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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009

Part 0: Introduction

Aim Course CT5131

 YES: To obtain an overall perception of the


Part 0: backgrounds and methodology of Fire
Safety Design of buildings
INTRODUCTION  NO: To explore in depth the details of the
assessment methods of the methodology

 Emphasis: Civil engineering aspects


(but not exclusively)
Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Subjects Documentation
 (1) Setting the scene  Hand outs slides
 (2) The fire process  Copies relevant papers
 (3) Reaction to Fire  Demonstrations
 (4) Resistance to Fire – video
 (5) Smoke control – computer codes
– visit to Efectis fire lab
 (6) Automatic detection & suppression
 (7) Fire Regulations (NL)
 (8) Fire Safety Engineering

 Special items (?)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Hand outs Documentation


Documentation no. 01

GEINTEGREERDE AANPAK

source:
L. Twilt,
SPO-cursus “Brand”
Delft, oktober 2003

Course CT5131: Fire Safety Design


Part 1: Setting the scene

Ir. L. Twilt
TNO Centre for Fire Research

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Note page Examination


Breaking of float glass
Restrained elongation
 Lectures
Aprot Aexp Aprot
 Hand outs
 T   tens / ( glass  E glass ) 

40 /(8 10  6  0.5 10  5 )  100 C


 Material “Note pages”
pages”
 Background documents
(will be indicated)
TNO Bouw 2004
18

Thermal expansion of the directly exposed glass is


restrained by the edge region of the pane, which is
 Written exam:
exam: 14th April, 2010 (14.00 – 17.00)
insulated by the frame. Hence: compression stresses
in the directly exposed part of the pane and tension
 Reset : ??? August, 2010
stresses in the protected part. Note that the system of
thermal stresses is in equilibrium (internal stresses).
In practical cases Aexp >>> Aprot, (see Fig. above),
hence the thermal induced stresses in the exposed
 3 ECTS points
area can be ignored compared to those in the
protected area  full restraint. Under this condition,
the tensile stress in protected area follows from:
 = Eglass.(T.glass) … (1)
where T is the increase of the glass temperature

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Aims Fire Safety Design


Part 1:
 Avoiding casualties
SETTING THE SCENE  Control of monetary losses

 Role partners involved


Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design – public
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com – private
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl – business

 Objectives of legislation

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Design aspects Fire occurrence

 Fire occurrence  For a fire we need the “fire triangle”


triangle”
 Fire development – Combustible material
 Means of escape – Oxygen

He
en
 Suppression / repression – Heat or ignition source

at
yg
Propagation of smoke and fire

Ox

 (Progressive) collapse

Combustible

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire process Flash-over


Flash-over

Factors:
<500 ºC
- smoke layer
- temperature
- gas concentration
- building materials
- building contents

< 15 kW/m2 - active measures

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Typical temperature development


during compartment fires Relevant actions during fire
pre flash-over phase post flash-over phase

temperature
temperature

1000 -1200 0C

fire brigade attack effective

 500 0C standard fire curve automatic extinguishing effective


flash over
flash-over Post flash-over phase:
avoid fire propagation to
alarm at fire brigade effective adjacent buildings
detection effective
ignition
time ignition time
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Evacuation Causes of fatalities in building fires


120

 Fatalities mainly occur due to smoke!


100

percentage
80

heat & smoke


60
other causes

40

20

0
F D NL UK CH

country

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Evacuation?? Automatic suppression


 Early detection
 Sprinkler effective:
– Sufficient water flow
– Right location
– Right time

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire propagation Propagation A  B,C:


Fire brigade action
Internal propagation
 Evacuate people
 Extinguish the fire External propagation

C
 Safe access routes to the building B
 Information about the lay-
lay-out
 Availability of water etc. A

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Propagation of fire
Consequences of building fires

 Casualties
 Material damage

 Effect of measures

 The facts

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Costs vs. Benefits


Fire probability Principle

 Typical value:  5•10-7 per m2/year


 Example:
– Life span: 50 years optimum

damage/total costs
– Floor area: 10000 m2
 fire probability: 5•10-7 x 5•
5•10+5 = 0.25 damage
costs + damage
a+b
 Consequences: (NL)
b
– Casualties:  100 p.y.
– Material damage:  500 MEuro a
costs of pre ca utions

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Effect fire safety measures Reliability of fire protection

 Passive measures system type unavailability


 Active measures Suppression 0,05 - 0.06
Detection 0.10 - 0.24
Roof venting 0,10
Compartmentation 0.05 - 0.30

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Reduction of monetary losses in


school buildings Building fires: the facts
present not present
12,00  Casualties rate relatively low, with emphasis on
domestic buildings
loss/building $[x 1000]

10,00
 Casualties due to smoke & heat, not due to structural
8,00
collapse
6,00  Direct monetary losses under control
4,00  Many companies go bankrupt after a fire (even if
they had insurance)
2,00
 Structural damage minor part of the total loss
0,00
 High potential for active measures
detection sprinkler

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire development (1): ignition


Part 2a:
FIRE PROCESS
Introduction

temperature
Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl

1 ignition time
CT5131 Fire Safety Design

Ignition affected by: After ignition

 Material choice  Local fire around ignition source


i gn
en

– building contents
itio
yg

– wall lining  Dependent on the type of combustible materials


n
ox

– floor covering
– ceiling
and availability of oxygen:
– Growth of the fire (in MW)
– Increase of the temperature
fuel – Reduction of oxygen level
 Safety management – Development of pyrolysis gases
The “fire triangle”
triangle”

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

What if What if
 There is enough combustible material that easily  There is enough combustible material that easily
burns, and there is sufficient oxygen? burns, and there is sufficient oxygen?

– The fire will grow


– The temperature will increase
– At some point, all combustible materials will
suddenly ignite -> FLASH OVER

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Flash over
 flash over stoel.mpg

temperature Flash over

1 ignition time
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

What if
 There is enough combustible material that easily  Backdraught container.mpg
burns, but there is a lack of oxygen?

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Back draft What if


 There is combustible material that decomposes
and fills an adjacent compartment with cold
temperature

combustible gases?

Lack of O2

Supply of O2
1 ignition time
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

What if Smoke gas explosion


 There is combustible material that decomposes
and fills an adjacent compartment with cold
combustible gases?

– Depending on the proportion of the gases, an


explosive mix may fill the adjacent
compartment.
– As soon as there is an ignition (e.g. a flame
from the burning compartment) the gases will
burn -> SMOKE GAS EXPLOSION

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

When the fire has developed… Fuel bed controlled fire


 … the heat release is determined by the  If there is sufficient oxygen, the heat release of
availability of fuel and oxygen the fire will be dependent on the amount and type
of fuel

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Ventilation controlled fire Fuel bed vs. ventilation controlled fire


 If there is limited ventilation (window openings
etc.), the heat release of the fire will be
dependent on the availability of oxygen Fuel bed controlled

temperature
Ventilation controlled

time
CT5131 Fire Safety Design CT5131 Fire Safety Design

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire development (1): ignition


Part 2b:
FIRE PROCESS

temperature
Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl

1 ignition time
CT5131 Fire Safety Design

Fire development (2): early stage


Ignition affected by:
(“pre flash-over”)
 Material choice
i gn

– building contents
en

itio

– wall lining
yg

temperature
n
ox

– floor covering
– ceiling

fuel
 Safety management
The “fire triangle”
triangle”
(2) early development time
CT5131 Fire Safety Design CT5131 Fire Safety Design

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Early development affected by: Fire development

 Wall and ceiling lining  Most common:


 Upholstered furniture – Flash over
 Floor covering
 Other ways of fire development:
 Active measures (if any) – Back draft
 sprinklers – Smoke gas explosion
 extinguishing devices

 detection

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Fire development (3): flash-over Flash-over depends on:

 Incident radiative flux of products (bld. & content)


temperature
beneath smoke layer, hence:
– temperature smoke layer
active passive – thickness smoke layer

N.B.: for cellulose based products, critical


value of the incident flux is  15 kW/m2,
corresponding to a smoke layer temperature
of  500 ºC

time

(3) flash-over
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire development (4): developed stage


Full development affected by:
(“post flash-over”)

temperature
 Amount of combustible materials
 Ventilation conditions
active passive  Thermal insulation boundary construction

time

(4) full development


CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Fire models Post flash-over fire models

 Pre flash-
flash-over stage:  Nominal fire curves
– conventional models  Parametric fire curves
 Post flash-
flash-over stage:  One-
One-zone models
– conventional models: nominal fire curves
 More-
More-zone models
– physical models
 CFD models

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Nominal fire curves


Features nominal fire curves
1600

 Set by convention
1200
Uniform temperature distribution

temperature [ C]

0
 Differentiation with respect to type of
800
combustible materials
Building/cellulosic ISO-834
Hydrocarbon RWS tunnel fire
400 Hydrocarbon Eurocode 1
Hydrocarbon H_inc (Fr)
RABT-ZTV-car
RABT-ZTV-train
0
0 60 120 180
tim e [m in]

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Review nominal fire curves Standard fire curve versus


(uniform temperature distribution) natural fire test result

 Standard fire curve 1400

– buildings
ISO - Curve compared to 50 Fire Tests in Laboratory
1200 (Fire Loads from 10 to 45 kg of wood / m²)
– ships

Hydro carbon curve (HC)


1000
E
 IS O- CU RV

– off shore, oil plants


800

 RWS/HCM/RABT 600

– Tunnels
400

 Reduced standard fire curve


200

– external exposure facades, roofs


0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Temperature distribution
Realistic fire behaviour in a real fire
1000

800

temperature [°C]
Uniform Gas
Temperature REALISTIC FIRE DEVELOPMENT
1200 °C standard fire: T = 345 10log(8t+1)+T0
1000 °C
600
ISO CURVE

800 °C

600 °C
Realistic fire curve 400
400 °C

200 °C FLASHOVER 200


Time [min]
0 °C0
60 90 120
0
30 180

Pre-Flashover

Fully Developed Fire
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
time [min]
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Features parametric fires curves Parametric fires curves

 Based on systematic calculations


 Uniform temperature distribution 1400
1200
Development depends on

temperature [°C]

1000
– amount of combustible mat. ( fire load density) 800
– ventilation conditions ( opening factor) 600
– thermal insulation boundary (thermal inertia) 400
200
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
tim e [m in]

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Application fire characteristics Parametric fires


Parametric fires Illustration

Gas temperature follows from: 1000


Parameters:
Qfi = 180 MJ/m2
900
O = 0.04 m½

 1.325  1  0,324 e  0, 2 t  0,204 e 1, 7 t  0,472 e 19 t 


* * * O = 0.06 m½

g 800 O = 0.10 m½

b = 1.16 J/ m2s1/2k
 
O = 0.14 m½

700 O = 0.20 m½

600
O = 0.04–
0.04–0,20 m1/2

Temperature [°C]
with: 500

Legend:
 t
400
*
t t is time [h] 300

O 0,04 Av is area openings [m2]


200
2
  100

b 1.1602 h is height openings [m] 0

At is total area fire compartment [m2]


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Time [min]

O  A v h At b is thermal inertia

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One zone models


Features one zone fires models Principle
Z
 Based on 1st principle
physical considerations H
 Uniform temperature distribution
– i.e. complete fire involvement QC
 Temperature development depends on QR
– fire load density m, T, ……...
……...
– opening factor muit,L muit,R
– thermal inertia of the boundary conditions Zp
min,L

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

One zone models


Validation Features more zone fires models
1400 1400

1200
Comparison on basis  Based on 1st principle physical considerations
1000
Ozone (oC)

of max. air temperature  Non uniform fire temperature distribution


800 – e.g.
e.g. localized fire
600  Temperature development depends on
400
– heat output & location fire
– (natural) ventilation conditions
200 – thermal insulation of the boundary conditions
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
test (oC)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

More zones model


Principle Fire compartment
Z
H
hot zone
QC
QR
mu, Tu,……..
……..

muit,L Q p
mp Muit,R
Zp min,L mL, TL, …... cool zone

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Ignition Local fire

T 

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Growth of local fire Two-zone model: local fire


Local fire  Two zone model
Z
 

T  H

mU , T U, V U,
Upper layer
T  QC E U, U m OUT,U

ZS
QR

ZP
p m IN,L
Q
mp

m IN,L m L , T L, V L,
E L,  L Lower layer
0

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Zone model theory:


Flash over: from 2 zones to 1 zone
Zone model theory: Flash-over criteria
 From 2 zones to 1 zone when criteria are exceeded
 Fully developed fire  One-
One-zone model – Tsmoke layer > 500 oC
Z – Tsmoke layer > 300 oC if there are objects in the smoke layer
– Burning area > 25 % compartiment area
H
– Smoke layer height > 20 % compartiment height
QC p = f(Z)
QR

T 
m, T, V, Q C+R,O
E, (Z)
m OUT,L
m OUT
ZP

m IN,L
Fire: RHR,
combustion products
0

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Validation CFD approach


Features CFD models Memorial tunnel (early stage)

 Based on advanced physical principles


time from ignition:
 Non-
Non-uniform temperature distribution
2 mins

materiaal en constructiegedrag bij brand


– covering both pre and post flash-
flash-over conditions
 Temperature development depends on POST HBO opleiding BOUWFYSICA

– amount & type of combustible materials


– ventilation conditions
– thermal inertia of the boundary conditions

43

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Validation CFD approach Example CFD application


Memorial tunnel (later stage) Tunnel fire (300 MW)

time from ignition:


25 mins
materiaal en constructiegedrag bij brand
POST HBO opleiding BOUWFYSICA

44

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Shopping mall fire


Other applications CFD models Plume rise from shop

 Smoke propagation in atria


 Effectiveness of detectors
 …
 …

Initial stratification 120 mins after ignition

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Shopping mall fire Plume rise from shop


Effect stratification Effect balcony

Plume rise in case of stratification Plume rise in case no stratification


Plume rise with balcony Plume rise without balcony

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Smoke spread atrium


Effect stratification Input physical fire models

 Fire scenario
Smoke spread with hot – type design fire
layer beneath roof – location of the fire
(summer) – openings
– …..
 Fire characteristics
Smoke spread without
hot layer beneath roof
(winter)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Total heat release


Main fire characteristics Fire load density

 Total heat release  Definition: “Total amount of energy, liable to be


– amount & type of combustible materials released per unit floor area in the fire
( “fire load density”
density”) compartment in case of fire”
fire”
 Rate of heat release  Permanent part: refers to building elements
– “type”
type” of combustible materials  Variable part: refers to building contents
– ventilation conditions ( “opening factor”
factor”)
 Heat losses N.B.: Losses from fire compartment via boundary
– through boundary construction construction and openings
(“thermal inertia”
inertia”)
– through openings
(“convection, radiation”
radiation”)
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Fire load density Fire load density


Options for quantification Deterministic approach

 Deterministic
1
 Probabilistic q f    m  H  M
i
i i ui i 
A f
N.B.: Fire load density expressed in:
- MJ/m2, or with:
- kg wood/m Mi = the mass of the material (kg)
wood/m2
Hiu= net calorific value of the material i (MJ/kg)
mi = factor describing the combustion behaviour of material i
1 kg wood  19 MJ/m2 Ψi = factor assessing protected fire load of the material i
(pine wood!)
Af = floor area of the fire compartment

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire load density Net calorific values Hui of typical


Design values (deterministic approach) materials [MJ/kg]
Typical materials in buildings
solids Plastics
wood 17.5 Polyurethane 23
Cellulosic materials 19 Polyurethane foam 26
 mi = 0.8 (or value deduced by tests) (clothes,
cardboard,
paper,
wool,

i = 1.0 (lower value possible for “protected”


silk, straw)
 wool 23 Polystyrène 40
Linoleum 20 Polyethylene 44
combustibles) grease
Cotton
41
20
Polyester
celluloid
31
19
Rubber tire 32 Melamine resin 18
 Hui see next Table Hydrocarbon
gases Liquids
methane 50 Gasoline 44
acetylene 48 Oil 41
Butane - propane 46 benzene 40
Ethanol 27 Benzyl alcohol 33
Spirits 29
Methanol 20
Others products
Solids Plastics
Bitumen Asphalt 41 ABS 36
Leather 20 Acrylic 28
Paraffin wax 47 PVC 17
Coal, cork 30 polycarbonate 29
Rubber isoprene 45 Epoxy 34

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Fire load density Fire load density


Statistical information [MJ/m2] Design values traditional approach

,  Deterministic
Stand. Mean 80% 90 % 95 %
Deviation fractile fractile fractile
– design value from measurements
Dwelling 234 780 948 1085 1217 (see information above)
Hospital 69 230 280 320 359  Probabilistic
Hotel (room) 93 310 377 431 484
Library 450 1500 1824 2087 2340 – common choice: 80% fractile
Office (standard) 126 420 511 584 655 (motivation?!)
School 85,5 285 347 397 445
Shopping centre 180 600 730 835 936
Theatre (cinema) 90 300 365 417 468
Transport 30 100 122 139 156
(public space)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire load density


Design values FSE approach Fuel bed vs. ventilation controlled fire

qf,d = n . q . qc,f Fuel bed controlled

temperature
qc,f characteristic value of the fire load density Ventilation controlled
n factor accounting for active fire measures
q factor accounting for risk of fire occurrence

 Fire Safety Engineering  part 8


time
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 53 CT5131 Fire Safety Design

Rate of heat release (RHR) Ventilation vs. fuel bed control


Principle Practical differences

fire duration gas temperature


same fire load
density vent. control fuel bed control vent. control fuel bed control
RHR (mw)

same area under


curves

ventilation ventilation
time (min)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Heat release Rate of Heat Release (RHR)


Main features Schematisation

heat release 30

[ MJ] 25
Steady state
100 %

RHR [MW] ===>


20

70 % From experiments: Decay phase


15

for  tf, 20 < t <  tf,70 developing phase


10

RHR  linear
20 % 5

tf, 20 tf, 70 tf, 100 0

time 0 10 20 30

Time [min] ===>


40 50 60

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Rate of Heat Release Ventilation conditions


Steady state level Generalisation

 “Ventilation controlled”
controlled” fire regime
from theory/experiments:
 RHR level depends on ventilation conditions only
 “Fuel bed controlled”
controlled” fire regime Rc A w H
 RHR depends on combustibles
(type, composition, configuration) with:
neutral axis +
R: rate of heat release
H [kg/m2]
H’ h’ Aw: window opening [m2]
opening -
H: window height [m]
C: constant
(0.083 – 0.12)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Opening factor
Definition Example validation test RHR

OA w H Principle:
RHR measurement
based on O2 depletion
concept
with:
- Aw is window opening
- H is window height

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Experimental determination of the


Example RHR measurement cars RHR of high storage rack fires

10
class 1 old car
Rate of heat release (MW)

8 class 3 old car

class 1 new car


6
class 3 new car

0
0 15 30 45 60
Time (min)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 63 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 64

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16
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Experimental determination of the


Rate of heat release
RHR of pool fires 10
Calculation model stationaire
Growth phase
fase 9
A f x RHR f
10 ultra
8 fast
brandstof-beheerst
RHR [MW] 9 fast
7
8

RHR [MW]
6 medium

RHR [MW]
7
5
6
4 Groeisnelheid
A x RHR
f
brand
f
5
3
4 ventilatie-beheerst
slow
2
3
Decay phase
2 1 75'' 150'' 300'' 600'' dooffase t [min]
70% (qf,d • Afi) 1 0
0 5 10 15 20 25t [min]30
0
0 5 10 15 20
0 time [min]
tdecay

NB: Rate of Heat Release (RHR): rate of combustion

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 65 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 66

Rate of heat release Development phase


Design input t2- fire development
Storage: RHR = 500 kW/m2
Storage:
RHR (W)

RHR = t / t  
Hotel: RHR = 250 kW/m2
……..:
……..: RHR ~ Aw .  ha 2
fuel bed controlled
steady state phase
ventilation controlled
growth
growth phase decay phase with:
RHR is rate of heat release during growth
time phase [MW]
t 2
t is time [s]
RHR = [ ] in MW t
t is time for RHR = 1 MW, depending on
t  RHR dt = Afl . qf
0 occupancy/activity
t = 75 - 600 s qf = 100 - 1000 MJ/m2 (see next Table)
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 67 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 68

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17
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Steady state phase


