before the Gupta that that prince also was a son of decease of Skanda Gupta related closely of his name Kum?ra and I., and that consequently (?) Sthira Gupta Gupta if they were Skanda Gupta must have been brothers, not identical, which latter alternative is possible. or Kacha, beyond all doubt The variant spellings K?cha, occur on the coins, which will be more particularly noticed subsequently. I formerly which which or clan, into I. married, and in the alliance with Chandra Gupta felt such pride, as he and his successors evidently I must confess that it was rash of me "of Nepal." described the Lichchhavi tribe .

being to adopt so definitely Mr. Fleet's hypothesis. There is really no proof that the Lichchhavi clan with which Chandra was that of Nepal. I. intermarried Dr. B?hler Gupta cannot have been that the Lichchhavi holds father-in-law
ruler an of Nepal, easy pre}*" which to our has always been dynasty an insignificant another. state, He Indian after

suggests Chandra Gupta that was so, the

that

the Lichchhavi royal I. his queen, was that attached importance For Chandra Gupta

easily explained. have been king of P?taliputra."
j.R.A.s. 1893. 6

family, gave of P?taliputra. "If to his marriage is himself to appears

which

to CO

Remarks.

319 was Era 1 Gupta of Year 20.

Not men | in tioned

inscrip tions.

Some sil|bear ver coins dates.

8

Accession. 305 Approximate Date of 290 a.d.

319

340

350

380

414

and copper Gold,silver, Coins. None Gold

and copper Ananta Devi Gold,silver,

Name of

(of Lichchhavi Devi Devi Kum?ra Unknown Datta Unknown tribe)

Dhruva Devi

Queen.

7 3 5 6 4 Son of.

Unknown No. No. 2 1

SYNOPTIC TABLE OF IMPERIAL THE GUPTA DYNASTY.

3 No. (?)

No. 3

5 No.

No. 6

Title Reverse on of Coins.

Kramajita Raja ; S'r?

Kum?ra; S'r? m?ra Si?ha S'r?; r?j?dhir?ja ; ; MaParama (mah?) S'r? G.Mahendr?ditya K. ; ; hendra a?van-.edha bh?gavata Ajita dditga; S'r? Pratt?paVijit?vanir vikrama ; ;vikrama Krit?nta and S'ri compounds Vikram??ka Guptodhir?j? ; ; Par?krama, Vikram ; its VikramaPara ; Si?ha Apratiratha ; vikrama Mahendra (I.) | Ku K. G. deva. ; Si?ha (or Mahendra Sarvar?jochchhet ta. !Gupta Kum?ra S'r? Ajita) Ajito Mahendra ; Mahendra mabh?gavata. avanipati parasu.

Name. Personal

Chandra Gupta i Ghatotkacha (S'r? Gupta Gupta) (i-)

K?chaorKacha Gupta Chandra Gupta Samudra (ii.)

dhir?ja Maharaja Maharaja Rank. (?),,

Serial No.

oc oc

coins ver dates. |Some sil bear

174 G. E. dated Coins

452

480

490

520

480

480

(?) sil and copper Gold, ver,

>>

Gold (?)

Silver Unknown

Gold

Devi Mah? (?) Unknown Devi Vatsa Unknown Unknown Unknown instead first the Gupta, S'r? of king, Fleet's deference of for the in to Mr. and authority, name arguments difficulty is in certainly taking aa the protected protected,' participle * past itself. by S'r? gupta, Gupta, ' name as No. 9 No. 10 Unknown Unknown to accept the reading to Sthira Fleet Mr. Iwrites the Gupta compound letter, always with word write it separately is because capital frequently written a names -gupta. as doubtful. B?hler Hoernl? isname this of Fleet Dr. reading Pura in Mr. The tells 2agree and that, Dr. reading after ; careful ex very me

No. 7 were

No. 7 identical.

I am disposed

the the wordis Gupta should, in in order ri guta name preceding (S'r?-gupta) " mentioned B?hler observes that Sthira is an alternative

being correct, probably give inscriptions he to sense, one (B?hler this correspond thinks inclined most Cunninghambrothers. with the de A. the that Sir amination, Sthira is; to Sthira points reading He and correct reading. favour rightly accept out that that of Skanda supposition and Gupta the in decision Samudra of Iwere Gupta similar have come-to case a Lakshm?,' thisthe that thinks l?e Sauchi S'r? by still Cunningham*tells'meof the gives 'the Sir is The good of form A. '" or and correct name. sense, name and th god Skanda, and of the

vata

Vikra S. Param?ditya Kramaditya, G. S'r? or m?ditya, ;or avanipati S'r? S. bh?ga Parama Kramaditya Vijit?vartir ; (mah?r?j?dhir?ja) (?) Prah???ditya? S'r?

Yijit?vai?r avanipati S'r? B.

Leva G.

Kramaditya.G. Deva. B?l?ditya.

Nara Si?ha Gupta Skanda (?) Gupta Sthira2

(in (in Eastern Central Gupta Kum?ra Budha GuptaMagadha) Krishna Gupta India) Gupta ai.)

the See Prak?s?ditya. gold 3on remarks coins of post

dhir?ja Mabaraj?

him. But there form( ^ the adduced Gupta, I useis 1 by the coins. separately on K?cha. and

9

10

11

12

13

84 It

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COIXAGE. " the Guptas of

to find the myth of is satisfactory " to be disbelieved.1 at last beginning Kanauj I. are rare. The coins of Chandra Gupta about seventeen which all

specimens, In the absence of any other evidence, a rather short reign. I. I have assigned Chandra Gupta a guess twenty years, and his (?) son K?cha at (or Kacha)
ten years. The number of known coins of K?cha is about

I know of only to one type. belong these facts indicate

I., and, like his, the coins equal to that of Chandra Gupta all belong to a single type. I. coins of Kum?ra and dated The Gupta inscriptions combined with the dated inscrip and his son Skanda Gupta, tions of his father, Chandra II., fix the dates of Gupta and end of the reign of Kum?ra the beginning I., Gupta for about forty He certainly almost with precision. reigned from about a.d. 414 years, or very nearly for that period, era dates or 455. then that the Gupta to 452 Assuming and that the reigns of Chandra Gupta from the accession I., were I. and K?cha of Chandra Gupta short, the period and Chandra of Samudra covered by the reigns Gupta I have taken have been II. must long. necessarily Gupta that It is known it as 64 years, from a.d. 350 to 414. in the year 82 of the II. was reigning Gupta that ?s to say about a.D. 401, but the date of Gupta, era, of his reign cannot at present be fixed with the begMrBng Chandra
accuracy. I have assumed a.d. 380, which cannot be very

far wrong.
his result complete more son

Samudra
years, only

Gupta
a a with

is thus
one

assigned
in itself,

thirty,
result. but is

and
This in

thirty-four too is not accordance especially

perfectly reasonable the me.

reasonable

numismatic The only

evidence, gold Gupta

whicb coins

concerns

which

can be

considered

at all

common

are those

of

the

'' ** 1 I am in the article of Kanauj still appearing the Guptas sorry to find and Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole, on the Coins of India, by Prof. Percy Gardner 2nd edition, and Art,' their place in History 1892, page in 'Coins and Medals, It speaks of revised. 180. This article seems not to have been very carefully 44the Sah as "money of the Gupta describes coinage (p. 181), and dynasty" is not. of it certainly vfhe almost pure Indian style" (p. 180;, which much of Sah for Simha was corrected years ago. misreading

CHRONOLOGY. Javelin

85

and the Archer of Samudra Gupta, type type of Chandra Gupta Lotus-seat II. I reverse) (Class IL, of the Javelin of know of more than fifty specimens type of the Archer Samudra Gupta, and the specimens type of son are past counting. abundance of the his The greater was longer than that son's coins indicates that his reign of the father, and the great variety of the types of the that both enjoyed is good evidence kings to be made If any change should have long reigns. now it will in the figures hereafter suggested probably of the reign of Samudra take the form of a shortening of that of Chandra and an extension IL, Gupta Gupta, coinage of both to have whose sway the Gupta empire appears during as above attained its greatest Kum?ra I., Gupta glory. undoubted fact about forty years, which observed, reigned The the numismatic evidence. with fully in accordance is established fact of his long reign by in directly and dated and is further numismatically coins, scriptions of Kum?ra's money in all three confirmed by the existence is also

metals, by inWestern

of his silver currency both the great abundance and Northern India, and by the variety of his gold types, which rival in number those of his father. The name of Kum?ra is Devi, queen, Ananta Gupta's seal only. The naine of Skanda from the Bhitaii known and is probably Gupta's queen has not yet been discovered,
not on record, inasmuch as he left no son to succeed him.

The

Bhitar?

seal

inform Devi, name

us

that whose

his

brother

Gupta married Vatsa married a lady, whose
son was Kum?ra Gupta.

son, Nara is probably Mah? accession
is impossible

(?) Sthira Si?ha Gupta Devi,1 whose with
to

The
approximate

date

of the

Skanda

Gupta's
but it

is known
at present

accuracy,

fix

figures

exactly which

dates of his seem probable,

successors. and differ

I little

have from

given Dr.

Hoernl?'s.

1 The devt

letters are damaged. dev?, orMah?dev?.

They

have

been read asMah?lakshm?

dev?, Mahu

86 No

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

coins bearing the name of (?) Sthira Gupta are known, as I accept the conjecture that the heavy plausible coins of suvarna standard bearing on the reverse the title to (?) Sthira Gupta. should be assigned Un Prak?s?ditya not a single of these coins, with the luckily, specimen obverse legend in good order, has yet come to light. but can, I think, be no doubt that the Nara Si?ha of the seal is the Nara B?l?ditya There of the coins. Gupta as Dr: Hoernl? is reason to believe, has pointed out, that the word Gupta outside the spear on the really occurs There It seems to be legible on figure 22 ?of the coins. of the Ariana xviii. and there are, plate Antiqua, traces of the word on the British Museum coin perhaps, obverse of photographed in my with Mr. coins Plate IIL Fig. 11 (J.R.A.S. for

1889).
that the heavy Kum?ra Gupta Rapson to Kum?ra Gupta IL, should be assigned Kram?ditya to Kum?ra rather than I. Skanda Gupta was Gupta succeeded directly, in or about the year a.d. 480, probably in Central India, by Krishna Gupta Gupta in by Budha in the Gangetic Eastern Magadha, and by (?) Sthira Gupta was either brother of, (?) Sthira Gupta valley. certainly or identical with, Skanda Gupta, but we know nothing about the genealogy that conceive Kum?ra of the I and Krishna Gupta. Gupta and Si?ha Gupta, Nara Sthira Gupta, (?) of the main line II., the direct descendants Gupta a comparatively each ruled small dynasty, only in the Gangetic provinces. more of these princes likely that the headquarters or some city in that neighbourhood, than Ajodhya, of Budha
east as P?taliputra. The western conquests of

I agree

territory It is were
so

at
far

which his arms to the coast of carried Gupta, a tendency to shift the capital Guzerat, must have produced was ordinarily I feel no doubt that P?taliputra westward. Chandra the capital of Chandra Gupta Samudra Gupta, I., K?cha, and of Chandra Gupta II. in his earlier years. But, after of Sur?shtra and the intervening the annexation (K?thi?w?r) countries, during the reign of Chandra Gupta II., P?tali

CAPITAL AND TITLES.

87

far to the east, and there are inconveniently indications (as I have already pointed out) consequently of the Gupta that Ajodhya became at times the headquarters of the site of the the question In discussing Empire. that the term capital Gupta capital, it must be remembered putra lay
has not in this case exactly the same connotation as when

we

an is the capital of England. Under say that London is the place which Oriental the the capital despotism chooses for his headquarters. In the reigns of sovereign Sikr?, Agra, Lahor, Fatehpur cities, may all claim to have been from the capital of Hindustan, and, even now, the are shared between Simla and Calcutta. honours of the capital to be It is possible that P?taliputra may have continued one of the royal residences in the time of Skanda Gupta's that the centre successors, but I do not think it probable of their power lay in that city. In column 4 of the Synoptic Table, the titles of each and other
as recorded on the reverses of the coins are given*

Akbar

and

his

successors

Delhi, time to time

king

short, and in better legends commonly than the obverse legends, many of which are preservation still very imperfectly known. table, therefore, gives My the titles on the reverses. I. put Chandra Gupta only on the reverse of his coins, the word nothing except ' the Lichchhavis,' in allusion to his alliance Lichchhavayah, with the Lichchhavi The use of Dev?. princess, Kum?ra The is very odd, position the legend assumed why though it is partly explained, as Prof* Cowell tribe or observes, by the fact that the Lichchhavi " clan is always referred to in literature as the Lichchhavis." plural and quite form, understand
The reverse

reverse

are

the nominative I do not such a curious

in this detached

or

title. terminator
again

' K?cha calls himself the ex sarvar?jochchett?, of all R?j?s,' and this title or epithet does
occur on the coins. No historical documents

legend

on

the

coius

is

usually

a

royal

epithet

not

exist for the

us to judge what foundation of fact existed assumed its assumption Samudra Gupta by K?cha. same title in inscriptions, to have fairly and appears to enable

88 earned

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

it. The variety of the titles and epithets of Chandra II. and Kum?ra Gupta I. is noticeable. Gupta that my wrork on M. Ed. Drouin has justly remarked the Gupta coinage would be much improved by the addition and a facsimiles of the various legends, of a plate giving I should be very glad to add such comparative alphabet.1 would its preparation a plate if I could, but, unfortunately, to it, more time and labour than I can devote require as I am on cabinets which are not often accessible dependent zeal to me. The defect has been supplied by the diligent who has of the British of Mr. E. J. Rapson, Museum, and accurate the beautiful copies of the Gupta prepared " the that II. My statement coin legends shown in Plate as the guttural the word Si?ha is always written nasal in
nasal, and not as anusv?ra," has been doubted, and it is,

rules that of course, contrary to the ordinary grammatical nasal. the guttural h should be immediately preceded by all the But there is no doubt whatever that, on nearly The is ;gr?, nh. coins, the correct reading spelling ^?f, Lion Retreating on one or two Gupta IL, and, perhaps, on several The reading nh is beyond dispute other pieces. the legend Si?ha coins with of Mr. J. II. Rivett-Carnac's ?gh, coin used the unique of Chandra Vikrama. The nasal has the open to the right, on the silver Vikram?nka form its ordinary as occurs same of a rectangle in the word seems to be on

coins, and the conjunct sign is am now enabled by Dr. Hoernl?'s I certainly /?, and not gh. iih was used in literature to prove that the spelling courtesy " of Lieutenant old MS. That the Gupta period. during " " from Central he brought which Bower (he writes), Asia, fifth ?h, and which is written numerous century, in the word ^^(ij? or brimha?a, miscuously, ^^J^ e.g.
1 Eevue

affords

characters in Gupta of the instances bri?hana, but never spelt ^?firf,

of

the

spelling thus pro

bri?ghana.

Numismatique

for 1889, Bulletin

Bibliographique,

page

142.

LEGENDS. The two spellings with ^, mh, mh, is more usual."1 and

89 are optional, vgr^, iili,

though ^, the at present unique Standing King When describing cabinet, Gupta I. in the Bodleian copper coin of Kum?ra an autotype has since been published of which by Mr. for ex that the legend is noticeable I remarked Rapson, ? by a stroke behind the m, as in the modern pressing long notices in the Jain inscriptions Dr. B?hler of alphabet. " from Mathur? the occurrence the Indo-Scythian period forms side by of a number of cursive and modern-looking side with in the archaic ones." Three forms of medial ? occur viz. (1) a short horizontal stroke, as in inscriptions, edicts ; (2) a curve, or a straight Asoka's line, rising up and (3) an almost vertical down towards the right; wards the form found in the inscriptions ward stroke, resembling
of the seventh and later centuries.2

All

three

forms
No.

occur
3 has

on the Gupta
been observed

coins.
only

No.
on

2 is the
Kum?ra's

commonest.

copper coin, and No. 1 is rare ; in fact, I can cite but one instance of it, the final vowel of the word sarvar?jochchhett?
on a coin of Kacha in Mr. Rivett-Carnac's cabinet.

legend of Kum?ra discussing I read one word as mala, Horseman Gupta's " that the character on both these coins which observing / looks like that letter, but ought I have rendered ap to be an h." The correct reading is undoubtedly parently is explained by the following passage : h, and ray difficulty " . . . read b?lhik? . . . But, that the akshara Bhau D?j? is hli, not ltd, is certain, because / can only be formed to When obverse at this period [scilicet, about A.D. 400], the left; whereas, to the left and sometimes to the h was formed, sometimes
right."3

the imperfect to Left type

1 Dr. B?hler suggests that the Gupta form of the guttural nasal may prove to he a variant of an ancient form of the anun?sika, which was written as a curve But I doubt this. open to the right. 2 Indica, vol. i, p. 371. 3 Epigraphia Jnscr. Ind. vol. iii, p. 141, note 5, with reference to the Fleet, Corpus Mehrauli (Delhi) Iron Pillar inscription.