Fire growth rates t Fuel bed control

R  R A
Occupancy/Activity Fire Time
growth constant
rate t(s) max f fi
Storage building (low combustibility or few combustible materials) Slow 600
Dwelling Medium 300
Hotel room Medium 300
Office Medium 300
with:
Storage building (cotton, polyester sprung mattress) Medium 300 Rmax is max. value RHR [MW]
Picture gallery Slow 600
Shop Fast 150 Afi is area of the fire [m2]
Storage buildings (full mail bags, plastic foam, stacked timber) Fast 150 Rf is RHR per unit floor area [MW/m2]
Chemical Plant Ultra fast 75
Storage buildings (alcohol pool fire, upholstered furniture) Ultra fast 75 (see next Table)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 69 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 70

Steady state phase Steady state phase


Ventilation control Suggested values for Rf

R  0,091. m . H . A . h
fuel bed RHRf
[kW/m2]
max u o o
office buildings 250
retail buildings 500
with: stacked wood panels of height 0.5 m 1250
Rmax is RHR [MW] stacked wood panels of height 3.0 m 6000
m is combustion factor [-
[-] plastic bottles in cartons, stacked of 4320
4.6 m
Hu is net caloric value combustibles [MJ/kg]
PS insulation board, rigid foam, 2900
Aw is total area openings [m2] stacked 4,3 m
ho is mean height openings
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Decay phase Heat losses

 Start: when 70% of the fire load is burnt  Through openings


 End: when 100% of the fire load is burnt – convection
– radiation
 Through boundary construction
– thermal conduction
– thermal capacity

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 73 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 74

Heat losses Heat losses through openings


Comparison various components Convection vs. radiation

1400
4.000
heat release rate

1200
3.000 convective heat loss rate through opening by mass exchange
en with radiation through opening
er heat loss/gain rate through walls
gy 1000
ex 2.000
ch radiative heat loss rate through openings

temperature (°C)
an 800 without radiation through opening
ge
1.000
rat
e
(M 600
W) 0.000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
400
-1.000

200
-2.000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
-3.000
time (min) time (min)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 75 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 76

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19
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Heat losses Thermal properties


Through boundary construction of some building materials
material Temperatur  (W/m/K)  (kg/m3) cp (J/kg°K)
 Thermal inertia Normal weight 20
200
500
2
1,63
1,21
2300
2300
2300
900
1022
1164
1000 0,83 2300 1289

b     C
Light weight 20 1 1500 840
200 0,875 1500 840
500 0,6875 1500 840
1000 0,5 1500 840
Steel 20 54 7850 425
p 200
500
47
37
7850
7850
530
667
1000 27 7850 650
Gypsum insulating 20 0,035 128 800
200 0,06 128 900
500 0,12 128 1050

with:
1000 0,27 128 1100
Sealing cement 20 0,0483 200 751
250 0,0681 200 954
500 0,1128 200 1052
b is “thermal inertia”
inertia” [J/m2s1/2K] CaSi board
800
20
0,2016
0,0685
200
450
1059
748
250 0,0786 450 956

 is thermal conductivity [W/mk


[W/mk]]
450 0,0951 450 1060
1050 0,157 450 1440
Wood 20 0,1 450 1113
250 0,1 450 1125
Cpis thermal capacity [J/kg] 450
1050
0,1
0,1
450
450
1135
1164
Brick 20 1,04 2000 1113

 Is density [kg/m3] 200


500
1000
1,04
1,18
1,41
2000
2000
2000
1125
1135
1164

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 77 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 78

Consequences of building fires Special case: Fire development in tunnels

 Pre flash-
flash-over stage:
– development of dangerous situations
– fire spread and smoke production in a fire compartment
 material behaviour (= REACTION TO FIRE)
 Post flash-
flash-over stage:
– fire spread to adjacent compartments
– (progressive) collapse load bearing structure
 structural behaviour (= RESISTANCE TO FIRE)
– smoke spread to adjacent compartments
 smoke movement (= SMOKE CONTROL)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 79 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 80

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20
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Tunnel fires Effect of fire on the


concrete structure

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 81 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 82

RWS vs. ISO curve Fire temperature (1)


 Note: above 1200 ‘C “ordinary”
ordinary” insulation melts / disintegrates
 1975: Dutch Ministry of Transport considers dangerous goods
 Main differences (building) cellulosic – hydrocarbon (tunnel) fires  1978: Velser (immersed) tunnel accident (4 casualties)
– (1) Heating rate in first (critical) 30 min
– (2) maximum temperatures during first 2 hours

1600
(1)
Indicative: 900-1100 degC Indicative: 1000-1400 degC

(2)
Ref.: fire text books (Drysdale) Ref.: tests
temperature [ C]
0

0
0 180

time [min]  Note: up to 1980 no fire protection


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21
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Experiment in 1979-1980 for determination


Fire temperature (2) of the RWS fire curve
Structural integrity: deterministic

approach
 Video fire test 1980

 Credible worst case scenario: 1600


– crash with 50 m3 petrol tanker

Temperature [0C]
– pool size some 150 m2 1200
– 300 MW
– 90-
90-120 min “leakage”
leakage”
800

 Small scale test => RWS-


RWS-fire measured
1500L RWS-curve
400
2m

8m 0
0 60 120
Time [min]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 85 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 86

Fire tests in Runehamar tunnel


Fire temperature (3) Test 1 Test 2

 Comparison
16 00 of nominal fire curves

12 00
temperature [ C]
0

8 00 Test 3 Test 4

B uild ing/cellulosic ISO -834


Hyd ro carb on R W S tunne l fire
4 00 Hyd ro carb on Eurocod e 1
Hyd ro carb on H_ inc (Fr)
R AB T-ZTV-car
R AB T-ZTV-train
0
0 60 1 20 180

tim e [m in ]

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Gas temperatures near fire


Heat Release Rate

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 89 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 90

Gas temperature
(Runehamar test 1) Gas temperatures near fire
 Air temperature below ceiling
– Reaches 1000-
1000-1300 ºC in a
few minutes,
minutes, even with
small fire loads
– Stays around 1250-
1250-1350º
1350ºC
until all materials have burnt

 Also without “hazardous”


hazardous”
goods,
goods , the temperature
reaches 1300-
1300-1350º
1350ºC
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 91 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 92

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Experiment in 2003 for verification of the


RWS fire curve in full scale
 Video

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 93

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Reaction-to-Fire
Part 3: Relevant for pre flash-over phase
REACTION TO FIRE temperature

active passive
Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl

flash-
flash-over
time

ignition
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Reaction to fire Reaction to fire


Main features Political developments

 Definition: extent to which products (building, contents)  National approach: until recently: different test
contribute to the pre flash-over fire (NL, …, etc.) packages in different countries
development  barriers to trade
 Assessment methods  European approach: harmonized test package for EU
– Testing  removal barriers to trade
– Calculations

Semi-empirical approach
 European test standards

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1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

EU harmonization reaction to fire Reaction to fire


Key dates Global characterization
 “No” contribution to fire development
– inherent incombustible materials (e.g. brick)
 1996: start work on present EU test package “reaction to
 non-combustible materials (e.g. steel)
fire”
 “Limited” contribution to fire development
 2002: approval EU test package by CEN
– Rate of Heat Release (RHR)
 2003: NL acceptance European test package in Building – flame spread
Decree  NL, EU systems in parallel – burning droplets
 2006: NL preference on EU tests  “Extreme” contribution to fire development
– easy ignitable

 emphasis on EU test package


 Rate of smoke production
– visibility
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Reaction to fire of building products Reaction to fire of building products


European test package (EU) Review EU approach

 Field of application: all building products  Calorific value (EN 1716)


Completed for:  Non-combustibility (EN 1182)
Decreasing
• wall linings  Single Burning Item (SBI) (EN 13823) severity
• ceiling linings  will be discussed (NEW!!)
• floor coverings  Small flame (EN 11925-2)
Draft versions:
• cables  Radiant panel (EN 9239)
• pipe insulation (instead of SBI-
SBI-test for floor coverings)
coverings)
• ….

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2
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Calorific Bomb (EN 1716) Non-combustibility (EN 1182)


“All” building products “All” building products

Principle: Principle:
 complete combustion in  sample under ambient temp. of 750 °C
excess of O2 criteria:
criterion:
riterion: heat of -  T. < 25 °C
- Visible flames < 10 sec.
combustion below
- Mass loss < 50 %
certain value
classification: go/no go
classification:
lassification: go/no go

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Non-combustibility (EN 1182) Single Burning Item test (EN 13823)


Review test set up Wall & ceiling linings*)
*) in particular, not exclusively
Measurement of
1.0 m - O2 and CO2 concentrations
- light attenuation
0.5 m

Pass/fail criteria on the


reaching of this edge by the
flame via lateral propagation
1.5 m
Observation of flaming
droplets and particles

Diffusion flame on a sand burner,


propane, RHRburner = 30 kW

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3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Single Burning Item test (SBI)


EN 13823: SBI test
Review test set up
Principle of O2 depletion method
 Energy release per kg burned material
– 0 – 50 MJ/kg Principle:
exposure to heat source of
– Strongly dependent on the type of material 30 kW
 Energy release per kg O2 criteria:
criteria:
– 13 MJ  5% - RHR below certain value
– Almost independent of the type of material that burns ! - hor. flame spread < max.
- (flaming droplets)
- (smoke density)
  Rate of O2 consumption = measure of RHR classification:
lassification: go/ no go

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Ignitibility due to a small flame


Single Burning Item test (SBI)
(EN 11925-2)
Overview
“All” building products
Principle

– Vertical flame spread


– 2 exposure times (15, 30 s)
– Heating by a gas burner from below
 Criteria
– Burning of cotton thread on cold side
Sample – Time of burning
Cotton thread
 Division in 2 classes
– 30 sec heating:
– Burning cotton thread > 35 sec
– Burning time after heating < 5 sec
– 15 sec heating:
– Burning cotton thread > 25 sec

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4
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Horizontal flame spread (EN 9239) Euroclasses (EN 13501-1)


Floor coverings Classification aspects

Principle:  Burning behaviour: heat release (not for Horizontal


incident flux: (11 - 1 kW/m2) Flame Spread test & Small Flame
criteria:
riteria: test), flame spread
- flame spread  Smoke production: optical density (SBI & Horizontal
- (smoke density) Flame Spread test only)
classification:
classification: go/no go
 Flaming droplets: visual observations
(SBI & Small Flame test only)
For floor coverings, the
HFS test ( EN9239)
Instead of the SBI test
( EN 13823)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Euro Class system overview Euro Class System


Number of classes
Class Test methods Classification aspects
A1 EN 1716: Calorific value Burning behaviour
and
EN 1182: Non-
aspect walls & ceilings floors
Non-combustibility
number main classes burning 7 7
A2 EN 1716: Calorific value Burning behaviour of behaviour
or tests sub classes smoke 3 2
EN 1182: Non-
Non-combustibility
droplets 3 -
and EN 13823: SBI Smoke production

B/C/D EN 13823: SBI Burning behaviour


and Smoke production
EN ISO 11925: small flame Flaming droplets
Euro Class System leads to a large number of
reaction-to-fire classes  in order to reduce need for tests, the so
E EN ISO 11925: small flame Burning behaviour
Flaming droplets called “Classification Without Further Testing” (= CWFT)* option
None None
is introduced in EU regulations.
F
Note: For floor coverings (fl), SBI is replaced by Radiant Floor Panel * Also referred to as “Deemed to Satisfy” option

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5
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Classification via CWFT Review traditional NL approach


Example for wood based panels “All” products, excl. floor coverings

 Non-
Non-combustibility
Note:
Classification holds for ref.: NEN 6064  EN 1716
certain values of minimum  Fire propagation
thickness and density – Surface Spread of Flame (SSF)
– Flash-
Flash-over (FO)
ref.: NEN 6065 = “typical Dutch”
Dutch”

Smoke production
ref.: NEN 6066 = “typical Dutch”
Dutch”

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Review traditional NL approach Fire Propagation (NEN 6065)


Floor coverings “All” products, excl. floor coverings*)

 Ignitibility (SF)*  Surface Spread of Flame (SSF)


ref.: NEN 1775  EN 11925-
11925-2 classes T1 ( HFS),  Contribution to Flash-over (FO)
 Horizontal Flame Spread (HFS)* T2, T3 ( SF);
ref.: NEN 1775  EN 9239 T1 > T2 > T3

To be removed in due time!


Smoke production
ref.: NEN 6066 = “typical Dutch”
Dutch”
*) in practice: mainly wall & ceiling linings

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6
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Surface Spread of Flame (SSF) Surface Spread of Flame (SSF)


“All” products, excl. floor coverings Classes acc. to NL system

Principle: flame spread in mm *)


flame spread flame spread during 1,5 min. flame spread during 10 min.
- incident flux: class “minimum” “maximum” “minimum” “maximum”
(32 - 5 kW/m2) class limit class limit class limit class limit
1 175 200 175 200
- criteria: 2 250 300 550 600
flame spread after 1,5 & 3 350 400 750 850
4 500 550 if not in class 1 to 3
10 min.
5 if not in class 1 to 4
- classification: 5x

*) relaxation for 1 out of 6 tests to “max” class limit

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Flash-over (FO) Flash-over (FO)


“All” products, excl. floor coverings
Review test set up
 Principe
– 2 samples of 0.3x0.3 m2
– Opposite each other
– 3 radiation levels
– 190 – 1500 W (15 min)
– 650 – 1875 W (5min)
– 2 durations
 Criteria
– Flash over
– > 5 or > 15 min; (E5, E15)
 4 Classes

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7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Flash-over (FO)
Fire propagation classes (NEN 6065)
Classes acc. to NL system
Principle: worst case FO, SSF

E15 [W] E5 [W] Flash-over class Surface spread of flame 1 2 3 4 5


 1500  1875 1
< 1875 2 Flash over
 750  1125
< 1125 3 1 I II III IV V
 190  650
< 650 4
< 190 2 II II III IV V
3 III III III IV V
4 IV IV IV IV V

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Fire propagation classes (NEN 6065) EU vs. NL approach


Global review “All” building products, except floors
Smoke production class, determined in SBI test
description classification NL approach EU approach
NEN 6064, -65** Euro Classes acc. to EN13501-1
 Cork 4–5 main class sub class
non-combustible A1 -
 Soft board 4 1* B (s2)
2* B (s2)
 PUR-
PUR-foam 2–5 3 C s2
 Plaster board 1–2 4 D s2

 Glass wool 1 * for “open” escape routes, less severe requirements hold

** for NL smoke classes, refer to EN 6066 (see also Part 5)


PS (1): the lower the number, the better the fire behaviour!

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 31 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 32

Ir. L. Twilt
8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

EU vs. NL approach Smoke production (NEN 6066)


Floor coverings “All” building products

NL approach EU approach  Principe


NEN 1775 Euro Classes acc. to EN13501-1 – 6 samples
– Radiation at 4 levels
main class sub class
– 20, 30, 40 & 50 kW/m2
T1 Cfl s1fl
– Smoke accumulated in box
T2* Cfl s1fl
T3 Dfl -  Criterium
* No use is made of class T2 – max. optical smoke density

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Reaction to fire of building products Reaction to fire


Evaluation Other products

 “End use” application clothing


– background test specimen upholstered furniture
– joints in test specimen (sandwich panel) ….
– aging ….
 Weak connection reference scenarios
– implicit approach (facades)
– relative rather than absolute meaning

 EU approach ( improvement compared to NL approach!)

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Ir. L. Twilt
9
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Reaction to fire
small scale vs. full scale
Example: Fire in a bar in Volendam
 In small scale tests, well defined conditions  New year’
year’s eve 2000-
2000-2001
– Temperature  Christmas tree branches tied to ceiling
– Oxygen level / ventilation  Fire causing fatalities
– Radiation
– Etc.
 In reality
– All these conditions depend on the actual
situation / fire development

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Volendam fire Volendam fire


 Christmas tree branches ignited on one location  video
 Fast pyrolysis leading to lack of oxygen near ceiling
 A layer of combustible pyrolysis gases is formed just
below the ceiling
 When this layer mixes with the air below -> flash over

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Ir. L. Twilt
10
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Dry christmas tree Fire load mass storage (in laboratorium)


 Oxygen depletion method for
 video RHR
 4.4 x 7 x 3 m (w x h x d);
40.000 liter orange juice

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42

Ir. L. Twilt
11
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Post flash-over fire conditions

Part 4a:
RESISTANCE TO FIRE
temperature
Principles
active passive
Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design 800 to 1000 ºC
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Flash-
Flash-over

time

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Resistance-to-Fire Resistance-to-Fire
Definition Main features

 Definition: time during which a building element (system)  Assessment methods


exposed to fire, can fulfil its anticipated – Testing
function(s) under end-use conditions – Calculations
– standard fire conditions
 Main functions: – non standard fire conditions
– Load bearing – Criterion R
– Separating, integrity – Criterion E Fire Safety Engineering  part 8
– Separating, insulation – Criterion I
 European vs. National approach
– Separating, radiation – Criterion W

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 3 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 4

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Resistance-to-Fire EU harmonization Resistance-to-Fire


Political development Key dates

 National approach: until recently: (slightly) different  ca. 1990: start EU harmonization process, both w.r.t. “tests” and
(NL, …, etc.) standards in different countries “calculations” (>> 40 standards!!)
 barriers to trade  from 2002: approval EU test and calculation standards by CEN
 2006/ ’07: discussion per EU Member State (incl. NL) on National
 European approach: harmonized test package for EU Annexes
 removal barriers to trade  2010: use of EU standards is mandatory
Hence:

 national standards
EU standards Emphasis on EU
about to be approved standards
in NL

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Resistance-to-Fire Resistance-to-Fire
Chain of events Global characterization

T
 Thermal expansion (often partially restrained)
 Deterioration strength & stiffness (holds for “all” materials)
hence:
1: Ignition t  Thermal bowing/expansion
2: Fire development Redistribution of stresses
3: Thermal response 

 Load induced deformations


R possibly:
 Occurrence of cracks/gaps (criterion E)
separating function
 Temperature increase non exposed side (criterion I)
time  Collapse (criterion R) load-bearing function
4: Mechanical response 5: Possibly loss of function

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 7 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 8

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
2
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Resistance-to-Fire Performance criteria


Functional aspects Separating function

 Separating function only  Insulation (criterion I):


– partitions – temperature rise at non-exposed side less than 140 ºC (average) or
– door assemblies 180 ºC (max)
– …  Integrity (criterion E):
 Load bearing function only – cotton pad ignition
– columns
– sustained flaming
– beams
– …. – occurrence of gaps
 Load bearing AND separating function  Radiation
– floors – critical level: 15 kW/m2
– walls  (Load bearing capacity) (criterion R)
– …..

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Performance criteria Resistance-to-Fire


Load bearing function Options for analysis

 Structural failure  Testing (criterion E, I and R)


 (Excessive deformations**)  Calculations (mainly criterion I and R)

*) to be defined!

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 11 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 12

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Resistance-to-Fire Standard testing


Testing Standard fire curve

 Standard tests
– Nominal fire curve(s) 1200

– Components only 1000

temperature [C]
800
 Characterization tests
– e.g. material properties of a new insulation material 600

400 gas = 345 log(8t+1)


 Special tests 200
– incidental test
0
– research test campaign 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
time [min]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Test hall Efectis Standard fire tests


Review Door assembly

Furnitures Issues
 combined hor/vert.
hor/vert.  door in combination
(8x4x3 m) with frame
 exploratory  2 doors at the time
(1.2x1.2x1.2 m) - (asymmetric constr.!)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 15 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 16

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
4
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Failure mechanism fire door Standard fire tests


Integrity failure (criterion E) Glazed wall

Issues
frame  float glass: poor
behaviour under fire
conditions
free edges
(FR  2 min)

 remedy
– wired glass
– interlayer/coating
– special glass
timber door steel door (FR  20 -120 min)
 effect frame

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Breaking of float glass Breaking of float glass


Mechanisms Assumptions

 Restrained elongation  Glass supported by well insulating frame (e.g. timber)


 Restrained curvature  Fast temperature increase (e.g. due to flash-
flash-over)
 Hooke’s law holds (i.e.  = E·
Hooke’ E·)
 Thermal elongation by therm =  ·T
 Thermal properties of glass:
– Eglass = 0.5·
0.5·10+5 N/mm2
– tens = 40 N/mm2
– glass = 8·
8·10-6 m/mK

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 19 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 20

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
5
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Breaking of float glass - Restrained elongation


Breaking of float glass Apro Aexp Apro
Restrained elongation t t

T tens/ ( glass Eglass) 


40/(810 60.510 5 ) 100C

Aprot Aexp Aprot

 T   tens / ( glass  E glass ) 


Thermal expansion of the directly exposed glass is restrained by the edge region of the panel, which is insulated by the frame. Hence:

40 /(8 10  6  0.5 10  5 )  100 C compression stresses in the directly exposed part of the pane and tension stresses in the protected part. Note that the system of thermal
stresses is in equilibrium (internal stresses). In practical cases Aexp >>> Aprot, (see Fig. above), hence the thermal induced stresses in
the exposed area can be ignored compared to those in the protected area  full restraint. Under this conditions, the tensile stress in
protected area follows from:
 = Eglass.(T.glass) … (1)
where T is the increase of the glass temperature beyond initial.