90 The

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

viz.

letter h has, in the coin legends, at least three forms, to the right, (1) the ordinary form opening (2) the same form to the left, in the legend above noticed, opening and (3) a cursive form, consisting of a single line, wavy, or curved to the left. Plate II. 5, for (See my Catalogue, a not very clear of this form.) example The coin legends possess a of the earlier of the Gupta kings on for palaeographers

dynasty account

special interest of the scarcity, or rather absence, of other inscrip tions which can be assigned to the same period. The reigns of Chandra Gupta L, K?cha, and Samudra Gupta extended? to my reckoning, from a.d. 319 to about 380, according and it so happens that no stone or copper inscriptions

to this period of sixty years have yet been found belonging " in Northern It is a matter for regret," observes India. " the M. Senart, that, for the period which follows, I mean 250 years which extend from the commencement of the third of the fifth century, we are still worse provided. We is here almost of materials complete. of shall see, when we explain the linguistic importance are to be regretted. We this epoch, how much this is of hardly entitled to include in this period the inscription so or those of the for they Banav?si Stupa, Jaggayapetta that they really Satakani follow the time of Siriya?a closely to the middle absence The belong fourth to the preceding the end of the Towards group. the series of Gupta opens with inscriptions century, in honour of Samudra Gupta, that of All?h?b?d, engraved con and S?nchi, and with the dedications of Udayagiri with his successor Chandra temporary Gupta [-"-!-]> an(^ of the 457 the that era, say 401 and inscriptions a.D.), and series of Skanda

in the years 82 and 93 a.d. 412 They are followed by at Girnar i.e. (138 G.E., Gupta more recent. From this period dated

by others of monuments

in a fairly sufficient number of specimens. is prolonged of the third century between the commencement "But, and the first year of the fifth, I know of no inscription Even those of has been dated with which certainty. the palaeographical character, which would probably place

FIND-SPOTS.

91

are of great rarity. them in this interval, the Amongst numerous of the caVes of the west, there are dedications very few which appear to belong to it."1 are also of The Gupta coin legends and inscriptions some of the earliest dated interest as furnishing literary
examples of grammatical, classical Sanskrit. Dates are so

scarce in the history of the Sanskrit and language literature none of the few available can be safely neglected. " " The correct Sanskrit first known inscription in perfectly that which is that of the Satrap Rudrad?man at Girn?r, falls between a d. 155 and KiO.2 the date of

the find-spots of Gupta coins a few items of Concerning additional information deserve record. " hoards of ancient Hindu coins, Large comprising Buddhist punch-marked and cast silver bits, Indo-Baktrian, and Gupta and gold coins silver, copper, Indo-Skythian, are constantly out by the villagers their search during dug or for bricks" at the great mound of Saneh?nkot, Suja?kot, on the S?? River, in the Unao of Oudh.3 Dr. District identifies F?hrer this site with of Fa Hian, the Sha-chi and the S?keta of Hindu literature. " Several hoards of Gupta gold, silver, and copper coins at Bhitar?" have been unearthed in the Gh?z?pur District, and Gh?z?pur.4 midway between Benares " some very fine gold coins of the Mr. Capper discovered " on the series at Baksar Skanda Gupta Ganges.5 " been series have Gold coins of the Gupta repeatedly near the ruins at and Kotw?ra," up in Bh?rw?ra picked of Lakh?mpur.6 Fateh Kara, on the tenth mile north-west
"Two other Buddhist mounds at the north-west corner of

or R?mnagar, in the the great bastion [of Ahichhatra, close to the Konw?ru Barel? District], T?l, were excavated
1 "The of the Edicts of Piyadasi and the ; the Language Inscriptions 1892, for July, By E. Senart {Indian Antiquary linguistic history of India." vol. xxi, page 209). 2 Ibid, 244 (August, 1892). page ' 3 Monumental of N.W.P. and Oudh,' p. 275. F?hrer, Antiquities 4 Ibid, The seal of Kumara Gupta II. was found at this place. p 230. 5 Oudh Gazetteer, article ou K?i Barel? District, vol. iii, p. 219. 6 Ibid, article on Kheri vol. ii, p. 268. District,

92 by

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

in Feb. the Survey party of these Provinces 1888, and a four faces are carved pilaster, whose yielded beautifully elaborate into decorated divided different with panels coins of the of Buddha's and numerous life, sculptures Mitra with well-preserved legends. Gupta dynasties, in the Lucknow Museum."1 These objects have been deposited found of Janupur, Prinsep has recorded that Mr. Tregear, ' a variety of Cock and Bull' coins of different sizes, bearing the names of Satya, Saya, characters in beautifully distinct and and Vijaya
dynasty.2

Mitra,

in company

with

coins

of

the Gupta

now in the Indian collection, " 6 copper Guptas." Museum, in which the seven of my Catalogue, Since the publication to exist in the Bodleian coins then known copper Gupta " were has found nearly Mr. cabinet described, Rapson hidden among the miscellaneous additional twenty specimens one new coins," and including type.3 of the coins in Mr. Rivett-Carnac's cabinet, besides Many were obtained at those already published, Ajodhya. B?bu P. C. Mukharj?'s included Calcutta, of the Pioneer A (Allahabad, newspaper correspondent the following communication:? Nov. 19th, 1883) made " here mention the curious fact that the copper I may who defeated of Chandragupta (Sandracottus), oinage was in circulation the Greek Seleukos, actually general so far south as Zillah Bhagulpore. The eight years ago, were discovered the Subdivisional Officer of Mudhe coins by of his district, where in a native shop in a village purah were being used as copper pice. Coins of Alexander they but the Great are said to have been found at Durbhunga, this I am not certain." success to verify the fact alleged. I have tried without Of course, if the coins seen really bore the name Chandra of
' and Inscriptions Monumental F?hrer, Antiquities 29. page vol. ed. Thomas, i, p. 418. Essays, Prinsep's in his by Sir A. Cunningham recently heen described but require further investigation. a Numismatic vol. xi, third series, p. 59. Chron., 1 of N.W.P. The * Coins and Oudh,'

Mitra coins have of Ancient India,'

ALTERATIONS IN CATALOGUE. must have

93

Gupta, of the Seleucus,
has

they Gupta who

belonged and not dynasty, lived some seven the Pioneer
two. the

correspondent
confounded

of

to Chandra Gupta II. to the of contemporary centuries earlier. The is not the only person who

and those previously collected, that Gupta coins are nowhere prove abundantly published, so frequently found as in the province of Oudh and the districts. It is also evident that some types surrounding The particulars
of the Gupta copper coinage are by no means so rare as

now

was soon
lections,

at

one
of

time
Kum?ra

supposed.
Gupta's

I

fully

expect
copper

that
coins

other
will

specimens

northern

come
but

to
have

light.
been

Some

probably
Mr.

exist

in private

col
has,

overlooked.

Rivett-Carnac

a few copper I believe, but I have not seen them. Guptas, to my has submitted examination He the whole of his has recently been bought series, which gold splendid by the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. set The of nearly 100 pieces, consists several novelties, including which will be noticed in due course. Pivett-Carnac's in detail, additions, and coins, miscellaneous notes, which I have been able to make during are the last three years, in the following incorporated and all
observations, venience, so which far as are possible, arranged in the for order the sake of Catalogue, con of my

The

results

of my examination the other corrections

of Mr.

as printed in 1889. The corrections and additions are too but it may be advisable for enumeration, to warn many that the descriptions of certain readers of gold coins types as cancelled, should be considered in the Catalogue the in this communication descriptions given being substituted
for them. These types are (1) Chandra Gupta II., Com

batant
heavy are I.

Lion
Archer now

; and
coins separately

(2) Kum?ra
formerly described,

Gupta
under and

I., Archer.
Kum?ra assigned

The

shown

Gupta to Kum?ra

account of the Combatant II. The Lion Gupta (Tiger) I. has been largely modified. The type of Kum?ra Gupta ' * of the attribution has been gold coins generally heavy

94

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

at considerable discussed length, and the problem suggested the copper coins, which correspond in legend and device by with the silver coinage, has been further examined. I am indebted to Mr. E. legends, plate of this communication, criticisms. of coin which not J. Rapson, adds so much only for the to the value hints and

but also for many

useful

Part

II.?Additions

to

Catalogue.

GOLD

COINS.

CHANDRA GUPTA I.
King The Carnac and Queen Type. (Page 63.)l

varieties.

contains several specimens of both an has lately acquired Museum of variety ?, with reverse lion to 1. The Bodleian example of the same variety, wt. 118, has been described specimen and figured by Mr. Rapson. is name on the obverse of both varieties The queen's or cR*nT as cRTfTT 'Kum?ra dev?,' variously written, ^=ft> collection British The

^^

Kum?ra

this detail, who has noted dev?.9 Mr. Rapson, " seem from a common formation it would that that the Guptas, of Indian names in the period preceding ' ' of ^ft is earlier than its use as an honorific the postposition observes On

'^y^n^J:m?ra

devi Sa/?,' or -?ft cRJTn: ^*rt,

'Sri

seems to one of the Carnac coins the reverse legend ' ' ' I of Lichchhavayah.9 instead be spelled Lichchhivayah occurs in the in of spelling the same variation believe
scriptions.

prefix."

The there

omits to mention in the Catalogue description the heads of the king between is a crescent
to are those of the Catalogue

that and

1 The pages for 1889.

referred

printed

in the J.R.A.S.

GOLD COINS OF KACHA. CHANDRA GUPTA I.?continued.

95

queen, though the crescent is clearly shown in the autotype, and has been observed on other specimens. Some examples have a cluster of dots, either three or four in number, between the feet of the king and those of the queen. on Mr. Lane's coin (wt. 111*5), which The monogram " a to be a new one, namely, Mr. Rapson thought large circle with and four dots above it," is really only a of my No. 5. The monogram 3a on one of slight variety for having five uprights the Carnac coins is noticeable instead of the normal four. line The king seems holds of variety ? shows that the specimen in his upraised right hand an object, which to be a flower. Bodleian

K?CHA
Standard I have

(OR KACHA).
Type. (Page 74.) I

accept Mr. Rapson's was not identical with suggestion but actually for a short time, Samudra Gupta, reigned no direct heir, and was probably the brother and leaving of Samudra Gupta. The arguments adduced predecessor me and K?cha (p. 75) to prove that Samudra Gupta by were identical hold good, for the most part, on the sup were brothers. position that they the statement that " the better pre I have to withdraw show beyond all doubt that the name specimens the king's arm is K?cha, with the long vowel." The true of most is perfectly statement but not of specimens, On a fine coin of Mr. Rivett-Carnac's all. (weight 115*6, in J.A.S.B. vol. lix. part 1, plate vi, figure 2) the figured is K?cha, but on another specimen in the same reading the reading is equally certainly Kacha, cabinet with the short vowel in both legends, that is to say, the marginal legend and the name under the arm. The name is written served under ? under the arm, and .x*jK on the margin. In both

that intimated already that K?cha (or Kacha)

96

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. KACHA

(OR KACHA)?continued. and On no the vowel reverse stroke

places mark ever the

the word

is in perfect preservation, existed over the Ka in either. ? is expressed thus 5" ~* Ma.9 by a short

long vowel

horizontal

to the right, The British new specimen

at the Da Cunha sale a Museum acquired of the type, weight 2a. 108*5, monogram on the My conjecture (page 76) that the rayed banner obverse symbolizes the sun is illustrated the following by observation of Tod :?" At Udaipur the sun has universal
... As already mentioned, the sacred standard

precedence

his image, as does that Scythic part of the regalia a disk of black felt or ostrich feathers, called the changi, with a plate of gold to represent the sun in its centre, borne bears
upon a pole."1

The

Gupta of foreign with

form of the name Ghatotkacha, is known, suggests Maharaja and its members customs.

by which that the

second family was

the

foreign suppose that the names Ghatotkacha connexion. have any etymological

origin, them some

may well have brought is no reason to There and K?cha (or Kacha)

SAMUDRA Tiger When my paper was Type.

GUPTA. (Page 64.)

the British Museum published, was believed to be unique. Mr. specimen (weight 116*6) " has since found a second example of the type, in Rapson a poor state of preservation," in the collection 112*1, weight of Mr. Wilmot ' coins are now left in the Gupta series. Very few unique ' ' recurs on The obverse legend vy?ghra [para]kra[ma] the coins of the Combatant Lion (or, more properly, Tiger) course. type of Kum?ra Gupta I., which will be noticed in due '
1 ed. 1829, vol. i, p. 565. The of Tod, Annals " R?jasth?n, alluded to is depicted in the frontispiece. sacred standard crimson banner or

Lane.

"

GOLD COINS OF SAMUDRA GUPTA.

97

SAMUDRA
Asvamedha The Asvamedha coins,

GUPTA?continued.
Type. or rather {Page 65.) continue to be

medals,

rare. to

belong the pedestal. No a, without the obverse further progress has been made in deciphering The reverse (?) goddess of one of the Carnac legend. The female on coins holds a small object in her 1. hand. or she should be called a goddess the reverse, whether
not, seems to be the attendant on the obverse horse.

The two specimens the commoner variety

in the Carnac

collection

was published, I overlooked the Catalogue the the obverse device of these Asvamedha medals fact that occur on a much older silver coin of Vishnu Deva, which was described and is now in the British by Prinsep, of this coin is not quite Museum.1 Prinsep's engraving and I therefore of it accurate, give a better figure (Plate III, 1). " " line of double curvature fancied that the in Prinsep be intended front of the horse on Vishnu Deva's coin might for a lotus stalk, but it is clearly intended for the same When on Samudra Gupta's is coins, which thing as the object seems to be known a bent pole carrying streamers. Nothing about Vishnu Deva, but the characters in which his name are of a very early form, is written little, if at differing from those of Asoka's The reverse of his all, inscriptions. coin displays the sacred tree and other Buddhist symbols, from Samudra Gupta's and so differs widely issue, but the obverse device of the more ancient piece can apparently mean nothing else than that Vishnu Deva, whoever he was, of having the glory the asvamedha claimed performed
sacrifice, entitling him to take rank as Lord Paramount

of Northern The fact

India. that Samudra this Gupta actually performed as well as for by the inscriptions, of the medals. It seems also to
vol. i, p. 115, plate vii, 1.

solemn rite is vouched by the reverse legend
1 j.R.A.s. Prinsep's 1893. 7 Essays,

ed. Thomas,

98

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. SAMUDRA GUPTA?continued.

a very curious be commemorated by sculpture preserved at Lucknow. This is the life-size figure in stone of a small horse, which was dug up some years ago near the ancient on the border fort of Khair?garh in the Kher? District, a was between Oudh and Nepal. Khair?garh evidently in ancient and Gupta coins times, place of importance are found in the neighbourhood.1 stone horse bears The on the right side of its neck in faintly incised and partly an the of which characters defaced Gupta inscription " are legible. Guttassa deyadhamma The letters "-dda as Samudda, and the first word must clearly be restored as " the of three words must be translated gift pious stands in the open Samudra Gupta." The sculpture, which is accordingly air at the entrance of the Lucknow Museum, as horse of Samudra Gupta. being the sacrificial as will appear from the of the work, artistic merits from a photograph Plate I., prepared kindly accompanying are contemptible. letters The supplied by Dr. F?hrer, are so faintly that they are of the inscription engraved the in the original photograph, though barely discernible labelled The other Gupta All in appears to be quite certain. are in pure classical and it is curious Sanskrit, scriptions should be in Prakrit. I do not that' .t)us.:vbr^f record is found in any other think that the word deyadhamma reading
Gupta record.

as is clearly were Brahmanical Hindus, kings Vishnu their orders. struck under proved by the coins an indication, if it cannot be called a proof, Deva's coin is rite as well the asvamedha that Buddhist Hindus practised The Gupta in passing, that the I may remark, or Jains, and between contrast often drawn Buddhists, with Buddhism is not quite in accordance Hindus reality. and to this sects of Hinduism, are merely and Jainism of certain castes are Jain and parts Brahmanical. day parts as the orthodox sects.
1 'Monumental F?hrer, vol. iv, p. 128. Gazetteer, Antiquities of N.W.P. and Oudh,' p. 285; Oudh

GOLD COINS OF SAMUDRA GUPTA. SAMUDRA GTJYTA?continued.