Breaking of glass if
 = tens … (2)

Hence, the critical value of T follows from:


T = tens/(Eglass. glass) … (3)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Breaking of glass-
glass- restrained curvature
Breaking of glass
Restrained curvature h

T  2  tens / ( glass  E glass ) 

 2  40 / (8 10  6  0.5 10  5)  200 C

Curvature due to temperature gradient: therm = T.glass/h … (1)

Curvature due to restraint moment M: restr = M/(Eglass .I) … (2)

Breaking of glass due restraint curvature:  = M/W = tens … (3)


where I is moment of inertia and W section modulus of glass pane per m’.

In case of fully restrained curvature (i.e. therm = restr ), glass breaking occurs if:
T.glass/h = tens.W/(Eglass .I) … (4a)
T  2  tens / ( glass  E glass ) 
With I = 1/12.h3 and W = 1/6 h2, equ. 4a can be rewritten as:

 2  40 / (8 10  6  0.5 10  5)  200 C


T = 2. tens/(glass.Eglass) … (4b)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 23 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 24

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
6
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Breaking of float glass Fire resistant glassed element


Conclusions Separating function w.r.t. radiation
 Due to restrained elongation
 Failure at temperature rise of appr.
appr. 100 C (temp diff between
glas and groove) Issues
 Fire resistance resistance of a few minutes  Limiting value radiation: 15 kW/m2
(under standard fire conditions)  Measuring point: centrally located, at
1 m distance from glass element
 Alternative to float glass
– wired glass  Actual level of radiation depends on:
– interlayer – time
– special FR-
FR-glass types – type of glass
– dimensions glass pane

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Separating function w.r.t. radiation Characterisation tests


Design option Fire insulation steel beam (before test)
R adiation flux of glass element w ith heigth 2 m

20.00

18.00
Issues
16.00
 aim: insulation
R AD IATION FLUX [kW/m2] ===>

14.00
characteristics fire
12.00

2m
protection steelwork
10.00
 methodology:
8.00
B = 0.5 m – loaded &
B = 0.75 m
6.00
B = 1.0 m unloaded beam
4.00
B = 1.5 m
B = 2.0 m – unloaded
2.00
B = 3.0 m
Limit Bm
columns
0.00  ref.: NEN 6072,
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Door assembly with
TIM E [min] ===> annex A
glassed side panel

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 27 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 28

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Characterisation tests Special tests


Fire protected steel beam (after test) Composite floor

Issues Issues
 deformed (loaded)  test for research
beam purposes
 check on  aim: verification
“stickability”
stickability” computer model

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Resistance-to-Fire testing Possible scatter in test results


Features Illustration

 Limited field of application


– test facilities Results fire tests concrete filled HSS columns Issues
– standard fire  standard FR tests
90
– components fire resistance time [min] 80  CIDECT test
70 campaign
– size 60
– environment 50
 Concrete filled
40 HSS-
HSS-columns
 Time consuming 30
 Expensive 20
10
 Large scatter (sometimes) 0
 Not very transparent (sometimes) IBMB CSTB FIRTO BAM

laboratory

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 31 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 32

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Scatter test results Resistance-to-Fire calculations


Main reasons Features

 Scatter in material properties  Flexible


 Uncertainty w.r.t. support conditions  Transparent
 Poorly defined heating conditions  Unambiguous*)
 ...  Efficient**)
– time
– costs
 Theory must be available

*) provided “well defined”


defined”
**) provided “user’
user’s friendly”
friendly”

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Testing vs. calculations Testing vs. calculations


Overview Conclusions

 Preference on calculations
testing calculation  Calculations focus on structural behaviour
insulation + +/-
separating function integritiy + -
radiation + +/-
load bearing function structural + +
behaviour (components “only” (component + system

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 35 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 36

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
9
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Resistance-to-Fire Resistance-to-Fire
Options for calculations Options for calculations
Fire model Generalised Zone models CFD Fire model Generalised Natural fire CFD
fire curves models fire curves safety concept

Model of the Issues Model of the Issues


structure  Regulations focus on structure  Regulations focus on
components conventional approach components conventional approach
conven-  special cases to be  Special cases to be
tional considered with FSE considered with FSE
t = f(x1,x2,…)

Parts of the Parts of the Conventional approach:


structure structure  Tabulated data
 Simple equations
Fire Safety  Computer software
Entire Engineering Entire
structure (FSE) structure Fire Safety Engineering
 Computer software only

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Resistance-to-Fire calculation Reduction of strength & stiffness


Subjects at elevated temperatures

 General notions ( remaining Part 4a ) 1.2

– reduction of strength & stiffness

Reduction factor [-]


– thermal expansion 1 Yield stress steel
Vloeigrens Staal

Reductiefactor [-] ==>


– structural failure E-m odulus
E-modulus steelStaal
0.8
 Action & response models ( Part 4b) Druksterkte
Compression str.Beton
concrete
E-m odulus Beton
– mechanical 0.6
E-modulus concrete

– thermal
 methods* ( Part 5, 6 and 7)
Simple calculation methods* 0.4
– steel
– concrete, composite steel-
steel-concrete 0.2
– timber
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
*) For advanced calculation methods, refer to part 11 (FSE)
Temperature [ºC]
0
tem peratuur [ C] ==>

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 39 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 40

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
10
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Stress strain relationships of steel Stress strain relationships of concrete


at elevated temperatures at elevated temperatures
1
1.2 20 0 C

[-] ==>
[-] ==>

0
1 100 C 0.8
0 200 0 C

at 20 C [-]
200 C o
300 C
at 20 ºC [-]

druksterkte
400 C
0.8
0.6
rel. to fyspanning

0
500 C 400 0 C

to strength
0.6
0.4
600 0 C

Relatieve
0
600 C
stressRelative

0.4
700 0 C
0.2

stress rel.
0

0.2
700 C 800 0 C
0
800 C
0
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02
Betonrek
strain [-][-] ==>
strain
Rek[-][-] ==>

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42

Coefficient of thermal expansion Effect thermal expansion

For main structural materials (steel, concrete) For a temperature increase of 100 C:
 in case of free expansion:

 therm  1.2 10 5 m / m K
  therm  T with   L/L
L/L  1mm/m
in case of completely restrained expansion:
 

  = 1.2  10-5100  E
where: 2.110+5, hence:  = 252 N/mm2 (> y,20)
(for steel, E = 2.1
L length at 20 ºC [m]
L is temperature induced expansion [m]
T is temperature increase [K]
therm coefficient of linear thermal expansion [m/mK
[m/mK]]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 43 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 44

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
11
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Effect temperature induced stresses Effect therm. ex. on distribution of forces


on adjacent elements  Braced steel structure (2D)
 3 members heated to 600 ºC (fully engulfed in flame)
 Effect of thermal expansion in length direction only
Issues 7.2 m 7.2 m 7.2 m 7.2 m
L = 15 m L  72 mm
Tsteel  400 ºC
 no strength reduction, 3m
however, cracks may occur
steel beam in masonry due to thermal 3m
cracks induced stresses
3m
masonry
3m

3m

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 45 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 46

Effect therm. ex. on distribution of forces Effect therm. ex. on distribution of forces
 Braced structure (2D) – linear elastic material  Braced structure (2D) – linear elastic material
 3 members heated to 600 ºC (fully engulfed in flame)  3 members heated to 600 ºC (fully engulfed in flame)
 Effect of thermal expansion in length direction only  Effect of thermal expansion in length direction only
 Deformations (scaled with factor 10)  Normal forces

Normal force [N]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 47 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 48

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
12
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Effect therm. ex. on distribution of forces Temperature vs. stress induced


 Braced structure (2D) – linear elastic material
deformations
 3 members heated to 600 ºC (fully engulfed in flame)
 Effect of thermal expansion in length direction only
 Bending moment tot a: thermal induced
b: stress induced

L tot = therm + stress


Bending moment
[Nmm]
a steel tensile bar

b temperature

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 49 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 50

Effect temperature induced stresses Structural failure


on load bearing capacity Principle

Centrically loaded concrete

E R

filled HSS column


 Exposed from 4 sides d , d ,

 temperature induced with:


stresses affects the cross section Ed,
d, is (effect) mechanical actions*)
actions*)
load bearing capacity Rd,
d, is mechanical resistance*)
resistance*)

temp. distribution *) under fire conditions

- +
-

static system stress distribution

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 51 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 52

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
13
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Structural failure Structural failure


Graphical review Run-a-way situation

time
R, E failure at tf for: Issues
R < Ed  unlimited deformation
Rd20 capacity
with:
 assessment by simple
R : resistance at tf theory of plasticity
Ed : action effect at tf  failure condition:
Ed tf : resistance to fire
simple bending
d
lim
t t f dt

δ mechanism
tf time

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 53 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 54

Alternative failure modes, in case of Membrane action


unlimited deformation capacity Illustration

time
Issues
Composite slab after fire
 simple theory of test
plasticity can not be
applied
δ  deformations play a
role
δ
membrane action

δ δ
buckling

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 55 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 56

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
14
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2010
Part 4a: Resistance to fire - principles

Failure modes, assuming Failure conditions


limited deformation capacity Practical solution (beams, slabs)

time calculation testing


Issues: Issues:
 Possible reasons: 2 avoiding damage to
d

1)
– local instability “run-a-way “ d  L adjacent elements
– spalling lim
t t f dt

dt 900h avoiding damage to
– rupture reinforcement 

– crushing concrete test furnace


– …
1) 2
 Simple theory of plasticity can not no “run-a-way” L
2
)
be applied  fire

400h

δ 1) provided: /L > 1/30


2) for steel beams: h/L  1/20  /L < 1/20

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 57 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 58

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
15
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Failure modes, assuming


limited deformation capacity
Part 4b:
time
Issues: RESISTANCE TO FIRE
 Possible reasons: action & response models
– local instability
– spalling
– rupture reinforcement
– crushing concrete
– … Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
 Simple theory of plasticity can not
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl
be applied
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com

Thermal actions
Actions & response Design fires

 Thermal  Nominal fire curves


 Mechanical  Parametric fire curves
 One zone models + associated heat transfer
 More zone models characteristics
 CFD models

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 3 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 4

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Heat transfer at surface


Fully engulfed vs. not fully engulfed of building elements

non-exposed side Legend:



Radiation
Convection h net ,tot
 h  h
net,c net , r
- element
 Exposed side
exposed side - net flux
(in)  Non-
Non-exposed side
- net flux
(out)

fully engulfed element not fully engulfed


(e.g. 4 sides exposed column) (e.g. floor slab)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Thermal actions Thermal actions


Heat transfer exposed side Heat transfer unexposed side
Note: simplified!; details: see EN 1991-1.2“Actions”
.

h     (T )  (T ) 
  “Exact”
Exact”: radiation + convection as for exposed
Radiative heat transfer: net,r g
4 4
side, with:
m m
.

c = 4.0 [W/m2 K]
Convective heat transfer h c  (T T )
c g m
 Approx.: only convective term, with:
c = 9.0 [W/m2 K]
m

with:
Tg is gas temperature [K]  fire curve, e.g. “standard fire curve”
Tm is surface temperature [K]  thermal response
m is surface emissivity [-]  safe: 0.8 Note: for unexposed side: Tg = 20 °C (ambient)
c is coefficient convection  s.f.c.: 25 W/m2K
 is configuration factor [-]  1.0  safe: 1.0
 is Stephan Boltzmann constant = 5.67·10-8 W/m2K4

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 7 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 8

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
2
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Thermal actions Thermal response


z
Conclusions Basics
 Thermal conduction (= ) q q + q
Thermal actions depend on:  Thermal capacity (= ·cp)
x
 (Gas) temperature development
 Tg, Tm
Heat transfer characteristics DE: (shown for 1direction only) y
 heat balance:
 m , c T
(  ) q/ x + (cpT) / t = 0
Configuration (  c T ) x  0

 p

1 t x Fourier’s law:


boundary condition: incoming/outgoing flux at q =  T/ x
surface: hnet,tot
initial condition: t = 0: room temperature conditions

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Thermal response
z
Basics
 Thermal conduction (= ) q q + q
Thermal conductivity
 Thermal capacity (= ·cp)
x
Concrete vs. steel
DE: (shown for 1direction only) y heat balance:
T 60
(  ) q/ x + (cpT) / t = 0
(  c T ) x  0
p

Conductivity [W/mK]
t x Fourier’s law:
boundary condition: incoming/outgoing flux at q =  T/ x
50
surface: hnet,tot
initial condition: t = 0: room temperature conditions 40
Consider heat flow (q [W/m2]) to volume element with  [kg/m3], cp [J/kgK],  [W/mK] and dimensions x, y, z [m], in x steel
direction. T is temperature [K]; t is time [s]. 30
Heat balance: (no heat produced in volume element!)
q. y. z.t + (. cp.T).x. y.z = 0 20
 q/ x + (. cp.T)/ t = 0
10
Fourier’s law: q =  T/ x
Hence: ( T/ x)/ x + (. cp.T)/ t = 0
concrete
0
For   0, the above differential equation, which can easily be extended for y- and z-directions, results. This equation (numerically!) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
to be solved in combination with boundary conditions ( thermal actions) and initial conditions ( room temperature). See
illustrations next sheets.
temperature [C]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 11 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 12

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Thermal capacity Thermal response


Concrete vs. steel Steel beam/concrete slab (2D)
Heat capacity [MJ/m3K]

9
Phase
8
transition
7 800
Moisture

temperature [oC]
6
5 steel
4 400
3 concrete
2
1
0
0 0 50 100
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Temperature [oC] time [min]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Thermal response Thermal response


Composite slab (2D) Composite edge beam (3D)

1200
G

A
[0 C] ==>

1000 F
[C]

D B
temperature

800 C
B
A C
600 D
Temperatuur

400 E
F
200 Steel beam Fire insulation
G
0
0 30 60 90 120

Tijd [min] ==>


time [min]

computer simulation test vs.simulation

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 15 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 16

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
4
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Mechanical actions Fundamental combination rule

Direct actions
E   G   Q      Q

– refer to normal temperature design d G k Q ,1 k ,1 Q ,i 0 ,i k ,i


– accidental design situation applies
with:
– no decrease of weight
- Ed is design value action effect for normal conditions
 Indirect actions - G is partial safety coefficient for permanent actions
– effect thermal expansion - Gk is characteristic value of permanent actions
- Q,I is partial safety factors for variable actions
- Qk,1 is characteristic value of the main variable actions
- 0,i is combination factor for variable loads
- Qk,I is characteristic value of the other variable actions

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Accidental combination rule for fire Accidental combination rule


Simplification
 Fire is an accidental action
 Under fire conditions: G = Q,i = 1  Only one variable load
Indirect actions negligible
 Frequent or quasi-

quasi-permanent values for variable actions

hence: hence:
 G   Q    2 ,i  Q  Ad
E d , k 1,1 k ,1 k ,i E   G   Q
d G k Q ,1 k ,1
 (1)
with:

E d ,  Gk    Qk,1  (2)
  is ratio between frequent and characteristic value of
the variable loads
 Gk, Qk is characteristic values of permanent load, variable actions
 Ad, is direct & indirect actions due to fire

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 19 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 20

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
5
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Accidental combination rule


Simplification (cntd) Design values for 

From (1) and (2): category occupancy psi


Floors dwellings 0.4
E r  offices 0.5
 (  )
d ,
railway stations 0.25
E d  r  
G Q
industrial buildings
libraries
0.8
1.0
shops 0.6
with r = Gk/Qk
other 1.0
Car parks 0.7
Example: r = 1.0 (concrete structure), and Roofs 0.0
1 = 0.6 (shop)
G = 1,2 and Q = 1,5
 Ed,f = 0.59 Ed

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Mechanical response
Values for  = Ed,
d, /Ed
Basics
 tot = therm + 
 coefficient of thermal elongation (
(therm)
0.80 Issues  constitutive relationships steel, concrete, …
0.70
 Partial safety - yield models
0.60
factors: - deformation capacity
Ed,teta/Ed

0.50 psi = 0.5


– G = 1.2 - ….
0.40 psi = 0.7
psi = 1.0
– Q = 1.5
0.30
 Practical range:
0.20  temperature dependency
0.10 0.4 - 0.7
0.00
0 0.5 1 1.5
r (=Gk,Qk)

Emphasis on structural failure  theory of plasticity

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 23 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 24

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
6
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Mechanical response Eurocodes - modelling of the structure


Thermal strains may flow off Member analysis
 Most simple approach

 Divide structure in individual members and check each member
  Only thermal stresses resulting from thermal gradients across the
Precondition: Sufficient deformation capacity cross-section need to be considered. Effects of axial or in-plain
 Buckling does not occur (class 1 or 2 thermal expansions may be neglected.
sections)  The boundary conditions at supports and ends of member may be
m  Deformation capacity connections is assumed to remain unchanged throughout the fire exposure.
 sufficient
  Determine distribution of forces at room temperature!
 Apply in combination with standard temperature-time curve
 Fire resistance structure = lowest fire resistance of the members
    Standards give simple design models only for member analysis
m



CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Eurocodes - modelling of the structure Eurocodes - modelling of the structure


Analysis of a part of the structure Analysis of entire structure
 Advanced approach  Advanced approach
 The part of the structure to be analysed should be specified on the  Apply in combination with an advanced approach for determining the
basis of the potential thermal expansions and deformations such, that thermal response (natural fire safety concept)
their interaction with other parts of the structure can be approximated
by time-independent support and boundary conditions during fire  Simple design models do not exist  computer programme taking
exposure. account of relevant failure modes in fire exposure, the temperature-
 Boundary conditions of the part of the structure as at room dependent material properties and member stiffness, effects of
temperature thermal expansions and deformations (indirect fire actions)
 Apply in combination with an advanced approach for determining the
thermal response (natural fire safety concept)
 Simple design models do not exist  computer programme taking
account of relevant failure modes in fire exposure, the temperature-
dependent material properties and member stiffness, effects of
thermal expansions and deformations (indirect fire actions)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 27 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 28

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Structural failure Plasticity: moment redistribution


Principle another plastic hinge:
COLLAPSE
R, E
plastic hinge
failure at tm for:
Rd20
1/ 2
8ql
Rt < Ed
with: Mp-
Mp- Mp-
“gap” Mp-
Mp-
R : resistance at tf Mp,-
Ed time
Ed : action effect at tf tt =
>> 00
tf : resistance to fire Mp+
Mp+
Mp+
Mp+ mechanism
Mp+
Mp+
note: tf depends a.o. on Mp+
Mp+
time Mp+
tf tf - “gap” between Rd20, Ed
- “speed” reduction Rd20
Note: “gap” represented by: Ed/ Rd20 = 0 (“utilization factor”)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Plasticity: moment redistribution


another plastic hinge:
COLLAPSE
Mechanical resistance
plastic hinge
Example: continuous beam/slab
1/ ql2
8
Mp-
Mp- Mp-
Mp-
Mp-
Mp,- q [N/m’]
time
>> 000
ttt =
  2
Mp+
Mp+
Mp+
Mp+ mechanism R beam , 
 8 ( M p ,  M p ,  ) / L
Mp+
Mp+
Mp+ L L
Mp+ Mp+
Legend: static system
Consider a continuous beam/slab under uniform loading (= q). Fire exposure from below. - L: span
Room temperature moment distribution for t = 0. Non uniform temperature distribution  thermal
bowing, which (partly) will be restrained  increase of the hogging moments (M-). Consequently, the - Mp,: plastic moment
capacity (pos./neg)
sagging moment (M+) will decrease, since equilibrium requires: M+ + M- = 1/8.q.L2 (statically determined
main system). collapse mechanism
As result of the temperature increase over the slab/beam, both the hogging and the sagging moment Condition:
capacity will decrease. Normally, the hogging moment capacity is first reached (at the supports) and a theory of plasticity holds -
1/8 qL2 - - Mp,
plastic hinge develops. The hogging moment “follows” the (decreasing) hogging moment capacity and -
consequently the sagging moment increases. When the sagging moment equals the sagging moment + +
plastic hinge Mp,+
capacity, also at mid span a plastic hinge develops  mechanism  failure.
moment distribution at collapse

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 31 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 32

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Mechanical resistance - Example: continuous beam/slab


R
  2
 8 ( M p ,  M p , ) / L
q [N/m’]
Mechanical resistance
beam,
L L
Legend:
- L: span
static system Beams & slabs
- Mp,: plastic moment
capacity (pos./neg)
collapse mechanism
Condition:
theory of plasticity holds -
1/8 qL2 - - Mp,
static system mechanical resistance
-
+ +
plastic hinge M+p,
moment distribution at collapse
(Rbeam, )
As result of the temperature increase of the slab/beam, both the sagging (Mp+) and the hogging (Mp-) 8 M  / L 
p,
2

moment capacity will decrease. L

Mechanical resistance of the slab/beam is defined as the loading (R), under which the beam/slab is 8 M   4 M  / L

p,

p,
2

about to fail under fire conditions. Failure occurs if the sum of the hogging and sagging moment L

capacities equals the moment of the statically determinate main system. Hence:
L
8(M 
p , M )/L

p ,
2

Mp+ + Mp- = 1/8. R.L2


or
R = 8/L2.(Mp+ + Mp- )

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Mechanical resistance Mechanical resistance


Columns Buckling length in braced frames

20 ºC 1 2
Rcolumn,   R (  , Lbuck , )
Buckling length:
2  Upper floor:
Lbuckl = 0.7Lsyst
with:
 Other floors:
 is temperature
Lbuckl = 0.5Lsyst
Lbuck is buckling length under fire conditions

...
1 Conditions:
Braced frames
Fire confined to one floor

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 35 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 36

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
9
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 4b: Resistance to fire

Resistance-to-Fire design parameter


Utilisation factor

with:

 E0
d , 0 is utilisation factor
Ed, is design value action effects under
R d fire conditions
Ed,20 is design value action effects under


E d , 20
room temperature conditions
Rd is design value mechanical resistance

R d

under room temperature conditions
is reduction factor


CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37

Dr.ir. J. Maljaars
10
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Part 5: Function of timber elements


RESISTANCE TO FIRE  Separating function
timber – Thermal insulation
– Integrity
 Load bearing function
– Failure / collapse

Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design  Charring of the wood reduces the cross section.
section.
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl  Reference:
 NL: NEN 6073
6073
(  EU: EN 1995- ( “Eurocode 5.1.2”
1995-1.2 ( 5.1.2”))

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Timber structures: effect of cross


Resistance-to-Fire “timber elements”
section dimensions
Calculation procedure  Small cross section
B – Effective reduced cross section is small
– Cross sectional moment is reduced
Legend:
– Stress in remaining cross section increases
 i = eff.
eff. charring rate
x = i ·t
H Bred x Hred  x = char depth  Large cross section
(< 100 °C)  t = duration of fire exposure – Effective reduced cross section is larger
– Stresses remain lower
Effective reduced
cross section Charring rate depends on
the type of wood, geometry  Conclusion:
Conclusion: the fire resistance of a timber beam
Char layer of the element, etc. is strongly dependent on the cross section
Approx.: 30-60 mm/h

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 3 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 4

Ir. L. Twilt
1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Timber structures: effect of cross Timber structures: effect of cross


section dimensions section dimensions
 Situation 1  Assume a charring depth of 30 mm (30 min@ 1mm/min)
– B = 100 mm
– H = 300 mm  Situation 1
– Beff = 100-
100-2*30 = 40 mm
– W = 1/6 B H2 = 9*106 mm3 – Heff = 300-
300-30 = 270 mm
– Weff = 1/6 B H2 = 2.9*106 mm3 (32%)
 Situation 2
– B = 225 mm  Situation 2
– H = 200 mm – Beff = 225-
225-2*30 = 165 mm
– Heff = 200-
200-30 = 170 mm
– W = 1/6 B H2 = 9*106 mm3 – Weff = 1/6 B H2 = 4.8*106 mm3 (52%)

 Same load bearing capacity at room  -> effect of geometry on fire resistance!
temperature

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Resistance- to-Fire “timber elements”


Timber structures: effect of the density
Load bearing capacity (illustration)
of the material
 Charring rate is dependent on type of
/20 wood
M
– Higher density => lower charring rate
 strength at room temperature
 NEN 6073:
Small cross section
M – 300 kg/m3  0.80 mm/min
 

Large cross section W e, red – 600 kg/m3  0.45 mm/min


6M
  High density wood types perform better
time 2
B red H red during fire
tf,1 tf,2

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 7 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 8

Ir. L. Twilt
2
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Example
Example
 Charring rate (NEN 6073):
 Given:
Given: – 300 kg/m3 -> 0.80 mm/min
– Timber beam K17, cross section BxH 200x400 – 600 kg/m3 -> 0.45 mm/min
mm2
Interpolation: 400 kg/m3 -> 0.68 mm/min
– Interpolation:
Density: 400 kg/m3
– Density:
– 3-sides fire exposure
– Loading:
Loading: Bending moment 40 kNm  Charring depth after 60 minutes:
minutes:
60*0.68 = 41 mm
 Question:
Question:
– Does the beam fulfill a 60 minute requirement  B60= 200 - 2*41 = 118 mm
for load bearing capacity during fire?
fire?  H60= 400 - 41 = 359 mm

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Example Example (alternative beam size)


 Maximum stress after 60 minutes fire:
fire:  Same situation,
situation, but:
but:
– W = 1/6 * b * h2 = 118*3592/6 = 2.5*106 mm3
–  = M / W = 40*106/2.5*106 = 16 N/mm2
300x400 mm2
– Cross section BxH 300x400

 Strength of the beam after 60 minutes fire:


fire:  Charring depth is still 41 mm
(strength = 17 N/mm2)
– Timber class K17 (strength – B0 = 300 mm  B60 = 218 mm
– Reduction factor for bending strength during fire:
fire: 0.7 – H0 = 400 mm  H60 = 359 mm
(NEN 6073) – W = 1/6 * b * h2 = 218*3592/6 = 4.7*106 mm3
– Because of pre-
pre-heating of the remaining cross –  = M/W = 40*106/4.7*106 = 8.5 N/mm2
section,
section, the strength has decreased.
decreased.
– Allowable stress = 0.7*17 = 12
 Allowable stress = 0.7*17 = 12
– 12 < 16  NOT OK  8.5<12  OK

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 11 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 12

Ir. L. Twilt
3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire protection of timber structures Fire protection of timber structures

 Fire resistant false ceiling


 Fire resistant board around timber member

 For floors:
floors: fire resistant boards as ceiling

 video

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Resistance to fire “timber elements”


Separating function (illustration)
board 2 insulation
Issues:
 tf = fire resistance w.r.t. separating
function
 tD,i = failure time board i
board 1
 tD,ins = failure time insulation
Fire resistance (general symmetric  Semi-empirical approach

t  t  0 .65 t  t
case)
f D1 D2 D , ins

Fire resistance (symmetric case; The factor 0.65 accounts for pre-
without insulation): heating of board 2 and thermal
insulation criterion
t  1 .65 t
f D1

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 15

Ir. L. Twilt
4
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Mechanical response Mechanical response


Thermal strains may flow off Thermal strains may flow off
 


Precondition: Sufficient deformation capacity In case of insufficient deformation capacity
 Buckling does not occur (class 1 or 2  Buckling: local buckling (class 4) / flexural
sections) buckling / lateral-
lateral-torsional buckling
m  Deformation capacity connections is m  Deformation capacity connections is
f
 sufficient  insufficient
 Concrete

     
m m

 

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 1 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Plasticity: moment redistribution


another plastic hinge: Part 6:
COLLAPSE
plastic hinge RESISTANCE TO FIRE
1/ 2
8ql Steel structures
Mp-
Mp- Mp-
Mp-
Mp-
Mp,-
time
>> 000
ttt = Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
Mp+
Mp+ Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl
Mp+
Mp+ mechanism
Mp+ Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Mp+
Mp+
Mp+ Mp+

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 3

Ir. L. Twilt
1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Resistance-to-Fire Calculation rules “Resistance-to-Fire” Steel


Calculation rules elements

 Differentiation w.r.t. main structural materials  Load bearing function only


– Steel  Load bearing capacity
– Concrete/composite steel-
steel-concrete
– Timber  Uniform temperature distribution
 Emphasis on structural components  Critical steel temperature concept
– Beams / slabs
– Columns
 Reference:
 EN standards (“
(“Euroc
Eurocodes”
odes”)  EU: EN 1993-
1993-1-2
 NEN standards ( NL: NEN 6072)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Fire resistance “Steel elements” Mechanical properties of steel at elevated


Calculation procedure temperatures
stress [N/mm2]
standard fire ky 
, a a fy,20 20C

fy, fy,  = k y,
y,·fy,20
steel temp.. crit
- +
step 2 step 1
strain [%]
step 3 ‘
fy, temperature [C]
f.r. tijd utilisation factor 0

fy,20
400
 Step 1: determine mechanical response a  crit
 Step 2:determine thermal response  a stress strain relations strength reduction factor
 Step 3: determine fire resistance  f.r.
Notes: - unlimited deformation capacity
- “ + “ = “-”
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 7 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 8

Ir. L. Twilt
2
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Mechanical properties of steel at elevated Creep influence


temperatures  Creep / viscoplasticity:
viscoplasticity: strain development as function of time,
time,
temperature and stress 

creep strain
1.2
1
 1>
2
[-] ==>

0
1 100 C
0
200 C o
300 C  2
at 20 ºC [-]

0
400 C
0.8
rel. to fyspanning

0
500 C

0.6

0
600 C time
0.4
stressRelative

 Can be neglected at room temperature, not in fire


0.2
0
700 C  Consequences:
800 C
0 – Stress-
Stress-strain relationship depends on time
0
– Stress-
Stress-strain relationship significantly curved
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 – Large deformations in fire
strain
Rek[-][-] ==>

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Derivation of mechanical properties – Derivation of mechanical properties –


Types of tests Transient state stress-strain curves
a. -t diagram
c. - diagrams at stresses 1 < 5
Steady state Transient state 1


2
Test controll Test controll 3

1 1 54
Temperature and

Temperature and
deformation

ddt
loading

Temperature
strain Temperature t1 t 
Stress
b. -t diagrams at stresses 1 < 5 d. - diagram valid for 1 and d/dt
Time Time 54 3 2 1



Test result Test result 5
4
Stress

3
Strain

2

1

t 

Strain Time or temperature


CT5131 Fire Safety Design 11 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 12

Ir. L. Twilt
3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Derivation of mechanical properties –


Simple calculation rules - Classification
Strain hardening
Class 1: fully compact  Same classification rules as at room
temperature
 (i.e. using certain b/t ratio’
ratio’s as
Class 2: semi-
semi-compact classification borders)

BUT
Class 3: elastic
 Multiplying the b/t ratio’
ratio’s for classification
borders at room temperature with factor
0.85
 (in order to account for decreasing ratio
Class 4: slender
E / fy)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Simple calculation rules – Tension


Simple calculation rules - Classification
member
Class 1: fully compact  resistance depends on reduction of yield stress

 Uniform temperature:
Class 2: semi-
semi-compact 1.5

1
Class 3: elastic  Non-
Non-uniform temperature:
E,
k2,2,/kE,


0.5

Class 4: slender
 (i.e. resistance is determined as at room temperature but
0 multiplied with reduction factor for yield stress, and taking
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 into account the appropriate partial factor)
Temperature [ºC]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 15 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 16

Ir. L. Twilt
4
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Simple calculation rules – Flexural Simple calculation rules – Flexural


buckling buckling
 Resistance depends on reduction of yield stress, reduction
 Resistance depends on: of E-
E-modulus and curvature of the stress-
stress-strain curve
– reduction of yield stress stress [N/mm2]
– reduction of E- 1.00
E-modulus
20ºC, a fy,20 20C
– curvature of the stress-
stress-strain curve
20ºC, b f 
y,
 Slenderness: 20ºC, c

[-]
(but reduced buckling length for braced frames and cont. columns)
columns) 0.50 20ºC, d


fire - +
20ºC (rel. between λθ and χθ)
 Different buckling curve as at 20º
(see next slide) strain [%]

fy,
0.00
 Resistance ‘
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 fy,20
 Unequal temperature? Take maximum temperature.   [-]

stress strain relations

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Load bearing capacity Simple calculation rules – Cross-sectional


plastic hinge
Continuous steel beam resistance of beams
 Class 1, 2 or 3 uniform temperature
q [N/m’]
- +
+ -
-
I-beam M+
p, = Mp,
L L  Class 1 or 2, non-
non-uniform temperature
static system
2
R  16 f W /L ( E )
d , y , p d , (1 and 2 according to next slide)
2
R d
 16 f W / L p
y , 20

  Class 3, non-
non-uniform temperature
collapse mechanism
E d ,
f y ,
 (= utilisation factor  0) (1 and 2 according to next slide)
R d f 1/8 qL2 - -
y , 20
- - Mp,
+ +
M+ p,
moment distribution at collapse

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 19 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 20

Ir. L. Twilt
5
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Critical temperature steel beams Critical temperature steel beams


Generalisation / simplification Generalisation / simplification

 Adaptation factors “” accounting for non uniform temperature Non-


Non-uniform temperature distribution in steel beams:
beams:
distribution in case of beams  over cross section: due heat losses to slab above;
 1 adaptation factor for non-uniform temperature across the cross-  alongside beam: due to thermal shielding supports.
section
case 1 The effects
effects of these phenomena are – in a global manner – taken into account by the
exposed on all sides 1.0 adaptation factors . This factor is based on systematic calculations (parametric study),
unprotected, exposed on 3 sides, concrete or composite slab on side 4 0.7 i.e. not “exact”
exact”.
protected, exposed on 3 sides, concrete or composite slab on side 4 0.85
 2 adaptation factor for non-uniform temperature along the beam  Note (1): in simply supported beams only one plastic hinge (normally somewhere
somewhere
case  halfway the span) is sufficient for failure  thermal shielding supports is not relevant.
at the supports of a statically indeterminate beam 0.85  Note (2): in 4 side exposed, statically determinate beams, the heat
heat losses “to the slab
all other cases 1.0 above” do not occur and the thermal shielding is not relevant   = 1 (see table).
above”

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Simple calculation rules – Lateral- Critical temperature “steel elements”


torsional buckling Evaluation
– Only if not subjected to buckling
 Resistance depends on:
– reduction of yield stress at the compression side of the beam
1200
– reduction of E-
E-modulus at the compression side of the beam
1000  1 
– curvature of the stress-
stress-strain curve   39.2  n   1  482
 0.8925  
crit
3.846

critical temperature [C]


0
800

 Slenderness: 600

400
20ºC (rel. between λθ and χθ)
 Different buckling curve as at 20º
200

Class 1,2 0
 Resistance: Class 3
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 In practice:
utilisation factor [-]
400 < crit < 800 ºC
 Unequal temperature? Take maximum temperature.

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 23 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 24

Ir. L. Twilt
6
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Thermal response Thermal response of steel profiles


T
(  )
 (  CpT )
Steel profiles t

x
x  0
d T a htot Am

boundary & initial
dt  a ca V
conditions
T
with

( 
  

 (  CpT ) ) htot = hr,net + hc

 x  0 Am is exposed surface area member [m2/m]


V is volume member [m3/m]

t x d T a htot Am key: uniform temperature distribution

 Assume uniform temperature distribution in cross section (  ). Hence: T/x  0, T/y  0 T/z 0.

boundary & initial


dt  a ca V Assume a steel block (volume: V; perimeter Am), fully engulfed. The net heat flow entering the block during a time interval dt follows from:
 
 
in [J] … (1)
 h
  tot
dA  dt  htot A dt
A 

conditions The increase of the heat content of the steel volume over time interval dt follows from (uniform temperature distribution!):
with  a caV d T a in [J] … (2)
   Heat balance requires that the increase of the heat content of steel block equals the heat flow into the block. From (1) and (2), after some rearrangement:
htot = hr,net + hc d T a Am / V … (3)
  hnet ,tot
Am is exposed surface area member [m2/m] with: dt  a ca
V is volume member [m3/m] Am/V is profile factor of the steel profile [m-1]
caa specific heat of steel [J/m3K]
key: uniform temperature distribution is
This ordinary differential equation can be solved numerically for given initial and boundary conditions. See following sheets.

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Thermal actions Temperature rise bare steelwork


Boundary conditions Basic equations
.

 

Radiative heat transfer: hnet,r   res
  (T g)4  (Tm )4
T a  K bare
 Am  (T g  T a )  t … (1)
Legend:
Ta : increase steel temp.
.
 c V t : time step
Convective heat transfer h   (T T )
a a
c g m Am/V section factor
c
with
with: Kbare: heat transfer coefficient
  (T  T ) 4 4

Tg is gas temperature [K]  fire curve, e.g. “standard fire curve”


k   … (2)
res g a

T T
bare c
Tm is surface temperature [K]  thermal response g a

res is surface emissivity [-]  NEN 6072: 0.5


c is coefficient convection  NEN 6072: 25 W/m2K
 is Stephan Boltzmann constant = 5.67·10-8 W/m2K4

Note: EU approach
CT5131isFire
slightly different
Safety Design 27 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 28

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7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Temperature rise in insulated steelwork Temperature rise in insulated steelwork


Basic equations (background information)
insulation steel strip
 In NEN 6072 and Eurocode 3-
3-1.2, the effect of the thermal capacity of the insulation is taken
taken into account as follows:
 a,t= - (e / 10 - 1) g,t … (1)
if: Tg  and:

 Tg - Tm <<<< Tm – Ta 

Tm
 cpp <<<< caa  with:
ca is specific heat of steel [J/kgK
[J/kgK];
];
then: K

 Am  (T g  T a )  t
cp is specific heat of the fire protection material [J/kgK
[J/kgK];
];
Ta

T a  ins

c V
a a


dp
g,t
is
is
the thickness of the fire protection material [m];
the increase of the gas temperature during the time interval t ;
with:  p is the thermal conductivity of the insulation system [W/mK
[W/mK];
];

 kins  /d effect thermal  For the meaning of the other symbols, refer to the previous sheets.
sheets.
thermal capacity  Equ.
Equ. (1) and (2) are based an estimation. For details refer to [*].
Note that cpp = 0 gives the equation for insulated steel in the sheet above.
insulation

[*] Wickstrom,
Wickstrom, U.: “Temperature Analysis of Heavily-
Heavily-insulated Steel Structures Exposed to Fire”
Fire”, Fire Safety Journal 9 (1985) 281 – 285.
Notes: 

*) i.e.: heat transfer at surface neglected


See also next slide
**) i.e.: for light weight insulation:

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Section Factor Section factor (Am/V)


Concept Numerical values

 IPE100 387 300 334 247


bare steel members insulated steel members  HE280A 165 113 136 84
 HE320B 110 77 91 58
Definition: ratio between “surface area” through which heat is transferred to steel” and
“steel volume”
 Range:  50-
50-400 [m-1]

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Insulated steel members Characterisation tests


Heat transfer coefficient Fire insulation steel elements

 Aim: insulation characteristics fire protection steelwork


 Approximation: Kins  /d (for light weight insulation)
 Complication: “stickability”
stickability”
with: d is thickness insulation material
Methodology:
 is coefficient thermal insulation 

– loaded & unloaded beam (2 pairs)


– unloaded columns (10 x)
 Determination: semi-
semi-empirical approach
 Ref.: ENV 13381-
13381-4/ NEN 6072
 ENV 13381-
13381-4 (or NEN 6072, annex A).

  of insulation as a function of the steel temperature!