99

caste of Agarw?la For example, the important in Baniyas a large Jain section, as well as Northern India includes a one, and, until quarrels occurred a few large Yaishnava two sections and re intermarried, years ago, these freely as members themselves of one brotherhood. Even garded has been checked, the distinction still, though intermarriage between is that of Vaishnava the two sections and Jaina, not that of Hindu and Jain. Both parties are reckoned as
Hindus.

as vfrellas Brahraanists, seem to have Buddhists, indulged in horse statues. A mutilated life-size figure of a horse was exhumed from a field near the village of Dal?lganj, a quarter of a mile to the west of the Allahabad Fort. The upper part of the body of this statue is incised with " a Buddhist such as large number of so-called symbols,"
the svastika, srivatsa, and nandavarta marks, which indicate,

to the belonged Buddhist I greatly doubt the propriety period of this phrase "the Buddhist so Buddhism, period." long as it lasted in India, existed side by side with Brahmanical Hinduism. The Gupta and yet kings were Brahmanists, opinion, of Pray?ga.1 that the work of Buddhist and Jain It would be plenty subjects. difficult to say when "the Buddhist very period of Pray?ga" or ended, and it is not easy to began give the phrase any definite meaning. In reality no Buddhist period, as dis ever existed in India. from a Hindu The tinguished period, real landmarks are dynastic. of history The religion of kings varied from time to time, and from place to place, as did that of their and no one form of worship subjects, or belief ever obtained exclusive possession of the country.
1 'Monumental of N.W.P. and Oudh,' The F?hrer, Antiquities p. 310. ' ?r?vatsa is a Vaishnava mark and Life in (Monier-Williams, Religious Thought India,' London, 1883, p. 103).

in Dr.

Fiihrer's

had

100

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. SAMUDRA Lyrist GUPTA?continued. Type. (Page 67).

a enumerated of variety in my the nine specimens two can now be added, namely, one in the cabinet Catalogue and a fine example, without of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, To monogram,
Rivett-Carnac.

obtained

from

Alwar

in R?j puta?a,

by Mr?

same gentleman had the good fortune to procure, an excellent from Alwar, example of variety ?, hitherto from the India Office specimen. Mr. Rivett known only The also coin weighs 8a. The 120*35, and has monogram ' on right margin, obverse legend is, Sri?/ Mali?r?j?dhir?ja i So far as appears, therefore, and on left margin [Gu]ptah.' are identical. the legends of both varieties The obverse of the India Office coin is illegible. legend ' ' to the mysterious on the With reference Si syllable a coins, and Lyrist of the Asvamedha obverse variety that "isolated observes letters or syllables of Mr. Rapson ' the kind occur on other Gupta coins, eg., ^i, bha,' on to Chandra Gupta the heavy coins assigned (Smith, p. 82, PL II, 2), and are very common on the gold coins of the Carnac's At one Indo-Scythians." that these letters might express a very probable one. later Javelin To
Catalogue

time I was dates, but

inclined the guess

to think is not

Type. of
now

(Page 68). a enumerated
viz. British

the Da

39
ten

specimens
more can

variety
be added,

in ray
Museum,

from

Cunha

Rivett-Carnac, Mr. Wilmot
have also

sale, 3, wts., 121, 115*6, and 115*4; Mr. from 114*75 to 120*5; and 3, wts. ranging from 114 to 117*9. I Lane, 4, wts. ranging
several other specimens. Coins of this

seen

variety
enumeration

are

sufficiently
of examples

common
superfluous.

to render

further

detailed

Mr. Rapson

has studied

specimens, minutely, on the reverse of

type, especially the Bodleian and observes that a mark appears ^ some specimens above the cornucopiae.

this

GOLD COINS OF SAMUDRA GUPTA. SAMUDRA A similar mark Gupta is also II. GUPTA?continued. found on some of the Archer One of Mr. Rivett-Carnac's j^y,

101

coins coins

of Chandra has in the

same position signs may has come

the mark

and another has

. These Mr. Rapson

be mint marks.

to the conclusion that the obverse :? the following varieties legend presents ' 1. a. ^^T^rf^7[l{ victorious in a hundred mighty f?snit, No. 686.) battles.' (B. 'victorious in a hundred mighty ?- ?f^W^\ fsnnfC??
battles, having conquered his enemies.' (In the case of

690 the words f%3f^ f^tfTfT? are seParate, on No. 687 they are perhaps one compound, f^^RffSTrTrfT*) 'victorious in a hundred 2. *J? ^J? f^f? fa? f^TTTf^Tt' mighty battles, having conquered his enemies' city (or B. No.
This 689. cities).' (B. No. no room for more.)1 there being legend seems complete,

3. Similar to No. 2, but with the addition $f%|c?t <|?ft sTSrf??, ' victorious in a hundred translated the whole being of his foes, the mighty battles, the destroyer of the city Lord doth triumph.' (Nos. 689 A. and 691.) unconquered My Dr. account Hoernl? of the obverse has
one

legends that
one

requires

to be modified a has
staff to

accordingly.

observed
with, and

this variety
without, a

two
the

sub-varieties,

standard.
of each.2

The Asiatic

Society exist
one each

of Bengal in variety
of these

has a specimen 7, and the Asiatic
also. Mr. Rivett

The
Society

same sub-varieties
of Bengal has

Carnac's

example of very pale gold.

is composed of variety 7, from Mathur?, The legible words of the obverse legend
occurs in Raghu (J.A.S.B. vol. lix.

1Mr. Rapson notes that the compound f^f^fc?T?T^R^ vams'a, I. 59. 2 On some new or rare Hindu Coins and Muhammadan a plate). (1890), part i, pp. 171, 179, with

102

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. SAMUDRA GUPTA?continued. of either slightly form from 2 or any form hitherto 3.

are?' The

vijayajit?ripura,' monogram ^X1

part diifers

the staff of the I did not notice whether published. or not. in the two It is wanting standard was wanting a in the variety 7 specimen variety specimens, and present me (Catalogue, Plate I. 7, 8, 9). published by Archer A well-preserved
Carnac's cabinet, has

Type.

(Page 71.) in Mr. Rivett
Garuda standard, over

specimen
a crescent

from Ajodhya,
the

as also has I though the type. Another crescent,
accident.

the coin failed worn

in my plate (Catalogue, Plate I. to notice the fact in my description

10), of no or

but

has specimen of Mr. Rivett-Carnae's is probably the deficiency due to wear

i

is characterized by the epithet which occurs both on the obverse unsurpassable/ This type
a. variety

apratiratha, and reverse

of

the epithets apratihata chakra and apratichakra, Compare on the coins the same meaning, with of the Satrap Rajubula.1
Battle-axe Type. (Page 72.)

collection contains a good The Rivett-Carnac specimen of variety a, wt. 113*7, which has been published by Dr. in J.A.S.B. vol. lix, part i, plate vi, 3. Hoernl? the battle-axe of this type with Siva's trident, Compare on the coins of battle-axe attached R?j? Dhara having Ghosha Odumbara and on those of Zoilus.2 the title r?j?dhir?ja, not mah?r?j?dhir?ja. the coins may have been struck during Chandra Gupta I. Note these
1 2 Cunningham, Cunningham, Coins of Ancient Coins of Ancient India, p. 86. India, p. 68, plate

Possibly of lifetime

iv.

GOLD COINS OF CHANDRA GUPTA II.

103

CHANDRA Couch Type. Until

GUPTA

II.

{Page 76.)

this tj^pe was known very recently only from the which was brought home towards British Museum specimen, the close of the last century. to acquire has been fortunate Mr. Rivett-Carnac enough The metal
as on the

example of the type, and in better preservation. of this coin is pale alloyed gold, and the devices are executed in low relief. Wt. 118 3. Mon. 3a, the same another
B.M. coin. The obverse device of this piece agrees

in the Catalogue, with the description except that the king r. hand a flower, which on the is not visible holds in his B.M. coin, and that his 1. foot rests on an obliquely placed The marginal instead of on the ground. footstool, legend are runs all round the coin, but the only legible words ( are Sri Chandra.9 These words Deva Sri mah?r?j?dhir?ja
all, except the last character, on the 1.

legend, following case, is supplied by the B.M. out to me that my published pointed
the nominative case, is erroneous,

word

of

the

' Guptasya,9 coin. Mr.
and

margin.

The

next

in the genitive

Rapson kindly ' in Guptah,9 reading
I have satisfied

myself by The the correct lection. lost on both coins. quite
The the B.M. coin On has the two new couch.

re-examination

of rest
or

the coin of

that

' Guptasya9 legend
below are quite

is is

the marginal
obscure these characters characters

three

plain, and read ^TOcH? that this epithet should in dramatic
though of many it

composition,'
cannot be The

* r?pa krit?J Dr. Hoernl? suggests * as be interpreted skilled meaning is plausible, and this interpretation
as words certain, r?pa rapa krit? do being not a word to seem

specimen

regarded

meanings.

be part of the marginal
The reverse of Mr.

legend.
Rivett-Carnac's coin agrees with the

except in the particulars description given in the Catalogue, on the new specimen, the r. hand of the goddess is that, and that the k in the word held out open and empty,

104

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. CHANDRA GUPTA IL?continued.

is doubled. On the B.M. coin the goddess holds Vikramah a fillet in her right hand, and the k is not doubled. full A of Mr. Rivett-Carnac's coin was description published Bengal by Dr. Hoernl? for 1891, p. 117. Archer The Dr. numerous coins of in the Proc. Asiatic Society of

Type. this

(Page 80.)

Hoernl?

and Mr.

through my hands, These investigations
unnoticed.

Rapson, have been have

type have been discussed by and many, which passed me. examined carefully by out a few points before brought

of this type Mr. Rapson that my main division agrees ' ' ' reverse and the Lotus into two great classes, the Throne ' " seat reverse, is and that there can be the best possible," no doubt that coins reverse are, as a 'Throne* the having ' ' reverse. general rule, older than those with the Lotus-seat He adds the new, but true, remark that the distinction a distinction The of reverse is accompanied of obverse. by dress and attitude in each class differ in detail of the king from detail of the other class. ' * is .tb?STi?.n the Throne is always turned down, while it is always turned up. (See I., those One of these differences in coins the king's right hand ' on the 'Lotus-seat coins

Plate

14 and 15 of my figures and the coins Mr. Lane's cabinet, Catalogue.) from the Da Cunha col by the British Museum acquired forms of obverse device. of transitional lection, offer examples
The Throne coins, Class I., continue to be very rare.

A
the

specimen
Rivett-Carnac

of

variety
cabinet.

a out

from Alwar

has

been

added

to

of that the common a variety form comprises three sub-varieties left hand raised, (2) with it resting viz. (1) with Lakshm?'s on her hip, (3) with it hanging These down over her knee. as well to exist in the other varieties sub-varieties appear Dr. the Hoernl? ' Lotus-seat points ' Class II.
as in a.

GOLD COINS OF CHANDRA GUPTA II. CHANDRA GUPTA IL?continued.

105

It is also to be noted that the king's figure is represented in two quite distinct ways. One form is upright, and fairly well executed ; the other, probably of later date, is squat as in Kum?ra and bent-backed, Gupta's coinage. A specimen of variety a in the Rivett-Carnac's cabinet, it has no name under from Ajodhya, is remarkable, because the king's arm. That portion of the coin is in good pre and the name has not been rubbed away. A of the common a variety in Mr. Barstow's collection specimen has been re-struck on a coin of Samudra Gupta's1 (Plate iii., 2). A specimen of variety 7, with a crescent over the king's shoulder, in the Asiatic Society of Bengal's collection, belongs servation,
to sub-variety 2, as above defined. Mr. Barstow's cabinet

also a new

included

an example
Another of Mr.

of

variety holds

7, which
coins

is of
establishes

rare

occurrence.

Rivett-Carnac's

hand, left margin.

The king variety, f. ' and the word Gupta9

an arrow

in his

is outside

the arrow

right on the

The heavy coins of the suvarna standard continue to be " a puzzle. Mr. Rapson to think that none of is inclined the heavy coins can be assigned to any monarch earlier than Skanda Gupta, and that during his reign the standard was changed to the from the stater 135 grains) (about suvarna (about 14b* grains)." reasons for this opinion His are (1) that the heavy coins attributed to Chandra Gupta II. even if the name Chandra occurs on them (which may, really he doubts), belong to some later monarch of that name, at sources ; (2) that the to us from other unknown present coins are debased in metal in style and impure ; heavy and with
about These

(3) that
a.d.

can be the heavy coins of Kum?ra to Kum?ra Gupta who began IL, probability
525. arguments have some force, but are not

assigned to reign
altogether

convincing.

The

name

under

the king's

arm

in

the

coins

1Mr. H. C. Barstow, late of the Indian Civil Service, possesses a considerable number of gold Gupta coins, which 1 had the pleasure of inspecting in August, 1892, at the British Museum, where they were deposited for examination.

106

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. CHANDRA GUPTA IL?continued. badly formed, but

in Cha ^ seems to me to be ^ the better specimens it certainly ndra, coarse base metal and nothing of the very else. Some as I remarked coins are probably, in my previous essay, imitations. The supposition that there was a posthumous is known, later Chandra, of whom is a pure guess. nothing of metal The degree of degradation in style and impurity attributed is sometimes varies I much. The think, be taken better pieces still issues of Chandra most debased specimens may certainly, as being of late date, but some of the eastern seem to me to be most likely

to Chandra

struck late in his IL, probably Gupta that all the when Mr. Rapson, contending long reign. are has in date to Skanda Gupta, heavy pieces subsequent that the unique the fact published forgotten by himself to Left of variety ? of the Horseman type of specimen the two Chandra 140*5 grains; though weighs Gupta a of the same type are of variety 119*5 and 120 grains respectively. weight, This coin is also in the Bodleian and was described Library, it. Mr. of weighing by me, but I had no opportunity in a photograph of it, and there is nothing gives Rapson to a late its ascription the style of the coin to prevent it II. He of the reign of Chandra Gupta assigns period is Kram?jita, to that reign. The reverse himself legend is illegible, except the word vajata and the obverse legend in that this same word vijita occurs I observe (vijita). Bodleian normal examples of viz. the obverse Kum?ra that the coin is just possible the absence But to that king. in question may belong that is against device from the reverse of the peacock and it
supposition. The coin is somewhat worn, and, as it now

legend I., Gupta

of

the

Horseman

to Left

coins

of

weighs Roman the

grains, modification of the a were coins of variety

140*5

it

cannot

issued

Gupta by Chandra than earlier it is certainly

the as of weight, it was struck, and, whether II. or by Kum?ra I., Gupta On the time of Skanda Gupta. have been struck stater standard

to

GOLD COINS OF CHANDRA GUPTA II. CHANDRA GUPTA II?continued.