Do not use “room temperature handbook values”


values”
for  in fire design calculations!
beam before fire test beam after fire test

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Effect Section Factor


Temperature development in steel profiles Bare steel profiles (s.f.c.!)

temperature [°C]
1000 Note: f.r. steel el.:
800
temperature [oC]

Standard curve
900 - bare:  10 – 30 min 30 minutes
800 A/V= 50 [m-1]
- insul.: 30 to >120 m. 600
700
600 A/V = 100 [m-1] depending on critical 15 minutes
400
500
Series1 steel temperature
Series6
Series7
400
A/V = 250 Series8
[m-1] ( 400 – 800 ºC) 200
300 Series5
Poly. (Series5)
200 A/V = 100 [m-1] 0
100 + insulation 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
0 Am/V (m-1)
0 20 40 60 80 time [min]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 35 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 36

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Effect Section Factor Fire insulation systems


Insulated steel profiles
Options
 Boards
- specific insulation material
 Sprays
- standard fire duration: 90 min.
 Intumescents
1000 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm
 For details on insulation characteristics:
temperature [C]

800 35 mm – TNO/Efectis
TNO/Efectis reports
45 mm – Brandveiligheidsindex
600
(Vermande & zn.zn.”, IImuiden)
IImuiden)
400 55 mm

200
0
0 100 200 300 400 500
section factor [m-1]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Resistance-to-Fire “steel elements” Resistance-to-Fire “steel elements”


Computer programme BRAWESTA Application BRAWESTA

Issues:  Statically determinate beam


 L = 8 m; c.t.c. = 5 m
 under responsibility  G = Q = 4 kN/m2
of TNO/Efectis
TNO/Efectis  Office building:  = 0.5
 available via BmS
 Md, = 1/8·
1/8· (4 + 0.5 · 4) · 5 · 82 = 240 kNm
 HEA 400, S235; 3 side exposure;
exposure; box protection
 Requirement: FR 120 minutes
 12 mm Promatect-
Promatect-H

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10
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Resistance-to-Fire “steel elements” Resistance-to-Fire “steel elements”


Limitation calculation rules (NEN 6072) Local instability
 Theory of plasticity applies
– No local instability
 class 1 (2) cross sections only
 hot rolled sections only
– Lateral instability prevented

Note: Eurocode 3.1.2 approach: more extended!

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42

Design example 1 – statically determined Design example 1 – statically determined


unprotected girder with concrete slab on top unprotected girder with concrete slab on top
HE 550 A fy;d=235 N/mm2 HE 550 A fy;d=235 N/mm2
L = 10.5 m L = 10.5 m
Wpl = 4622 cm3 Wpl = 4622 cm3
1. Determine the section factor
 = 750 ºC (30 min)  ky = 0.17  = 750 ºC (30 min)  ky = 0.17
Am/V = 90.2 m-1 (try for yourself!)
Grep = 14.7 kN/m Grep = 14.7 kN/m
Qrep = 17.5 kN/m Qrep = 17.5 kN/m
1. Determine the section factor 2. Determine the reduction factor
 = 0.8  = 0.8
2. Determine the reduction factor 3. Determine the utilisation factor

3. Determine the utilisation factor 4. Does the beam have sufficient fire resistance?

4. Does the beam have sufficient fire resistance?

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 43 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 44

Ir. L. Twilt
11
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Design example 1 – statically determined Design example 1 – statically determined


unprotected girder with concrete slab on top unprotected girder with concrete slab on top
HE 550 A fy;d=235 N/mm2 HE 550 A fy;d=235 N/mm2
L = 10.5 m L = 10.5 m
Wpl = 4622 cm3 Wpl = 4622 cm3
1. Determine the section factor 1. Determine the section factor
 = 750 ºC (30 min)  ky = 0.17  = 750 ºC (30 min)  ky = 0.17
2. Determine the reduction factor 2. Determine the reduction factor
Grep = 14.7 kN/m Grep = 14.7 kN/m
Ed,20ºC = G * Grep + Q * Qrep = 1.2*14.7+1.5*17.5 3. Determine the utilisation factor
Qrep = 17.5 kN/m Qrep = 17.5 kN/m
=43.9 kN/m Rd,20ºC = 8 * fyd * Wpl / L2 = 8*235*4622000 / 105002
 = 0.8  = 0.8
Ed,fi = Grep +  * Qrep = 14.7 + 0.8*17.5 = 28.7 kN/m = 78.8 kN/m
 = Ed,fi / Ed.20ºC = 0.65 Ed,fi = Grep +  * Qrep = 14.7 + 0.8*17.5 = 28.7 kN/m
μ0 = Ed,fi / Rd,20ºC = 0.36
3. Determine the utilisation factor 4. Does the beam have sufficient fire resistance?
4. Does the beam have sufficient fire resistance?

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 45 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 46

Design example 1 – statically determined Design example 1 – statically determined


unprotected girder with concrete slab on top unprotected girder with concrete slab on top
HE 550 A fy;d=235 N/mm2 HE 550 A fy;d=235 N/mm2
L = 10.5 m L = 10.5 m
Wpl = 4622 cm3 Wpl = 4622 cm3
1. Determine the section factor 1. Determine the section factor
 = 750 ºC (30 min)  ky = 0.17  = 750 ºC (30 min)  ky = 0.17
2. Determine the reduction factor 2. Determine the reduction factor
Grep = 14.7 kN/m Grep = 14.7 kN/m
3. Determine the utilisation factor 3. Determine the utilisation factor
Qrep = 17.5 kN/m Qrep = 17.5 kN/m
4. Does the beam have sufficient fire resistance? 4. Does the beam have sufficient fire resistance?
 = 0.8  = 0.8
1st method: 2nd method:
Mfi,Sd = 1/8*Ed,fi*L2 = 396 kNm μ0 * 1 * 2 = 0.36 * 0.7 * 1.0 = 0.252
Mfi,θ,Rd = Wpl * fy,d * ky = 185 kNm a,cr = 690 ºC  failure
1200
μ0*1*2 !!!!
Mfi,t,Rd = Mfi,,Rd / (1 * 2) = 185 / (0.7 * 1.0) = 264 kNm 1000

Mfi,Sd > Mfi,t,Rd  Failure !


critical temperature [C]

800

600

400

200

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 47 0 0.2 0.4 0.6


utilisation factor [-]
0.8
CT5131 Fire Safety Design
1 1.2
48

Ir. L. Twilt
12
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Possible solution: integrated hat girder

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 49

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13
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Part 7a: Fire resistance of concrete


RESISTANCE TO FIRE
concrete
(1/2)  Physics, mechanical behaviour

 Standards, calculation rules


Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Example of fire damage


PART 1:
 Physics and mechanical behaviour

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 3 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 4

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1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Thermal behaviour of concrete Thermal


60
conductivity 
(during fire)

Thermal conductivity coefficient [W/mK]


50
 Low thermal conductivity
 High thermal gradient 40

 Non-
Non-linear temperature distribution
30

20
Steel
10 Concr.

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
o
Temperature[ C]
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Example: Temperatures in a concrete Examples of non-linear temperature


tunnel wall during fire distribution iDIANA 9.3-08 : Efectis Nederland BV

Model: TOOGVL
TR1: Boundary case 1
Step: 210 TIME: .36E4
Nodal PTE....S PTE
Max = 928 Min = 24.6
27 APR 2009 12:11:27 60

1400 time .1E4


900

Temperature
800
700
600

[min.]
Y 500
400
300
Z X 200

1200
0
distribution: 5
1000
Temperature [ºC]

10
800 15
 Non-
Non-linear 20
– Curved lines 600 25
30
 Time dependent 400 45
60
 Thermal gradient 200
– Difference between
heated surface and rest 0
of the cross section
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Distance to fire exposed side [mm]

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Mechanical behaviour of concrete Strength loss due to internal micro-


(during fire) cracking
 Strength loss  Aggregate expands
– Micro cracking
– Chemical processes (dehydration of cement paste)  Cement paste shrinks

 Thermal cracking  Compression of aggregate grains,


tension in cement paste
 Spalling
 Cracking of cement paste

 Reinforcement & pre/post tensioning


– Strength loss
– Reduction of bond concrete-
concrete-steel

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Differential thermal expansion Thermal expansion coefficient


(Unloaded heating)
 Aggregate expands 20
Staal
 Cement paste shrinks 16 Normaal beton
Licht beton

( L/L) [ /oo]
 Compression of aggregate 12
o
grains, tension in cement paste

 Cracking of cement paste


60 ooCC
500
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
80
40 8

at 150 oC,
4
micro cracking

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
o
Temperatuur [ C]

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3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Internal stresses due


Thermal gradient stresses to thermal expansion
assuming free rotation at the supports Tconcrete σthermal Crack pattern

- + - + - + - +
Temp. T tot  T

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Thermal gradient stresses


assuming full fixation at the supports
Cold parts can also fail!
 Randvoorwaarden:
Randvoorwaarden:
– u = 0: ax = 0
–  = 0:  = 0

- + - + - + - +
Temp. T tot  T
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 15 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 16

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Scheurvorming 123 minutes


Spalling

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Spalling Spalling mechanism


 Concrete is heated
– > Thermal gradient
Water inside concrete is heated
> Moisture pressure

Thermal expansion of concrete surface


> Large compressive force

Compression + moisture pressure


+ strength deterioration
> Spalling

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5
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Spalling Beam in the video


9000  Beam meets the
5000
 Video 1 (concrete flat slab, fast heating) 3000 3000
conditions of
300 NEN 6071 !!
furnace 80
Test 1 Test 2
 Video 2 (concrete I-
I-beam, slow heating) strength C60 C60 130
w/c 0.39 0.43 50
Curing [days,
days, 132 144
temp, RH]
4 Ø 16
18°
18°C 18°
18°C 700
4 Ø 25
50 % 50%
4 Ø 12
Moisture m/m 3.4 % 3.1 %
Fire ISO834 10°
10°C/min
110
M/Mu 60 % 60 % 80

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Closed pore model (2)


Closed pore model (1)
100

filling degree
[mg/mm3]:

0.001
Air + water gas

Pore pressure [MPa]


10
0.01

0.1

0.2

0.5
1
0.7

0.9

Liquid water 0.999

0.1
0 100 200 300 400 500
Temperature [°C]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 23 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 24

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Parameters that influence spalling Parameters that influence spalling


 Material properties  Structural properties
– Permeability – Geometry
– Cement type – Compressive loading
– Water cement ratio – Supports and restrained expansion
– Silica fume – Reinforcement (positive or negative effect)
– Aggregate type (thermal
(thermal expansion)
expansion)
– Aggregate size
– Moisture content

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Parameters that DON’T influence


Parameters that influence spalling
spalling
 Fire properties NOT Strength class:
class:
– Temperature rate of increase
– Maximum temperature  C30 may or may not spall
– Duration
– Cooling down phase
 C60 may or may not spall

 C90 may or may not spall

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Parameters that influence spalling (4) Cracking of the cold zone


Casting direction?
direction?
formwork
Two C30 walls;
walls; side

 Specimens cast horizontally

 Tested vertically
– One with formwork side
towards fire
– One with casting side
towards fire
casting side

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Cracking

of the cold zone
Scale 1:10 fire test
Modelling after test results
 Overview of the cracking pattern
 In a real tunnel, possibly cracks up to 2 mm width

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 31 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 32

Ir. L. Twilt
8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Test furnace in Rijswijk Spalling test according to the


RWS/Efectis procedure 2008-Efectis-R0695
2m  Two identical tests

 Full scale, real geometry


4
m 8m  Real concrete mix

3m  Realistic loading

 Cast in realistic direction

 24 march, 14:00-
14:00-16:00: excursion!!!!  Concrete age > 3 months at time of testing

 Lange Kleiweg 5, Rijswijk (tomtom/google


(tomtom/google:: LKW 137)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Spalling of concrete: ventilator


fixings
• Structural detail: fixing of ventilator to tunnel
ceiling
• Spalling of concrete
• RWS curve
concrete
insulation
Steel
bolt
profiles
ventilator

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 35

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Thermal behaviour of concrete


Part 7b:
(during fire)
RESISTANCE TO FIRE
concrete  Low thermal conductivity
(2/2)  High thermal gradient 1400 time
[min.]
1200
0
 Non-
Non-linear temperature 1000
5

Temperature [ºC]
10
distribution 800 15
20
Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design 600 25
30
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com 400 45
60
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl 200

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Distance to fire exposed side [mm]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Mechanical behaviour of concrete Example of a concrete building


(during fire) Modelling of fire behaviour
 Strength loss
– Micro cracking
– Chemical processes
(dehydration of cement paste)

 Thermal cracking

 Spalling

 Reinforcement & pre/post


tensioning
– Strength loss
– Reduction of bond concrete-
concrete-
steel

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 3 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 4

Ir. L. Twilt
1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Three coupled models Deformations during fire

Natural fire model Thermal FE model Mechanical FE model

Fast Scenario
1000

900

800

700
T em p era tu re (°C )

600

500

400

300

200 Intermediate Scenario


100 900
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 800
Time (s)

700

Temperature (°C)
600

500

400

300

OZONE DIANA Potential Flow DIANA Nonlin 200

100

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000
Time (s)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Example of the effect of thermal stresses:


Hollow core slabs
 Fire damage in a building in Rotterdam, october
2007
 Study of existing test data and real fire data in
2008
 New recommendation by the hollow core slab
industry (BFBN) in 2009
– Design details, and/or
( fire protection)
– Concrete temperature limit (

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Theoretical fire development


(capafi model from EU research)
Temperature field Structural damage
1100
1050
1000
 Actions of fire brigade stopped because of noise of
950
900
cracking
850
800
750
 Fire extinguished from the outside by a fire brigade
700
650
boat
Temp [°C]

600
550  Total duration of the fire approx.
approx. 30 to 40 minutes
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 4800 5400 6000 6600 7200
Time [sec]

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Hollow core slabs (1) Hollow core slabs (2)


 At some distance from the fire:
fire: extensive spalling
damage up to the level of the hollow cores  Closer to the fire:
fire: lower part of the slab has broken
off

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Hollow core slabs (3) Study of existing fire test data on holow
core slabs revealed:
 Closer to the fire:
fire: lower part of the slab has broken
off  Cracks in horizontal direction occur in a situation
with restraint thermal expansion

 Restraint caused by
– Surrounding (cold) building structure
– Neighbouring floor slab
– Connections at the supports, hogging moment
reinforcement
– Compression layer with reinforcement

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Calculation results of TNO


Conclusion hollow core slabs
 Calculation rules from the standards only cover
bending moment resistance
 Bending moment resistance in tests and real fires
is rarely the actual failure mode
 The horizontal cracking pattern has been
observed in multiple cases
 Restrained thermal expansion may cause early
 Fire test without restraint:
restraint: vertical crack pattern failure around 30 minutes
 Fire with restraint:
restraint: horizontal crack pattern

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Recommendations by the BFBN Fire protection of concrete


 For fire resistance 30 minutes
– only bending moment check (same as before)  Very common for tunnels
 For fire resistance >= 60 minutes
– Design rules: specific limits to compression layer thickness,  For buildings dependent on national regulations
reinforcement etc.
– In the Netherlands a bit unusual
 If the building is a “high risk”
risk” building (e.g. very tall buildings, – In many EU countries more common
hospitals, prisons)
– Fire protection to limit the concrete surface temperature to
– 400º
400ºC in combination with the design rules of 60 min.
– 200º
200ºC without the design rules

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire protection measures Concrete mix

 Limit the concrete temperature  Thermally stable aggregate


 Avoid all damage – Granite, basalt
– Fire protection – Limestone (however spalls during cooling down)
– NOT: river gravel
– Fire resistant boards – Avoid large grain diameters
– Fire resistant spray mortar
 Permeability
– Cement type
 Limit the effects of high concrete temperature – Avoid micro-
micro-fillers
 Limit the damage
 Combination with steel / PP - fibres?
– Choice of ingredients of the concrete mix
– Polypropylene fibres (special type)  Promising, but not many test results

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Effect of Polypropylene
Polypropylene fibres (PP) fibres
 Loaded concrete slabs
 Can reduce spalling  1200 oC
 Effectiveness is strongly dependent  Monofilament PP-
PP-fibres (< 20
on fibre type, geometry and mixing m)
 Measurement of spalled depth
 No effect against
– Dehydration
– Cracking 0 kg/m3: 250mm
1 kg/m3: 90mm S10
2 kg/m3: 90mm S10
3 kg/m3 S10

 Usually still some spalling S9 S9 S9

S8 S8 S8

S7 S7 S7

S6 80-100 S6 80-100 S6 80-100


60-80 60-80 60-80
40-60 40-60 40-60
S5 20-40 S5 20-40 S5 20-40
0-20 0-20 0-20

S4 S4 S4

S3 S3 S3

S2 S2 S2

S1 S1 S1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

External protective layer External protective layer


Spray mortar or board material
1350ºC
Concrete temperatures are reduced

Temp. [ºC]
At interface

At reinforcement

time [min.]
Depending on the interface temperature, all damage of the
concrete can be avoided

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Test set-up to determine the insulation Test set-up to determine the insulation
capacity of a protection system capacity of a protection system
• Furnace temperature
• Measure at 3 locations at 20 • Concrete slab 1,5x1,5 m2
cm. from specimen (1,2x1,2 m2 exposed to fire)
• Wire thermocouples

• Concrete temperatures ->


thermocouples at:
• Interface concrete – insulation 500
450
• At joint between board plates 400

Temperature [ºC]
350
• Somewhere else
20 cm

300

• Reinforcement depth 250


200

• Other depths? 150


100
50
0
0 30 60 90 120
Time [min]
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 27 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 28

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

PART 2 Example of a fire damage


 Standards, calculation rules  video

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Consequences of the low  Standards for fire resistance of concrete

 Limited heat penetration  Both can be used in NL:


 Cover on the steel reinforcement determines fire – NEN 6071
resistance – EN 1992-
1992-1-2
– Tables, simple calculation rules
 Non uniform temperature distribution  Both standards mainly focus on bending moment
– Advanced models, simple models and normal force as failure modes
 Large thermal stresses (and cracking?)
 Other failure modes are not taken into account
– Advanced models
– This is not always safe! (spalling, thermal
 Redistribution of loads cracks, etc.)
– Advanced models  Mainly the standard fire curve is used

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8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Temperature distribution according to


EN 1992-1-2
Tables a

 Axis distance a = cover + ½ bar diameter

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Simple calculation method Simple calculation method


 Assume plastic behaviour  Reduced cross section method
– Reduce concrete cross section – Determine the 500 °C isotherm
– Reduce strength of the steel reinforcement – The reduced cross section is the area inside
– Determine the bending moment capacity of the the isotherm
cross section  Zone method
– Divide the cross section in layers
 Two ways to do this: – Per layer, determine the effective remaining
– Reduced cross section method cross section based on the relative strength
– Zone method loss due to heating

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Reduction of strength and stiffness


1.2

Reduced cross section – 500ºC method 1 Steel yield strength

Relative value [-] ==>


Steel young’s modulus
0.8 Concrete compr. strength
Concrete young’s modulus
fb(20) 0.6

0.4
fy(T)
0.2
500 oC
0
fy(T) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0
Temperature [ C] ==>

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Applicability of the simple


calculation method
Tunnel fires
 YES: Bending, normal force

 NO: Shear / torsion / bond of pre-


pre-stressing /
spalling / thermal cracking

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire temperature (1) Fire temperature (2)


 1975: Dutch Ministry of Transport considers dangerous goods  Structural integrity: deterministic approach
 1978: Velser (immersed) tunnel accident (4 casualties)
 Credible worst case scenario:
– crash with 50 m3 petrol tanker
– pool size some 150 m2
– 300 MW 1600
– 90-
90-120 min “leakage”
leakage”

Temperature [0C]
 Small scale test => RWS-
RWS-fire 1200

800
measured
400 RWS-curve
1500L

2m
0
 Note: up to 1980 no protection 8m 0 60 120
Time [min]
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42

Fire temperature (3)


Fire test at TNO in 1980
 Comparison of nominal fire curves
1600
 Determination of tunnel fire temperatures
 Basis for the “RWS fire curve”
curve” 1200

temperature [ C]
0
800

 Video Building/cellulosic ISO -834


Hydrocarbon RW S tunnel fire
400 Hydrocarbon Eurocode 1
Hydrocarbon H_inc (Fr)
RABT-ZTV-car
RABT-ZTV-train
0
0 60 120 180
tim e [m in ]

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

6 min.
Test 1 Test 2

RWS vs. ISO curve


 Note: above 1200 ‘C “ordinary”
ordinary” insulation melts / disintegrates

 Main differences (building) cellulosic – hydrocarbon (tunnel) fires


– (1) Heating rate in first (critical) 30 min
– (2) maximum temperatures during first 2 hours

1600
(1) Test 3 Test 4

Indicative: 900-1100 degC Indicative: 1000-1400 degC

(2)
temperature [ C]

Ref.: fire text books (Drysdale) Ref.: tests


0

0
0 180

time [min]

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 45 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 46

Rate of Heat Release (RHR)


Runehamar fire test
 Full scale tunnel test in 2003
 Wooden pallets representing a full truck load
 First time that temperatures were measured in a
1:1 tunnel fire test with realistic RHR

 video

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Gas temperatures near fire Gas temperature


(Runehamar test 1)

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Ir. L. Twilt
13
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Smoke control
Why?
Part 8:
SMOKE PROPAGATION Smoke is the main & increasing hazard for both
HUMAN BEHAVIOUR  Life safety

 Material losses

Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design


Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com  NEED FOR SMOKE CONTROL
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Fatalities in building fires Trends in building design

120  Increase building height


100  Need for larger compartments (e.g. air terminals)
 Introduction of large open systems,
systems, spanning
percentage

80
multiple stories (e.g. atria,
atria, shopping malls)
malls)
heat & smoke
60 other causes  Extended use of heating/ventilation/AC-
heating/ventilation/AC-systems,
systems,
40
cables etc.
 Use of synthetic materials (e.g. wall-
wall-to-
to-wall carpets,
20
furniture)
0
F D NL UK CH

country

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Smoke control Smoke quality


Aspects Possible effects

 Smoke production  Reduction visibility


– quantity  High temperatures
– quality  Toxicity
 Smoke propagation  Irritation (eyes, skin)
– smoke compartmentation
– smoke spread control  Material damage
* smoke exhaust
* pressurisation  EMPHASIS ON VISIBILITY

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Smoke movement
Smoke control Mechanism

 Avoid smoke propagation from one space to the  Expansion


next:  Temperature difference smoke - surrounding air
– Compartments (smoke separation and fire  Wind pressure on facade
separation)  Chimney effect
– Overpressure installation  Ventilation system
 Control smoke propagation inside one space
– Smoke and heat extraction installation
– Large spaces: extra evacuation time due to
slow filling of the volume with smoke

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Development and propagation of smoke Smoke production


 Smoke is released on combustion of almost all materials Quantity: main parameters
 Smoke is a mixture of:
– Hot gases
– Non-
Non-burned particles  Main factor: rate of air, entrained in rising column
– Condensed vapour  Parameters:
– Ambient air – Perimeter of the fire
– Effective “clear height”
height”
 The total smoke production (in m3) is determined by:
– Heat output of the fire
– The amount of ambient air that is mixed in, through
 Dimension: kg/s or m3/s
– Buoyancy of the smoke plume
– Turbulent air flow around obstacles
– Smoke temperature not exceeding the ambient
temperature very much

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Smoke production Smoke production


Quantity: calculation rule kg/s vs. m3/s

300 Smoke production: 700.0 relation:


y [m]: gas [C]:
M  0.188  P  y (273   )
250 3/ 2 600.0
300
V M

smoke rate [m3/s]


mass rate [kg/s]

1 gas
500.0
200 400

150
3
5 with:
400.0 500 293   20
300.0 600
7
100 M: smoke prod. [kg/s] 700 with:
10 200.0
50 P: perimeter fire [m] 100.0
800 M: smoke prod. [kg/s]
0 y: clear height [m] 0.0 V: smoke prod. [m3/s]
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 50 100 150 200 250
gas: smoke temp. [C]
perimeter [m2] smoke rate [kg/s]
Note: fire gas temp.: g: density gas at 20C
1100 °C [kg/m3]

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Smoke production Visibility


Illustration Effect materials

lecturing room: Material Visibility [m]


 height: 6 m [1 kg material, in 100m3]
 floor area: 100 m
2 [flaming conditions]
plasterboard 23,8
plywood 5,9
chipboard 2,7
PVC 0,6
PUR 0,2

fire perimeter: 12 m

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Characterisation of smoke quality Optical smoke density vs.


Optical smoke density Visibility

It can be shown that D is proportional to:


Front illumination:
I
D  log path length (L)
0 
Vis. = 1.0/D
10  exposed area (A)
I and inversely proportional to: Rear illumination:
 volume in which smoke is contained (V) Vis. = 2.5/D
with:
with: Vis. is visibility [m]
- I0 is light intensity without smoke D is opt. density p. m
- I is light intensity with smoke

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Optical smoke density


Parameters Development and propagation of smoke

 Smoke potential ( specific smoke density)


 2 forms of smoke distribution inside a space:
– type of material – Stratified smoke: Hot smoke forms a layer
– incident radiant flux against the ceiling
 Surface area involved – Full mixture of smoke and ambient air
– surface spread of flame
flame

PS: note the effect of extinguishing devices

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Smoke production Development and propagation of smoke


Mechanism  Stratified smoke:
– Smoke layer is intact against the ceiling
– Escape below the smoke layer is possible as
Rule: long as the radiation from the smoke is not too
Smoke high
production is
determined by
entrained air height clear the rate of air
layer (= y) entrainment

width fire seat

Verse lucht

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Development and propagation of smoke Propagation of smoke


 Pressure differences because of the behaviour of the smoke itself:
 Full mixture of smoke and ambient air – Difference in density between hot smoke and cold air
– Bad visibility inside the smoke volume, also – Smoke moves up and spreads along ceiling
presence of toxic materials and heat – Expansion of air because of warming up
– Air pressure increases and smoke flows out of the space

 Natural air flow in the building


– Chimney effect due to temperature difference inside/outside
– Wind pressure

 Mechanical installations
Verse lucht – Air treatment and ventilation systems
– Over pressure installations

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Driving forces smoke movement


Review Smoke propagation

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Smoke propagation Chimney effect


Practical example (cntnd.) Mechanism

Issues:
-  winter situation, i.e.:
inside > outside
 faç
façade leaks
mass transport
Note: in summer, situation
is reverse

cross section pressure on facade

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Smoke compartmentation
Evacuation in the Dutch building decree Principle
 Functional requirement:
– “being able to leave the space sufficiently safe Issues:
and fast”
fast”  smoke doors
 Performance requirements w.r.t.:
w.r.t.: (self closing!)
+
– Walking distances / vertical distances  fire scenario, ventilation,
wind, detection …. etc.
– Until the exit of the smoke compartment
– From the exit of the smoke comp.
comp. to the
evacuation staircase Application: relative small
– Free width of doors spaces (e.g. hotels, hospitals)

– Cumulation and flow capacity of escape routes

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Pressurisation Pressurisation
Principle Practicalities

Issues:
Issues:
 Overpressure
 Max. allowable overpressure:
 Fan capacity 50 N/m2
 Exhaust air  Minimum air velocity in door
opening: 1 m/sec

Application: stair cases

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Evacuation of high spaces Smoke-zone-model


 Less evacuation capacity
(door widths etc.) can be
exchanged for smoke control

 design freedom

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Smoke extraction Smoke distribution in an atrium


Principle Effect of summer vs. winter
roof vents
smoke screen Issues:
 temp. & height smoke
layer Warm layer under
 roof vents & smoke the roof (summer)
screens
 air supply
+
 fire scenario, ventilation,
wind, detection …. etc.
No warm layer under
Application: large spaces the roof (winter)
(e.g. halls)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Escape from high spaces Influence heat on people


 Escape as long as tenability conditions are OK:  Heat and flame contact
– Both – Temperature
– 1a: Smoke layer  2,5 m above the floor – 70°
70°C: generally considered as max.
– 1b: Smoke temperature < 200 °C (i.e. radiation < 2.5 – 150°
150°C: non-
non-fatal if only for a short time, with thick
kW/m2), clothes
– Or only – 250°
250°C: max. for well protected fire brigade
– 2: Mixed smoke/air with visibility> 100 m – Burning injuries
 With this approach, we can accept: – 45°
45°C: pain limit for the skin
– Longer evacuation times – Radiation 2,5kW/m2: pain within 30 sec.
– Longer walking distances – 1st, 2nd, 3rd degree burns
– Reduction of cumulation and flow capacity of escape – Burnt skin surface determines chance of survival
routes
(roughly: % non-
non-burnt surface = chance of survival)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Influence smoke on people


High temperature (see before)

 Suffocation: lack of oxygen


Example calculation
– 21% normal oxygen level in air A church building
– <17% reduced mental capacity, irrational behaviour floor area 20 m x 40 m
– <14% dizziness, tiredness, uncoordinated behaviour height 8,5 meter or 17 meter
– <5% after 10s unconscious, after 3 min. irreversible brain
damage, finally death Two fire scenarios
 Intoxication  Christmas tree fire
– Irritation, narcotic, fatal – Fast and short duration
– Hydrochloric acid, hydrocyanic acid, hydrogen sulphide,
sulphide, – 20 kg material burns in 2 minutes
halogens, carbon monoxide – Peak RHR 4 MW
 Visual effects  Fire of the benches / seats
– Reduced visibility – Slower,
Slower, longer duration
– Slowly growing fire: 1 MW after 10 min., 4
– Irritation of the eyes
MW after 20 minutes

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Example christmas tree Example benches / seats

Smoke layer height Smoke layer temperature Smoke layer height Smoke layer temperature

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Human behaviour Escape ways

 Contents of the presentation

– Evacuation of people as seen in tunnel tests Separate


footpath
– Tenability conditions for human beings

or
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41
corrido
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42
r

No evacuation (> 7 min) Spontaneous evacuation, just once

 video

 Video

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Ir. L. Twilt
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Behavioural test shows REAL


Human behaviour problems
 People …
– don’t leave their cars
– go back to their cars  … as opposed to imaginary problems
– maintain their routine behaviour
– don’t see the exits

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 45 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 46

Behavioural test shows REAL Behavioural test shows REAL


problems problems
 Imaginary:  Imaginary:
 escape past the fire  escape past the fire
 escape across the roadway  escape across the roadway
 failure opening the exit  failure opening the exit

 Real:  Real:
 lack of knowledge  lack of knowledge
 that precious car …  that precious car …
 poor signposting  poor signposting

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Recommendations for the operator

 for the tunnel operator


 for the public
 for the tunnel interior

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 49 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 50

for the operator “crowd handling” for the public “know that …”

 Introduce yourself  If there is danger: Get out, go to emergency exit

 prevent phone calls  Leave car such & such

 start evacuation  Trust the operator

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

for the interior of the tunnel--1 for the interior of the tunnel--2

 Avoid pollution  Make exits more


“inviting”
inviting”

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 53 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 54

for the interior of the tunnel—4


for the interior of the tunnel--3
“EXIT HERE”
 Use sound beacons for way-
way-finding in dense
 Clarify footpath smoke
video1 video2

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14
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

General rules of human response to fire


 People in general don’
don’t panic (contrary to common
belief)
 People need to be convinced of the danger before the
change their routine
 Because of this, reaction times can be as much as
over 10 minutes
 Type of evacuation alarm is therefore very important
 People underestimate the rate of development of the
fire
 People take the same exit through which they came in
 Difference private home / public building

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 57

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Part 9: Contents
AUTOMATIC DETECTION
 Fire detection and alarm systems
&  Fire suppression/extinguishing principles, agents
SUPPRESSION and systems

Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design


Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Contents
Other active systems (examples; not covered here): Passive and active measures
– Smoke control systems  Passive systems: measures that do not need activation, such as
– Fire service elevators – Fire insulation of the load bearing structure
– Compartment walls
– Emergency evacuation signs and emergency – Escape routes
lighting
– Automatically closing fire doors and hatches  Active systems: measures that actively respond to the fire, such as
– Detection and alarm systems
– Extinguishing systems (sprinklers etc.)
– Smoke extraction ventilators
– Pressurisation

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 3 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 4

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1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Passive and active measures Fire detection systems


 Common opinion:
– Fire control systems are sensitive to technical malfunction (systems
(systems
are not always activated)  General objective:
 “active systems are not as reliable as passive (structural) ones”
ones”

 Be aware: structural measures often fail too, e.g.:


– Detect and locate a fire in an early stage
– Cancel out fire compartments (wall/floor penetrations, open
doors/windows/hatches, ...) – Alert occupants and fire brigade
– Blocked escape routes
– Deteriorated reaction to fire behaviour of materials (repainted, non-
non-
repeated fire retarding treatment, ...) – Activate fire control systems
 Both active and passive measures need good management,
maintenance and use

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Control unit and connections


Fire detection systems
 Major components:
– Central control unit
– Control panel (information for fire brigade);
indicating detection zones
– Detectors (manual, thermal, smoke, flames)
– Direct alert to security/surveillance and
(company) fire brigade

 Coverage
– Full / partial / area coverage

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire detection installation Fire detection


 Control panel
 A fire leaves a “signature”
signature”:
– Smoke / aerosols (parts and droplets 0.001-
0.001- 10
– At the entrance of the μm; typical 0.1 – 1 μm)
building
– Heat (temperature rise approx. 0 – 1400 °C)
– Gives information – Flames / radiation (specific wavelength spectrum)
about the building lay-
lay-
out and fire location – Combustion gases (CO,(CO, CO2, HCl,
HCl, HCN, NH3,
NOx, ... ; many more)
– Level of detail depends
on complexity of the
building
 Fire detection is dedicated to find one or more parts
of the fire “signature”
signature”

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 © CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Detectors: manual Detectors: thermal

 Manual devices:  Thermal detector:


– Direct activation (sprinkler glass bulb, solder link) or activation
activation by
– Note: do not localise fire based on manual detection signal
(the person that activates the alarm is not at the exact – Activation by fixed temperature (usually 68-
68-280°
280°C) or rate-
rate-of-
of-rise
fire location) of temperature (temperature of detector!)
– Detection only relatively near the fire
– Both point and line detectors

 Suitability of thermal detectors:


– Relatively slow response (thermal inertia of detector)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Detectors: smoke
Detectors: smoke
 Smoke detector signals
 Smoke detectors: for different particles
– Ionization (point) detector (electrical conductivity of air
ionized by a radioactive element) sizes:
– Optical (point) detector (by attenuated or scattered – Optical scattered
light)
– Long distance light beam (attenuated light)
light detector:
(no detection of small particles)
 Suitability of smoke detectors:
– Fast response, but often false alarms (sensitive to
symptoms of cooking, smoking; and to poor – Ionization detector:
maintenance)
– Scattered light detectors best for smouldering fires, bad
in sooty smoke
– Optical detectors do not detect small particles
<wavelength

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Detectors: flames Detectors: gas


 Flame detectors:  Gas sensing detectors:
– Respond to radiation (directly “visible”
visible” by detector) – Respond to increased levels of CO, CO2, HCl,
HCl,
– Infrared, ultraviolet and flame “flicker”
flicker” detectors HCN, NH3, NOx, ...
 Suitability of flame detectors:
– Especially in industrial environments (fumes, high
temperatures)
– Extremely fast response times (e.g. for explosion
suppression systems)
 Positioning of flame detectors:
– Note air currents and smoke/heat spreading
 correct distances (intermediate, to walls, to ceilings)

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Detectors Evacuation alarm systems


 Important selection criterion: prevent false alarms;  Linked to the detection system

90% (80-
(80-98%) of all alarms are false !  Distinguish:
– Those being informed:
– “loud”
loud” (to all occupants),
 Advanced detection systems: – “silent”
silent” alarm (to selected group)
– Combination of detector types – Combination of both
– Monitor signal history (adapt alarm criterion to – Signal type:
dirt, environmental conditions, seasons, ...) – Light signal,
– Detect on the basis of signal development in – Sound/tone signal (“ (“slow whoop”
whoop”),
time of different detectors, not using fixed – Spoken text
threshold values
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Detection systems: Detection systems:


Interactions with fire aspects Interactions with fire aspects
 Detection influences:
 Detection is influenced by: – Alarming occupants
– Fire scenario (speed of growth) – Directing other safety systems
– Ventilation conditions (flow currents) – Extinguishing system
– Compartmentation (area of smoke spread) – Electrical magnets to close fire doors
– Maintenance and use – Smoke/heat extraction / ventilation
–…
– Localising the fire

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Smoke distribution in an atrium


Effect of summer vs. winter Suppression/extinguishing
-> detection in the right location??
 Suppression principles
Warm layer under
 Suppression systems
the roof (summer)  Suppression agents
 Sprinklers

No warm layer under


the roof (winter)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Suppression principles
Suppression
 Suppression principles (note the fire
 Conditions/components for a fire to occur:
triangle/tetrahedron):
– Cooling of combustibles (=> reduce pyrolysis)
pyrolysis)
– Cooling of flame volume (=> reduce speed of
reaction)
– Oxygen displacement (e.g. water vapour / inert gas)
– Screen off oxygen and combustibles (e.g.
“fire triangle”
triangle” “fire tetrahedron”
tetrahedron” water/foam ”blanket”
blanket”, powder “coating”
coating”)
– The chain reaction speed is MUCH higher at higher fire – Shielding combustibles from radiation (=> reduce
temperatures pyrolysis;
pyrolysis; e.g. water mist)
 Suppression: remove or reduce one of the components or their – Interfere in combustion reaction (=> negative
interaction catalysis)
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Suppression, means Fire classes


 A: Solids
 Handhelds – Wood, paper, textiles, coal, non-
non-melting plastics
– Flaming and glowing combustion
– For use by occupants or (semi)-
(semi)-professional
fire fighters  B: Liquids
– Solvents, oils, petrol, wax, fat, melting plastics
– Flaming combustion
 Automatic suppression systems  C: Gases
– Fixed, permanently vigilant, and automatically – Propane, natural gas, acetylene
activated systems – Flaming combustion
 D: Metals
 Apparatus of fire brigade – Sodium, magnesium, aluminium
– Glowing combustion

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

“Handhelds”
 Handheld containers Agents in “handhelds”
– Powder extinguisher (basic protection, usually 6- 6-
12 kg ABC of BC-
BC-powder, suitable for low  Fields of application:
application:
temperatures)
Brandklasse Poeder Poeder Schuim Schuim Schuim CO 2
– Foam extinguisher (basic protection, usually 6- 6-9 ABC BC a-polair polair specifiek
kg water + foaming agent, usually not frost-
frost-proof) A (vaste stoffen)1 ++ + ++ ++ -- +
– Carbon-
Carbon-dioxide extinguisher (supplementary A (vaste stoffen)2 + -- ++ + -- --
protection for specific riscs, 2-5 kg CO2)
riscs, usually 2- B (vloeistoffen) ++ ++ ++ ++ -- +
C (gassen) ++ ++ -- -- -- -
D (metalen) G -- G G G G
 Water hose reels F (vetten) -- -- - - ++ --

1 = oppervlaktebrand, 2 = kernbrand
 Fire blankets ++ = blusmiddel is zeer geschikt, + = blusmiddel is geschikt, - = blusmiddel is niet geschikt, -- = blusmiddel is zeer ongeschikt,
G = gebruik van het blusmiddel in deze situatie is gevaarlijk.
– Especially for kitchens

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 27 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 28

Ir. L. Twilt
7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Suppression systems
Fire brigade apparatus  Automatic suppression systems:
– Water spray/sprinkler systems
 Fixed
– Normal, “quick response”
response”, water mist
– Water sources (hydrants, open water)
– Effect: cooling of combustibles and flame,
– Dry risers (high rise buildings)
dilution/displacement O2, shielding combustibles
– Pumps (fixed and mobile; 10 m = 1 atm!)
atm!) from radiation)
 Mobile – Foam systems
– many – Especially for covering liquid fuels
– Effect: shielding fuel

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Suppression systems Suppression agents


 Water:
– Advantages:
 Automatic suppression systems :
– Low costs
– Gas systems
– Very well available
– Inert gasses (CO2, N2), Aërosols,
rosols, Halogens – Non-
Non-toxic
(CxFyClzBrq) – Most efficient suppression agent:
– Effect: dilution/displacement of O2, negative catalysis – Very high heat of vaporization
– Boiling point far below common pyrolysis temperatures
– Powders (“ (“dry chemicals”
chemicals”)
– Disadvantages:
– Several A-A-, B-
B-, C-
C- and/or D-
D-powders – Freezing at common temperatures
– Effect: shield combustibles, negative catalysis – Electrically conductive
– Causes (limited) damage to goods
– Not suitable for some metals and chemicals

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Ir. L. Twilt
8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Suppression agents Suppression agents