107

the balance is in favour of the whole, of evidence that the coin was struck by Chandra Gupta opinion and, if it was, the result necessarily follows II. used both the stater and suvarna standard.

the

IL, that Chandra

Gupta In this connection of both dinars {?staters) the mention and suvarnas in the Garhwa executed inscription, probably in the reign of Kum?ra is a relevant fact. I I.,1 Gupta to prove that both standards formerly quoted this inscription were of weight in simultaneous use, but I have since read at first sight seem to in the law books, which passages that the terms di?ara and suvarna must have been imply used in the Garhw? record as absolute The synonyms. dicta of Brihaspati and N?rada on the subject are as follows. :?" 14. A Nishka is four Suvarnas. A says Brihaspati of copper is a K?rshika Pana the weight of a (having a Karsha A coin made of of copper has to be Karsha). known Twelve a D?n?ra as a K?rshika 15. It Pana. is also called an Andik?. Four of the latter are a Suvarna. such are a Dh?naka. That is also called

(denarius)." 57. A K?rsh?pana is a silver says :?" Appendix. coin in the southern country ; in the east, it is an equivalent and is equal to twenty for (a certain number of) Panas, N?rada 58. A M?sha a K?rsh?pana. should A be known is the to be the twentieth fourth part part of of a M?sha

Panas.

K?kan?

or Pala.

is in general use in the which that appellation, the value of a K?rsh?pana is not circumscribed here. Punjab, 60. A K?rsh?pana has to be taken as equal to an Andik?. 59. By
Four of these are a Dh?naka ; twelve of the latter are a

Suvarna,
1

which

is called D?n?ra

otherwise."2

Inscr. Ind. vol. iii, p. 266, No. Fleet, 64, and Smith, Gupta Corpus p. 43. Coinage, 2 Minor Law Books and Brihaspati, vol. xxxiii, pp. 317 ed. Jolly, ; N?rada of the East). The appendix to N?rada is found in and 231 (Sacred Books a Nepalese MS. from a Nepalese only, and seems to be written point of view.

108

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. CHANDRA GUPTA IL?continued.

agree in saying that the suvarna is also lawyers a di?ara, while the inscription uses the two terms to called two gifts in a way that implies some difference describe to suppose It seems to me unreasonable them. between Both when used in the inscription wantonly served. An English legal document in one clause of a gift of ten pounds, could hardly speak It is and in the next of a gift of twenty sovereigns. to explain the apparent discrepancy between the possible that the former law-books and the inscription by supposing that one would have intended primarily and coins, headed
di?ara had also come

the

two

terms were

to explain the native the suvarna. But by
into use, and coins

scale of weights term the foreign
current under

were

both

names.
make

The
a

lawyers
suvarna,

accordingly
and also make

declare
a di?ara,

that

twelve
i.e. that

dh?nakas

a suvarna dh?naka and

and a di?ara have the of a suvarna scale would of a di?ara

the dh?naka

subdivisions. The be y^6 =12*166 grains, scale would be ^~~ =11*166

same

The suvarna weight coins and the di?ara or stater grains. one being usually existed together, coins certainly weight nearly twenty grains heavier than the other, and they were both used in^the same way, and naturally would have had There must have been some way of the sam? subdivisions. them in speech.1 distinguishing ' ' The problem of the heavy Gupta coins is not yet solved. remarks are all that I can offer at present The foregoing
towards its solution.

1 Mr. Head takes 135 grains as the normal weight of the Attic or Corinthian observes (Coins of Ancient India, p. 10), the stater, but, as Sir A. Cunningham The Gupta coins 134-4 are much more convenient for calculation. figures of the Gupta dinars is generally much and the weight followed Roman models, The heavy coins approach more closely to the suvarna standard of below 134-4. in weight of existing specimens of the two classes 146 grains, and the divergence The divergence coins consequently of Gupta is, twenty grains. approaches I think, too regular in amount to be explained, as has been suggested, by the of the heavy coins is merely compensation that the greater weight supposition Some of the heavy coins do not seem to be composed of metal. for baseness but no chemical to that of some of the ordinary weight, of metal inferior analyses have been made.

GOLD COINS OF CHANDRA GUPTA II. CHANDRA Horseman GUPTA to Right II.?continued. Type. {Page 84.)

109

Seven or eight specimens in my Catalogue. of the coin belonging The weight is there stated as 130*92, of Bengal

of this rare type are enumerated to the Asiatic Society in accordance with the

Dr. Hoernl? has since informed entry in the Proceedings. me that the coin is from H?gl? and weighs (Hooghly), remark that the high weight of this coin is 11978. My
noticeable must, therefore, be cancelled.

of the acquired an example from the Da Cunha collection, weight 119*5, and there type in the Bivett-Carnac is one, without cabinet. monogram, included two examples. collection Mr. Barstow's The total The British Museum has
number sequently, of eleven specimens or at twelve. present known to exist is, con

Hoeseman

to

Left

Type.

{Page

85.)

a of this Twelve specimens of variety type are now known, come to light since the publication six having of the Cata to Mr. Bivett-Carnac, Of these, three belong two logue. and one to Mr. Barstow. to Mr. Wilmot A poor Lane, example has mon. the words are in 106. cabinet came from the Carnac and Ajodhya, On a better specimen in the same collection and Gup tah in the ob v. paramabh?gavata legend

below

On Mr. Barstow's coin the syllable f*^, vi, legible. the horse, is probably part of the word f^f^fff, vijita. read the epithet paramabhatt?raka Kittoe instead o?parama coins, which he described bh?gavata on one of the Bharsar "a as being It is likely, as very perfect specimen."
suggested in the Catalogue, that Kittoe was mistaken in

but this reading, the fact that the to Skanda Gupta

by title paramabhatt?raka is actually given in line 3 of the Indor copper plate in (Fleet, Corpus, p. 70.) scription. On some specimens of this type no trace of the bow carried can be discerned. by the king

it is to a certain

extent

confirmed

110

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. CHANDRA GUPTA IL.?continued. is still unique, in the observa

of variety ?, which The Bodleian example and weighs 140*5, has been already discussed tions on the heavy coins of Archer type.
Lion-Tbampler Type.

(Page

87.)

All
Museum

four varieties
possesses one

of

this
specimen

type
of

are

rare.
a

The
only,

British
and I

variety

to give in consequence, of any other unable figures of varieties The Bodleian in 1889. 7 and examples variety as well as the Mr. Rapson, S have since been figured by a in the same cabinet. This last differs specimens of variety The reverse lion in minute details from the B.M. specimen. of both these coins is to the 1. a in the Carnac collection may The specimen of variety a new sub-variety, as the inasmuch be regarded as forming reverse lion is turned to r. This coin is broad, wt. 120*7; mon. 4e. On 1. obv. margin the legend ends with ^(STl^rf? [ ? * The r. the last two letters being certain. [ghritya]vasa,9 was,
obv. marginal legend seems to be * narendra Chandra pra.'

The

Cha

is blurred,

but

the other

characters

are distinct

enough.

my Catalogue was published, variety ? was known to the late Sir E. C. one worn coin belonging only from two examples contains of The Carnac collection Bayley. When
this variety, namely :?

No.
energetic belly. described No. coins,

1.
No

Small
than

coin. Wt.

117*4.

Attitude

of king much
on the astride,

less
lion's as

in variety obv. legend. On in

he is trampling a, although to lion 1. Goddess Rev. * nare1

2. which

in Catalogue. 122. Wt. are now

obv. the

legible.

Figures Calcutta,

of should

these be

Indian

Museum,

illustration published to complete the The Bodleian

of the type.

has been of variety 7, which specimen is still unique. Mr. Rapson, figured by of variety 8 is a broad coin, and The Bodleian specimen The words has also been shown in Mr. Rapson's plate.

GOLD COINS OF CHANDRA GUPTA II. CHANDRA GUPTA II.?continued.

HI

The iayati and sihha rikrama in the obv. legend are certain. like narata when looked I word following vikrama, which
examined the coin, must apparently be read narendra.

to Mr. specimen Catalogue belonging on the obv. of which nar? (legendum Bivett-Carnac, nare) same gentleman was a has since acquired The legible. the obv. legend is quite gone. second specimen, of which The mentions A to Mr. Wilmot Lane, wt. 120, poor specimen belonging is mentioned Mr. Rapson. by The above details show that the word narendra forms part of the legend on the obverse.

one

Combatant

Lion

Type.

{Page

89.)

When of this Addenda. fore ask

was published the Catalogue were known. A fourth type The additional must

only was

three noticed

examples in the show there

that several varieties

now specimens be distinguished.

available I must

to be good enough my readers as cancelled, in the Catalogue description for it the following?
Obv. King, wearing waistcloth, standing, holding

to consider the and to substitute

how,

and

shoot

ing lion in mouth,
marginal Rev. Goddess, facing legend, holding front, on

but not

trampling
deciphered. and lotus lion.

on its body.
in 1. hand, Legend

Long
seated, f%^a"

imperfectly fillet in r., hack of

couchant

f^cfW?
References and in B.M. Plate II.,

Sinha Vikramah.
Remarks.? I. hand Variety ; rev. goddess 4. Mon.

The
a.

cfi, k, is sometimes doubled.
Obv. to r., King on lion to I. 111-4 ivith boiu

cross-legged \0c.

Swiney, 5). Six obv. Sb. Wt. Long or

No.

Wt.

(Catalogue, obv.

E.C.B. On Mon. A.G. Wt. r.

seven ^7T

illegible ?$?, of

characters -rata Chandra,

on

1.

margin. read.

margin 120-9. obv.

doubtfully

legend

about

twenty

characters.

Mon.

10c.

117*4.

FromOudh.

112

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. CHANDRA GUPTA IL?continued. <3f, tya, which
are followed by

Barstow.
is followed

Obv. 1. marginal
by four characters

legend begins with
not read, which

r. obv. margin traces of two f%sg^ f^n^ff?, sinha vikrama. On rev. legend doubled (Plate iii., 3). or three characters, k in C. No. 1. Obv. marginal legend illegible.
C. No. 2. 3. On On obv. margin 1. obv. margin "?f, ghra, *?*f,ghra, legible. legible, and above king's C. No.

1. arm ^, h. Mon. 8b. From ?S?t?purin Oudh. C. No. 4. Described and figured by Dr. Hoernl? (J.A.S.B. vol. lix, part i, page 172, plate vi, 5), and briefly noticed in Addenda to Catalogue. The legend "ftfvg^ T?TTfi?^ si?ha ghn?
' bhijfia, peculiar. is correct. coin seems clever I have It to be in the not slaying seen the of coin, lions,' and is, if correctly believe from the read, this plate. very do not out above. reading The

certainly a duplicate

cannot

be made

of Barstow

Variety Lane. Variety C.

Obv. as in variety a. Rev. lion to r. Attitude ?. goddess slightly different from that seen in variety a. Wt. 122*5. (Rapson, pages 11, 17.)

of

7. King 4c.

to I., with
margin.

bow in r. hand, shooting lion on I.
Rev. lion to I.

Mon.

From Ajodhya.

Retreating The fine specimen

Lion Type. in the

(Page 90.) at

of Kanauj nearly sixty years this type. The long ? in the The legends present some peculiarities. seems to be expressed obverse in two ways, namely, legend as usual, by a mark above the line (r?), and also by a line behind vertical the consonant (h? and j?), as on the The copper coin of Kum?ra Gupta I. (Catalogue, p. 143). coins of Samudra Gupta present examples of the use of two forms of m on the same piece, so that the simultaneous use

British Museum, obtained is still the only example ago,

GOLD COINS OF CHANDRA GUPTA II. CHANDRA of two methods
surprise.

H3

GUPTA a

II.?continued. long vowel need not excite

for expressing

with the

The word ftRF^> ^T, gh ; unless axe between

sihha, on the reverse, looks as if spelled is due to the shaft of this appearance and device. The character the legend

the rev. legend si?ha vikramah must apparently preceding be read as Sri, but it is slightly peculiar in form, and different from the undoubted Sri on the obv.

Umbrella My
goddess

Type. five
pedestal,

{Page 91.) coins of variety
and three

Catalogue
standing

describes
1. on a

a, with
specimens

rev.
of

variety
an obscure

/3, with
object,

rev.

goddess

standing,
for

facing
a marine

to front,
monster.

on

perhaps

intended

The
of each

Carnac
variety,

collection
namely

possesses
:? Variety a.

two

additional

examples

No.

1.

Oval
line, 4c. Smaller

coin of pale
in on and not

gold.
obv.

Traces

of the words
Rev. goddess as on the B.M.

(?)

Vikram?ditya on a curved coin. No. very Mon Mon. 2. coarsely 4c.

. . . sucharati

legend. a distinct pedestal

stands

coin,

nearly Legends

circular, almost

of

very

impure

gold, obliterated.

and

executed.

completely

Variety
No. 1. The umbrella holder is

?.
a male. Obv. legend on r.

* margin is distinctly fM^rTfaspET TT> vijitavijayah pra-,1 which does not apparently agree with the legend of the B.M. and B. coins.
Nothing No. 2. below the feet of the reverse goddess. Wt. 118-75. umbrella indistinct of 19?. of incense On obv. grains shown, distinctly ' ' on 1. margin. An legible Vikram?ditya complete. a Mon. under feet of rev. goddess. slight modification object

a and ?, into two varieties I have retained the division of the rev. goddess, the posture characterized but the by
details above j.R.A.s. given 8 show that other variations occur. There 1893.

114

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. CHANDRA GUPTA correctness IL.?continued. of the B.M. and B. coins

is no doubt

about

the

obv. legend Vikram?ditya of the published kshitim avajitya sucharati, and the legend vijita vijayah pra- is equally certain on the Carnac coin No. 1 of variety ?. both Probably are parts of a long inscription, for the whole of legends there is not room on any one piece. which

KUM?RA GUPTA I. (MAHENDRASINHA).
Swordsman Type. No Museum Bodleian weight struck
differences

(Page 93.)

new

it continues

specimens to be known was example

of

; type have been discovered from two coins only. The British That in the published by me.

this

cabinet has been published Its by Mr. Rapson. is 124*5. My remark that both the coins were probably die must be withdrawn. from a single Minute
show that separate dies were used. The B.M.

for the reverse, for the obverse. I am now disposed specimen to think that the correct reading of the obv. legend may be f^f?T?rsrfsnS?0, kshitim avajitya, etc., and not *TT*T^f5rap>, specimen and the B. etc. The character kshi, is altogether avajitya, f^, in the B.M. coin, but is present, wanting though imperfect, on the 1. margin of the B. coin. I formerly took it for Gam a *5f, j. The ti, the
occurs

is rather

the better

of

the

two

character t being
in the

which of the

I

then
and

read headed
closely

really
again

square
tya,

as g? may be form, which
resembles g.

conjunct

B.M. coin the vowel mark of this character is on the B. coin it is present, and looks like ?, ; wanting be read as i. It differs but may little from the mark over the j in jitya. If this correction be accepted, the sucharati are identical with k*hitim avajitya words those On the on II. The extant type of Chandra Gupta is probably Mr. Rapson still prefers to imperfect. legend See Plate II. read *TW, gain. the Umbrella

GOLD COINS OF KUMARA GUPTA I. KUMARA GUPTA I. SINK ^?continued.

115

(MAHENDRA Type.

Archer It

{Page 95.)

as yet to effect a thoroughly is impossible satisfactory of this puzzling arrangement type, but some progress has
been made.

the Catalogue divisions, namely A,
coins of the suvarna

In

the
standard.

coins

are

divided standard,

into two main and B, heavy

of the d?n?ra

as Mr. The heavy coins are probably, Rapson suggests, the coinage of Kum?ra Grupta IL, and it is more convenient as his. to treat them provisionally only the Consequently A coins of the Catalogue will now remain under Kum?ra Gupta I. The division of these into Class I., with bowstring inwards ; and Class and IL, with outwards, bowstring Kum?ra outside string, still holds good. vertically The first four varieties, a, ?, 7, 8, of Class I. in the were These Catalogue distinguished only by their legends. and known, legends were then, and still are, imperfectly it is difficult to say to what extent they may be fragments of one long legend. In all these so-called varieties the syllable g?, Ku, with a crescent over it, is generally found under the king's arm, but it is sometimes wanting. the imperfection of the readings, and admitting Considering the existence of as yet undefined I think it is sub-varieties, to group as a varieties a, ?, 7, S together b3tter single initial 1. Variety variety, the doubtful variety
as before.

becomes variety 2, and e, consequently, becomes variety 3. Class II. remains f

amended description and arrangement of the type, new specimens, will therefore be as follows :? including

The

Archer Obv. King across on tip standing of to 1., head

Type. bare, hair

bird-standard, bow, middle II.). Under with of

holding

grasping (Class

r. hand extended curly, 1. hand either resting turned inwards string I.), or (Class with turned outwards bow, string arrow; arm, in Class I., either no legend,

king's

116 KUM?RA
or Ku

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. GUPTA
with

I.

(MAHENDRA
or Kum?ra outside not fully string. read,

SI?HA)?
vertically. and seems In

continued
Class IL, : see

crescent,

Kum?ra

vertically,

details

Marginal legend below.

to

vary

Rev.

Goddess (Lakshm?) seated cross-legged on lotus-seat, usually
holding fillet in r., and lotus-flower in 1. hand.

Legend ^
Mon. rarely

71%'?'*?Sri Mahendrah.
omitted.

References Class I.

and Remarks. inwards.

Bow-string

Variety

1. Either

no legend under king's arm, or ^f, Ku, with
crescent. in Catalogue or initial ever under under existed. varieties arm On 1. a, ?, ; the obv. 7, ?.1

B.M., C. No. is entire,

etc., 1. and

as detailed No no name

king's

surface margin

character

on r. margin remains of adhir?j. Mon. Sa. [Ku]m[?]ra Gupta ; C. No. 2. In obv. legend only j legible. On ?tev. the fillet is
represented modification Barstow. marginal by of three the No legend very name dots rare or above form initial a 25. line Wt. curved 125*3. king's r. margin arm. Obv. 1. to 1. Mon. a

under

Sri

Kum?ra

Guptah,

paramarajadhir

(vowel marks wanting).
2.

(Plate III. 4.)
arm.

Variety

Kum?ra

vertically

under

king's

S.
Mon. C. Benares.

Obv. marginal
8?. No. 1. The variety. 2. Wt. Obv. king's Wt.

legend of about eight
marginal

illegible

characters.
Obtained that on at the

commoner C. No. Benares.

legend, Maharaja. in pose differs from figure Mon. 123*7. 10?. on 1. obv. margin.

Gupta 123*85.

legible

Obtained

at

1 The are necessary :? following corrections in detail are 125*5, 124, 125. 715. 716. Wts. B.Nos. 714, Strike out the words "a character between king's A.S.B. Variety ?. For xxxix. read xxix. and h before his face." Add "now in A.S.B." in Bengal. Variety 5. Coin from Mahanada

feet,

GOLD COINS OF KUMARA GUPTA I. KUMARA C. No. 3.
Mon. 8?. Wt.

H7

GUPTA

I.

(MAHENDRA

SI?HA)?continued. S'r? recognizable. S'r?. Wt. 123*7.

R. marginal legendMah?r?j?dhir?ja
126.

Lane.
{Rapson,

Obv. marginal legend Mah?r?j?dhir?ja
p. 11.) Variety 3.

Freeling.
avanipati Wt. 125. the word

Obv. legend said by Thomas
o Gup to, as in Fantail

to be [de~\va vijitdvanir
Peacock coin of the silver be coins. genuine, legend, so

Kum?r

If this p. 50.) exceptional {Records, as the deva should last word be read

far as extant. Compare the legend of the Horseman type of Kum?ra Gupta I.
Class II. Bow-string outwards, Rude B.M., A.S.B. etc. One 8 or 9 coins specimen. and Kum?ra coins. vertically

to Right

outside

string.

as in Catalogue.1

On r. obv. margin Barstow. III. 5.) (PI. C. No. 1. Mon. 76.
C. No. 2. Mon. 19?.

Gup[f\a

S'r? Mahe[ndra~]

pa-.

C. No. By
coins

3. With

loop attached, in very poor condition. the fragmentary
1, A.S.B., and

piecing
B. 714,

together
Kotw?,

inscriptions
Barstow, the

of

the
con

C. No.

clusion

appears safe that one form of the obv. marginal of Class I., variety 1, is legend Jayati Mahendra par amar ?jadhir ?ja Sri Kum?ra Guptah. The fragment jatara (? ajita raja) on the A.G-. coin seems to belong to some other form of legend. The Ma?anada coin gives the legend The

Sri mah?r?j?dhir?ja Sr? Kum?ra Gupta. legend of variety No. 2 seems to be the same as this last, the known words being Sri . . . Gupta. mah?r?j?dhir?ja The use of the title par amar ?jadhir ?ja on two coins is
noticeable. 1 The wts. of the Bodleian coins are 118-5, 120-5.

115-5,

118

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. KUMARA Houseman to Right of the holds GUPTA Type. three I.

The given
have

arrangement in the Catalogue
been discovered.

(Page 100.) varieties of this type as and no new varieties good,

made

legends have not yet been quite completely some further in has been made out, progress and some errors in the printed their decipherment, readings The obverse but The require correction. recently :? are as follows the type
Variety C. No. . . r. pdrj obv. 1. . The ., but may letters be on the the remains ... . a. 1. obv. of The margin look like on is, be as the

discovered

specimens

of

usual,

margin over the

p? kshitipatira horse's head. Wt.

Gupta devojayati; character kshi This seems to

123*75.

is quoted in the description of which specimen, C, Dr. Hoernl?'s finds mhrjpt Catalogue, page 101. Dr. Hoernl? (the vowel kshi between the king and the marks being lost) on the 1. margin;
horse's could head ; and out Obv. Same Obv. only C. No. C. No. C. No. make 2. 3. 4. tipati rath?p?da the letters which legend legend kshitipatipa as No. 2. legend on r. and given Wt. lower I have . . d. Wt. Kum?ra margin. above. 124*5. I

125*5. Gupto devajayati;

1. marginal

r. margin^ish^i^mii. Variety ?. The Catalogue mentions only two specimens of this variety, B. No. 781, the wt. of which has since been de namely, termined as 125*5, and E.C.B., wt. 1^6*5. A third specimen
has since been discovered, namely,

C.
the goddess

About
words is not

one third of the obv. legend legible,
prithiv? empty, has been tal?m as it para[ma]. seems to be The in the 1. hand other

that is to say,
of two the rev. specimens, for

but holds a cloth or fillet behind her back.
twice, 1891, and p. it noticed by Dr. Hoernl? 119).1

I have seen this coin
(Proc.A.S.B.

1 as Mr. Rapson reminds me, is not correct ; talani or tale would be Tal?m, I can only say that the word seemed to me to be tal?m, but talam is correct. 'uncertain that the also suggests Mr. Rapson the right reading. probably at the near the hand of the goddess may be an ill-executed attempt object" the case. This is probably peacock of variety y.

GOLD COINS OF KUMARA GUPTA I. KUMARA GUPTA
Variety

119

I.?continued.
7.

Fourteen

or fifteen

in the Catalogue. C. No. 1. Only kMtipati legible in obv. legend. C. No. 2. Obv. legend illegible. Obv. C. No. 3. legend kshitipatir ojito vi[Jaya Kum?ra] for 1891, account in Proc.A.S.B. (See Hoernl?'s Gu[pta\
p. 119.) I given The word Obv. . named, have above words may examined is correct. the coin The and either legend The some twice, letters Gupta Kum?ra and in are agree brackets certain. that are the re The reading storations. intervening Barstow. Gupta like the {krpnmst letters

of this variety examples The new specimens are :?

are described

vijaya been have

or Mahendra. Mahendra, in tht) be r. margin bracket wrongly look read

1. marginal .) tya. but

ajita characters them

of

must

(Plate III. 6). to restore one the Catalogue (page 100) I proposed as ^f%?f the marginal f^?R?f ^%*5[ JTT legend f?jfwr? TTWf?? f^5RT ^W?^, ajita vikrama Mahendra ^W^f^?? This kshitipati devajanita r?jati Gupta vijaya Kum?ra. one. was not a happy at restoration Mr. Fleet attempt vol. xviii, p. 225) correctly pointed out {Ind. Antiquary, to which I had been induced deva janita, that the reading of Mr. to consent Thomas, was clearly by the authority be devo {deva) and that the correct reading must wrong, I have since found out that the word jayati. '4j3|?f, r?jati and I in adopting that is also erroneous. Dr. Hoernl? In form of the words of wrongly dividing into kshitipati Dr. r?jati. kshitipatirajito f^frT^frTXf^Tfft? on the coin, rat hipada in his reading Hoernl?, "^ftm^, The C. No. 1 of variety a, has repeated the latter mistake. to kshitipatir, and the word rath?p?da, with X;, r, belongs reading made the mistake
its far fantastic as the * meaning coin is chariot-man,' concerned. The is quite imaginary, in, p?, seems so

syllable

certain, legible.

but

the

syllable

on each

side of it is not

distinctly

120

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. KUM?RA GUPTA L.?continued.

So far as I can make out from the fragments preserved, seem to vary in correlation with the legends do not in the reverse device. than one form of More varieties to have been used, but the variation in obv. legend appears of the variation in device. independent legend is apparently the One form of the legend certainly included the words

t^RrNf??^Tf^^t'Tf^Trt^t

^rerf??, vijaya kshitipatir

Gupta devo jayati, arranged in that order. ajito Mahendra of variety a reads Kum?ra Gupta devo jayati, the name C. 4 forMahendra. Kum?ra being substituted form of legend seems to have been X(JJ\ ^TnTCcT Another

[?^] ^TWrfaTT^l

^ft *!^

*n*n, parama bh?gavata
first Sri observa probably types of

Sri Mahendra The Guptah. [Sri] mah?r?j?dhir?ja is said to occur on the A.S.B. coin, but I think this This is tion must be a mistake. legend, which not complete, is a copy of that of the Horseman Chandra

Gupta IL, which read parama bh?gavata mah?r?j? Sri Chandra Guptah. dhir?ja The legend of the C. coin of variety ?, which reads prithivi seem to have begun with parama and tal?m para, would ended with prithivi tal?m.l The words bh?gavata maharaja dhir?ja Sri Mahendra may have intervened, and jitya, Gupta or some or verb of similar meaning, is also required. participle of all the specimens which I have The reverse legend as is ajita-Mahendra h, and not ajito M., examined recently stated in the Catalogue.
Horseman to Left Type. (Page 103.)

in the coins of this type are enumerated The and I am not able to add to the number. Catalogue, are either identical, or very nearly identical, with legends to Right those of the Horseman type, and, like them, have not been fully deciphered. read on the A.S.B. No. 1 coin the obv. legend Dr. Hoernl? About fourteen as [a] dhir?ja kshitipati r?jaii vjaya Kum?ra
ante, p. 118.

\Gupta].

The

1 See footnote

GOLD COINS OF KUM?RA GUPTA I. KUMARA correction GUPTA I.?continued.

121

in the readings of the Horseman made to Right must and kshitipatirajito also be applied here, must type for kshitipati r?jati as given in the Catalogue. be substituted The word kshapra which I read on three coins cannot be right.
The No. were

The

legend
mentions

probably
two No.

included
A.S.B. 2, that

the name Mahendra.
viz. which only one : no details

Catalogue 1, from given.

coins, respecting there is

and Midnapur, I now understand

specimen

of the type in the A.S.B.
weighs 126-31.

cabinet, which

came from H?gl?,

and

Peacock
The new specimens which

Type.

{Page 105.)
seen a. are as follows :?

I have

Variety

C. No.
Taylor. at least

2.
No. eleven

From Ajodhya.
1. A fine characters,

Obv. legend quite illegible.
specimen. none of Obv. which r. of marginal legend are legible. certainly

Wt.

128-6 (Plate III. 8). 128*6. Taylor. No. 2. Wt.

Obv. marginal

legend illegible.

Variety ?.
C. like No. 2. Obv. coin. legend seems to include the words S'r? Kum?ra, the Bharsar

Taylor. Taylor.
. ., 13

No. No. All
characters.

1. 2.

Obv. marginal legend illegible. Wt. 127-7. . Obv. marginal r. legend W*ffH [*J^Nt T]TT
The word jayati and the character rd are

certain.
has a ring

the rest is very doubtful
Including the ring,

(Plate III.
the wt. is

9).
132-8.

This coin

attached.

to the Kum?ra Gupta regard gold coins of the * (Mr. Smith's Coinage,' peacock type' p. 105)," writes Dr. Hoernl?, "it may be worth noting that on the specimens
of the variety a there are two peacocks on the obverse,

" With

whom

is feeding, the king and not only one, as all the seen would which I have hitherto seem to descriptions in my own collection On a specimen the forepart imply. of the bodies of both birds is quite distinct, and, even in

122

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. KUM?RA GUPTA L.?continued.

the autotype figure published by Mr. Smith (pi. iii, fig. 1), the the head of the second bird is quite distinct behind front one. In the specimens of variety ?, however, there 1 appears to be only one bird." of Dr. Hoernl? This observation is, I believe, mistaken. are The published The C. and descriptions quite correct. of variety a noticed above have certainly Taylor examples one bird each on the obv. the On some specimens only tail of the peacock, viewed sideways, looks very upturned like the neck of a second bird, and this appearance has misled Dr. Hoernl?. bird, and not the neck
Lion-Trampler

the object But of a second bird.
Type.

is the

tail

of

one

(Page

106.)

The AG. and W.T. rev. goddess has the and
ones The

1. hand
known. Catalogue

raised,

in which specimens variety ?, r. hand extended open and empty, are still the only lotus-flower, holding
four examples of variety <z,

of

enumerates

a fillet in her r. hand, goddess her left hand either resting empty on her hip, or holding was unable to give a figure of this variety, cornupopia?i^^f because'*fhere was no specimen of it in the British Museum. of this variety, but I have since seen two good examples in so far that they both differ from the typical description on the is not actually the king trampling body of the in which the rev. holds
lion. C. They Obv. are lion mane. on :? hind Two near legs or three r. margin, characters with of obv. long legend tail and

well-defined

partly

legible.
Prom misled

Rev. legend ^ft ^?%^ "fa[^f
The I in the letters henar a Si the Museum coin, examined Indian

] >&*'* Mahendra
are which partly probably

Si[nha],
and an bears

Ajodhya, me when label

defaced,

erroneous

in consequence.

Rev.

A similar piece. Of obv. legend, ^J<?, kshad, legible. Barstow. lion to r. Mon. Sa. (Plate III. 7.) Wt. 1265.
1 J.A.S.B. vol. lix, part i, p. 179.

GOLD COINS OF KUMARA GUPTA I. KUMARA Tiger The GUPTA I.?continued. {Page 107.)

123

(Combatant Lion) Type. of this is a
the

description as given in the Catalogue, The
which

type by Dr. Hoernl? require considerable crescent
king's arm

and myself, amendment. syllable
coins,

fact

that

there
under

above
on

the
some

kit,
has

occurs

been

and my remark from my description, the B.M., I.O. coin (Catalogue, Plate III, 3) cerning " the obverse includes j{&?, and s|f or cR,mat y a legend " is mistaken in kra or ku Dr. Hoernl? is incorrect. omitted posing the genitive that the words case,

con that and

sup in ^?TfTT Guptasya, TJP&j Kum?ra and should be restored on the obverse, Gupt?dhir?j?o,

also in reading in the genitive

3R7TTT^TflT "faTTsf?? Kum?ra case on the reverse.

at or obtained by Mr. Rivett-Carnac, A fine specimen, near Ajodhya, has enabled me to make these corrections. On this coin the 1. obv. marginal legend is 3jft, Sri, and
the r. marginal legend is cqra . . tr^T^T, vy?ghra . . par?k

have intervening are obscure, to be intended transliterated, about the words for ^J7f, ?ata- There is no doubt whatever . .par?krama. The doubling of the k is unimportant. vy?ghra Plate On re-examining III, 3 (Catalogue), I find that my there too is the remains of vy?ghra the legend (? sata) The r of kra is expressed by a horizontal par?kra\_ma]. line turned to the left, the u of ku on the reverse is indicated krama. The two not characters, but seem which I two characters are quite by a curve open to the left. The The correct reading of the reverse distinct and different.
legend, both on Mr. Rivett-Carnac's coin and in my plate,

is c&*n7^r?iY f^nTTWTj Kum?ra
native case. The vowel o is

Guptodhir?j?,
quite plain, and

in the
proves

nomi
that

to the j must be read as ?. The initial the mark attached has been correctly a of adhir?j? elided, but the sign of I am now able to giye a figure of not inserted. elision is from a fine specimen Temple recently by Major brought

124

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. KUM?RA GUPTA I.?continued. the under C. specimen, the king's foot on the

Buddha

right to 1. is ^ The obv. legend Ji, Sri tiger. liendra (damaged), and on the r. margin, followed Ma, *%*^ characters. The rev. legend is in perfect by five illegible body of the
preservation, and is exactly the same as on the C. coin.

resembles Gaya, which closely but differs in that it has not cR, Ku, arm. is trampling with his The king

1273 8a. Wt. The fact that the (PL III, 10). on the tiger on this coin is shown trampling renders king " " Lion unsuitable Combatant for the type, as the name " from the The two types Lion-Trampler." distinguished are sharply distinguished the reverse legends. by read the obverse legend on a coin in Sir A. Cunningham si?ha par?krama. his collection as Sri Mahendra Accepting correct for that coin, the legend, this reading as doubtless so far as known, si?ha vydghra is Sri Mahendra (? sata) ' the might of [? a Sri Mahendra Si?ha, with par?krama, it probably other words included but tigers;' hundred] to the use drawn attention I have in the Catalogue also. favourite w7ord par? Kum?ra Gupta of Samudra Gupta's by Mon.
krama. The phrase vy?ghra par?krama is a reminiscence

of

the Tiger type of Samudra type under discussion had better type of Kum?ra I. Gupta I. struck an Asvamedha imitated the coinage
The undoubted

and in future the Gupta, as the Tiger be designated Like Samudra Gupta, Kam?ra medal, and he is thus proved in at least of his grandfather
reading of par?krama on

Gupta to have
three

particulars.