 Powder (mix of salts)  Inert gasses (CO2, N2)
– Advantages: – Advantages:
– Very high suppression potential (limited cooling) – Very clean
– Disadvantages: – Disadvantages:
– Damage to goods – Low suppression potential
– Use requires training  Other gasses
 Foams (Aërosols,
rosols, Halogens)
Halogens)
– Advantages: – Advantages:
– High suppression potential – High suppression potential
– Limited damage to goods – Limited damage to goods
– Use requires training – Disadvantages:
– Disadvantages: – Expensive in large compartiments
– Limited life span

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Sprinkler systems Sprinkler system components


 Water supply
 Sprinkler sections
– Control valves
– Alarm klep s

s
– Pipe network v s v

– Sprinkler heads v
H
V

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Sprinkler heads Sprinkler heads


 Activation temperature
– Rule of thumb: max. room temperature + 30 °C
– Indicated by colour of glass bulb or yoke
 Response time index
– Measure for response time: S, M, Q, XQ
– Fast response: low thermal inertia
 Deflector
– Determines droplet size en spray pattern
– Standard: 60 % up-
up-, 40 % downwards; large
drops
– Spray type: 100 % downwards; smaller drops
– Wall type

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Types of sprinkler systems Types of sprinkler systems


 Wet systems  Dry systems
– Application: temperature 10-
10-70 °C – Application: (possible) temperatures < 0 °C or > 70 °C
– Pipes filled with water – Pipes filled with pressurized air
– Advantage: fast response; disadvantage: freezing – Disadvantage: slow response

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Ir. L. Twilt
10
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Types of sprinkler systems Types of sprinkler systems


 Deluge systems  Preaction systems
– Application: fast fire development (or cooling of tanks – Application: if water should be avoided (e.g. museum)
and structures) – Dry systems with control valve; wet system after
– Pipes with open nozzles and control valve opening valve

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42

Types of sprinkler systems Sprinkler system characteristics


 ESFR sprinklers (Early Suppression Fast Response  Minimum discharge density
Sprinkler) – Liter/m2 of mm, per time period, at maximum discharge
– No special system, but special sprinkler heads area
– Application: suppress fast growing fires by: – Especially depending on fire heat release (in W/m2)
– Fast response  Maximum discharge area
– Large rate of water – Floor area by maximum (design) number of activated
sprinklers
– Depending on flame propagation speed, type of
sprinkler system, building height, fire barriers
 Minimum discharge time period
– Active time period => size of water supply
 Water supply
– Single / super / double

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Ir. L. Twilt
11
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Sprinkler hazard levels Sprinkler hazard levels


 Class L:  Class N:
– Application: non-
non-industrial buildings with low fire risc – Application: (Non-
(Non-)industrial buildings with normal fire
– E.g.: hospital, office, elderly homes risc;
risc; both production and limited storage
– Maximum number of activated sprinkler heads: 4 – Four subclasses, depending on speed of fire
– Basic data (wet system):  2,25 mm/min;  30 min development / of maximum number of activated heads:
N I: 6 till N IV: 30
– Basic data (wet system):  5 mm/min;  60 min

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 45 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 46

Sprinkler hazard levels Reliability of sprinkler systems


 Class H:  Sprinkler systems are very reliable if:
– Application : (Non- – Designed for the purpose
(Non-)industrial buildings with high
fire risk; production and storage (HP) of high – Regular inspection and maintenance
stacks storage (HHS)
– Maximum number of activated sprinkler heads:  Common cause of disaster when sprinkler is
30 - 50 present:
– Basic data (wet system):   7,5 - 30 mm/min;  – Partial coverage
90 min
– Bad maintenance
– Very fast fire development
– Casualties before system is activated
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 47 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 48

Ir. L. Twilt
12
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Tuesday March 23rd (?) Part 9:


AUTOMATIC DETECTION
 Next Tuesday, we will only have class if there are
questions. &
 Please let me know if you have questions SUPPRESSION
(about any part of the course) at the end of
today’
today’s class. Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
 Then we can decide if Tuesday’
Tuesday’s class will be Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com
necessary or not. Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 1

Contents
Contents Other active systems (examples; not covered here):
– Smoke control systems
 Fire detection and alarm systems – Fire service elevators
– Emergency evacuation signs and emergency
 Fire suppression/extinguishing principles, agents lighting
and systems – Automatically closing fire doors and hatches

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Passive and active measures Passive and active measures


 Passive systems: measures that do not need activation, such as  Common opinion:
– Fire insulation of the load bearing structure – Fire control systems are sensitive to technical malfunction (systems
(systems
– Compartment walls are not always activated)
– Escape routes  “active systems are not as reliable as passive (structural) ones”
ones”

 Active systems: measures that actively respond to the fire, such as  Be aware: structural measures often fail too, e.g.:
– Detection and alarm systems – Cancel out fire compartments (wall/floor penetrations, open
– Extinguishing systems (sprinklers etc.) doors/windows/hatches, ...)
– Smoke extraction ventilators – Blocked escape routes
– Pressurisation – Deteriorated reaction to fire behaviour of materials (repainted, non-
non-
repeated fire retarding treatment, ...)

 Both active and passive measures need good management,


maintenance and use

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Fire detection systems Fire detection systems


 General objective:  Major components:
– Central control unit
– Control panel (information for fire brigade);
– Detect and locate a fire in an early stage
indicating detection zones
– Detectors (manual, thermal, smoke, flames)
– Alert occupants and fire brigade – Direct alert to security/surveillance and
(company) fire brigade
– Activate fire control systems
 Coverage
– Full / partial / area coverage

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Control unit and connections


Fire detection installation
 Control panel

– At the entrance of the


building

– Gives information
about the building lay-
lay-
out and fire location

– Level of detail depends


on complexity of the
building

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10©

Fire detection Detectors: manual


 A fire leaves a “signature”
signature”:
– Smoke / aerosols (parts and droplets 0.001-
0.001- 10  Manual devices:
μm; typical 0.1 – 1 μm) – Note: do not localise fire based on manual detection
(the person that activates the alarm is not at the exact
– Heat (temperature rise approx. 0 – 1400 °C) fire location)
– Flames / radiation (specific wavelength spectrum)
– Combustion gases (CO,(CO, CO2, HCl,
HCl, HCN, NH3,
NOx, ... ; many more)

 Fire detection is dedicated to find one or more parts


of the fire “signature”
signature”

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3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Detectors: thermal Detectors: smoke


 Thermal detector:  Smoke detectors:
– Direct activation (sprinkler glass bulb, solder link) or activation
activation by – Ionization (point) detector (electrical conductivity of air
signal ionized by a radioactive element)
– Activation by fixed temperature (usually 68-
68-280°
280°C) or rate-
rate-of-
of-rise – Optical (point) detector (by attenuated or scattered
of temperature (temperature of detector!) light)
– Detection only relatively near the fire – Long distance light beam (attenuated light)
– Both point and line detectors  Suitability of smoke detectors:
– Fast response, but often false alarms (sensitive to
symptoms of cooking, smoking; and to poor
 Suitability of thermal detectors: maintenance)
– Relatively slow response (thermal inertia of detector) – Scattered light detectors best for smouldering fires, bad
in sooty smoke
– Optical detectors do not detect small particles
<wavelength

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Detectors: smoke
Detectors: flames
 Smoke detector signals
for different particles  Flame detectors:
sizes: – Respond to radiation (directly “visible”
visible” by detector)
– Optical scattered – Infrared, ultraviolet and flame “flicker”
flicker” detectors
light detector:  Suitability of flame detectors:
(no detection of small particles) – Especially in industrial environments (fumes, high
temperatures)
– Extremely fast response times (e.g. for explosion
– Ionization detector: suppression systems)
 Positioning of flame detectors:
– Note air currents and smoke/heat spreading
 correct distances (intermediate, to walls, to ceilings)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 15 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 16

Ir. L. Twilt
4
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Detectors: gas Detectors


 Gas sensing detectors:  Important selection criterion: prevent false alarms;
– Respond to increased levels of CO, CO2, HCl,
HCl, 90% (80-
(80-98%) of all alarms are false !
HCN, NH3, NOx, ...

 Advanced detection systems:


– Combination of detector types
– Monitor signal history (adapt alarm criterion to
dirt, environmental conditions, seasons, ...)
– Detect on the basis of signal development in
time of different detectors, not using fixed
threshold values
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Detection systems:
Evacuation alarm systems Interactions with fire aspects
 Linked to the detection system
 Detection is influenced by:
 Distinguish: – Fire scenario (speed of growth)
– Those being informed:
– “loud”
loud” (to all occupants),
– Ventilation conditions (flow currents)
– “silent”
silent” alarm (to selected group) – Compartmentation (area of smoke spread)
– Combination of both – Maintenance and use
– Signal type:
– Light signal,
– Sound/tone signal (“ (“slow whoop”
whoop”),
– Spoken text

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5
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Smoke distribution in an atrium


Detection systems:
Effect of summer vs. winter
Interactions with fire aspects
 Detection influences: -> detection in the right location??
– Alarming occupants
– Directing other safety systems Warm layer under
the roof (summer)
– Extinguishing system
– Electrical magnets to close fire doors
– Smoke/heat extraction / ventilation
–… No warm layer under
– Localising the fire the roof (winter)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Suppression/extinguishing Suppression
 Conditions/components for a fire to occur:
 Suppression principles
 Suppression systems
 Suppression agents
 Sprinklers

“fire triangle”
triangle” “fire tetrahedron”
tetrahedron”
– The chain reaction speed is MUCH higher at higher fire
temperatures
 Suppression: remove or reduce one of the components or their
interaction

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6
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Suppression principles
Suppression, means
 Suppression principles (note the fire
triangle/tetrahedron):  Handhelds
– Cooling of combustibles (=> reduce pyrolysis)
pyrolysis) – For use by occupants or (semi)-
(semi)-professional
– Cooling of flame volume (=> reduce speed of fire fighters
reaction)
– Oxygen displacement (e.g. water vapour / inert gas)
 Automatic suppression systems
– Screen off oxygen and combustibles (e.g.
water/foam ”blanket”
blanket”, powder “coating”
coating”) – Fixed, permanently vigilant, and automatically
activated systems
– Shielding combustibles from radiation (=> reduce
pyrolysis;
pyrolysis; e.g. water mist)
– Interfere in combustion reaction (=> negative  Apparatus of fire brigade
catalysis)
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

“Handhelds”
Fire classes  Handheld containers
 A: Solids – Powder extinguisher (basic protection, usually 6- 6-
– Wood, paper, textiles, coal, non-
non-melting plastics 12 kg ABC of BC-
BC-powder, suitable for low
– Flaming and glowing combustion temperatures)
 B: Liquids – Foam extinguisher (basic protection, usually 6- 6-9
– Solvents, oils, petrol, wax, fat, melting plastics kg water + foaming agent, usually not frost-
frost-proof)
– Flaming combustion – Carbon-
Carbon-dioxide extinguisher (supplementary
protection for specific riscs, 2-5 kg CO2)
riscs, usually 2-
 C: Gases
– Propane, natural gas, acetylene
– Flaming combustion  Water hose reels
 D: Metals
– Sodium, magnesium, aluminium  Fire blankets
– Glowing combustion – Especially for kitchens

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 27 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 28

Ir. L. Twilt
7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Agents in “handhelds” Fire brigade apparatus


 Fixed
 Fields of application:
application:
– Water sources (hydrants, open water)
Brandklasse Poeder Poeder Schuim Schuim Schuim CO 2 – Dry risers (high rise buildings)
ABC BC a-polair polair specifiek
A (vaste stoffen) 1
++ + ++ ++ -- + – Pumps (fixed and mobile; 10 m = 1 atm!)
atm!)
A (vaste stoffen)2
B (vloeistoffen)
+
++
--
++
++
++
+
++
--
--
--
+
 Mobile
C (gassen) ++ ++ -- -- -- - – many
D (metalen) G -- G G G G
F (vetten) -- -- - - ++ --

1 = oppervlaktebrand, 2 = kernbrand
++ = blusmiddel is zeer geschikt, + = blusmiddel is geschikt, - = blusmiddel is niet geschikt, -- = blusmiddel is zeer ongeschikt,
G = gebruik van het blusmiddel in deze situatie is gevaarlijk.

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Suppression systems
 Automatic suppression systems: Suppression systems
– Water spray/sprinkler systems
– Normal, “quick response”
response”, water mist  Automatic suppression systems :
– Effect: cooling of combustibles and flame, – Gas systems
dilution/displacement O2, shielding combustibles – Inert gasses (CO2, N2), Aërosols,
rosols, Halogens
from radiation) (CxFyClzBrq)
– Foam systems – Effect: dilution/displacement of O2, negative catalysis
– Especially for covering liquid fuels – Powders (“ (“dry chemicals”
chemicals”)
– Effect: shielding fuel – Several A-A-, B-
B-, C-
C- and/or D-
D-powders
– Effect: shield combustibles, negative catalysis

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 31 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 32

Ir. L. Twilt
8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Suppression agents Suppression agents


 Water:
– Advantages:  Powder (mix of salts)
– Low costs – Advantages:
– Very well available – Very high suppression potential (limited cooling)
– Disadvantages:
– Non-
Non-toxic
– Damage to goods
– Most efficient suppression agent:
– Use requires training
– Very high heat of vaporization
– Boiling point far below common pyrolysis temperatures  Foams
– Disadvantages: – Advantages:
– Freezing at common temperatures – High suppression potential
– Electrically conductive – Limited damage to goods
– Use requires training
– Causes (limited) damage to goods
– Disadvantages:
– Not suitable for some metals and chemicals
– Limited life span

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Suppression agents Sprinkler systems


 Inert gasses (CO2, N2)
– Advantages:
– Very clean
– Disadvantages:
– Low suppression potential
 Other gasses
(Aërosols,
rosols, Halogens)
Halogens)
– Advantages:
– High suppression potential
– Limited damage to goods
– Disadvantages:
– Expensive in large compartiments

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 35 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 36

Ir. L. Twilt
9
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Sprinkler system components Sprinkler heads


 Water supply  Activation temperature
– Rule of thumb: max. room temperature + 30 °C
 Sprinkler sections – Indicated by colour of glass bulb or yoke
– Control valves  Response time index
– Measure for response time: S, M, Q, XQ
– Alarm klep s
– Fast response: low thermal inertia
s
– Pipe network v s v  Deflector
– Sprinkler heads v
– Determines droplet size en spray pattern
H – Standard: 60 % up-
up-, 40 % downwards; large
V
drops
– Spray type: 100 % downwards; smaller drops
H
– Wall type

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Types of sprinkler systems


Sprinkler heads  Wet systems
– Application: temperature 10-
10-70 °C
– Pipes filled with water
– Advantage: fast response; disadvantage: freezing

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 39 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 40

Ir. L. Twilt
10
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Types of sprinkler systems Types of sprinkler systems


 Dry systems  Deluge systems
– Application: (possible) temperatures < 0 °C or > 70 °C – Application: fast fire development (or cooling of tanks
– Pipes filled with pressurized air and structures)
– Disadvantage: slow response – Pipes with open nozzles and control valve

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42

Types of sprinkler systems Types of sprinkler systems


 Preaction systems  ESFR sprinklers (Early Suppression Fast Response
– Application: if water should be avoided (e.g. museum) Sprinkler)
– Dry systems with control valve; wet system after – No special system, but special sprinkler heads
opening valve – Application: suppress fast growing fires by:
– Fast response
– Large rate of water

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 43 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 44

Ir. L. Twilt
11
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Sprinkler system characteristics Sprinkler hazard levels


 Minimum discharge density
 Class L:
– Liter/m2 of mm, per time period, at maximum discharge
area – Application: non-
non-industrial buildings with low fire risc
– Especially depending on fire heat release (in W/m2) – E.g.: hospital, office, elderly homes
– Maximum number of activated sprinkler heads: 4
 Maximum discharge area
– Basic data (wet system):  2,25 mm/min;  30 min
– Floor area by maximum (design) number of activated
sprinklers
– Depending on flame propagation speed, type of
sprinkler system, building height, fire barriers
 Minimum discharge time period
– Active time period => size of water supply
 Water supply
– Single / super / double

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 45 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 46

Sprinkler hazard levels


Sprinkler hazard levels
 Class N:
– Application: (Non-
(Non-)industrial buildings with normal fire  Class H:
risc;
risc; both production and limited storage
– Four subclasses, depending on speed of fire – Application : (Non-
(Non-)industrial buildings with high
development / of maximum number of activated heads: fire risk; production and storage (HP) of high
N I: 6 till N IV: 30 stacks storage (HHS)
– Basic data (wet system):  5 mm/min;  60 min – Maximum number of activated sprinkler heads:
30 - 50
– Basic data (wet system):   7,5 - 30 mm/min; 
90 min

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 47 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 48

Ir. L. Twilt
12
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Reliability of sprinkler systems Tuesday March 23rd (?)


 Sprinkler systems are very reliable if:  Next Tuesday, we will only have class if there are
– Designed for the purpose questions.
– Regular inspection and maintenance  Please let me know if you have questions
(about any part of the course) at the end of
 Common cause of disaster when sprinkler is today’
today’s class. = NOW
present:  Then we can decide if Tuesday’
Tuesday’s class will be
– Partial coverage necessary or not.
– Bad maintenance  CONCLUSION: TUESDAY’
TUESDAY’s CLASS IS NOT
– Very fast fire development NECESSARY
– Casualties before system is activated
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 49 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 50

Ir. L. Twilt
13
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Regelgeving Brandveiligheid (NL)


Relevante documenten
Part 10:
FIRE REGULATIONS  Woningwet (1920)
(NL, EU)  Bouwbesluit*)
Bouwbesluit*) (1992)
 NEN bladen
 Nederlandse praktijkrichtlijnen (NPR)

Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design


Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl *) Inclusief “Regeling Bouwbesluit 2003”
2003”
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Bouwbesluit Bouwbesluit
Aanleiding Historie

Vóór
óór 1992, bouwregelgeving per gemeente geregeld  Fase 1: beschikbaar: 1992
 Rechtsongelijkheid  Fase 2: informeel beschikbaar: 1998
 Frustratie bouwproces  conversie fase 2: beschikbaar: 2003
 Kosten

 BOUWBESLUIT
- eenduidig
- algemeen geldig

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Prestatie-
Prestatie-eis Bepalingsmethoden
Beginsel Uitgangspunten

 Onderwerp  Eenduidig
 Functionele overweging(en)  Kwantificeerbaar
 Grenswaarde(n)
 Bepalingsmethode

Voorbeeld:
Een constructieonderdeel, m.u.v. …., moet, ter beperking van de  NEN bladen
ontwikkeling van brand,
brand, ten minste behoren tot klasse 4 van de
bijdrage tot brandvoortplanting,
brandvoortplanting, bepaald volgens NEN 6065.
6065.