Kumar?'s

certain the hitherto Tiger type renders practically doubtful reading of the same word on Samudra's Tiger type. instead of the usual The use of the simple title adhir?j?, that is an indication, though not a proof, mah?r?jadhir?ja, was struck at an early period the type under discussion It may, in the long reign of Kum?ra Gupta I. perhaps, also be presumed that the types of Kum?ra Gupta are of an earlier imitate those of his grandfather, of the issuer. those which are more characteristic L, which date than For the

GOLD COINS OF SKANDA GUPTA. KUM?RA GUPTA L?continued.

125

reasons given in the Catalogue the Swordsman type is to am now inclined be placed early in Kum?ra's I reign. to think that that type, with the Tiger (or Combatant Lion) and the Asvamedha as should be grouped types, together issues of the reign. earliest Of course neither nor accuracy in the chronological of certainty arrangement the types is attainable. The syllable Ku on the obv. of the B.M. 1.0. coin figured in
my plate above referred to has a square superfluous character,

the

three

of TL, sa, across it, and I suspect that the coin has been double struck on a piece of Samudra Gupta's, like the Archer coin of Chandra Gupta II. already noticed. like the remains

SKANDA Archer Type.

GUPTA.

(Page 111.) to my published account of the nothing coins of di?ara weight Class A. forming Mr. Rapson has noted the wts. and mon. of the four Bodleian examples of the heavy Class B coins as follows :? I have to add
Wt. Mori. No.

684
727 728 730 word

138
141*5 131*5 141*5 ?

86.
? 8a.

On a specimen of this class belonging to Mr. Barstow the vikrama is legible in the obv. legend. The various of the legend, which have been preserved, indicate fragments that the full epigraph included the words parama vikrama Sri [Skanda Gup]ta de va. ?PRAK?S?DITYA.
Lion and Horseman Type. (Pages 114-117.)

The coins bearing on the reverse the title Sri Prak?s?ditya to be a puzzle. All still continue shows that the analogy

126

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. ?PRAK?S?DITYA.?continued

word

Prak?s?ditya

personal primary -?ditya, which occur

is merety name. The

a secondary title, and not a similar titles, terminating in in the Gupta series are as follows :?

II. in gold, Used 1. Vikram?ditya. by Chandra Gupta in silver and copper ; also by Skanda Gupta silver, only (Catalogue, page 129). or in Used by Kum?ra 2. Kramaditya. Gupta II.] [? I. coins, and by Skanda Gupta in silver. heavy gold 3. Mahendr?ditya. according Used 4. Par ?ditya. Used 5. B?l?ditya. Used to Fleet I. in silver, by Kum?ra Gupta (page 125). in silver {page 129). by Skanda Gupta in gold. JNara [Si?ha] Gupta by

We may be assured that the obverse marginal legend the proper personal coins contained of the Prak?s?ditya no name of the king who issued the coins, but, unluckily, has yet come with the name well preserved specimen was published, the only to light. When ray Catalogue had been read which of the obverse legend fragments consisted of the words of Mr. Rivett four unpublished one from Sh?h in Oudb, two from Hardo? Carnac, namely, and one from the in the North-western Provinces, jah?npur One of the Hardo? coins in Rohilkhand. State R?mpur of the 146) is the best preserved example (mon. lOtf, wt. I have seen, and raises, though, unfortunately, which type the legend. The it fails to satisfy, hopes of deciphering vasa . devant on the 1. obv. margin is ^*f . ?RT?T?? legend ^ cabinet
jayati. The character below the horse, is, as usual, 3,

deva jayati. in the specimens

I have

since

examined

which ru. The

seems

to mean

It also resembles

initial u, but may stand, some of the forms of h.

perhaps,

for

the same coin (wt. 140) preserves exactly R?mpur the word jayati of the obv. marginal legend, though portion as on the Hardo? coin ; in fact, the word is not so distinct looks like jar mata, and seems to have been blurred. Perhaps On both pieces the final anusv?ra the coin was re-struck.

GOLD COINS OF PRAK?S?DITYA. ?VRAKkskmTYk.?continued. of devam devam is distinct. for devo occurs

127

or of The same spelling, mis-spelling, on the Fantail Peacock silver coins

I. and Skanda Gupta Gupta (Catalogue, pages 126, 133). The of the Fantail Peacock formula silver stereotyped coins of several kings, X. vijit?vaniravanipati Gupto devo raises a presumption that the word jayati, immediately devo on the coins under discussion must be the preceding
king's proper name.

of Kum?ra

But coins

epithet jit?ripura On the coins the words devo jayati. precedes immediately of Prak?s?ditya, the word in the corresponding therefore, or an name the king's It place may be either epithet. not Gupto. is certainly So far as I can make out from the Hardo? and R?mpur and the B.M., R.S. coin (Catalogue, PL III, specimens, 9), the extant of the legend reads portion '^cft ^cf "ST^ffT?
vasavo devam jayati. The letters vasa are fairly certain,

this presumption of Samudra Gupta,

is rebutted on which

by the

the

gold

Javelin

there may be a vowel mark over the s. The letter the s has a vowel mark, which should mean o, following and the letter itself may be read as <^, v, ^, b, or ^, ch, not being well preserved in any example. I cannot discover though any meaning
reading.

for

the word

vasavo,

if

that

be

the

correct

Mr. Rapson follows Dr. Hoernl? in thinking that Prak? is probably the title of the king mentioned in the s?ditya Bhitar? who was son of Kum?ra I. and father seal, Gupta of Nara Si?ha Gupta, and whose name is variously read
as Sthira, or Pura.1 The date thus obtained is suitable

for the coins of Prak?s?ditya,
but at present no more can

and the suggestion
be said. A coin in

is plausible
good con

dition
question.

may

be

expected

to

turn

up

soon

and

settle

the

1 The is certainly untenable, and must be given up. Mr. reading- Para Rapson and Sir A. Cunningham that the word is " agrees with Or Biihler certainly not and may be Sthira. See ante note to Synoptic Table. Pura,"11

128

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

NARA
Archer

(SINHA GUPTA) B?L?DITYA.
(suvarna standard). {Page 117.)

Type

seal inscription of the The revelation by the Bhitar? about a.d. of King Nara Si?ha Gupta, existence reigning and father of Kum?ra son of 500, (?) Sthira Gupta, that the coinage it almost certain of IL, makes Gupta Nara must be ascribed to him.1 B?l?ditya that "in the Catalogue (page 118) I have observed of Gold in former catalogue Coins, (seil, my published wrote N?ra for Nara, I erroneously and, following 1884), In for which there added the cognomen Gupta, Thomas, But there is some reason to think that is no authority."
above corrections may be, to some extent, mistaken.

Mr.
the

Dr.

lviii, part i, p. 93, (J.A.S.B. seems to be legible out that note) points of Ariana and on in figure 22 of plate xviii. Antiqua, at my autotype figure of the B. M. Yeames looking again the bow which coin I see that there is something outside

Hoernl?

1889, vol. the word Gupta for

that It is quite possible may be the remains of a letter. on them. some specimens may have the word Gupta read the name So on the R?naghat coin, Dr. Hoernl? for 1886, p. 65), as N?ra, with the long vowel (Proc.A.S.B. and* it is po^fftde he may have done so correctly, although the short vowel. other coins offer the form Nara, with and Kacha. the word If the variants K?cha Compare occurs on the obverse of the coins of this Gupta really feel certain that they were struck by Nara type, we may but none of the speci of the seal genealogy, Si?ha Gupta seen show the word Gupta I have mens which clearly. the weights are three in the Rivett-Carnac collection, of the last of which are 144, 145*2, and 170. The weight of The weights be due to an attached loop or ring. must as determined Mr. llapson, the six Bodleian by specimens, There obverse range from 142*5 to 147. The not yet been read on any coin. has
1 Sir A. Cunningham has always held that Nara

marginal

legend

B?l?ditya

was Nara

Gupta.

GOLD COINS OF KUM?RA GUPTA II.

129

KUM?RA GUPTA IL (KRAM?DITYA).
Archer The Si?ha been existence Type. (Pages 95-100.) Gupta IL, the son of Nara of Kum?ra Gupta L, has seal inscription. In all of Kum?ra

and great-grandson Gupta, disclosed by the Bhitar? the heavy and coarse gold coins, with the title probability be assigned should, as Mr. Rapson Kram?ditya, suggests, to and I have, therefore, decided to the second Kum?ra, Their technical description treat these coins separately. is
as follows :?

Obv.

King
across of over

standing to 1., head bare, hair curly, r. hand extended
bird-standard, with arrow on ; 1. hand holding resting tip a wheel turned Sometimes inwards. string r. shoulder. Under left arm Ku, with king's Marginal seated legend cross-legged imperfect. on lotus-seat, holding

bow,

king's

crescent Rev. Goddess

above. (Lakshmi)

fillet in r., and lotus-flower S'r? Kram?dityah.
Coarsely executed

in 1.hand. Legend ^ft "SfffiTf^n >
King's figure with an awkward

Mon.
coins.

bend.

Mean weight
References

about 146 grains.
and Remarks.

B.M.
obv.

R.P.K.
Mon.

The

letters ^T,
Wt.

hara,
148*7.

seem to be legible
(Catalogue, PI.

in
II,

legend.

imperfect.

Pig. 12.) Yeames. B.M.
B.M. B.M. A.S.B. A.C. Marsden, Marsden, One Two

Mon.
mlii. mliii.

imperfect.
Mon. Mon. 8a.

Wt.
Wt.

143.
147. Wt. 146*5.

imperfect.

specimen. specimens.

K?l?gh?t
Cunningham Kum?ra Gupta

hoard.

Figured
vol.

in A.A. pi. xviii.
iii. p. 137) to be

23.
a coin

Supposed by
of the later

Rep. (Arch. of Magadba.

was given both in my Cata legend wrongly in 1884, and in the general of Gold Coins, published logue in 1889. The correct reading is Sri published Catalogue, The reverse
j.it.A.s. 1893. 9

130

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. KUM?RA GUPTA II.

(KRAMADITYA)?continued.

as read by Sir A. Cunningham. I am in Kramadityah, out to me that this for pointing to Mr. Rapson debted as I reading is not exceptional, supposed, but is the reading of every specimen. the coins enumerated Besides above, which may be fairly to Kum?ra Gupta IL, there are eleven specimens assigned of base metal in the B.M. collection, which have the syllable on the obv., and more or less closely correspond to the Ku of the type. The weights description are 151; are very coarsely executed, It is to of, these 150*6; coins, which 150*2 150*3;

(bis); 149*2; 1478; 147*2; 147; 1468;

146.

say who issued base coins of this impossible are clearly imitations of the coins struck in kind. They are doubtless somewhat later in good gold, and tolerably a.d. 600 may be taken as an approximate date. date. as well as this class bear other initial syllables seem to have been struck local rulers Ku, by sundry the disturbances caused by the Huna invasions. during is no reason to suppose that it will ever be possible There to assign such barbarous to particular pieces definitely Coins of and Some of them, probably, were issued from the princes. rude mints of the invaders, who could not invent types of their own, and were obliged to imitate as best they could the various
or subdued.

coinages

of

the countries

which

they

ravaged

VIRA[?SENA, OR SINHA] KRAMADITYA.
Bull The Type. (Page 118.) three coins collected by Mr. Rivett-Carnac still remain of this type. The weights of examples only known these three pieces are 162*3, 162*5, and 169. In the Cata to these exceptional and weights, logue I called attention that the coins may possibly have been struck to remarked the 100 rat? standard of 182 5 grains, but that it is more that they were struck to the Persian standard, probable 84 to 86 grains. coins The the unit of which weighs the

GOLD COINS OF VIRA KRAM?DITYA. ? SENA,
date

131

VItU[
in question

OR SINHA]
from about a.d.

KRAMADITYA?continued.
500-600, and, on re-con

of sideration, I do not think it likely that the recollection I would now refer the Persian standard survived so long. if the rat i them to the 100 rati standard of 182*5 grains, or of 180 grains, 1825 grains, be taken as weighing if 1*8 grain. it be taken as weighing Either value is sub for calculation, correct, and convenient but, of stantially the two, the value 1*8, now adopted by Sir A. Cunningham, A gold coin of 180 grains, is rather the more convenient. should weigh about as 160-170 worn, moderately grains, of the early coins of India were these coins do. Many struck to the standard of 100 rat?s, or 180 grains. Among and Agathocles, the double these are the coins of Pantaleon the Mitra coins with die copper coins of Taxila, incuse last coins, which square, and the large copper Yaudheya are referred to the period of about a.d. 300. All these in Sir A. classes of coins are described Cunningham's " India." He Coins of Ancient recent work, considers that the 100 rati piece can be most conveniently (page 80) a 1| pana as the pana or (or suvarna), equal to regarded suvarna weighing He calls the 100 rati piece 80 grains. and gives the scale of its multiples a " heavy pana," and
sub-divisions as follows :?

1

"

heavy pana

"= =

100 50 2o
loi x</2

rat?s =180

grains.

le
4 ? The

?
? ,,
>> 8

,," =150
? ?
>>

? =270
?
"

?
? ,,
ft

=

90 45

=
i ? __.

,, =

o>i ? _____ ^^2

180 grain weight was long afterwards adopted by and Akbar, who copied from Sher Shah, as the Hum?y?n tola of of the silver rupee, and it is the familiar weight scale of Indian weights.1 I think it the Anglo-Indian
would be more convenient to use the name tola for the

100 rati pieces

than the awkward

term

" heavy pana."

1 On this see " The History of the Moghul of Hindustan Emperors subject Illustrated Lane-Poole, Westminster, By Stanley 1892, by their Coins." of the Path?n in Thomas' "Chronicles p. lxxvi, and the discussion Kings of Delhi," pp. 403 seqq.

132

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

SILVER

COINS.

(Pages 119-138.) be added to the information little can at present Yery in the Catalogue. about the silver coins as printed was not mistaken, the copper type which I If Prinsep ' ' occurs also the name Chandra Head have designated by until in silver. He says in a footnote, which I overlooked lately ;? " of Since finishing my plate I have received a drawing a small silver coin from Mr. at Jaunpur, found Tregear, a head on one side, and on the other a bird with having in clearly defined characters, outspread wings, under which, is xT^ *TfT>Chandra Gupta.991 ' the word is a that in this passage silver9 I suspect that the coin but it is possible clerical error for 'copper/ described was really a silver one. The coins of Toram?na (page 136) have been discussed is quite that the two known certain Mr. Fleet. He by in the year 52, and suggests that silver coins are dated in an era beginning at the date is a regnal one, expressed to the throne of the Panj?b about the accession of Toram?na
A.D.

reason for that bas shown good believing Dr~;?$aorm? are imitations certain Indo-Sassanian coins, which palpably of the coinage of the Sassanian king F?r?z of Persia, were and conjectures issued by some chief of the White Huns, that Toram?na may have been that chief.3 plausibly same writer dealt with the copper has elsewhere The of Toram?na and his son Mihirakula.4 My remark coinage " we possess of Toram?na that only two silver (page 11) is tolerably but the copper coinage of his son Mihirakula coins,
1 vol. i. p. 281 note. ed. Thomas, Essays, ?The 2 Prinsep's Coins Ind. Antiquary, of Toram?na,' vol. xviii. and History pp. 225-230. 3 Proc A.S.B. now engaged on the is Sir A. Cunningham for 1889, p. 229. coins ; and a paper on the subject by him was read at the study of the H?na in London in ?September, 1892. International Congress of Orientalists 4 ProcA.S.B. for 1885, pp. 4-7, with a plate.

460.2^

COPPER COIjSS. abundant "

133

lacks accuracy. Many copper coins of Toram?na are known, to Mr. Rodgers, those of one and, according cabinet He describes one in the Lahore type are common.1 as follows : " Obv. to right Seated figure (^RT). Rev. " . . . to left, ^(\ In this description eft Standing figure the The terms obverse and reverse bears have been wrongly personal side of the coin which always be called the king's the obverse. used. name

should

to Sir A. Cunningham, the date on the rare According silver coins of Is?na Varm? (page 136) is 55. Dr. Hoernl? reads it as 245.2 type ascribed to the kings to in my Catalogue (page briefly that they require more exhaustive the remark 137), with examination than they have yet received. They still require thinks that they are wrongly that examination. Dr B?hler " to the Maharajas of Vaiabh?. He writes I may ascribed in a Vaiabh? add that I do not believe coinage, of which some specimens Sir A. Cunningham (Arch. Survey gives The silver of Vaiabh? coins were of referred
Rep., vol. ix. pi. v.). I cannot make out from his

the Trident

facsimiles
piece on

the name
which they

read by him,
can be read."3

nor have I ever an

seen any issue

I am not
thus raised.

in a position

to give

opinion

on the

COPPER (Pages Rapson's some unearthed
seven Gupta copper

COINS. 138-144.) at the Bodleian My
six of

Mr.

researches interesting
coins,

facts.
namely,

have Library described Catalogue
Chandra Gupta II.

in the Bodleian and one of Kum?ra L, cabinet, Gupta out from the miscellaneous two of which had been picked
1 of Coins in the Government Museum, Lahore, compiled by Chas. Catalogue This work has been reviewed S. J. Rodgers, M.R.A 1891, p. 54. Calcutta, 1892 (vol. xxi. p. 194). for June, by me in the Indian Antiquary 2 J.A.S.B. for 1889, vol. lvii. part i. note to Chronological Table facing p. 10?. 3 'On the of the Gupta-Valabh? 7 note. Era,' p. Origin

134 coins, some

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. and I remarked were specimens that

showed that the correspondence Mr. Rapson, (page 62). missing was fortunate having more time at his disposal than I had, " to discover additional enough twenty specimens nearly one hidden the miscellaneous coins/' among including
new type.

Umbrella

of the specimens II., which prove that this type His fig. 14, diameter about in my the large size, as published *9, represents which may be intended for a pana. 13, Catalogue, Fig. He gives of autotype figures of Chandra Gupta type was issued in two sizes.
diameter about *6, B. No. 752, represents the smaller size,

two

as the larger coins of the Standing for half a pana. The type, which may be intended King coins II. were issued of so of Chandra copper Gupta different that it is clear that the denominations, many was of considerable volume. It is unfortunate coinage that Mr. Rapson to weigh omitted the Bodleian specimens, some of which are in The few recorded good preservation. are coins, and weighments nearly all those of ill-preserved do not afford sufficient materials for the satisfactory determi nation of the weight standard and the denominations of the Gupta copper coinage. When Bust type (page 140), the Vikram?ditya describing I should have noted that a snake is twined round the neck of Garuda.

of the same dimensions

Plate

It is distinctly shown in the autotype (Catalogue, The snake is equally distinct on the Bhitar? IV, 13). seal of Kum?ra Gupta II. The Asiatic of of Bengal possesses Society specimens the Chandra Head type of various sizes (page 141), but I have not been furnished with any detailed description
of them. Mr. Rivett-Carnac also has some Gupta copper

coins, probably of this type, which I have not seen. new The the among type discovered by Mr. Rapson unclassed Bodleian named the coins may be conveniently ' ' Chandra In place of the head of the Chandra type. " Head the obverse is quite occupied with the name type,
^ j^ having over it a crescent, while on the reverse appears

COPPER COINS. Garuda the with the

135

This type agrees in J(J{1." inscription in my the coins' described 'Chandra IV, 16), but differs in the (page 143, Plate Supplement in the case of those coins is occupied which reverse, by obverse with a vase, without raises The new Bodleian discovery legend. to five the number of types of copper coinage certainly issued by Chandra Gupta IL, namely, (2) (1) Umbrella,

Standing King, (3) Vikram?ditya and (5) Chandra.

Bust,

(4) Chandra Head,

If Dr. Hoernle's be correct, a sixth type of suggestion " To the Gupta the copper coinage of the same king exists. " am also disposed to refer the coin he writes, I class," of which I publish three figures in plate vi. fig. 9, 10, 11, There are three I believe, is a quite new type. and which, all of copper, and all in rather poor condition. specimens, in all three ; on the One side is utterly unrecognizable other standing, armour. something left holds side obverse?), they all show three figures dressed in tunics or with two attendants, king The king, in the middle, facing front, holds up attendant to his proper The in his right hand. (the a the

to over him ; the attendant royal umbrella his proper right holds a spear or standard in his right hand. to his left can be In fig:. 11 the kin?: and the attendant to the and his attendant in fig. 10 the king seen, while 9 are seen, also the umbrella over the king. Fig. right to but they are difficult shows all these figures together, these coins to Chandra attribute I would distinguish. ' ' whom coins of the umbrella type, both in IL, of Gupta are known to exist."1 gold and copper, coins are so dim that The figures of these ill-preserved to make out on the plate the devices above it is difficult of seeing and I have not had an opportunity described,
the coins. I have, however, no doubt that Dr. Hoernl?'s

description apparently,

of

The legends having, is quite correct. to de it is impossible altogether, disappeared them
of the

1 J.A.S.B. coins formed part These vol. i. p. lvi. part 171. for the Indian Museum by B?b?. P.C. Mukharji. collection gathered

136 termine

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. with

the attribution of the coins. But certainty to the Gupta and be assigned they may safely period, either to the reign of Chandra Gupta II. or to probably of the that of his son Kum?ra I. The presence Gupta the to the former, while umbrella favours the attribution of the figures grouping of the latter king. type
This new type may,

recalls
for

the device
convenience

of
of

the Two

Queens
and

' in default of a better name, be called the Trio' type. ' ' vase the name coins, bearing If, as is possible, the little were struck by Chandra 'Chandra9 (Catalogue, page 143), more must be added to the long list of Gupta IL, yet one to types belong that he issued it is certain the reign of Chandra Gupta IL, copper coins of five distinct types, and that at least three and of these types (namely, Umbrella, King, Standing more of than one denomination Chandra Head) comprised of Chandra It follows that the copper value. coinage 'Trio' and in considerable quantity, Gupta II. must have been issued No king ever issues a large and during a series of years. a very brief period. I one metal during variety of coins in am convinced that the copper coins of Chandra Gupta II. will, looked for, be found in no small number. when systematically that they are not nearly has already been obtained Proof
so rare as was supposed some years ago. The copper issues

reference,

his types of coinage. or not the Whether,

' Vase

'

II. Gupta of the early Indo-Scythian in immense numbers, preserved of Chandra those they were

can never

a real currency, and of the more abundant Indo-Scythian copper coinage, place which seems to have alone been current in earlier reigns. on rather The Umbrella though type in gold is assigned, in the reign of Chandra to a late period slight grounds, the copper that be conjectured IL, and it may Gupta ' ' umbrella the same coinage invented by him, and including than to the earlier, to the later, rather device, belongs years of his rule.

have rivalled have been princes, which that but it is now clear took the to some extent

in volume

COPPER COINS IMITATING SILVER. At

137

an ancient copper page 144 of the Catalogue forgery the gold Archer of Chandra Gupta II. is noticed. type a similar Mr. Rodgers possessed forgery of a gold coin of of
Samudra Gupta.

one copper coin certainly known to have been struck Kum?ra Gupta L, viz. B. No. 751, of the Standing King by in the Catalogue type, was fully described (page 143), and an autotype of it has since been published by Mr. Rapson In the Catalogue I have stated (fig. 15 of his plate). " " no on the obverse, but that there is positively legend the autotype shows traces of five characters on the right The and also, I think, of 3S,Ku, under the king's 1. arm. margin, It is surprising that other specimens of Kum?ra Gupta's undoubted copper coinage do not turn up. COPPER GUPTA I. AND SKANDA COINS OF KUM?RA IN DEVICE AND LEGEND WITH GUPTA, AGREEING THE SILVER COINS. (Pages 144-146.)

the Supplement to the Catalogue I (pages 144-146) discussed the copper Gupta coins which resemble the silver " iu device and legend, and observed that coinage they may In all be ancient a considerable question than I
forgeries."

forgeries, number their been

but, if they are, it is odd that such The of them should be found.

of have

deserves fuller examination genuineness able to give it. Some are certainly in the Catalogue
and described

The

coins noticed

are as follows

:?

(1) Four Gupta
Th?kur

copper coins of Skanda Gupta, presented by the
of Morvi, by Mr. of these Newton.

(2) Twenty
the

Gupta copper coins, presented by the Chief of Walla,
ancient Vaiabh?. Some were coated with a

thin film of silver.
(3) Fifteen and small believed copper to be Legend Gupta 1 The coins, from read also the as dug same up on the site of Vaiabh?, above hoard as the twenty

noticed. Kum?ra

Parama Five

Mahendrasya}

r?j?dhir?j? bh?gavata were of this batch in

correct reading

is probably Mahendrudxtya.

138
pretty

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.
and who sub

good

preservation,

Captain

Watson,

mitted the coins, had eight more of the same kind. (4) Several specimens in the British Museum, all in bad condition, and apparently of Trident type. Legend on one Gupta
Mahendr?d[itya~\. Copper of good colour, and no signs of

plating. similar coins, "portions of which are still well covered with silver," were collected at Kanauj, in the Farrukh?b?d of the N.W.P., in the and have been deposited District Calcutta.1 No details have been given, Indian Museum, Two and I cannot say what device specimens from the N.W.P. At the District is on the reverse of these

town of J?is, Barel? in the R?i very ancient of Oudh, I obtained a single specimen of this coin age of the Fantail Peacock type, and probably belonging to the reign of Kum?ra Gupta This coin has no trace I. of plating. Dr. B?hler has recently made He known writes the source : " It seemed of the to me

British evident

Museum

copper coins found at Valabh? in the neighbourhood, and that the Maharajas of Valabh? These I had been vassals of the Guptas. coins, of which have collected on the spot many hundreds, all show myself the names of Skandagupta and Kumaragupta In (sic). a hoard 1876 I bought at Sihor, close to Val? (i.e. Valabh?), of minute copper coins, which five pounds. together weighed The authorities of the British Museum selected a number to some of these specimens of them, and it is apparently that Mr. of V. A. Smith refers in his of the Guptas, None p. 146. themselves. issued by the Guptas essay on the Coinage these pieces have been They are clearly ancient

examples. from the silver and

and the find-spots show that they were current imitations, in Valabh?. " in a Valabh? I may add that I do not believe coinage, some specimens of which Sir A. Cunningham gives (Arch. out from I cannot make Surv. Rep. vol. ix. plate v.).
1 J.A.S.B vol. lix. (1890), parti, p. 171.

COPPER COINS IMITATING SILVER.

139

his facsimiles the names read by him, nor have I ever seen any piece on which they can be read."1 The facts above enumerated that the prove very clearly were struck ordinarily, the silver copper coins resembling at Vaiabh?, in Sur?shtra if not exclusively, (K?thi?w?r), and exceptionally and that they are only found occasionally India". It is also established in Northern that the coins in were issued in large quantity, and that many of question a thin film of silver. them were coated with The only on them are those of names which have been recognized Kum?ra (I.) and Skanda Gupta. are suggested by these coins. Firstly, questions or a real Do they constitute struck by authority, coinage are they merely of the silver private coinage ? forgeries Gupta Several

the reigns of the kings Secondly, Were they issued during whose names they bear, or are they of later date ? Thirdly, Were of Kum?ra I. and they issued by authority Gupta or by Maharajas or someone of Vaiabh?, Skanda Gupta, else ? I think work
some

it must

be admitted They they
and

that have must
must

these been have
have

coins been
served

are not issued
as

the

of private forgers. that numbers at Vaiabh?
public authority,

found

in such by
an

authorized coinage. are coated with silver,
as silver, raises no

The

circumstance
that

and were, The coated

therefore,

that many of them to pass intended
were the work

presumption

they

of non-official coins plated,
practice, not

rogues. or thickly
of uncommon

issue with
occurrence

by authority silver, was
both in

of copper an ancient
the Greek

States not
such

and

be

in the Roman Empire, slow to adopt a financial
authority.

and

Indian

rulers

would by

expedient

supported

respectable

all plated."

are "almost the Second of Maced?n2 The coins of Amyntas Those of Pausanias, of the same country,3 king
p. 7 note, of the reprint from

1 * On the Origin of the Gupta-Valabh? Era,' the Vienna Oriental Journal, vol. v. part iii. 2 b.c. 392-390. 3 b.c. 390-369.

140 are almost

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

to be of copper, plated with found invariably it cannot be supposed that they were all executed silver, Caracalla The Roman (a.d. by private Emperor forgers. is recorded by Suetonius to have issued plated coins, 211) are so coins of Claudius and "plated and of Domitilla are of and so much which the number exceed frequent, and either that it may be conjectured good metal throughout, were or his officers of the forgers. the mint, Claudius, there can be but little doubt that spurious coins Indeed, were issued from the public mints, whenever the necessities
of the state were l pressing."

that the copper In the Catalogue (page 146) I suggested and Jaya of the Satraps Nahap?na, Chashtana, coinage d?m?, must have been the model of the copper coins bearing if these the names of Kum?ra and Skanda Gupta, Gupta fuller are not of merely forgeries now accessible information in more detail. this suggestion latter coins the enables The silver coins. me to develop

the Concerning first of the Western

the the Kshahar?ta, of Nahap?na whose known dates range from Satraps, to a.d. 119-124, Pandit 41-46, Bhag probably equivalent as follows:?UI used to possess four v?nl?l writes Indraj? silver coins of Nahap?na ; but one of these, which I obtained was I heated the coin, from N?sik, spoiled in cleaning. came off from each side, leaving only and a silver coating a piece of copper. coins was so well the king
the reverse

face as executed time
arrow and a

The

on

the

obverse

to fairly
thunderbolt.

at
are

the
an

of striking. some

ail my indicate the age of The symbols on
The occurrence

of

of

are found copper coins, which symbols and and Kathi?w?d, of Gujarat in the coasting regions that these were it probable in M?lwa, make also sometimes These copper coins bear on the also struck by Nahap?na. a standing deer and a other side the Buddhist symbols, which and also show traces of inscriptions dharmachakra, these on have not hitherto been deciphered."
of a 1 Akerman, uThe of Public Money," being the substance Forgeries 1843. 23rd April, lecture delivered before the Numismatic Society, London,

COPPER COINS IMITATING SILVER. This

141

struck certain coins that Nahap?na passage proves to be silver, but in reality only coated with purporting issued during silver, and also that certain copper coins were in reverse device with the the same period which agreed silver coins, but differed in obverse device. Pandit copper struck Bhagv?nl?l from the silver coins in both does not the Indraj? distinguish coins of Chashtana, but this prince The description of a copper metals. The obverse and in the Catalogue.1 coin
was

coin of his is quoted reverse devices of this of " the dynasty.
The son of Chashtana

agree with
Jayad?man,

those
circa

of silver
a.d.

coins

136-141.