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Eisen naar niveau Eisen naar aard


Omstandigheden Veiligheidsaspecten

 Staat van het bouwwerk  Ontstaan & ontwikkeling van brand


– nieuwbouw  Rookproductie en -verspreiding
– bestaand  Uitbreiding/beheersbaarheid van brand
 Functie  Sterkte bij brand
– woonfunctie
 Vluchten & vluchtmogelijkheden
– bijeenkomstfunctie
– …  …
(12 x!)  …

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Ir. L. Twilt
2
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Ontstaan & ontwikkeling brand


Ontstaan & ontwikkeling brand
Classificatie
Systematiek eisen

 Basis: materiaalgedrag flash- flame 1 2 3 4 5


 Eigenschappen: over spread
– Onbrandbaarheid ( NEN 6064)  
– Bijdrage brandvoortplanting 1 I II III IV V
2 II II III IV V
– Wanden & plafonds ( NEN 6065) 3 III III III IV V
– Vloeren ( NEN 1775) 4 IV IV IV IV V
– Overige*)
Overige*)
Klasse I: ‘beste’ gedrag c.q. ‘strengste’ eisen m.b.t. brandvoortplanting
*) betreft: daken, stookplaatsen, schoorstenen

*) meer hierover in part 3

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Ontstaan & ontwikkeling brand Rookproductie


Niveau eisen (nieuwbouw) Systematiek eisen

 Wanden & plafonds, gevels*)


gevels*) ( NEN 6065)  Basis: materiaalgedrag
– Basiseis:  kl. 5 (dus:  kl. 4)
– Vluchtwegen:  kl. 2
Eigenschappen:
( NEN 1775)

 Vloeren
– Basiseis:  kl. T3 – Specifieke optische dichtheid ( NEN 6066)
– Vluchtwegen: = T1 – Klasse brandvoortplanting ( NEN 6065)
 …
 …
*) onder omstandigheden (hoogte gebouw!) geldt voor onderste 5 m
van gevels:  kl. 1

voor vglb. Euroklassen: zie Part 2: sh. 32, 33

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Ir. L. Twilt
3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Rookproductie Uitbreiding/beheersbaarheid brand


Niveau eisen (nieuwbouw) Systematiek eisen
L AI
with:
D  log D D - I0 is lichtintensiteit zonder rook
0

10 spec
- I is lichtintensiteit met rook  Basis: constructiegedrag
I V -meer hierover in Part 5  Eigenschappen:
 Basiseis: Dspec < 10 m-1 – Weerstand tegen branddoorslag (WBD)
– Weerstand tegen brandoverslag (WBO)
 Vluchtwegen:
– Dspec < 5,4 m-1, indien > kl. 1 vlgns.
vlgns. NEN 6065
– Dspec < 2,2 m-1, indien = kl. 2 vlgns.
vlgns. NEN 6065
 …

“WBDBO”  NEN 6068

N.B.: eisen gelden voor binnenzijde wanden, vloeren en plafonds


voor vglb. Euroklassen: zie Part 2: sh. 32, 33

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Branddoorslag en Brandoverslag WBDBO


Toelichting Definities

Branduitbreiding A  B,C:  WBD:  (brandwerendheden) ( NEN 6069, -- 71 t/m 73)


- branddoorslag traject  WBO: tijd waarbij straling > 15 kW/m2 ( NEN 6068)
C 
- brandoverslag-traject  WBDBO: min (WBD, WBO)
B
 Brandcompartiment: maximaal uitbreidingsgebied brand

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Weerstand tegen brandoverslag Weerstand tegen brandoverslag


Beoordeling Computerprogramma BRANDO

Verificatie-procedure:
- zoek meest bestraalde punt raamopening.
- verifieer: straling < 15 kW/m2
(zie NEN 6068)

Hulpmiddelen:
- NPR (tabellen)
- software (BRANDO e.a.)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Uitbreiding/beheersbaarheid brand Sterkte bij brand


Niveau eisen Systematiek eisen

 Range WBDBO: (20), 30 of 60 minuten, bijv.:  Basis: constructiegedrag


– tussen brandcompartimenten: 60 min.*)  Eigenschappen: brandwerendheid op bezwijken
– tussen brandcompartiment en schacht: 60 min. – betonconstructies*) ( NEN 6071)
– ... – staalconstructies*) ( NEN 6072)
– … zie ook Documentatie no. 7 – houtconstructies*) ( NEN 6073)
– ... – overige constructies**) ( NEN 6069)
 Max. vloeroppervlak brandcompartiment *) betreft rekenkundige bepaling (componentenbenadering &
– Algemeen: 1000 m2 standaardbrand)
– Logiesfunctie: 500 m2 **) betreft experimentele bepaling (componentenbenadering &
– … standaardbrand)

*) voor gebouwen “lager dan”


dan” 5 m: 30 min.! op EU niveau gelden vglb. bepalingsmethoden

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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Sterkte bij brand - Niveau eisen Sterkte bij brand


 M.b.t. functioneren vluchtmogelijkheden: 30 min. Hoofddraagconstructie bezweken
 M.b.t. functioneren hoofddraagconstructie:

Hoofddraagconstructie:
vermindering met 30 min. “onderdelen van de constructie,
indien permanente die bij bezwijken aanleiding geven
vuurbelasting < 500 MJ/m2: tot voortschrijdende instorting”

 toeslag brandwerendheid van


30 of 60 min, afhankelijk van
ligging hoogste vloer en
gebruiksgebied

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Sterkte bij brand Sterkte bij brand


Begrip “hoofddraagconstructie”
hoofddraagconstructie” (1) Begrip “hoofddraagconstructie”
hoofddraagconstructie” (2)

 Kolommen: hoofddraagconstructie*)
 120 min
 Vloeren: ?
 60 of 120 min
 13 m
WBDBO-eis

Windverband wel Windverband geen


*) m.u.v. kolommen op bovenste verdieping
hoofddraagconstructie hoofddraagconstructie

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Ir. L. Twilt
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Brandwerendheidseisen Vluchten & vluchtmogelijkheden


Samenvatting Systematiek eisen

 Toepassing:  Basis: menselijk gedrag


– uitbreiding/beheersbaarheid  Eigenschappen:
– sterkte – aantal, inrichting en lay-out vluchtwegen
 Uitgangspunt: “Standaardbrand” – afmetingen & inrichting rookcompartimenten
 Niveaus: (20), 30, 60, 90, 120 min, specifiek NL*) – opvang- en doorstroomcapaciteit trappenhuizen
– …
– ...
*) klasseringssysteem: EU = NL

Voor meer genuanceerde benadering  FSE


(ref.: Part 8)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

Vluchten & vluchtmogelijkheden


Niveau eisen Gelijkwaardigheidsbeginsel

 Basiseisen  Beginsel: “Afwijking prestatie-eis mag, mits alternatieve


– maximale loopafstand door rook: 30 m maatregelen worden getroffen, leidend tot een
– ontruiming gebouw: binnen 15 min gelijkwaardig veiligheidsniveau”
– vluchten in 2 richtingen.
 Verbijzonderingen  Motivering: flexibiliteit
– …  Bewijslast: aanvrager Bouwvergunning
– … zie ook doc. 7  Beslissing: Bouw-& Woningtoezicht
– ...
 Voorbeelden: FSE-toepassingen

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Ir. L. Twilt
7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Bouwregelgeving Europese regelgeving


Consultatiesysteem (BCS) Doel & opzet

 Doel: vrij verkeer van bouwproducten binnen de EU

 Basis: Richtlijn Bouwproducten (CPD)


(“essential requirements” 6x)
 Uitwerking: Europese productnormen (EN’s)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

EU regelgeving “Brandveiligheid”
Brandveiligheid” Eurocodes “Brand”
Brand”
Overzicht Overzicht

 Beproevingsnormen  EC1-
EC1-1.2 (= EN1991-
EN1991-1.2): Actions  NEN 6702
– “reaction-to-fire”  Euroklassen  EC2-
EC2-1.2 (= EN1992-
EN1992-1-2): Concrete  NEN 6071
(afwijkend van huidige NL situatie)
– “resistance-to-fire”  Brandwerendheidsklassen  EC3-
EC3-1.2 (= EN1993-
EN1993-1-2): Steel  NEN 6072
(vglb. met huidige NL-situatie)  EC4-
EC4-1.2 (= EN1994-
EN1994-1-2): Composite
 Rekennormen “resistance-to-fire”  EC5-
EC5-1.2 (= EN1995-
EN1995-1-2): Timber  NEN 6073
– belastingen  EC6-
EC6-1.2 (= EN1996-
EN1996-1-2): Masonry
– beton  Eurocodes
– … (vglb. met huidige NL-situatie)  EC9-
EC9-1.2 (= EN1999-
EN1999-1-2): Aluminium

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Ir. L. Twilt
8
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Eurocodes “Fire”
Fire” Eurocodes “Fire”
Fire”
Niveaus Status

 Tabulated data*)**) N.B.: NL benadering:  Beschikbaar sinds midden jaren ‘90 als ENV’
ENV’s
 Simple calculation models**) - slechts componenten  EN’
EN’s verplicht in 2010
 Advanced calculation models***) - slechts standaardbrand

ENV: “voluntary”
*) niet voor “steel”
steel” en “aluminium (EC3, EC9)
**) gebaseerd op standaardbrand EN : “obligatory”
***) FSE; niet voor “masonry”
masonry” (EC6)

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Ir. L. Twilt
9
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire Safety Engineering


Evaluation process
Part 11a:
FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING  Fire process
(FSE)  Smoke movement
 Structural response & spread of fire beyond fire compartment
 Detection, activation & suppression
 Fire service intervention
Lecture CT5131: Fire safety design
Dr.Ir.
Dr.Ir. J. Maljaars (TNO) johan.maljaars@tno.nl
Ir. A. Breunese (Efectis) arnoud.breunese@efectis.com

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 2

Structural Fire Safety Engineering Structural Fire Safety Engineering


Scope vs. Conventional Approach
Fire model Generalised Natural fire CFD
fire curves safety concept

Fire process Model of the


structure
components
+ conven-
tional
Structural Response
Parts of the
= structure

Fire Safety
Structural Fire Safety Engineering Entire Engineering
structure (FSE)

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Ir. L. Twilt
1
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Conventional vs. FSE


Conventional FSE
Fire Safety Engineering
Based on conventions Based on physics and Conventional approach versus fire safety engineering
mechanics  FSE Accounting for: time for access and egress
 FSE More realistic fire model (temperature and smoke)

 Escaping  Rules for fire resistance time &  Time for access and egress  FSE More realistic structural model
escape route length
 FSE Probabilistic basis
 Gastemp.
Gastemp.  E.g. Standard temp.-
temp.-time curve  Natural fire safety concept or
CFD
Load bearing Simple calculation models of FE models of entire structures
FSE
  

function single elements (or stand-


stand-alone parts)
 Sparating
function
 Tests  No method yet, up to now
derived from tests
(knowledge)
 Measures  (in most cases) Only passive  passive and active systems
systems accounted for accounted for
 Reliability  not explicitly, but based on  explicitly, checked against a Traditional
experience (“(“accepted risk”
risk”) target value
(rules)

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 5 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 6

Fire Safety Engineering Fire Safety Engineering


Why? Why?
More insight into structural fire behaviour, Conventional approach not very suited for:
(compared to conventional approach), hence:
 High-
High-rise buildings
 balanced safety  Large compartments (stations, stadiums)
 Special functions: monument, museum
 economic solutions
 Low ability to escape: hospital, home for the eldery,
eldery, prison
(possibly: “make or break”
break”)
 High risk: off-
off-shore
 Other materials (FRP)
 …

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Ir. L. Twilt
2
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Balanced safety Case study “atrium building”


Case study “atrium building” Hot layer temperature vs. time
hot layer
plan
fire in shop
300
case 3
250

temperature [oC]
200
Case 2 elevation
case 2
Case 3 150

100
case 1
Case 1 50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
time (min)
CT5131 Fire Safety Design 9 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 10

Case study “atrium building” Fire Safety Engineering:


Height smoke free layer vs. time Prerequisites

14  availability of numerical models


demonstration of validity of models
height smoke free layer [m]


12
 consistency between models
10  probability distribution of relevant parameters (e.g. escape time,
time, fire
case 1 load density, etc.)
8

6  adequate user interface


case 2
4
case 3
2

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
time [min]
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Ir. L. Twilt
3
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Availability of numerical models Availability of numerical models


Thermal response model (2D) Thermal response model (3D)

Steel beam Fire insulation

85 min. s.f. exposure 120 min. s.f. exposure

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 13 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 14

Availability of numerical models Fire behaviour structural systems


Structural response model Cardington Demonstration Tests
Time [min] ==>
0 30 60 90 120 150
< == Midspan deflection [mm]

0
 Aim:
50 measured – demonstration of the behaviour of complete buildings
Fire test in laboratory, under under real fire conditions
100 standard fire conditions
– demonstration state of the art of (mechanical) response
150 10 kN/m
2
models
200
3.6 m 3.6 m calculated
250

300

350
 Means:
– realistic fire tests in a multi-
multi-storey steel framed building
with composite floors (braced, 8 stories)
– FEM analysis of test results (DIANA, ANSYS ...)

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Ir. L. Twilt
4
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Cardingtion Demonstration Project Cardingtion Demonstration Project


Test building Lay out building, set up fire tests
9000 9000 9000 9000 9000

6000 4

9000
Core
2
1
6000
3

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 17 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 18

Cardington Demonstration Project Effect Consistency


redistribution of loads Comparison results by various models

deflection [mm]
0

0 frame
100 sec. beam
-50

200 frame deck

Deflection (mm)
-100

300
400 beam -150

500
Test
DIANA: frame
-200

600
abaqus 30340

DIANA: beam DIANA node 30340

700
-250

ANSYS node 30340

800 -300
0 900 1800 2700 3600 4500 5400 6300 7200

900 time [min] time (secs)

0 60 120 180 240


CT5131 Fire Safety Design 19 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 20
TNO Bouw 2001

Ir. L. Twilt
5
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Focus for a structural engineer


Structural Fire Safety Engineering
Steps concerning the structural part
Temperature and
smoke development Access and
and spread egress  Determine relevant actions
– thermal actions  fire process
– mechanical actions  combination rule
 Determine relevant response
FSE – thermal response system approach
– mechanical response (preferably)

Structural
behaviour

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 21 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 22

Fire Safety Engineering Fire model


Tools or the structural part Input*)
 Fire model
 Fire scenario
 Thermal response model
– type of design fire  1, 2 zone, …. CFD
 Mechanical response model – size & lay out fire compartment
 Fire characteristics
e.g.: OZONE (ZONE MODEL) – fire load  occupancy, ….
FLUENT (CFD)  fire model – RHR  ventilation conditions, …
– heat losses  convection, radiation, …
DIANA
SAFIR
ANSYS  thermal & mechanical response models
ABAQUS
… *) see also Part 2 and Doc. 3

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 23 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 24

Ir. L. Twilt
6
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Fire load density


Design values FSE approach Design values for n*)
Automatic fire Automatic fire Manual fire suppression
suppression detection
Qf,d = n . q . qc,f installation independent installation autom. work offsite. safe access fire fighting roof
water supply transm. fire brig. fire brig. route devices venting
0 1 2 heat smoke
n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 n10
with: 0,61 1,0 0,87 0,7 0,87 0,73 0,87 0,61 0,78 0,9/1,5 1/1,5 1,0/1,5

qc,f characteristic value of the fire load density


n factor accounting for active fire measures
with:
q factor accounting for risk of fire occurrence

n = n1 n2  n3  ….

*) for details: see Documentation 3


CT5131 Fire Safety Design 25 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 26

OZone
Design values for q*) Demonstration

Features:
q = q1 q2  1, 2 zone fire model
1.50 x 3.00 m
 Structural steel response
model (EC3-
(EC3-1.2 based)
with:
q1 is factor depending on floor area (range 1.10 – 2.13) 5m  flexible
q2 is factor depending on occupancy (range 0.78 – 1.66) 4m
 excellent user interface
1.90 x 2.00 m

*) for details see Documentation 3 5m

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Ir. L. Twilt
7
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Natural fire safety concept (NFSC) Example: Office building


Accounts for:
 Geometry fire compartment
 Openings
 ‘Boundary enclosure’
enclosure’ 1200

 Fire load density Reduction fire


– Occupancy
1000
load density
– Activation risk

Temperature [ºC]
800
– Active measures Different
600 opening factor
400
 Fire resistance 60 min
200

0  Insolation column:
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [min] . 24 mm mineral wool

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 29 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 30

Gas- and member temperature Structural check


 Traditional: 400 ºC FSE: 200 ºC Traditional: FSE

No interaction with Additional loading


1200 remaining building due to thermal expansion
1200
g
g
al
al
800 800
 [ºC]

 [ºC]

400 400

0 0
0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60
t [min] t [min]

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Ir. L. Twilt
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CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Structural test Part of the structure


Traditional: FSE:  Example form German PhD Thesis (Eberwien
(Eberwien))

Simple calculation Finite element models  On the one hand: restrained thermal expansion
rules (equations) (validated by appropriate tests)  On the other hand: redistribution of forces

 Critical temperature right-


right-hand frame appears to be 20 % higher in
case of class 1 sections and large-
large-rotation connections

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 33 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 34

Response structural systems Steel framed building


Framed steel building Structural details

Mesh reinf orced Failure criterion:


Prof iled steel deck concret e topping
 relative deflection
 (δ/L)rel  1/20
 plastic strain reinforcement
At cores
 p  5,0%

All beams composite


w ith w elded shear
Detail: see next sheet connectors

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 35 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 36

Ir. L. Twilt
9
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Steel framed building Steel framed building


Building lay out & static system Fire scenario

Mechanical actions
A B C D E F
22m  Fire load density: 700 MJ/m2
9000 9000 9000 9000 9000
 Own weight:
 Opening factor: 0,14 m ½
4
 3,0 kN/m2 …
6000

 Imposed load:
3
Opening 21m
 3,0 - 5,5 kN/m2
9000
50904 50913

2 50604 50613
3000 Y
6000 50304 50313

1
X0 X
Y

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 37 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 38

Steel framed building Steel framed building


Thermal response Vertical displacements at peak temp.
800
700 Note:
Temperature [oC]

600 deformations
500 scaled with
400 fact. 2
300
200
100
0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Time [min]

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Ir. L. Twilt
10
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Mechanical response Mechanical response


Effect imposed load Effect concrete type (NWC vs. LWC)
Differences between NWC and LWC
 Density (LWC < NWC  LWC: + )
Maximum vertical displacements
Note:
0  Thermal conductivity (LWC < NWC  LWC: + )
Whether failure
 Specific heat (LWC < NWC  LWC: - )
conditions are
reached, depends  Stiffness (LWC < NWC  LWC: - )
Vertical displacement [mm]

-225

on level imposed  Thermal elongation (LWC < NWC  LWC: + )


-450
load.  Spalling ?

Imposed load 0.0 kN/m2


-675 Critical
Imposed load 3.0 kN/m2
Imposed load 5.5 kN/m2
deflection

-900
0 30 60
Time [min]
90 120
Final effect on mechanical response??

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 41 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 42

Effect concrete type (NWC vs. LWC) Effect Practical application


on displacements Case study “Rembrandt Tower”

R e la t iv e d e fl e c tio n of b e a m lo c a te d a t Y = 6 m Variables: Building height > 70 m:


I nf lu e n c e o f c o n c re t e t y p e
0  Concrete type  Functional requirement: no collapse
0 30 60 90 12 0

 Fire load density  Performance requirement: not in Building


-100 N C 3 0 0 M J/ m 2 3 .0 k N /m 2
N C 7 0 0 M J/ m 2 3 .0 k N /m 2
Decree
L W C 3 0 0 M J/ m 2 3 .0 k N /m 2
L W C 7 0 0 M J/ m 2 3 .0 k N /m 2
 Classification: 120 min f.r. (beams, columns,
-200
floors) & sprinkler
de flect ion (m m )

-300 Critical displacement  Alternative: FSE analysis


-400

Gevelkolommen

-500 HE280AA

HE280AA

HE280AA
-600
tim e (m i n . ) HE280AA

Staalplaatbetonvloer

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Ir. L. Twilt
11
CT5131: Fire Safety Design February 2009
Part 0: Introduction

Case study “Rembrandt Tower” Case study “Rembrandt Tower”


Schematisation Result FEM analysis

Thermische Analysis: For:


Modellen:
Kolo m me n HE32 0B

 Nat. fire exp.  Columns: protected


(Promatect, 20 mm )
HE280B Kolomen Uniforme temperatuur
Tijd 92 minuten
O-ZONE
 System analysis Verticale doorbuigingen [mm ]
Beams: unprotected
HE 280 AA

HE 280 AA -3.47 
-36.8
HE2 80 AA -70.1
HE280A A
-103
HE2 80 AA
Lijf & Flens
HE280AA Models used: -137
-170
-203  NO COLLAPSE!
Staa lplaat Be tonvlo er
beton  Ozone -237
-270
Staalplaat -303
 Diana Max = 29.9 Min = -337

Betonnen plaat, Rib


& Staalplaat Y Verticale doorbuigingen vloerconstructie
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Z X 0
Figuur 4.1 Overzicht Thermische Tijd [min.]
modellen en schematisering constructie HE280AA -50
HE240M SB-Vloer
onderdelen
HE240M Lijf & Flens -100
-150

Vervorming [mm]
HE240M
-200
HE240M
Deformations floor & beams -250
-300
HE280AA

SB-vloer
-350
-400

CT5131 Fire Safety Design 45 CT5131 Fire Safety Design 46

Case study “Rembrandt Tower” Structural Fire Safety Engineering


Conclusions Conclusions

 Functional requirement is met (i. e. no collapse)  FSE reveals:


 Significant cost reduction compared to actual solution – natural fire safety concept
– system approach
( 800 kEURO)
kEURO)
 Validated models available
 Complementary measures found to be necessary
 Realistic assessment structural response possible
(reinforcement connections)
 Comparison alternatives easy

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Ir. L. Twilt
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