" to obtain I have not yet been able," observes the Pandit, an undoubted in silver of this prince ; but I think specimen that the specimen it probable given in the Plate [figure 3, a circular is a coin of Jayad?man, the name coin] although and the greater part of the legend cannot be read. The coin is in many respects like those of Nahap?na ; both style and letters are similar, and the beginning of a legend in P?li is clearly legible. The symbols are, however, Bactrian and the word Khatrapasa those inaugurated Chashtana, by It cannot possibly be a coin of Nahap?na. is beyond doubt. are well known. The copper coins of Jayad?man They are square, and bear on the obverse an Indian bull facing and axe combined. and in front of it a trident right, are Greek the obverse Around the characters?probably
remains of the name of some overlord. The reverse bears

the usual symbols and the inscription within a circle." was not Of the Pandit the next Satrap, Rudrad?man, He possessed nine specimens able to find any copper coins. all of which. were made of of this ruler's silver coinage, No further mention metal and well executed. of superior
copper coins is made in the Pandit's paper.2

Though

the

information

collected
no specimen

above
of the

is scanty,
copper

it is
of

1 The British Museum possesses Chashtana. 2 "The Western Kshatrapas," edited by E. J. Rapson, M.R.A.S., New Series, pages 641-647).

coinage Ph.D., XXIL

by Pandit Bhagv?nl?l Indraj?, M.R.A.S. Vol. M.A., (J.R.A.S.

142 yet Gupta
coinage

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE. sufficient
was no

to show
new

that

and Skanda with

Gupta

the copper coinage of Kum?ra in type with the silver agreeing
It was quite in accord

phenomenon.

local precedent. like Kum?ra Gupta Nahap?na, and Skanda Gupta, struck plated coins, and Chashtana, like issued copper coinage of the same type as the silver. them, struck copper coins in considerable quantity, but Jayad?m? or not he issued any silver, and it is doubtful whether doubtful whether his silver and copper coins consequently The reverses, both of the silver coin agreed in type or not. to him and of his undoubted attributed copper coins, bear the symbols which are common on the silver coinage of the dynasty. I have come to the conclusion On the whole, that the coins of Kum?ra Gupta and Skanda Gupta, which copper in device and legend the silver coins of those kings, resemble were for the most part a real copper coinage, and not merely Some copper coins coated with forgeries of the silver coinage. set by silver were issued in accordance with the precedent and many other sovereigns, but these should Nahap?na as a debased portion of the silver currency. be regarded that all the It is not I think, to suppose reasonable, wefe copper coins of Kum?ra Gupta and Skanda Gupta silver coated. prjgipaHy not quite understand B?hler should I do why Dr. " none of these pieces assert that have been positively I see no reason why themselves." issued by the Guptas and should not have been issued by Kum?ra Gupta they names they bear. whose The coins, like Skanda Gupta, are seldom in fine condition, but copper coins generally, their mechanical execution is about equal to that of the
similar silver

ance

numerous

" and Biihier proceeds: They are clearly ancient imitations, the find-spots show that they were current in Valabh?." issue of coins are a debased In my view the silver-plated a period of struck during the silver coinage, probably no signs show and the coins which financial pressure, I regard of plating are not imitations of the silver coinage.

coins,

and

exhibits

no

degradation.

Dr.

COPPER COINS IMITATING SILVER.

143

them rather as a genuine struck on the copper coinage, same type as the silver coinage, and the legitimate descend ants of the copper coinage of the early Satraps. They may, struck at the mints been actually of the of Vaiabh?, feudatories or viceroys of the Gupta Maharajas kings, but, inasmuch as they bear the names of the Gupta I think they should be regarded as the coins sovereigns, of those sovereigns. I do not perceive of any indication of course, have later date. Full descriptions of good specimens of this copper coinage of Kum?ra and Skanda Gupta are not available. Gupta The Sihor specimens in the British Museum seem to have
a trident on the reverse, and thus to resemble certain

"Western types of the Gupta silver coinage. The coins found at Sihor and Vaiabh? were no doubt minted either at Vaiabh? or in the neighbourhood. The Fantail Peacock which I obtained in Oudh, seems to be one of copper coin, Kum?ra northern coinage,
existed.

Gupta's, provinces. agreeing

and

the silver of the type is possible that a Northern copper in type with the silver, may also have resembles It

The only substantial reason why the whole of the copper coins in question should be supposed to be either forgeries or imitations of the silver coinage, is that a good many silver-coated reason has, That pieces have been found. I imagine, been sufficiently of by the disposed foregoing The agreement in device and legend between argument. the silver and copper for denying the coinage is no ground latter an independent status. Chandra II. legal Gupta used the Umbrella both for his gold and copper device, note on the coins, and, if Mr. Thomas' coin be Freeling
accepted, Kum?ra Gupta I. used on a gold Archer coin

legend So, in our own pieces. the almost absolute certain of the time, identity between is a familiar and gold and silver dies of the Jubilee coinage
inconvenient fact.

the

of his Fantail

Peacock

coinage

the extreme rarity of the undoubted Remembering copper of Kum?ra Gupta I., and that some, at assuming

144

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.

resemble the silver ones any rate, of his copper coins which as a genuine are to be regarded it is local copper coinage, case in Muhammadan to find an exactly parallel interesting
India some nine centuries later.

bin Tughlak, Sult?n of Delhi (a.d. 1324 as is well known, for a space of about three 1351), issued, a forced token currency mainly com years (a.h. 730-732), a few copper ones. but including posed of brass pieces, wished that these brass and copper tokens The sovereign as equivalent to the corresponding silver should be accepted Muhammad cases the in many surfaces, have to be discovered of the current money equivalents to the old standards, in form or from the approximation brass tokens." given to the representative weight, inscribed on their but did not prevent issue of a token currency, however, the same also during issue of a real copper currency " are very few specimens of the exclusively There years. bin Tughlak of Muhammad coins ; the copper copper This the currency proper seems to have been confined to the but three (Nos. 209, 210, 211), examples quoted below for the small silver coins, cases dies intended of the forced and declaratory marked legends seem fulness to have been to stamp employed carried its own of its weight, in many and the less coins. were Sometimes the silver values " attributed to the tokens

currency, copper, which, in the value in the market,

irrespective of any especial superscription."1 similar to that This case seems to me to be very closely coins of Kum?ra silver-coated The discussion. under with be compared I. and Skanda may Gupta Gupta and the employment of the Sultan, the forced currency for the small silver coins to intended of dies originally
stamp copper, circulating as copper, appears to be common

to both cases. MISCELLANEOUS I
1

COINS. together not well
of Delhi,"

take

certain

of bringing opportunity are miscellaneous coins, which this
" The Chronicles of the Path?n Kings

notices known
pp. 243-253.

of in

Thomas,

MISCELLANEOUS COINS.

145

Europe. Gupta Gupta

They dynasty, period.

are all closely related to the coinage of the and are referable to the approximately

I.

Chandra.

Mr. which
Obv.

C. J. Rodgers submitted to me in 1890 a coin I recorded at the time the following description :?
King with passed under fillet standing on through arm to stem loop 1., casting altar; incense king's Legend spear on above of and

of

trident altar; 1. arm and raised, vertically , ;

spear. outside

arranged (?) J[ r

-^ Cha,

distinct.
Rev.

Eut of this latter word only the character tf, p, seemed Mr. Rodgers was inclined to read the word
attenuated ; her body eornucopiae Mon. \9a or 19?. Wt. 118*75. condition. Cost sixteen rupees.

T^?R. Shaka. Throned goddess,

carrying and wasp-like. No legend. In good Metal pale gold.

In spite of the name Chandra,' and the doubtful reading ' it appears impossible to ascribe this to Gupta/ piece the Gupta It was obtained at Haripur in the dynasty. and its style indicates that it was struck in that Panj?b, It resembles in general part of the country. appearance the well-known coins with in old Indo-Scythian legends " or, as Mr. Thomas with Hindi Nagar?, it, expressed of
legends."

'

Sir A. Cunningham has a somewhat similar coin bearing name * the Samudra/ I am inclined to believe that the coins of this class are a little earlier than the Gupta coinage, but very little is known about them. really
II. Basana.

Mr.
follows Obv.

Rodgers
:? King hand a in

describes

a coin

in the Lahore

Museum

as

armour,

is making with 10

trisul 1893.

to r. ; 1. hand a staff, standing grasps an at an altar. r. arm Above offering 1. arm fillet. Under or Pasata Pasana,

r. is ;

j.R.A.s.

146

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.
letters one above the as on coins. To r.

other,

Gupta

indefinite. ^ (?)
Rev. Pemale in r. seated a wreath, on as holds in 1. hand, throne, cornucopiae on To coins. 1. a monogram, Gupta and not

well

defined.

Wt.

1132.1

showed me a similar Mr. Rodgers of brass, coin, made was said to be 65*65. or very debased gold. Its weight in the Indian When Catalogue reviewing Mr. Rodger's name as Pasata; I am indebted (1892), I read the Antiquary Basana. for pointing out that it really is Cunningham a dealer have since seen specimens with in leave no doubt as to the reading. London, which was. The name But I am unable to say who Basana to the and his coins belong is probably that of a foreigner, to Sir A. I series of Indo-Scythian ' coins with
III. Doubtful.

old N?gar? '

legends.

in Proceed type described for 1882, pp. 91, 104. of Asiatic ings that this coin may be has since suggested Dr. Hoernl? to the reign of Kum?ra The figure Gupta (I.). assignable me the impression that the coin dates from the sixth gives A coin of the elephant-rider Society of Bengal
century. IV. Narendra.

to the later Gupta belonging piece, certainly and very badly figured described in is incorrectly period, of Bengal for 1852 of the Asiatic the Journal Society A curious
(vol. xxi. p. 402, pi. xii. 11).

a rough sketch of the coin, possesses it accurately to describe from the I hope Dr. Hoernl? will in England. available materials It was found in the Jessore the piece properly. publish a coin which may with in company of Bengal, district " of the silver be one of Sas?nka specimens (fig. 12), and and Skanda Kum?ra of Chandra Gupta, Gupta, coinage Sir A. Cunningham but it is impossible
Gupta." 1 No. of the Coins in the Government Lahore, p. 53, Nos. Museum, Catalogue is the only specimen at all distinct. o, the?coin described in the text, 5-8.

MISCELLANEOUS COINS. The published
"No. 2, fig. seated 11, on

147

description
appears

is as follows
likewise to be a

:?
Gupta round his coin, and is

evidently an unique
the r?j? an

specimen
a stool,

of its kind.
with a nimbus

On the obverse it has
head, and

attended by two females
is indistinct monogram.

standing by his side ; above his left hand
On the reverse is a standing female

in her hands; before her is a figure holding peacock, and to the left the letters ^ft R/j? (*TR ?), (Gupta?) branches of lotus
in the Gupta character.''

The plate shows that the king is squatted on his throne or stool, facing front, with his feet tucked up. The character over his left shoulder is the letter ^, h. The reverse female does not hold the lotus-stalks, she is between them. has suggested that this may be a coin of Dr. Hoernl? Nara known Si?ha Gupta, from coins. is probably the Nara B?l?ditya This may be the case. to Sir A. ix. Cunningham (Reports, vol. Sas?nka (a.d. 600) bears the title Narendra but the passage struck in the books the coin in who

According 157) king in certain Jain books, Gupta has not been textually quoted. It is impossible at present p.
question. V. Bull Obv. King, to facing 1. ; king's front, r. mounted

to say who

S'asa?ka. Type. on recumbent on bull's bull, hump, which his 1. hand is

hand,

or elbow,

raised, holding
hanging bull Rev. Lakshmi separate, Gupta without or S'r? stalked S'as??ka. alloyed ^^, over Salea. on and coins stalk

a flower;
bull's side.

his 1. knee
Disk over

tucked up, his r. leg
bull's head. Below

lotus-seat, not ; her in

in combined

debased into extended, ; her on

style, a bar, holding 1. arm r.

but as in a grasps

the the ( ?) a 3Sft

legs

are

debased lotus-bud sceptre, ^J^TT^" >

r. hand the palm

lotus-bud. Mon. ;

Legend sometimes dots

margin

wanting. round margin of both obv.

Gold and rev.

coarse

148

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GUPTA COINAGE.
and Remarks.

References

B.M.
C. On

Eev.
r.

legend, and legend
legend. margin Wt. two obv.

below
not stated.

the hull distinct.
No not mon. Two read.

No obv.
characters

marginal

characters

below
r. hand.

bull,

of which
on

first is H,
r. margin,

s. Nothing
^ft 'JJ, S'r?

in Lakshmi's
S'a?. Mon.

Legend

indistinct, nearly According these coins

\0d. Wt.

not stated.

Prom Gay?.

to Sir A. Cunningham, who has briefly noticed iii*. 138), Sas?nka ruled a country (Reports called Kirna Suvarna, to be identical with S?pharan supposed on the Subanrikha river in Bengal (Suvarnarekh?) {Reports, viii. He destroyed or sacred the Bodhi-drum, 189, 191). about a.d. 600 (Reports, i. 5, 10, tree, at Buddha-Gay?, and iii. 80). is said to be called Narendra He Gupta in certain Jain books ix. 157). His seal has been (Reports, found inscribed on a rock at Roht?s in the (Roht?sgarh) Sh?h?b?d of Bihar district vii. pi. vi.), and a (Reports, tank named after him exists at Bh?su Bih?r in the Bagrah? district of Bengal, which place is supposed to be (Bogra) the Po-shi-po of Hiuen Tsiang (Reports, xv. 102).

Contents

of Plate

III.

o

Reign.

Type

and Variety.

Reference.

1M 2 N 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Vishnu Deva Chandra Gupta Kum?ra Gupta

Asvamedha II. I. Archer, variety a Combatant Lion, variety a Archer, Class I., variety 1 Class II. ? to Right, variety y Horseman a Lion-Trampler, variety Peacock, variety a ,, variety ? Tiger (Combatant Lion)

B.M. Barstow.

Taylor. Temple.

INSORIRFD STONF HORSE OF SAMUDRA OUPTA AT ENTRANCE OF LUCKNOW MUSEUM.

-y?*/! fXt?'..* -i^^i.

Ke?

to

Plate

IL,

Gupta

Coin

Legends.
of Text and Catalogue.

OF No. Legend, I

Pages Reign. Type and Variety.

Chandra Gupta ?> Kacha1 Samudra Gupta

I.

King

and Queen

Standard Tiger Asvamedha Lyrist Javelin, a (B.M. Eden) ? ? (B. No. 689) ? 7 (B.M. Bush) Archer, a (B.M. Eden) a (B.M. Prinsep) Battle-axe, a (B.M. Thomas & Bush) ,, ,, ? (B.M. Eden) Couch Archer, Class L, ? (B.M. 1.0.) Class II. (B.M.) ? to Right Horseman (B.M.) 5 (B. No. Lion-Trampler, 726) Combatant Lion, a (Barstow) Lion (B.M.) Retreating Umbrella (B.M.) Swordsman (B.M. Prinsep) Class I., var. 1 (B.) Archer, var. 1 (Barstow) ,, ,, var. 2 (Lane) ,, ,, and ,, IL, ,, (Barstow B.M.) a (B.M.) to Right, Horseman ,, 7 (Barstow) Tiger [Combatant Lion] (B.M. 1.0.) Two Queens (B.M.) Archer, Class A. (B.M.) ,, B. (B.M. & Barstow) Archer (B.M.) Lion and Horseman (B.M.) Archer (B.M.)

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Chandra Gupta

II.

Kum?ra

Gupta

I.

Skanda Gupta Nara Gupta ?Prak?s' ?ditya Kum?ra Gupta II.

1Mr. Rapson thinks that the mark hitherto read as ? on the B.M. not K?cha. only a flaw in the die, and therefore prints Kacha,

coin may

be

ERRATA.

For

S'asa?ka

read S'as'a?ka

*^5
S'asa?ka S'asa?ka

or * ^T, (?)^T s>
S'asa?ka S'asa?ka

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